Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.
Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

Insulin growth factor promotes human corneal fibroblast network formation in vitro. (1/66)

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Polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticles: Gene transfer potential and low toxicity in the cornea. (2/66)

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Synergistic induction of eotaxin and VCAM-1 expression in human corneal fibroblasts by staphylococcal peptidoglycan and either IL-4 or IL-13. (3/66)

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An explanation for the central to peripheral thickness variation in the mouse cornea. (4/66)

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Localization of thrombospondin-1 and myofibroblasts during corneal wound repair. (5/66)

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Hydroxyapatite for keratoprosthesis biointegration. (6/66)

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Assessment of corneal thickness and keratocyte density in a rabbit model of laser in situ keratomileusis using scanning laser confocal microscopy. (7/66)

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Coxsackievirus A24 variant uses sialic acid-containing O-linked glycoconjugates as cellular receptors on human ocular cells. (8/66)

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Corneal keratocytes are specialized cells located within the stroma, which is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear front "window" of the eye. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining the transparency and structural integrity of the cornea. Keratocytes are star-shaped cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the corneal stroma, which consists mainly of collagen fibrils and proteoglycans.

In a healthy cornea, keratocytes exist in a quiescent state, but they can become activated and undergo phenotypic changes in response to injury or disease. Activated keratocytes can differentiate into fibroblasts or myofibroblasts, which participate in the wound healing process by synthesizing ECM components and contracting to help close wounds. However, an overactive or dysregulated wound healing response can lead to corneal opacity, scarring, and visual impairment.

Therefore, understanding the behavior and regulation of corneal keratocytes is essential for developing effective therapies and treatments for various corneal disorders and diseases.

The corneal stroma, also known as the substantia propria, is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing vision.

The corneal stroma makes up about 90% of the cornea's thickness and is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. These fibers give the cornea its strength and transparency. The corneal stroma also contains a small number of cells called keratocytes, which produce and maintain the collagen fibers.

Disorders that affect the corneal stroma can cause vision loss or other eye problems. For example, conditions such as keratoconus, in which the cornea becomes thin and bulges outward, can distort vision and make it difficult to see clearly. Other conditions, such as corneal scarring or infection, can also affect the corneal stroma and lead to vision loss or other eye problems.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Cell culture is a technique used in scientific research to grow and maintain cells from plants, animals, or humans in a controlled environment outside of their original organism. This environment typically consists of a sterile container called a cell culture flask or plate, and a nutrient-rich liquid medium that provides the necessary components for the cells' growth and survival, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and hormones.

There are several different types of cell culture techniques used in research, including:

1. Adherent cell culture: In this technique, cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a tissue culture dish or flask. The cells attach to the surface and spread out, forming a monolayer that can be observed and manipulated under a microscope.
2. Suspension cell culture: In suspension culture, cells are grown in liquid medium without any attachment to a solid surface. These cells remain suspended in the medium and can be agitated or mixed to ensure even distribution of nutrients.
3. Organoid culture: Organoids are three-dimensional structures that resemble miniature organs and are grown from stem cells or other progenitor cells. They can be used to study organ development, disease processes, and drug responses.
4. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more different types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish or flask. This technique is used to study cell-cell interactions and communication.
5. Conditioned medium culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a medium that has been conditioned by previous cultures of other cells. The conditioned medium contains factors secreted by the previous cells that can influence the growth and behavior of the new cells.

Cell culture techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study cellular processes, develop drugs, test toxicity, and investigate disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that cell cultures may not always accurately represent the behavior of cells in a living organism, and results from cell culture experiments should be validated using other methods.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Keratan sulfate is a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which is a complex carbohydrate found in connective tissues, including the cornea and cartilage. It is composed of repeating disaccharide units of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, with sulfate groups attached to some of the sugar molecules.

Keratan sulfate is unique among GAGs because it contains a high proportion of non-sulfated sugars and is often found covalently linked to proteins in structures called proteoglycans. In the cornea, keratan sulfate plays important roles in maintaining transparency and regulating hydration. In cartilage, it contributes to the elasticity and resilience of the tissue.

Abnormalities in keratan sulfate metabolism have been associated with several genetic disorders, including corneal dystrophies and skeletal dysplasias.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

Corneal surgery, laser refers to a type of surgical procedure performed on the cornea (the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye) using a laser. The most common type of laser used in corneal surgery is an excimer laser, which can be used to reshape the cornea and correct refractive errors such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. This procedure is commonly known as LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis).

Another type of laser corneal surgery is PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) which uses a laser to reshape the surface of the cornea. This procedure is typically used for patients who have thin corneas or other conditions that make them ineligible for LASIK.

Additionally, there are other types of laser corneal surgeries such as LASEK (Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis), Epi-LASIK (Epithelial Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis) and SBK (Sub Bowman's Keratomileusis) which are variations of the above procedures.

It is important to note that, as with any surgical procedure, laser corneal surgery has risks and potential complications, including dry eye, infection, and visual symptoms such as glare or halos around lights. It is essential for patients to have a thorough examination and consultation with an ophthalmologist before deciding if laser corneal surgery is the right choice for them.

Keratoconus is a degenerative non-inflammatory disorder of the eye, primarily affecting the cornea. It is characterized by a progressive thinning and steepening of the central or paracentral cornea, causing it to assume a conical shape. This results in irregular astigmatism, myopia, and scattering of light leading to blurred vision, visual distortions, and sensitivity to glare. The exact cause of keratoconus is unknown, but it may be associated with genetics, eye rubbing, and certain medical conditions. It typically starts in the teenage years and progresses into the third or fourth decade of life. Treatment options include glasses, contact lenses, cross-linking, and corneal transplantation in advanced cases.

Corneal dystrophies, hereditary are a group of genetic disorders that affect the cornea, which is the clear, outermost layer at the front of the eye. These conditions are characterized by the buildup of abnormal material in the cornea, leading to decreased vision, pain, or cloudiness in the eye.

