Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Loss of CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM usually following intraocular surgery (e.g., cataract surgery) or due to FUCHS' ENDOTHELIAL DYSTROPHY; ANGLE-CLOSURE GLAUCOMA; IRITIS; or aging.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.
Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
Diseases of the cornea.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Viscoelastic solutions that are injected into JOINTS in order to alleviate symptoms of joint-related disorders such as OSTEOARTHRITIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
Photochemotherapy using visible light, usually red, topically or delivered locally by fiberoptic probe to tissues sensitized with hematoporphyrins.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Fuchsluger, Thomas A.; Jurkunas, Ula; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Dana, Reza (2011). "Corneal endothelial cells are protected from ... "Anti-apoptotic gene therapy prolongs survival of corneal endothelial cells during storage". Gene Therapy. 18 (8): 778-787. doi: ... developing strategies to promote corneal endothelial cell survival in transplantation, including gene therapy. 1981 - National ... "Corneal immunity is mediated by heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 74 (2): ...
"Cytotoxicity of lidocaine or bupivacaine on corneal endothelial cells in a rabbit model". Cornea. 25 (5): 590-6. doi:10.1097/01 ... Gabliks J, Barter S (April-September 1987). "Comparative cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and saxitoxin in cell cultures". ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 180 (1): 173-86. doi:10.1083/jcb.200710107. PMC 2213608. PMID 18180363. Abriel H (May 7, 2012). " ... myocytes and other excitable cells. Nav channels form the basis for electrical excitability in animals. Nav channels evolved ...
... localises in the Golgi apparatus of corneal fibroblasts and Schlemm's canal endothelial cells. Several isoforms are ... MYOC mutations, which cause myocilin to accumulate in the cells of the trabecular meshwork are a common cause of glaucoma. Most ... Polansky JR, Fauss DJ, Zimmerman CC (June 2000). "Regulation of TIGR/MYOC gene expression in human trabecular meshwork cells". ... In the extracellular space, it appears in the trabecular meshwork cells through an unconventional mechanism which is associated ...
... is a greater than normal variation in size of the corneal endothelial cells. Causes include contact lens wear, ...
The main complication with this type is their tendency to cause endothelial cell reduction. Sulcus-supported PIOLs, placed in ... They are notorious[citation needed] for their negative impact on the corneal endothelial lining, which is vital for maintaining ... of the endothelial cells, 0.6% risk of retinal detachment, 0.6% risk of cataract (other studies have shown a risk of 0.5-1.0 ... A toric IOL is a type of toric lens used to correct preexisting corneal astigmatism at the time of cataract surgery. ...
For example, in March 2016 the drug was shown to promote corneal endothelial cell (CEC) proliferation in cultured human cells ... Transiently Alters the Morphology of Corneal Endothelial Cells". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 56 (12): 7560-7 ... found that ripasudil produced "guttae-like" formations in ocular endothelial cells post-administration, which was attributed to ... unlike symptoms Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, a disorder for which these short-lived symptoms could be mistaken. ...
"RTA 408 Ophthalmic Suspension for the Prevention of Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss Following Cataract Surgery - GUARD". April 15 ... corneal endothelial cell loss associated with cataract surgery Friedreich's ataxia, and mitochondrial myopathies. Reata is also ... the normal three-dimensional structure of target proteins or generally enhancing the folding environment of the cell. Defects ...
Corneal endothelial cell count less than 2000-2500 cells/mm² is a relative contraindication for PIOL implantation. PIOLs have ... Endothelial cell loss especially for the anterior chamber PIOLs. A study observed a continual steady loss of endothelial cells ... Beyond these limits there is an increased risk of developing corneal ectasia (i.e. corneal forward bulging) due to thin ... Central corneal power in diopters R : Patient Refraction at the corneal vertex d : Effective lens position in mm The effective ...
It has been studied for its effects on corneal endothelial cells (CECs) and cardiac stem cells (CSCs). Uehata, Masayoshi (1999 ... "The effects of Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on primary human corneal endothelial cells propagated using a dual media ... Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis of Human Cardiac Stem Cells". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): e0144513. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
... blebbistatin prevents thrombin-induced inhibition of intercellular calcium wave propagation in corneal endothelial cells". ... "Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells". Nature Communications. ... and its recent use in cardiac muscle cell cultures has improved cell survival time. However, its adverse characteristics e.g. ... Migration of cells can be either enhanced or inhibited depending on other conditions. In neurons, blebbistatin was found to ...
... endothelial cells suffer mortality or damage. The corneal endothelial cells normally do not undergo mitotic cell division, and ... membrane endothelial keratoplasty versus Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for corneal endothelial ... are formed in the cornea due to endothelial dysfunction. In a healthy cornea, endothelial cells keeps the tissue from excess ... When endothelial cell counts drop too low, the pump starts failing to function and fluid moves anterior into the stroma and ...
... endothelial cells, and, in pregnancy, placenta, chorion, and amnion); mouth gingival fibroblasts; and eye (corneal endothelium ... media and endothelial cells of arteries and arterioles); stomach (vascular smooth muscle and gastric fundus mucosal cells); ... and keratocytes, trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, and conjunctival and iridal stroma cells, and retinal Müller cells). ... The growth and metastasis of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells, a mouse lung cancer cell line, is suppressed in EP33 ...
... corneal endothelial changes, and abnormal retinal and auditory bipolar cells". Ophthalmology. 111 (4): 828-36. doi:10.1016/j. ... 2006). "H244R VSX1 is associated with selective cone ON bipolar cell dysfunction and macular degeneration in a PPCD family". ... Mutations in this gene can cause posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) and keratoconus. Two transcript variants ... 2007). "Expression of VSX1 in human corneal keratocytes during differentiation into myofibroblasts in response to wound healing ...