There are many different types of corneal dystrophies, each affecting a specific layer of the cornea and having its own pattern of inheritance. Some common types include:

1. Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy: This affects the inner lining of the cornea (endothelium) and causes swelling and cloudiness in the cornea. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition if one parent has it.
2. Granular dystrophy: This affects the stroma, which is the middle layer of the cornea. It causes the formation of opaque, grayish-white deposits in the cornea that can affect vision. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant or recessive manner.
3. Lattice dystrophy: This also affects the stroma and is characterized by the formation of a lattice-like pattern of fine, whitish lines in the cornea. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
4. Macular dystrophy: This affects the central part of the cornea (macula) and can cause cloudiness, leading to decreased vision. It is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

Treatment for corneal dystrophies may include eyedrops, medications, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition and its impact on vision. In some cases, a corneal transplant may be necessary to restore vision.

Refractive surgical procedures are a type of ophthalmic surgery aimed at improving the refractive state of the eye and reducing or eliminating the need for corrective eyewear. These procedures reshape the cornea or alter the lens of the eye to correct nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), presbyopia, or astigmatism.

Examples of refractive surgical procedures include:

1. Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): A laser is used to create a thin flap in the cornea, which is then lifted to allow reshaping of the underlying tissue with another laser. The flap is replaced, and the procedure is completed.
2. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK): This procedure involves removing the outer layer of the cornea (epithelium) and using a laser to reshape the underlying tissue. A bandage contact lens is placed over the eye to protect it during healing.
3. LASEK (laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis): Similar to LASIK, but instead of creating a flap, the epithelium is loosened with an alcohol solution and moved aside. The laser treatment is applied, and the epithelium is replaced.
4. Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE): A femtosecond laser creates a small lenticule within the cornea, which is then removed through a tiny incision. This procedure reshapes the cornea to correct refractive errors.
5. Refractive lens exchange (RLE): The eye's natural lens is removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) to correct refractive errors, similar to cataract surgery.
6. Implantable contact lenses: A thin, foldable lens is placed between the iris and the natural lens or behind the iris to improve the eye's focusing power.

These procedures are typically performed on an outpatient basis and may require topical anesthesia (eye drops) or local anesthesia. Potential risks and complications include infection, dry eye, visual disturbances, and changes in night vision. It is essential to discuss these potential risks with your ophthalmologist before deciding on a refractive surgery procedure.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cells that are generated from somatic cells, such as skin or blood cells, through the introduction of specific genes encoding transcription factors. These reprogrammed cells exhibit similar characteristics to embryonic stem cells, including the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). The discovery and development of iPSCs have opened up new possibilities in regenerative medicine, drug testing and development, and disease modeling, while avoiding ethical concerns associated with embryonic stem cells.

Corneal keratocytes (corneal fibroblasts) are specialized fibroblasts residing in the stroma. This corneal layer, representing ... MACULAR DYSTROPHY, CORNEAL, 1; MCDC1 - OMIM. Patel S, McLaren J, Hodge D, Bourne W (February 2001). "Normal human keratocyte ... Quiescent keratocytes synthesize the so-called crystallins, known primarily for their role in the lens. Corneal crystallins, ... Keratocytes may play a role in different corneal disorders. According to comparative research, their functions drastically ...
"Expression of neurotensin receptors in human corneal keratocytes". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 43 (6): 1765- ...
Keratocytes are flattened cells found dispersed within the corneal stroma. The primary role of this sparse population of cells ... It has also been found that the presence of secreted defensins secreted by corneal keratocytes is correlated with cases of ... Corneal nerves serve as a form of defense by detecting the presence of foreign bodies on the corneal surface. This leads to ... Other components of the ocular innate immune system include tears, epithelial cells, keratocytes, corneal nerves, the ...
Badenoch PR, Adams M, Coster DJ (February 1995). "Corneal virulence, cytopathic effect on human keratocytes and genetic ... In cases of corneal ulceration or perforation, or if corneal scarring is severe, corneal transplant may be required. This ... Soft contact lenses are more adherent to the corneal surface than hard lenses, which allows the Acanthamoeba organism to bind ... AK should be considered in all patients who use contact lenses, and following corneal abrasions or trauma. A thorough history ...
Armstrong DJ, Hiscott P, Batterbury M, Kaye S (Jun 2002). "Corneal stromal cells (keratocytes) express thrombospondins 2 and 3 ...
Armstrong DJ, Hiscott P, Batterbury M, Kaye S (2002). "Corneal stromal cells (keratocytes) express thrombospondins 2 and 3 in ...
It is produced by corneal keratocytes and is thought to play a role of a dynamic buffer of corneal hydration. In a rare ... Whereas corneal KSI is composed of a number of domains showing variable degrees of sulphation the longest of which may be 8-32 ... Macular dystrophy, corneal, 1 - OMIM Lauder RM, Huckerby TN, Nieduszynski IA (1997). "The structure of the keratan sulphate ... Tai GH, Huckerby TN, Nieduszynski IA (1996). "Multiple non-reducing chain termini isolated from bovine corneal keratan sulfates ...
2007). "Expression of VSX1 in human corneal keratocytes during differentiation into myofibroblasts in response to wound healing ... Mutations in this gene can cause posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) and keratoconus. Two transcript variants ... 2004). "VSX1 (RINX) mutation with craniofacial anomalies, empty sella, corneal endothelial changes, and abnormal retinal and ...
The lamellae are produced by keratocytes (corneal connective tissue cells), which occupy about 10% of the substantia propria. ... During development of the embryo, the corneal stroma is derived from the neural crest (a source of mesenchyme in the head and ... Branch MJ, Hashmani K, Dhillon P, Jones DR, Dua HS, Hopkinson A (Aug 3, 2012). "Mesenchymal stem cells in the human corneal ... Meek KM; Knupp C (2015). "Corneal structure and transparency". Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 49: 1-16. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... corneal endothelium, corneal keratocytes, trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, conjunctival stromal cells, and iridal stromal ... This result suggests that EP4 activation contributes to corneal neovascularization and that EP4 antagonists may be useful for ... A selective EP4 antagonists significantly reduced corneal neovascularization in rats caused by oxygen-induced retinopathy or ...
... corneal endothelium and keratocytes, trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, and conjunctival and iridal stroma cells, and ...
In the corneal stroma, keratocytes within the wounded area undergo apoptosis, leaving the stroma devoid of cells that must be ... Keratocytes surrounding the wounded area proliferate and become fibroblasts that migrate to fill the wounded area. This creates ... For example, when corneal integrity is compromised, epithelial cells quickly cover the damaged area by proliferation and ... "Role of Thrombospondin-1 in Repair of Penetrating Corneal Wounds". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 54 (9): 6262- ...
Fibroblasts Corneal keratocyte Stem Cells Induced pluripotent stem cell Cluster of differentiation extracellular matrix dermis ... Like corneal fibroblasts, dermal fibroblast proliferation can be stimulated by the presence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF). ... For example, when a dermal fibroblast and a corneal fibroblasts are placed in the same concentrations of fibroblast growth ...
Rabinowitz, YS; McDonnell, PJ (1989). "Computer-assisted corneal topography in keratoconus". Refractive & Corneal Surgery. 5 (6 ... The visible changes in the basal epithelial cell and anterior and posterior keratocytes linked with keratoconus were not ... custom topography-guided transepithelial PRK combined with corneal collagen cross-linking, or corneal transplant. When cross- ... "Post-LASIK ectasia treated with intrastromal corneal ring segments and corneal crosslinking". Digital Journal of Ophthalmology ...
... expressed in the mammalian cornea by the stromal keratocytes and epithelial cells and is reputed to be one of the corneal ...
Corneal pachymetry Corneal reflex Corneal tattooing Corneal topography Eye disease Keratometry List of keratins expressed in ... consisting of regularly arranged collagen fibers along with sparsely distributed interconnected keratocytes, which are the ... For corneal epithelial diseases such as Stevens Johnson Syndrome, persistent corneal ulcer etc., the autologous contralateral ( ... There is a global shortage of corneal donations, severely limiting the availability of corneal transplants across most of the ...
... the nutrition of the corneal epithelium, stromal keratocytes, and corneal endothelium must occur via diffusion of glucose and ... In addition, excessive corneal hydration can result in edema of the corneal epithelial layer, which creates irregularity at the ... In cases in which irreversible corneal endothelial failure develops, severe corneal edema ensues, and the only effective remedy ... new corneal transplant techniques have been developed to enable more selective replacement of the diseased corneal endothelium ...
... receptor-cells in the skin associated with the sense of touch Corneal keratocytes, specialized fibroblasts residing in the ...
Long-term wear of rigid contacts is associated with decreased corneal keratocyte density and increased number of epithelial ... Wearing lenses designed for daily wear overnight has an increased risk for corneal infections, corneal ulcers and corneal ... corneal edema, descemetocele, corneal ectasia, Mooren's ulcer, anterior corneal dystrophy, and neurotrophic ... "The Corneal Lens", The Optician, 2 September 1949, pp. 141-144. "Corneal Contact Lenses", The Optician, 9 September 1949, p. ...
Satellite glial cell Chromaffin cell Glomus cell Melanocyte Nevus cell Merkel cell Odontoblast Cementoblast Corneal keratocyte ...
His research has focused on corneal cellular responses to injury and surgery, with his most-cited work being about keratocyte ... He holds two United States patents related to corneal healing. He previously served as a professor and chair of the Department ... "Methods and treatments for corneal healing with hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors". Free Patents Online. 1996-12-31. ... "Methods and treatments for corneal healing with growth factors". Free Patents Online. 1997-12-30. Retrieved 2020-01-16. " ...