Non-transparent collagen deposits appearing following loss of corneal endothelial cells Pigment dispersion syndrome Krukenberg ... January 2000). "Corneal guttata associated with the corneal dystrophy resulting from a betaig-h3 R124H mutation". The British ... Krukenberg's spindle is the name given to the pattern formed on the inner surface of the cornea by pigmented iris cells that ... Painful red eye with photophobia associated with inflammation Corneal deposits also known as cornea verticillata, caused by ...
In the late 1970s, intraocular lens implantation was often followed by severe corneal edema, due to endothelial cell damage ... directed migration and control of related cell mechanisms are mediated via the specific cell interaction between HA and cell ... It was evident that a viscous, clear, physiologic lubricant to prevent such scraping of the endothelial cells was needed. The ... One in vivo study, where HA hydrogels with endothelial colony forming cells were implanted into mice three days after hydrogel ...
Some evidence suggests that the corneal endothelium actually possesses stem cells that can produce endothelial cells, ... and delineates the outer limit of the corneal endothelium layer. Specifically, it represents the termination of Descemet's ...
For endothelial diseases, such as bullous keratopathy, cadaver corneal endothelial precursor cells have been proven to be ... Corneal pachymetry Corneal reflex Corneal tattooing Corneal topography Eye disease Keratometry List of keratins expressed in ... Corneal endothelium: a simple squamous or low cuboidal monolayer, approx 5 μm thick, of mitochondria-rich cells. These cells ... "Transplantation of a sheet of human corneal endothelial cell in a rabbit model". Molecular Vision. 14: 1-9. PMC 2267690. PMID ...
For the endothelium of the cornea, see corneal endothelium.. Endothelium. Diagram showing the location of endothelial cells ... squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, ... Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have ... The foundational model of anatomy makes a distinction between endothelial cells and epithelial cells on the basis of which ...
If untreated, the line of white blood cells will move across and damage the endothelial cells of the cornea over the space of ... Khodadoust AA, Silverstein AM (February 1976). "Induction of corneal graft rejection by passive cell transfer". Investigative ... A Khodadoust line is made up of mononuclear cells (white blood cells). These cells appear at the vascularized edge of the ... Corneal Graft Rejection on eMedicine "Atlas of Ophthalmology". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07 ...
"Human alpha-enolase from endothelial cells as a target antigen of anti-endothelial cell antibody in Behçet's disease". ... Reduced expression of the enzyme has been found in the corneal epithelium of people suffering from keratoconus. CagA protein ... and activated immune cells, leading to systemic infection or tissue invasion; an oxidative stress protein in endothelial cells ... targeting surface ENO1 enables selective targeting of tumor cells while leaving the ENO1 inside normal cells functional. ...
... and prevention of corneal endothelial cell loss following cataract surgery. The effects of omaveloxolone and related synthetic ...
... and interleukin-1 alpha messenger RNA production in human corneal endothelial cells". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207. PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... Matsuya M, Sasaki H, Aoto H, Mitaka T, Nagura K, Ohba T, Ishino M, Takahashi S, Suzuki R, Sasaki T (Jan 1998). "Cell adhesion ...
... membrane endothelial keratoplasty versus Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for corneal endothelial ... The corneal endothelium is a single layer of squamous cells covering the surface of the cornea that faces the anterior chamber ... In the process most of the squamous cells of the donor membrane survive to dramatically and emphatically reverse the corneal ... is secreted by the single layer of squamous epithelial cells that compose the endothelial layer of the cornea. Its thickness ...
Endothelial cell density also does not change with long-term contact lens wear. No strong relationship has been found between ... Increased corneal curvature is yet another change known to arise from long-term contact lens wear; this increase in corneal ... This change is indicated by significant increases in Max/Min cell size ratio in contact lens wearers. Endothelial pleiomorphism ... Esgin, H.; Erda, N. (January 2002). "Corneal Endothelial Polymegethism and Pleomorphism Induced by Daily-Wear Rigid Gas- ...
with I Conrad-Hengerer, M Al Juburi, T Schultz, FH Hengerer FH: Corneal endothelial cell loss and corneal thickness in ... in pediatric cataracts and in individuals who had undergone corneal refractive surgery or are suffering from corneal disease. ...
Bullous keratopathy that is characterized by corneal stromal edema related to cell loss and endothelial decompensation as well ... biodegradable cell-adhesive scaffolds since cells can not attach to synthetic polymers and take proper signals for normal cell ... toxicity and cell adhesion are concerned. When there is a trauma in a body, cells at site start the cascade of blood clotting ... results vision problems due to loss of corneal transparency. Fibrin glue is used as a sutureless method onto the corneal ...
... and quantification of endothelial cells of the cornea. It is used for localizing and identifying the presence of filamentary ... fungal elements in the corneal stroma in cases of keratomycosis, enabling rapid diagnosis and thereby early institution of ... Colour coded image of actin filaments in a cancer cell. Green signal from anti-tubulin antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 ... Amos, W.B.; White, J.G. (2003). "How the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope entered Biological Research". Biology of the Cell. ...
... and affect the motility of corneal endothelial cells. In summary, KS plays an anti-adhesive role, which suggests very important ... Fibroblasts, mesothelial cells, and certain types of stem cells surround themselves in a pericellular "coat", part of which is ... For example, with regards to stem cells, hyaluronan, along with chondroitin sulfate, helps to form the stem cell niche. Stem ... Hyaluronidase, an enzyme produced by white blood cells, sperms cells, and some bacteria, breaks apart the hyaluronic acid, ...
In vitro studies have shown that AMG 706 inhibits human endothelial cell proliferation induced by VEGF, but not by basic ... Oral administration of AMG 706 potently inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in a rat corneal model and induces regression of ... Phase III trials are currently underway to examine the safety and efficacy of BIBF 1120 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ... BIBW 2992 inhibits survival of cancer cell lines and induces tumour regression in xenograft and transgenic lung cancer models, ...