The number of corneal keratocytes in the epithelial stroma has not been found to change with long-term contact lens wear. ... Increased corneal curvature is yet another change known to arise from long-term contact lens wear; this increase in corneal ... Increases in corneal curvature are thought to be caused by corneal thinning-induced ectasia. Two explanations have been ... Long-term contact lens use can lead to alterations in corneal thickness, stromal thickness, curvature, corneal sensitivity, ...
Zhao, M; Agius-Fernandez, A; Forrester, J. V; McCaig, C. D (1996). "Orientation and directed migration of cultured corneal ... "Electrophoresis of Cellular Membrane Components Creates the Directional Cue Guiding Keratocyte Galvanotaxis". Current Biology. ... Zhao, M; Agius-Fernandez, A; Forrester, J. V; McCaig, C. D (1996). "Directed migration of corneal epithelial sheets in ... Pubmed Central reference number: PMC1393020 Klyce, S. D. Electrical profiles in the corneal epithelium. J Physiol 226, 407-429 ...
... corneal transplantation) or corneal transplant. The Boston KPro is a proven primary treatment option for repeat graft failure, ... The holes allow the aqueous humour fluids of the eye to provide nutrients to the donor graft stroma and keratocytes. The device ... corneal transplantation). The Boston KPro is a treatment option for corneal disorders not amenable to standard penetrating ... During implantation of the device, the device is assembled with a donor corneal graft positioned between the front and back ...
It may lead to an increased risk of a sensitization to corneal antigens and an autoimmune reaction against antigens expressed ... "Cytokine-Induced Calgranulin C Expression in Keratocytes". Clinical Immunology. 91 (1): 34-40. doi:10.1006/clim.1998.4681. ISSN ... Gottsch and colleagues have suggested that calgranulin C, a protein expressed in the corneal stroma, may be a possible main ... AMT appears to be a useful therapy which results with stabilization of the ulcer progression and corneal epithelial defect ...
Furosemide, a Cl- efflux inhibitor, also decreased the strength of the field in corneal cells. These potentials are maintained ... "Electrophoresis of Cellular Membrane Components Creates the Directional Cue Guiding Keratocyte Galvanotaxis". Current Biology. ... elsewhere on the body, such as in the GI, urinary, and respiratory ducts, as well as the corneal epithelium. When the ...
In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue. In 1996, ... Lee J, Jacobson K (November 1997). "The composition and dynamics of cell-substratum adhesions in locomoting fish keratocytes". ... Rapanan JL, Cooper KE, Leyva KJ, Hull EE (August 2014). "Collective cell migration of primary zebrafish keratocytes". ... as is the case of fish keratocytes in cell migration studies. Plant cell cultures are typically grown as cell suspension ...
Corneal keratocytes (corneal fibroblasts) are specialized fibroblasts residing in the stroma. This corneal layer, representing ... MACULAR DYSTROPHY, CORNEAL, 1; MCDC1 - OMIM. Patel S, McLaren J, Hodge D, Bourne W (February 2001). "Normal human keratocyte ... Quiescent keratocytes synthesize the so-called crystallins, known primarily for their role in the lens. Corneal crystallins, ... Keratocytes may play a role in different corneal disorders. According to comparative research, their functions drastically ...
Ocular insult, including infectious keratitis, immunological conditions, corneal trauma, alkali injury, and contact lens wear ( ... 16] may stimulate production of angiogenic factors by local epithelial cells, keratocytes, and infiltrating leukocytes [17, 18 ... Corneal vascularization due to corneal contact lenses: the clinical picture. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1967. 65:333-40. [QxMD ... Risk factors for corneal graft failure and rejection in the collaborative corneal transplantation studies. Opthal. 1974. 101: ...
Keratocyte apoptosis after corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin/UVA treatment.. Cornea, 23(1) 43-49 (2004) Abstract ... RESULTS: In the control eyes with corneal epithelial debridement only, apoptotic keratocytes were found in the anterior 50 ... Future studies should be done to examine the keratocyte repopulation and exclude possible adverse sequelae of keratocyte loss ... In these eyes, we found apoptosis of keratocytes down to a variable stromal depth depending on the applied UVA irradiance. A ...
A single intraoperative application of topical mitomycin C during PRK in rabbits reduced corneal haze by inhibiting the ... application of topical mitomycin C during PRK in rabbits reduced corneal haze by inhibiting the proliferation of keratocytes. ... At week 1, 2, and 4 after PRK, keratocytes of the PRK+MMC group were only 3.1+/-2.6, 6.8+/-4.7, and 12.4+/-5.7 keratocytes x 10 ... 4)/microm2, respectively, while those of the PRK alone group were 41.2+/-80, 42.3+/-7.8, and 40.0+/-3.3 keratocytes x 10(4)/ ...
Corneal repair by human corneal keratocyte-reprogrammed iPSCs and amphiphatic carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan hydrogel. ...
2B) , and visible keratocyte processes. Subtle morphologic alterations (i.e., thin, faint keratocyte processes) in the post-PRK ... In Vivo Corneal Morphology and Corneal Sensitivity. Effects of Oleoresin Capsicum Pepper Spray on Human Corneal Morphology and ... Long-Term Corneal Morphology after PRK by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Jukka A. O. Moilanen; Minna H. Vesaluoma; Linda J. Mu ... most anterior keratocytes, stromal keratocytes, stromal nerves, and endothelium of the central cornea. The setup and operation ...
Corneal haze clearance mechanism and visual function recovery following stromal keratocyte injection ... TAGS: cornea, keratomileusis, laser in situ, surgical flaps, wound healing, inflammatory response, corneal topography Invest. ... TAGS: biometry, cornea, corneal ectasia, keratomileusis, laser in situ, oryctolagus cuniculus, surgical procedures, operative ... Early Corneal Wound Healing and Inflammatory Responses after Refractive Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx) PDF ...
The first observable stromal response in corneal wound healing is keratocyte apoptosis. Shortly thereafter, remaining ... With a novel femtosecond laser-assisted corneal surgical model in rabbits, cell-free BPCs were implanted in vivo in the corneal ... 1. Corneal stromal cell responses to traumatic wounds and topical treatments. Open this publication in new window or tab ,, ... Aims. The overall aim is to understand the role of keratocytes, and their phenotypic variations in a cornea subjected to ...
The corneal implants may be formed from a porous microstructure that can encourage the proliferation of endogenous keratocytes ... The corneal implants may be formed from a porous microstructure that can encourage the proliferation of endogenous keratocytes ... The corneal implants may be formed from a porous microstructure that can encourage the proliferation of endogenous keratocytes ... Abstract: In a corneal measurement system, an optical element focuses an excitation light to an area of corneal tissue at a ...
... to obtain specific corneal cell phenotype from hPSCs for corneal disease modeling and for the clinics to treat corneal diseases ... Corneal disease is one of the most common causes of blindness. Hence, significant efforts are made to develop novel therapeutic ... The use of adult limbal stem cells in the management of corneal conditions has been clinically successful. However, its limited ... to different corneal cell phenotypes. With the summarization, our review intends to facilitate an understanding which would ...
The safety of the vulnerable corneal cells, epithelium, keratocytes, and endothelium to this increased UV irradiation needs to ... All corneal layers are formed and differentiated at birth and, interestingly, the corneal thickness of the newborn is between ... KERATOCONUS IS TYPICALLY referred to as a bilateral corneal ectatic, thinning, and steepening disease.1,2 Corneal scarring is a ... Sehrawat P, Beri S, Garg R, Datta V, Shandil A. Central corneal thickness and corneal diameter in preterm and term newborns and ...
The unusual pattern of circular-zig-zag lines represents a form of corneal dystrophy known as map-dot-fingerprint corneal ... RESULTS: Keratocyte density anterior to the flap interface showed differences between visits (p , 0.0001) and was found to be ... This may be secondary to multiple factors, including decreased corneal sensation due to severing of corneal nerves, which leads ... Assessments included subjective complaints of dry eye, tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal staining, corneal sensitivity test, ...
Type 1A : Keratocytes manifest the AgKS reactivity. Not the serum or corneal extracellular material ... Glycosaminoglycan accumulation within and outside stromal keratocytes beneath the epithelium and within endothelial cells. ...
CONCLUSION: Tgfbr2 in keratocytes is indispensable for the corneal stroma at postnatal homeostasis. The cornea phenotype ... Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (Tgfbr2) deficiency in keratocytes results in corneal ectasia. ... the corneal stroma cell, can result in corneal thinning and generate a potential model for Cornea Ectasia (CE). METHODS: ... TEM showed that keratocytes were unhealthy and stromal collagen fibril density was significantly reduced in Tgfbr2kera-cko as ...
By retaining a flap of corneal epithelium, LASEK may decrease the risk of infection and incidence of corneal haze, while ... The lamellae are produced by scattered stromal fibroblasts or keratocytes. Keratocytes are also responsible for wound healing ... Example of corneal topography. This image depicts a large inferior cone (or bulging of the cornea) along the contour of the ... Example of corneal topography. This image depicts a large inferior cone (or bulging of the cornea) along the contour of the ...
Besides regulating passage of nutrients and metabolic wastes to and from stromal keratocytes its main role is the control of ... Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells specific in regulating. Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) ... To conclude our study shows new areas of the mobile biology of human CECs that are essential for corneal transparency and thus ... Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells equipped with different types of enzymatic pumps. These ...
Corneal keratocytes were used to create a cell sheet reflecting the main structural features of the stroma and suitable for ... Primary cultures of corneal epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells from the limbus were obtained from the tissues of the ... Corneal keratocytes were used to create a cell sheet reflecting the main structural features of the stroma and suitable for ... Adding to the resu-lts of the discussion on the need to sepa-rately desi-gnate the pre-Descemets layer in the corneal stru- ...
... identify keratocytes subpopulations, and visualize details of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus. ... In vivo corneal confocal microscope HRT3 RCM is a compact ophthalmic device that uses confocal scanning laser microscopy to ... Scanning the cornea with a field of view of up to 400 x 400 μm, HRT3 RCM allows you to acquire unique en face images of corneal ... or in the analysis of corneal nerve structure in diabetic patients. ...
The most common corneal disorders are the following: *Corneal abrasion - a medical condition involving the loss of the surface ... consisting of regularly arranged collagen fibers along with sparsely distributed interconnected keratocytes, which are the ... Main article: Corneal transplantation. If the corneal stroma develops visually significant opacity, irregularity, or edema, a ... For corneal epithelial diseases such as Stevens Johnson Syndrome, persistent corneal ulcer etc., the autologous contralateral ( ...
Other growth factors are produced by keratocytes in the supporting stroma fortnite auto player undetected download and Dwivedi ... and by the corneal epithelial cells themselves Rolando and Zierhut. While HD means x p, this resolution has been take over by ...
Excision of the diseased corneal button with no additional treatment appears to have been curative. Low-grade keratitis was the ... Cytomegalovirus infection of superficial keratocytes in a region of scarring was identified in histological sections stained ... Corneal Stroma / pathology / virology, Cyclosporine / administration & dosage, Cytomegalovirus / immunology, Cytomegalovirus ... in the penetrating keratoplasty of a 59-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative woman after uncomplicated corneal ...
... but promotes keratocyte necrosis, after corneal epithelial scrape. Exp Eye Res 71:225-232. 12.Kobayashi Y, Nakano Y, Inayama K ... 11.Kim WJ, Mohan RR, Mohan RR, Wilson SE (2000) Caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK inhibits keratocyte apoptosis, ...
Fig.15: About 4 D Corneal Flattening after C3R. Fig 16: Corneal Flattening after C3R in PMD. Safety. During corneal Cross- ... C3R treatment leads to a dose-dependent keratocyte apoptosis (1) that can be expected in human corneas to a depth of 300 ... Thinning of the corneal stroma, breaks in Bowmans layer, and deposition of iron in the basal layers of the corneal epithelium ... Repopulation of corneal stroma may take up to 6 months. It is well documented that the corneal epithelium attains a regular ...
transparent eye corneal stroma with a sharply monodispersive distribution of collagen fibre diameters, and turbid eye sclera ... A few flat cells (keratocytes) are dispersed between lamellae, cells total volume fraction is only 3-5% of the stromal volume ... 8, a,c). The intermolecular spacing is of 1.63+0.10 nm [79-85]. Thus, corneal stroma has at least three levels of structural ... R. A. Farrell, D. E. Freund, and R. L. McCally, Research on corneal structure in Johns Hopkins APL Techn. Digest 11, 191-199 ...
Corneal Keratocytes [A11.329.228.109] Corneal Keratocytes * COS Cells [A11.329.228.220] COS Cells ...
The launch of keratocyte apoptosis leads to a violation of the structure of collagen fibers. Due to the fact that the location ... In the later stages when the corneal stroma is stretched, there are located parallel to the line Vogt. Later in the area of the ... This constant trauma causes the start of pathological processes: chronic apoptosis of keratocytes, the enhancement of lysosomal ... granular corneal dystrophy, down syndrome, Marfan syndrome and blue scler syndrome was noted. It should be noted that 68% of ...
Mesenchymal stromal cell-like characteristics of corneal keratocytes. *Generating neuron-like cells from BM-derived mesenchymal ...
Keratocyte, Corneal use Corneal Keratocytes Keratocytes, Corneal use Corneal Keratocytes Keratoderma Blennorrhagicum use ... Keratosis Palmoplantaris with Corneal Dystrophy use Tyrosinemias Keratosis Palmoplantaris with Periodontopathia use Papillon- ...
Hence its been postulated that MMP 2 will be the extracellular protease thats the main reason behind corneal thinning. Its ... Because of the suggestion that keratocyte apoptosis causes or plays a role in the thinning of keratoconic corneas, this ... It is likely that an assortment of external agents, including those that induce oxidative stress, may induce the corneal ... The proenzyme of MMP 2dthe important protease secreted by corneal stromal cellsdis over expressed in keratoconic corneas. As a ...
... stem cells have been the most widely assayed and have the best potential to differentiate into functional adult keratocytes in ... Cellular delivery into the corneal stroma has been experimentally assayed in vivo in multiple ways: systemic versus local ... improve corneal transparency in metabolic diseases by enhancing the catabolism of the accumulated molecules, generate new ... Cellular therapy of the corneal stroma, with either ocular or extraocular stem cells, has been gaining a lot of interest over ...