... the remaining corneal endothelial cells usually recover with complete resolution of the corneal edema and a return to normal ... Although there is some permanent damage to the corneal endothelium with decreased endothelial cell count and irregular shape, ... "Cytotoxicity of calotropin is through caspase activation and down regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in K562 cells". Cell ... Pollinium one in each cell, pendulous caudicles slender. Carpels 2 distinct, styles 2, united to the single pentagular stigma, ...
X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Neuromuscular. *Becker's muscular dystrophy/Duchenne. *Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) ... Molecular genetic testing on a blood specimen or cells from a cheek swab is available to identify mutations in the RSK2 gene. ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in neuronal cell types.[3] ...
X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Neuromuscular. *Becker's muscular dystrophy/Duchenne. *Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... "Defective migration of neuroendocrine GnRH cells in human arrhinencephalic conditions". The Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
Virchow's cell, a macrophage in Hansen's disease. *Virchow's cell theory, omnis cellula e cellula - every living cell comes ... He defended his thesis titled de rheumate praesertim corneae (corneal manifestations of rheumatic disease) for medical degree ... Virchow's triad, the classic factors which precipitate venous thrombus formation: endothelial dysfunction or injury, ... introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula ("All cells come from cells").[9] He was a co-founder of ...
... and quantification of endothelial cells of the cornea.[9] It is used for localizing and identifying the presence of filamentary ... fungal elements in the corneal stroma in cases of keratomycosis, enabling rapid diagnosis and thereby early institution of ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (1): 41-48. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.1.41. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 2114888 . PMID 3112165.. ... Amos, W.B.; White, J.G. (2003). "How the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope entered Biological Research". Biology of the Cell. ...
In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... and corneal injury. These studies indicate that Alox5 can serve a protective function presumably by generating metabolites such ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ... ALOX5 exists primarily in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of cells. Upon cell stimulation, ALOX5: a) may be phosphorylated on ...
망막색소상피세포(Retinal Pigment Epithelium cells, RPE cells)는 망막 감각신경 부분의 바깥에 존재하며, 색소가 있는 세포들을 지칭한다. [1] ... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[26], 등 각자 다양한 역할을 수행한다. . 면역조절 작용[편집]. 앞에서 말했듯이, 망막 안쪽 부분은 신체 내부의 면역 반응으로부터 분리되었으며, ... induced apoptosis is necessary for corneal allograft survival". 》Journal of Clinical Investigation》 99 (3): 396-402. PMID ... J Cell Sci Suppl 17: 189-195, 1993. *↑ Tanihara H, Inatani M, and Honda Y. Growth factors and their receptors in the retina and ...
X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Neuromuscular. *Becker's muscular dystrophy/Duchenne. *Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) ... This type of inheritance means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. ... Autosomal recessive inheritance means two copies of the gene in each cell are altered. ...
X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Neuromuscular. *Becker's muscular dystrophy/Duchenne. *Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) ... These transcribed channels allow water into the collecting duct cells. The increase in permeability allows for reabsorption of ...
In the late 1970s, intraocular lens implantation was often followed by severe corneal edema, due to endothelial cell damage ... such as cell aggregation, migration, proliferation and activation; cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion; endocytosis of HA, ... Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells from rat liver". Hepatology. 11 (2): 199-204. doi:10.1002/hep.1840110207. PMID ... CD44 affects adhesion of cancer cells to each other and to endothelial cells, rearranges the cytoskeleton through the Rho ...
Stem cells are also in clinical phases for treatment in ophthalmology. Hematopoietic stem cells have been used to treat corneal ... homing to damaged tissues and recruiting other cells, such as endothelial progenitor cells, that are necessary for tissue ... Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. ... Stem cell chip. References[edit]. *^ Mahla RS (2016). "Stem cells application in regenerative medicine and disease threpeutics" ...
... to prevent endothelial cell activation, and inhibiting activation of macrophages (stimulated by CD4+ T cells) and NK cells ( ... T cells. Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... where they coexist with the recipient's stem cells. The bone marrow stem cells give rise to cells of all hematopoietic lineages ... Acute vascular rejection requires de novo protein synthesis and is driven by interactions between the graft endothelial cells ...
Done Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor combined with intravitreal steroids for diabetic macular oedema PMID 29669176 ... Radiotherapy versus open surgery versus endolaryngeal surgery (with or without laser) for early laryngeal squamous cell cancer ... Toric intraocular lens versus limbal relaxing incisions for corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification PMID 31845757 https ... Done Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for choroidal neovascularisation in people with pathological myopia PMID 27977064 ...
Some endothelial cells. COL8A1, COL8A2. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 2 IX. FACIT collagen, cartilage, assoc. with ... Collagen is used in laboratory studies for cell culture, studying cell behavior and cellular interactions with the ... Due to its key role in the determination of cell phenotype, cell adhesion, tissue regulation, and infrastructure, many sections ... These later advances are particularly important to better understanding the way in which collagen structure affects cell-cell ...
This is thought to be due to damage to dividing glial and vascular endothelial cells. RON can present with transient visual ... Most patients on this medication get corneal epithelial deposits, but this medication has also been controversially associated ... In short, optic atrophy is the end result of any disease that damages nerve cells anywhere between the retinal ganglion cells ... There are 1.2 million optic nerve fibers that derive from the retinal ganglion cells of the inner retina. In ischemic optic ...
XLA patients do not generate mature B cells.[13] B cells are part of the immune system and normally manufacture antibodies ( ... X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Neuromuscular. *Becker's muscular dystrophy/Duchenne. *Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) ... Centronuclear myopathy; where cell nuclei are abnormally located in skeletal muscle cells. In CNM the nuclei are located at a ... since some cells will express one X allele and some will express the other. The current estimate of sequenced X-linked genes is ...
Endothelial cells and the Descemets membrane are left in place. This technique is used in cases of anterior corneal ... These procedures correct corneal endothelial failure, but are not able to correct corneal scarring, thinning, or surface ... Corneal collagen cross-linking[edit]. Corneal collagen cross-linking may delay or eliminate the need for corneal ... Nine of the 10 experienced cell and nerve regeneration, meaning that corneal cells and nerves grew into the implant. To make ...