  • Corneal keratocytes (corneal fibroblasts) are specialized fibroblasts residing in the stroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once settled in the stroma, keratocytes start synthesizing collagen molecules of different types (I, V, VI) and keratan sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to one study, average keratocyte density in the human stroma is about 20500 cells per mm3, or 9600 in a column of 1 mm2 in section. (wikipedia.org)
  • 05). A marked reduction of keratocytes in the anterior stroma of the PRK+MMC group was observed. (nih.gov)
  • Thicknesses of the epithelium and stroma, as well as the density of corneal opacity (haze) were obtained from digital image analysis of the confocal microscopy through-focusing (CMTF) scans. (arvojournals.org)
  • 16 This new tissue appears to compensate for the photoablated anterior stroma, thus leading to corneal resteepening. (arvojournals.org)
  • With a novel femtosecond laser-assisted corneal surgical model in rabbits, cell-free BPCs were implanted in vivo in the corneal stroma of 10 rabbits over an 8-week period. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study indicates that a cost-effective BPC extracellular matrix equivalent can incorporate cells passively to initiate regenerative healing of the corneal stroma, and is compatible with human stem or organ-specific cells for future therapeutic applications as a stromal replacement for treating blinding disorders of the cornea. (diva-portal.org)
  • PURPOSE: We hypothesized that Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (Tgfbr2) deletion in keratocyte (Tgfbr2kera-cko), the corneal stroma cell, can result in corneal thinning and generate a potential model for Cornea Ectasia (CE). (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Tgfbr2 in keratocytes is indispensable for the corneal stroma at postnatal homeostasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • This technique involved the use of alcohol to separate the corneal epithelium from the stroma to create an epithelial sheet that could be repositioned over the ablated stroma. (medscape.com)
  • The endothelium is the innermost coating of the cornea separating the corneal stroma from your liquid called aqueous humor that fills the anterior chamber. (biotech2012.org)
  • The collagenous stroma is definitely highly hydrophilic and without the endothelium rapidly swells and becomes opaque because edema disrupts the specific corporation of collagen fibrils responsible for corneal transparency. (biotech2012.org)
  • Corneal keratocytes were used to create a cell sheet reflecting the main structural features of the stroma and suitable for biomechanical tests. (mediasphera.ru)
  • when discussed in lieu of a subepithelial basement membrane, Bowman's Layer is a tough layer composed of collagen (mainly type I collagen fibrils), laminin , nidogen , perlecan and other HSPGs that protects the corneal stroma. (detailedpedia.com)
  • Thinning of the corneal stroma, breaks in Bowman's layer, and deposition of iron in the basal layers of the corneal epithelium comprise a triad of the classical histopathologic features found in keratoconus. (mediagama.in)
  • In the later stages when the corneal stroma is stretched, there are located parallel to the line Vogt. (keratoconusa.net)
  • Cellular therapy of the corneal stroma, with either ocular or extraocular stem cells, has been gaining a lot of interest over the last decade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple publications from different research groups are showing its potential benefits in relation to its capacity to improve or alleviate corneal scars, improve corneal transparency in metabolic diseases by enhancing the catabolism of the accumulated molecules, generate new organized collagen within the host stroma, and its immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellular delivery into the corneal stroma has been experimentally assayed in vivo in multiple ways: systemic versus local injections with or without a carrier. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The stroma constitutes more than 90% of the corneal thickness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the last decade, enormous efforts have been put into replicating the corneal stroma in the laboratory to find an alternative to classical corneal transplantation, but this has still not been accomplished due to the extreme difficulty in mimicking the highly complex ultrastructure of the corneal stroma, obtaining substitutes that either do not achieve enough transparency or strength [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering existing scientific evidence, it seems that all types of MSCs have similar behavior in vivo [Table 1 ], and thus are able to achieve keratocyte differentiation and modulate the corneal stroma with immunomodulatory properties [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the unperturbed cornea keratocytes stay dormant, coming into action after any kind of injury or inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any glitch in the precisely orchestrated process of healing may cloud the cornea, while excessive keratocyte apoptosis may be a part of the pathological process in the degenerative corneal disorders such as keratoconus, and these considerations prompt the ongoing research into the function of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the end of eye development an interconnected keratocyte network is established in the cornea, with dendrites of neighbouring cells contacting each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • After an injury to the cornea, some keratocytes undergo apoptosis, prompted by the signaling molecules secreted by the upper layers, such as IL1 alpha and TNF-alpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a healthy cornea the programmed cell death is a rare occasion, but immediately after an injury to the uppermost layer keratocytes directly under the injury site commit apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the corneal implants act as tissue scaffolds that promote tissue growth to increase the biomechanical stability and/or change the shape of the cornea. (justia.com)
  • TEM showed that keratocytes were unhealthy and stromal collagen fibril density was significantly reduced in Tgfbr2kera-cko as compared with that in Tgfbr2Ctrl cornea. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cornea phenotype manifested in these Tgfbr2kera-cko mice resembles corneal ectasia disease in humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • These cells cover the entire corneal concavity up to the trabecular meshwork which is situated in the angle between the cornea and the iris. (biotech2012.org)
  • Scanning the cornea with a field of view of up to 400 x 400 μm, HRT3 RCM allows you to acquire unique en face images of corneal cells and structures, identify keratocytes subpopulations, and visualize details of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus. (heidelbergengineering.com)
  • Navigate through the cornea at the cellular level and select your preferred scanning depth for a comprehensive in vivo assessment of all corneal layers - from epithelium to endothelium. (heidelbergengineering.com)
  • The comprehensive assessment of the cornea and other external ocular structures with HRT3 RCM can aid you in the diagnosis and monitoring of corneal abnormalities, pre- and post-surgery evaluation, the assessment of dry eye disease, or in the analysis of corneal nerve structure in diabetic patients. (heidelbergengineering.com)
  • The human cornea borders with the sclera at the corneal limbus . (detailedpedia.com)
  • Till date, accepted methods of treatment have been contact lenses, intra-stromal corneal rings (INTACS), Photo-refractive keratectomy and cornea transplant. (mediagama.in)
  • Similar to photo polymerization of polymers, Collagen Cross-Linking of Cornea using ultraviolet light and the Photo-sensitizer Riboflavin was developed to treat corneal thinning and ectasia by increasing the biomechanical strength of the tissue. (mediagama.in)
  • This is based on the fact that UV light can penetrate cornea up to a thickness of 350 microns and will damage endothelium if enough corneal thickness is not there. (mediagama.in)
  • This constant trauma causes the start of pathological processes: chronic apoptosis of keratocytes, the enhancement of lysosomal enzymes, and inhibitors of proteases - degradation of collagen, and in the future - the development in the epithelium of the cornea degenerative processes. (keratoconusa.net)
  • Corneal Keratoconus creates irregular astigmatism, causing curvatures on the cornea tissue that are not nice smooth curves. (drkisling.com)
  • The bulk of the corneal thickness is in the stromal layer, where the collagen protein fibers run across the cornea, adding the tensile strength. (drkisling.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycan accumulation within and outside stromal keratocytes beneath the epithelium and within endothelial cells. (ophthalmobytes.com)
  • The cell proliferation marker Ki67 expression level increased â ¼9% in Tgfbr2kera-cko corneal epithelium as compared with that in Tgfbr2Ctrl, however, the Krt14 and Krt12 expression pattern was not obviously changed in Tgfbr2kera-cko corneal epithelium. (bvsalud.org)
  • By retaining a flap of corneal epithelium, LASEK may decrease the risk of infection and incidence of corneal haze, while reducing recovery time and postoperative discomfort when compared with PRK. (medscape.com)
  • Irregularity or edema of the corneal epithelium disrupts the smoothness of the air/tear-film interface, the most significant component of the total refractive power of the eye, thereby reducing visual acuity. (detailedpedia.com)
  • Corneal epithelium is continuous with the conjunctival epithelium, and is composed of about 6 layers of cells which are shed constantly on the exposed layer and are regenerated by multiplication in the basal layer. (detailedpedia.com)
  • Corneal thickness should be more than 450 microns (400 microns after epithelium removal) at thinnest point. (mediagama.in)
  • This corneal layer, representing about 85-90% of corneal thickness, is built up from highly regular collagenous lamellae and extracellular matrix components. (wikipedia.org)
  • All corneal layers are formed and differentiated at birth and, interestingly, the corneal thickness of the newborn is between 545µm and 573µm, which is a little thicker than the size of the average adult corneal size, which is 535µm. (clspectrum.com)
  • METHODS: Corneal thickness of Tgfbr2kera-cko and Tgfbr2Ctrl was examined with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) at post-natal (P) days 42 and 70, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since its introduction, LASIK has been associated with various complications, specifically when performed on eyes with decreased corneal thickness, irregular astigmatism, dryness, preexisting ocular surface disease, or glaucoma, to the point where several of these entities have become relative contraindications to performing LASIK. (medscape.com)
  • Methods employ bioresorbable corneal implants to treat corneal ectatic disorders and/or refractive errors. (justia.com)
  • With the summarization, our review intends to facilitate an understanding which would allow developing efficient and robust protocols to obtain specific corneal cell phenotype from hPSCs for corneal disease modeling and for the clinics to treat corneal diseases and injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The yellow arrow points to staining of corneal epithelial cells which are no longer viable due to post-LASIK dry eye disease. (lasikcomplications.com)
  • Primary cultures of corneal epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells from the limbus were obtained from the tissues of the anterior eye segment. (mediasphera.ru)
  • According to comparative research, their functions drastically diverge from the norm in keratoconus, the most frequent form of corneal dystrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • a hypothesis exists that presents excessive keratocyte apoptosis as a major pathological event in keratoconus. (wikipedia.org)
  • KERATOCONUS IS TYPICALLY referred to as a bilateral corneal ectatic, thinning, and steepening disease. (clspectrum.com)
  • Keratoconus is a bilateral non-inflammatory corneal ectasia (fig.1) with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2,000 in the general population. (mediagama.in)
  • Similarly, young diabetics never develop progressive keratoconus due to natural cross linking effect of glucose, which increases corneal resistance. (mediagama.in)
  • Frequent combination of keratoconus with genetic abnormalities and hereditary syndromes: retinal pigment degeneration, Leber amaurosis, Crouzon syndrome, granular corneal dystrophy, down syndrome, Marfan syndrome and blue scler syndrome was noted. (keratoconusa.net)
  • Keratoconus is an eye disease that causes vision to gradually worsen over time, as the transparent corneal tissue that covers the front of the eye thins and bulges forward, forming the cone shape that keratoconus is named for. (drkisling.com)
  • Some keratocytes underlying the site of injury, even a light one, undergo apoptosis immediately after the injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis of keratocytes, either in quiescent or active state, is a process that attracts special attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11.Kim WJ, Mohan RR, Mohan RR, Wilson SE (2000) Caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK inhibits keratocyte apoptosis, but promotes keratocyte necrosis, after corneal epithelial scrape. (chinaplantextract.com)
  • The launch of keratocyte apoptosis leads to a violation of the structure of collagen fibers. (keratoconusa.net)
  • The endothelium takes on several essential tasks in corneal homeostasis. (biotech2012.org)
  • It acts like a shield and prevents UV induced collateral damage to sensitive ocular structures like Corneal Endothelium, Lens and Retina. (mediagama.in)
  • Optical in-homogeneities can lead to damage to corneal endothelium, which represents most endangered structure. (mediagama.in)
  • Corneal transplantation is the last resort to treat most of the corneal diseases, thereby adding a significant load on the already burdened eye banks for tissue availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, corneal transplantation as a procedure has a high usage of steroids to prevent graft rejection that can lead to secondary complications [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report the development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) keratitis in the penetrating keratoplasty of a 59-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative woman after uncomplicated corneal transplantation. (notifylibrary.org)
  • By the moment of eye opening after birth the proliferation of keratocytes is all but finished and most of them are in the quiescent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single intraoperative application of topical mitomycin C during PRK in rabbits reduced corneal haze by inhibiting the proliferation of keratocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The corneal implants may be formed from a porous microstructure that can encourage the proliferation of endogenous keratocytes. (justia.com)
  • Histological H&E staining, transmission electron micrograph (TEM), and immunofluorescence staining (IFS) were harnessed to examine corneal cell morphology, proliferation, differentiation, and collagen fibrils. (bvsalud.org)
  • Keratocytes may play a role in different corneal disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, we discuss and summarize protocols that have been devised so far to direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to different corneal cell phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides regulating passage of nutrients and metabolic wastes to and from stromal keratocytes its main role is the control of stromal hydration. (biotech2012.org)