... "eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling". J. Cell Biol. 134 (2): ... Kreutziger GO (September 1976). "Lateral membrane morphology and gap junction structure in rabbit corneal endothelium". Exp. ... "The endothelial component of cannabinoid-induced relaxation in rabbit mesenteric artery depends on gap junctional ... When cells are compromised due to disease or injury and start to die messages are transmitted to neighboring cells connected to ...
... permitting the leakage of red blood cells, white blood cells, and plasma into the hematoma cavity. Traumatic tearing of the ... Mediators that promote angiogenesis are angiopoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Prostaglandin E2 promotes ... In chronic subdural hematomas, blood accumulates in the dural space as a result of damage to the dural border cells.[12] The ... and may ultimately lead to brain cell death.[11] ...
Between 75% and 80% of cases are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means two copies of the gene in each cell ... KRT3 (Meesmann juvenile epithelial corneal dystrophy). *KRT4 (White sponge nevus). *KRT5 (Epidermolysis bullosa simplex) ... Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2. *Fuchs' dystrophy 4. *SLC5A1 *Glucose-galactose malabsorption ... Another 20% to 25% of nonsyndromic deafness cases are autosomal dominant, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell ...
... "eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling". J. Cell Biol. 134 (2): ... Kreutziger GO (September 1976). "Lateral membrane morphology and gap junction structure in rabbit corneal endothelium". Exp. ... "The endothelial component of cannabinoid-induced relaxation in rabbit mesenteric artery depends on gap junctional ... "Connexin43 modulates cell polarity and directional cell migration by regulating microtubule dynamics". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e26379 ...
cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved ... NGF for corneal therapeutic purposes. *Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P01138 ( ... Proliferation of pancreatic beta cells[edit]. There is evidence that pancreatic beta cells express both the TrkA and p75NTR ... In acquired immunity, NGF is produced by the Thymus as well as CD4+ T cell clones, inducing a cascade of maturation of T cells ...
... corneal edema, endothelial polymegethism, dry eye and potential increase in myopia.[59] That is why much of the research into ... "Hypoxia increases corneal cell expression of CFTR leading to increased Pseudomonas aeruginosa binding, internalization, and ... corneal abrasions and erosion, keratitis, corneal edema, descemetocele, corneal ectasis, Mooren's ulcer, anterior corneal ... Wearing lenses designed for daily wear overnight has an increased risk for corneal infections, corneal ulcers and corneal ...
... human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), and human pulmonary aortic endothelial cells (HPAC). In PC-3 prostate ... a similar pathway may be active in rabbit corneal epitheleum, cow corneal epitheleum, and mouse keratinocytes although this ... T lymphocye cell line), Hut78 cells (T cell lymphoma cell line), HEK 293 cells (primary embryonic kidney cell line), MCF7 cells ... Further studies in animal models suggest that the 12S-HETE made by pancreatic beta cells (or possibly alpha cells or other cell ...
Sickle-cell anemia is also considered a recessive condition, but heterozygous carriers have increased resistance to malaria in ... Congenital stromal corneal dystrophy. *Raine syndrome. *Urbach-Wiethe disease. *TECTA *DFNA8/12, DFNB21 ... Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2. *Fuchs' dystrophy 4. *SLC5A1 *Glucose-galactose malabsorption ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ...
X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Neuromuscular. *Becker's muscular dystrophy/Duchenne. *Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) ...
... intracellular bacterial parasite that proliferates within the endothelial cells of small blood vessels, causing a vasculitis. ... A tick attached to the side of the face may cause loss of blink reflex, corneal ulceration and an ocular discharge. A tick ... The host reacts against the tick lesion by haemostasis, inflammation and cell mediated immunity (CMI). An array of ... corneal ulcers, pneumonia and sepsis. The relatively high mortality rates in horses in this study could be due to a range of ...
negative regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial endothelial cell. • positive regulation of core promoter binding. • ... and is a regulator of genes required for corneal homeostasis;[47] the skin where it is required for the development of skin ... regulation of cell differentiation. • mesodermal cell fate determination. • negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell ... "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors". Cell. 131 (5): 861-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
cell/mm2 (range, 1834 to 3652 cell/mm2). The MCA was μm2 (range, 274-545 μm2). The mean CV in cell size was (range, 22 to 49), ... To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy ... Parameters recorded from the system included mean endothelial cell density (MCD) (cell/mm2), mean cell area (MCA) (μm2), ... Clinical observations indicate that an endothelial cell density of 400 to 600 cells/mm2 is a crucial point at which endothelial ...
The key issue is quality of the cells, which should be well-differentiated, mature endothelial cells. ... speaks about the results of corneal endothelial cell injection therapy, a field in which he has been working for more than 15 ... PARIS - At EuCornea 2019, Shigeru Kinoshita, MD, PhD, speaks about the results of corneal endothelial cell injection therapy, a ... PARIS - At EuCornea 2019, Shigeru Kinoshita, MD, PhD, speaks about the results of corneal endothelial cell injection therapy, a ...
Because corneal endothelial cells have an extremely limited proliferative ability in vivo, treatment for corneal endothelial ... potential between endothelial cells in a confluent monolayer serves as a biomarker of the quality of corneal endothelial cells ... Corneal endothelium can also be restored via intraocular injection of endothelial cells in suspension after their expansion in ... A parameter derived from the collective order of monolayers of corneal endothelial cells makes for a non-invasive quantitative ...
Corneal endothelial cell (CEC) therapy is considered to be a promising concept to overcome the common limitations of corneal ... This new book discusses the use of gelatin carriers in corneal endothelial cell delivery. (Imprint: Nova) ... Biocompatibility Assessment of Gelatin Carriers Used in Corneal Endothelial Cell Delivery. $0.00. ... Biocompatibility Assessment of Gelatin Carriers Used in Corneal Endothelial Cell Delivery quantity. ...
Engineering of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells .. Human corneal endothelial cells are responsible for controlling corneal ... Corneal transplantation can treat corneal endothelial diseases. Implanting cultivated human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) ... Nicotinamide inhibits corneal endothelial mesenchymal transition and accelerates wound healing.. Corneal endothelial cells ( ... Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss. Loss of CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM usually following intraocular surgery (e.g., cataract surgery) or ...
Automatic cell segmentation; Corneal Confocal Microscopy; Corneal endothelial cells; Fast Fourier Transform; Voronoi ... Corneal endothelial cell abnormalities may be associated with a number of corneal and systemic diseases. Damage to the ... A fully automated cell segmentation and morphometric parameter system for quantifying corneal endothelial cell morphology.. Al- ... endothelial cells can significantly affect corneal transparency by altering hydration of the corneal stroma, which can lead to ...
i,Conclusions,/i,. Endothelial cell damage in the ppAGV group for refractory glaucoma appeared to be lower than that in the ... The postoperative endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups were 2044 ± 303 and 1904 ± 324, respectively ,svg xmlns:xlink ... Therefore, pars plana implantation of AGV may be preferred as it may have lower level of endothelial cell damage while ... The preoperative and postoperative endothelial cells, intraocular pressure (IOP), and postoperative complications during the ...
... in confluent monolayers of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells was determined using the pH-dependent absorbance of ... Thus, bovine corneal endothelial cells express three processes involved in intracellular pH regulation: an amiloride-sensitive ... Intracellular pH (pH i ) in confluent monolayers of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells was determined using the pH- ... Evidence for coupled transport of bicarbonate and sodium in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.J. Membrane Biol. 81:189- ...
Cell Surface Markers of Functional Phenotypic Corneal Endothelial Cells Naoki Okumura; Hiroatsu Hirano; Ryohei Numata; Makiko ... Cell Surface Markers of Functional Phenotypic Corneal Endothelial Cells You will receive an email whenever this article is ... Optimization of human corneal endothelial cells for culture: the removal of corneal stromal fibroblast contamination using ... Human corneal endothelial cell expansion for corneal endothelium transplantation: an overview. Transplantation. 2011; 91: 811- ...
ATP Release through Connexin Hemichannels in Corneal Endothelial Cells. Proliferative Response of Corneal Endothelial Cells ... Effect of Overexpressing the Transcription Factor E2F2 on Cell Cycle Progression in Rabbit Corneal Endothelial Cells ... Universal Corneal Epithelial-Like Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cellularization of a Corneal Scaffold ... Rabbit corneal endothelial cells in vitro: effects of EGF. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ...
Because corneal endothelial cells have an extremely limited proliferative ability in vivo, treatment for corneal endothelial ... A physical biomarker of the quality of cultured corneal endothelial cells and of the long-term prognosis of corneal restoration ... potential between endothelial cells in a confluent monolayer serves as a biomarker of the quality of corneal endothelial cells ... Corneal endothelium can also be restored via intraocular injection of endothelial cells in suspension after their expansion in ...
Primary HCECs were isolated from donor corneal rings and cultivated at 37°C in 5% CO2 and 95% humidified air. Six groups of ... To investigate the possible toxic effect of air exposure for an in vitro model of primary human corneal endothelial cells ( ... Air Toxicity for Primary Human-Cultured Corneal Endothelial Cells: An In Vitro Model ... To investigate the possible toxic effect of air exposure for an in vitro model of primary human corneal endothelial cells ( ...
Evaluation of corneal endothelial cell therapy using an in vitro human corneal model ... 12 cells (group 1), primary human corneal endothelial cells (hCECs) at 0 passage (group 2) and hCECs at passage 2 (group 3) ... human corneal decompensation model and to use it for the evaluation of a cell-therapy approach for treating corneal endothelial ... substantiating the role of cell therapy to treat corneal endothelial disorders. The identification of PRDM proteins in the ...
Growth factors and corneal endothelial cells: III. Stimulation of adult human corneal endothelial cell mitosis in vitro by ... J Cell Biol. 2014;206:799-811 35. Engelmann K, Friedl P. Growth of human corneal endothelial cells in a serum-reduced medium. ... Engelmann K, Friedl P. Optimization of culture conditions for human corneal endothelial cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 1989;25: ... TGF-beta2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3631-40 ...
The corneal endothelial cells exist on the humans cornea. To extract every cell contour from them is indispensable for the ... Convolution neural network for contour extraction of corneal endothelial cells Author(s): Saya Katafuchi; Motohide Yoshimura ... We show the effectiveness of CNNs for the contour extraction of corneal endothelial cells. ... In this paper, we construct the CNNs for the precise cell extraction regardless to scale of the cell. We utilize software ...
Corneal transplantation is the most effective method to treat corneal endothelial dysfunction, where it suffers from donor ... CECs in vivo have a limited capacity in proliferation, and loss of a significant number of CECs results in corneal edema called ... Here, we explored molecular markers to discriminate CECs from other cell types in the human body by integrating the published ... However, the currently used markers are far from satisfactory because of their non-specific expression in other cell types. ...
Electrophysiological Investigation of Cultured Human Corneal Endothelial Cells. 1Mergler S., 2Dannowski H., 3Bednarz J., 3 ... Methods: Primary cultures from human corneal endothelium as well as the permanent cell line HCEC-SV-40 were established (Exp ... In addition, FGF receptors in HCE-SV40 cells could be expressed at higher levels than in HCEC cells. These data about Ca2+ ... So far, there are no investigations in human corneal endothelium about Ca2+ channels. Putative Ca2+ channel activities and Ca2+ ...