  • According to the present knowledge, anterior stromal fibrosis (haze) is a result of increased cellular reflectivity 16 and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) 17 by (activated) keratocytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Confocal microscopy revealed increased reflectivity in the subepithelial extracellular matrix, keratocyte nuclei and processes in all patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • Silicone hydrogel CLs with oxygen permeabilities approaching 100-200 Fatt Dk units have decreased the incidence of corneal NV among CL users. (medscape.com)
  • Using high-purity medical-grade type I collagen, high 18% collagen content and optimized EDC-NHS cross-linker ratio, BPCs were fabricated into hydrogel corneal implants with over 90% transparency and four-fold increase in strength and stiffness compared with previous versions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Regression of myopia after PRK is thought to result from resynthesis of ECM by activated fibroblasts and altered keratocytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Many diseases such as corneal dystrophies, scars or ectatic disorders induce a distortion of its anatomy or physiology leading to loss of transparency and subsequent loss of vision. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Corneal crystallins, like the lens ones, are thought to help maintain the transparency and optimal refraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • To conclude our study shows new areas of the mobile biology of human CECs that are essential for corneal transparency and thus one of the key targets in the treatment of corneal blindness. (biotech2012.org)
  • Other neighbouring keratocytes, when acted upon by the same molecules, become active, proliferate and start synthesizing matrix metalloproteinases that cause tissue remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corneal implants may also employ drug coating(s) to promote tissue growth. (justia.com)
  • In a corneal measurement system, an optical element focuses an excitation light to an area of corneal tissue at a selected depth. (justia.com)
  • An aperture of a pinhole structure selectively transmits the fluorescence emission from the area of corneal tissue at the selected depth. (justia.com)
  • Refractive surgery, as it is known today, was not realized until 1966 when Pureskin first appreciated its potential with the demonstration that refractive changes could be made by removing central tissue underneath a corneal flap. (medscape.com)
  • Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells equipped with different types of enzymatic pumps. (biotech2012.org)
  • Concepts of corneal refractive surgery, such as keratectomy, keratotomy, and thermokeratoplasty, were first described in 1898 by Lans who published a set of experiments that focused on treating astigmatism in rabbits. (medscape.com)
  • Incidence of subsequent corneal graft rejection is estimated by one study to be 1.7 times higher in a setting of vascularized rather than nonvascularized host corneas. (medscape.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells have been the most widely assayed and have the best potential to differentiate into functional adult keratocytes in vivo and in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genetic disruption of its synthesis leads to the macular corneal dystrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corneal disease is one of the most common causes of blindness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Corneal diseases are the most common debilitating source of visual loss that may lead to permanent blindness [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although corneal-related blindness is a major health issue [ 10 ], lack of in-depth knowledge about the pathogenesis of many of the corneal diseases has hampered drug development thereby limiting treatment options. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To examine human corneal morphology and nerve recovery 5 years after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). (arvojournals.org)
  • Moreover, mechanical eye-rubbing on Tgfbr2kera-cko resulted in corneal hydrops and edema. (bvsalud.org)
  • NV is believed to result from an inflammatory or hypoxic disruption of an exquisitely balanced corneal immune system. (medscape.com)
  • Over time, the corneal implants may resorb via hydrolysis or enzymatic breakdown, negating the risks of inflammation, scarring, or foreign body response. (justia.com)
  • The use of adult limbal stem cells in the management of corneal conditions has been clinically successful. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Buratto performed excimer laser ablation on the posterior surface of the resected corneal disc before replacing and resuturing it back to its original position. (medscape.com)
  • Pallikaris then used the excimer laser ablation on the corneal stromal bed under a hinged flap in rabbit corneas. (medscape.com)
  • Genetic studies of corneal diseases have mostly been restricted to the identification of the typical gene mutation/s [ 12 ] with little advancement towards the understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, significant efforts are made to develop novel therapeutic approaches including stem cell-derived strategies to replace the diseased or damaged corneal tissues, thus restoring the vision. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Corneal rege-neration: is there a place for tissues of peri-natal origin? (mediasphera.ru)
  • Keratocytes are developmentally derived from the cranial population of neural crest cells, from whence they migrate to settle in the mesenchyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25 Absence of neural control on keratocytes 26 may as well interfere with wound healing. (arvojournals.org)
  • Developments in the application of the iPSC technology in the sphere of corneal diseases have been sparse compared to retinal diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A similar mechanism of natural hardening and thickening of collagen fibres has been demonstrated in corneal aging (3). (mediagama.in)
  • The larger horizontal corneal diameter in a newborn is 10.0mm, which is only 1.7mm less than the adult size. (clspectrum.com)
  • 11 Nevertheless, we can conclude that the corneal diameter in the newborn is a little smaller than that of in adult. (clspectrum.com)
  • Crystallins expressed by human keratocytes are ALDH1A1, ALDH3A1, ALDH2 and TKT. (wikipedia.org)
  • A micro-device for corneal cross-linking treatment includes a body including an outer portion and an inner portion. (justia.com)
  • Excision of the diseased corneal button with no additional treatment appears to have been curative. (notifylibrary.org)
  • However, its limited availability and phenotypic plasticity necessitate the need for alternative stem cell sources to manage corneal conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When this corneal eye disease manifests at earlier ages optometrists often find a more aggressive form with ongoing, frequent changes in your eyeglass or contact lens prescription. (drkisling.com)
  • In a normal course of events, the lack of keratocytes is gradually replenished by the mitosis of the adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, a bioengineered porcine construct (BPC) was developed to function as a biodegradable scaffold to promote corneal stromal regeneration by host cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • By comparing their manifestation with those in epithelial stromal and trabecular corneal cells we selected 9 structural or practical proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. (biotech2012.org)
  • a thick, transparent middle layer, consisting of regularly arranged collagen fibers along with sparsely distributed interconnected keratocytes , which are the cells for general repair and maintenance. (detailedpedia.com)