... ... In this study we demonstrate that cultures of corneal endothelial cells display reduced migration in scratch wound assays, and ... Our results indicate a potential role for Eph receptor signalling during corneal endothelial cell migration via changes in ... Two Eph receptors, EphA1 and EphA2, were subsequently detected in corneal endothelial cells, and their potential involvement ...
... corneal endothelial cell (CEC) sheets and the use of medications to treat corneal endothelial dysfunction [1-3]. Recently, a ... In human corneal endothelial cells, P120-catenin nuclear translocation and endothelial proliferation induced by p120 siRNA ... introduced collagenase for isolating human corneal endothelial cells from the Descemet membrane in cell cultures [33]. In ... ROCK inhibitor converts corneal endothelial cells into a phenotype capable of regenerating in vivo endothelial tissue. Am J ...
We used 130 corneal endothelial cell images following one type of corneal transplantation (Descemet stripping automated ... We are developing automated analysis of corneal-endothelial-cell-layer, specular microscopic images so as to determine ... Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of deep learning automatic segmentations of corneal endothelial cell images of reduced ... "Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of deep learning automatic segmentations of corneal endothelial cell images of reduced ...
Presence of healthy endothelial cells, in this case the corneal grafts cells, may trigger a regeneration process [9]. Such ... Increase in endothelial cell density, decrease in central corneal thickness (CCT), recovery of corneal transparency, and ... Corneal clearance and central endothelial cell repopulation despite graft detachment after Descemet membrane endothelial ... Alternatively, transplantation of cultured donor-derived corneal endothelial cells or differentiated stem cells may also ...
This suggests that stabilization is useful for studying the plasticity of the corneal endotheliums morphology, and ... The addition of a stabilization step during CEC culture improves the cells morphology and molecular identity, which agrees ... Cell surface markers of functional phenotypic corneal endothelial cells. Okumura N, Hirano H, Numata R, Nakahara M, Ueno M, ... Arresting Proliferation Improves the Cell Identity of Corneal Endothelial Cells in the New Zealand Rabbit Carlos-Alberto ...
Purpose To observe the most peripheral region of the corneal endothelial cell (CEC) layer as long as optically recordable by ... Panoramic view of human corneal endothelial cell layer observed by a prototype slit-scanning wide-field contact specular ... Panoramic view of human corneal endothelial cell layer observed by a prototype slit-scanning wide-field contact specular ... Results Corneal endothelial images from near the surgical limbus to limbus in all eyes were clearly recorded and panoramic ...
... and endothelial permeability in patients with endothelial cell counts under 900 cells/mm2 as a result of endothelial cell ... RESULTS: Mean (SEM) endothelial cell density of the TECD eyes increased from 642 (41) cells/mm2 to 849 (50) cells/mm2 at 4 ... Long term changes in human corneal endothelium following toxic endothelial cell destruction: a specular microscopic and ... Long term changes in human corneal endothelium following toxic endothelial cell destruction: a specular microscopic and ...
... engineer surgical grafts containing normal human corneal endothelial cells to meet global corneal shortage and for endothelial ... Consequently, proliferating human corneal endothelial cells maintained a hexagonal shape with junctional expression of N- ... This phenomenon explains poor regenerative capacity of in vivo human corneal endothelial cells during aging, injury, and ... This study demonstrated that the conventional approach of expanding human corneal endothelial cells by disrupting contact ...
of Promoting the expansion and function of human corneal endothelial cells with an orbital adipose-derived stem cell- ... Corneal endothelial cell Orbital adipose-derived stem cell Conditioned medium Corneal endothelial dysfunction Regenerative ... of Promoting the expansion and function of human corneal endothelial cells with an orbital adipose-derived stem cell- ... Cultured HCEC (P5 BM and P5 CM) injection in a rabbit corneal endothelial dysfunction model. More eye drops (six times a day) ...
Endothelial cells were separated from keratocytes and epithelial cells by the polygonal cell morphology as well as by ... A fibrin-based substrate for in vitro reconstruction of cultured corneal endothelial cells. Pagani P. 1, Campanile G. 2, ... Purpose of our work is to define an appropriate environment and a biological substrate for cultured corneal endothelial cells ( ... Vimentin and pan-cytokeratin were expressed by the endothelial cells on all fresh corneal section, while no expression was ...
In young adults, the corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) is approximately 3000 cells/mm2. However, due to aging, the mean ... Corneal endothelial cell changes after trabeculectomy and deep sclerectomy. J Glaucoma. 2007;16:324-8. CrossRefPubMed ... Changes in corneal endothelial cells after trabeculectomy and EX-PRESS shunt: 2-year follow-up. Zeitschrift:. BMC Ophthalmology ... The effect of vitreous and retinal surgery on corneal endothelial cell density. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:1166-9. CrossRefPubMed ...
... glaucoma filtering device on the corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) in eyes with open angle glau.. ... Changes of corneal endothelial cell density after EX-PRESS® Glaucoma shunt implantation: 2-year follow-up study.. Purpose: To ... Results: The mean ECD was 2008 cells/mm2 before the surgery, 1956 cells/mm2 at 1 year, and 1846 cells/mm2 at 2 years after the ... glaucoma filtering device on the corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) in eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG). Designs: A ...
Citation: Ju C, Zhang K, Wu X (2012) Derivation of Corneal Endothelial Cell-Like Cells from Rat Neural Crest Cells In Vitro. ... File:Corneal endothelial cell N-cadherin stained.png. From Embryology. Revision as of 13:31, 1 August 2012 by Z8600021. (talk ... Corneal_endothelial_cell_N-cadherin_stained.png ‎(320 × 265 pixels, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/png) ... Retrieved from ...
  • Corneal endothelium is essential for the maintenance of the optical transparency of the cornea. (
  • Extrinsic factors, such as genetics, race, and age, [ 1 - 3 ] or intrinsic factors, such as trauma, intraocular surgery, ultraviolet radiation, and infection [ 4 - 6 ] are responsible for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the corneal endothelium. (
  • Because proliferation of human corneal endothelial cells does not continue throughout a person's lifetime, wound healing in human corneal endothelium is mainly accomplished by cell spreading, resulting in increased cellular pleomorphism, and a decrease in the percentage of hexagonal cells with age [ 3 , 7 ]. (
  • Normative data regarding endothelial cell density and morphology are thus important because they facilitate assessment of the functional reserve of the endothelium in individual patients. (
  • Due to the existence of variations in endothelial parameters in Indian, Filipino, Iranian, Thai, Chinese, Japanese, and American populations [ 2 , 8 - 12 ], knowledge of normative data on the corneal endothelium is important. (
  • Dysfunction of the corneal endothelium reduces the transparency of the cornea and can cause blindness. (
  • Corneal endothelium can also be restored via intraocular injection of endothelial cells in suspension after their expansion in vitro. (
  • Fig. 3: Characterization of in vivo corneal endothelium. (
  • Corneal endothelium plays a central role in the maintenance of a transparent corneal. (
  • Some studies indicated that the diabetic corneal endothelium is morphologically abnormal and may be at risk in any intraocular surgical procedure, while others showed no significant differ. (
  • We developed and applied a fully-automated and real-time system, termed the Corneal Endothelium Analysis System (CEAS) for the segmentation and computation of endothelial cells in images of the human cornea obtained by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy. (
  • The corneal endothelium regulates the aqueous humor flow to the corneal stroma through a combination of pumps and a leaky barrier function, thereby maintaining corneal transparency. (
  • 1 Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) have severely limited proliferative ability, 2 , 3 so healing of wounds to the corneal endothelium is mainly performed by cell migration and spreading. (
  • Consequently, severe damage to the corneal endothelium resulting from pathologic conditions, such as Fuchs' corneal endothelial dystrophy, surgical stress, or endotheliitis, leads to corneal endothelial dysfunction, and ultimately to the loss of corneal transparency. (
  • In addition, expression of PRDM genes in the corneal endothelium was undertaken using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry. (
  • Conclusion: Removal of the DM/Endothelium complex from cadaveric human corneas held in air interface organ culture resulted in corneal endothelial decompensation. (
  • The identification of PRDM proteins in the human corneal endothelium paves the way for future studies to understand their role in hCEC proliferation control. (
  • So far, there are no investigations in human corneal endothelium about Ca 2+ channels. (
  • Primary cultures from human corneal endothelium as well as the permanent cell line HCEC-SV-40 were established (Exp Eye Res. (
  • The corneal endothelium is a monolayer of epithelial cells that lines the posterior surface of the cornea and is essential for maintenance of corneal transparency. (
  • Wound healing within the corneal endothelium typically occurs through cell spreading and migration rather than through proliferation. (
  • The technique is based on the replacement of the recipient's Descemet's membrane and corneal endothelium selectively by a healthy donor graft. (
  • Corneal endothelium engineering aims to reduce the tissue shortage for corneal grafts. (
  • This suggests that stabilization is useful for studying the plasticity of the corneal endothelium's morphology, and stabilization is proposed as a necessary step in corneal endothelium engineering. (
  • Long term changes in human corneal endothelium following toxic endothelial cell destruction: a specular microscopic and fluorophotometric study. (
  • All measurements of the endothelial cell count were carried out at the center of the cornea, with the incorporated screen on the device used to visualize the endothelium. (
  • Human corneal endothelium plays important roles in maintaining corneal transparency. (
  • While the endothelium normally can sustain its function for a lifetime, trauma and diseases can result in excessive cell loss with consequences of reduced visual acuity and blindness. (
  • Results: The endothelial mucinous layer was seen as a nearly uniform electrodense region on the apical aspect of the endothelium. (
  • Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) allows selective replacement of the diseased corneal endothelium. (
  • This review presents current knowledge on the tissue engineering of corneal endothelium using cultured HCECs. (
  • Transparency of the cornea is maintained by regulation of stromal hydration through the barrier and pump functions of the corneal endothelium. (
  • Anterior view of a human cornea and a diagram of the corneal epithelium, stroma and endothelium. (
  • When primarily damaged, it is reasonable to replace only the corneal endothelium. (
  • Conclusions: The energy delivered to the cornea during femtosecond laser flap creation did not affect the corneal endothelium 5 years after LASIK when compared with flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether unfolded proteins accumulate in the corneal endothelium in FECD and if they are involved in triggering cell death. (
  • The endothelium is a single layer of cells extending over the inner surface of Descemet's membrane. (
  • Endothelium cells are mitochondria-rich and represent an active metabolic pump that carries out this function in conjunction with the tear film. (
  • The endothelium of cornea is a special type of epitelial tissue which is formed of a monolayer of pavement cells, of hexagonal form, and applied on the posterior surfasse of the posterior limiting membrane or Descemet membrane [1]. (
  • The tight junctions bind the cells among themselves, forming an impermeable barrier, due to the fusion of the external leaf lets of the membranes of the contiguous cells with obliteration of the intercellular space, avoiding the transit of material in the cellular space through the endothelium [2]. (
  • The human corneal endothelium (HCE) is indispensable for maintaining corneal transparency and clear vision. (
  • Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) have limited proliferation ability leading to corneal endothelium (CE) dysfunction and eventually vision loss when cell number decreases below a critical level. (
  • Functional impairment of the human corneal endothelium can lead to corneal blindness. (
  • The endothelium has both barrier and pump functions, which are important for the maintenance of corneal clarity. (
  • Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM) hopes to make corneal endothelium (inside cell layer) available on a commercial scale. (
  • The project is based on the findings of Japanese doctor Shiro Amano of the Tokyo University School of Medicine, who in 2002 found that the endothelium of the cornea contains stem cells (cells in initial stages of development) that can be multiplied several times in the laboratory. (
  • Measure of the number of cells present within the endothelium that are responsible for providing the cornea with nourishment. (
  • To evaluate the efficacy of Eusol-C as a corneal storage medium on the survival of donor endothelium. (
  • Although our results revealed a higher endothelial cell loss than previous reports, overall performance of Eusol-C in preserving the donor endothelium may be satisfactory for clinical use. (
  • Accordingly, promoting CEC growth effects by blending may be applied to the tissue engineering of corneal endothelium. (
  • The corneal endothelium is vital for transparency and proper hydration of the cornea. (
  • The ROCK inhibitor eye drop accelerates corneal endothelium wound healing. (
  • The phenotype of the reconstructed corneal endothelium was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis and noncontact specular microscopy. (
  • To determine if factors present in the aqueous humor (AH) protect the corneal endothelium from apoptosis. (
  • The inability of corneal endothelial cells to undergo mitosis renders the corneal endothelium vulnerable to loss of physiological function through cellular attrition. (
  • Explantation may lead to improvement, but permanent damage to the trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelium persists. (
  • Clinical parameters related to the corneal endothelium can only be estimated by segmenting endothelial cell images. (
  • To reconstruct tissue-engineered human corneal endothelium (TE-HCE) suitable for corneal transplantation, this study was intended to screen out monoclonal cell strains from a untransfected human corneal endothelial (HCE) cell line, and reconstruct TE-HCE in vitro by using these cells as seeder cells. (
  • Establishment of a human corneal endothelial cell strain and in vitro reconstruction of a tissue-engineered human corneal endothelium[J].J4, 2011, 46(10): 142-151. (
  • The corneal endothelium is the inner cell monolayer involved in the maintenance of corneal transparence by the generation of homeostatic dehydration. (
  • Three transcriptomic datasets of the corneal endothelium were used in this study to analyze the expression of genes that encode proteins that participate in the transport and the reestablishment of the membrane potential across the semipermeable endothelium. (
  • The results of this study provide the first evidence of the expression of KCNN2, KCNN3 and KCNT2 genes in the corneal endothelium. (
  • Moreover, we elucidate novel mechanisms that might be involved in the pivotal dehydrating function of the endothelium and in others physiologic functions of these cells using in silico pathways analysis. (
  • Assuming other studies confirm these results, ophthalmologists and neurologists should consider evaluating a patient's corneal endothelium at the beginning of treatment with amandatine and reassess at regular intervals if the drug is used long term," Dr. Wee said, "and additional monitoring would be needed for patients with other conditions that reduce ECD-such as recent cataract surgery or ongoing glaucoma, uveitis or Fuch's dystrophy-because corneal edema could develop during treatment. (
  • Carbonic anhydrase activity has been observed in both the cytoplasm and around the plasma membranes of the corneal endothelium. (
  • Fig. 1: Restoration of the human cornea via injection of culture-expanded corneal endothelial cells. (
  • The cornea plays an important role in vision, and corneal blindness affects more than 10 million people worldwide. (
  • Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) maintain the clarity of the cornea through the barrier and pump function. (
  • At present, the only method to cure corneal endothelial dysfunction is by transplantation of a cadaver donor cornea with normal corneal endothelial cells. (
  • In contrast, the endothelial cells form a single hexagonal monolayer located at the Descemet's membrane in the posterior cornea [ 2 ], and play a significant role in maintaining visual function [ 3 ]. (
  • The corneal endothelial cells exist on the human's cornea. (
  • Naomi Joseph , Chaitanya Kolluru , Beth A. M. Benetz , Harry J. Menegay , Jonathan H. Lass , and David L. Wilson "Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of deep learning automatic segmentations of corneal endothelial cell images of reduced image quality obtained following cornea transplant," Journal of Medical Imaging 7(1), 014503 (14 February 2020). (
  • In all patients, preoperative slit-lamp examination revealed corneal edema with extensive cornea guttata in both eyes, caused by Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. (
  • Conclusions A prototype slit-scanning wide-field contact specular microscope enabled us to record the endothelial layer from the surgical limbus to limbus of the cornea and compare specific areas among subjects, and showed that ECD in each region of the cornea decreases with ageing. (
  • the resulting composite was cut, lifted and transferred with a sterile spoon from the Petri dish onto the recipient cornea, with the endothelial cells facing the Descemet membrane. (
  • Corneal specular microscopy was performed at the central cornea before, 1, and 2 years after the EXPRESS ® implantation. (
  • Photomicrographs were measured to determine the thickness of the endothelial and epithelial mucinous layer in the central cornea. (
  • Corneal endothelial cells are found on the inner aspect of the cornea where they secrete a specialized extracellular matrix. (
  • The cornea is transparent, but the mechanism whereby corneal transparency is maintained is not known. (
  • The accomplishments of Nichi-In and NCRM have given us a lead to further expand our territories of research to explore the possibilities of developing an artificial corneal prosthesis called Hybrid Cornea. (
  • Since inception, Cornea has been a fascination and inspiration to Nichi-In, the parent organization of NCRM for its composition, structure, function and above all, corneal diseases both preventable and treatable using cell based therapies are seen more in the developing nations especially in children. (
  • With an aim of addressing the need of the hour to give a long lasting solution using an ideal source of cells, stem cells or progenitor cells for the epithelial and endothelial diseases of the cornea, the corneal cell therapy initiative was started and CESBANK is the Flagship project of the NCRM-Corneal cell therapy initiative. (
  • Imagine what a boon it will be if an eye stem cell bank could provide these lab generated endothelial layer of the cornea," S. Natarajan, chairman, academic research committee of the All-India Opthalmological Society and chairman of the Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital, told IANS. (
  • Given that its light source is a laser, the HRTII-RCM has provided images of individual cells of the cornea with high resolution. (
  • It has thus revealed the presence of Langerhans cells (LCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell, in the cornea. (
  • These cells are located in the peripheral and, to a lesser extent, central regions of the healthy cornea. (
  • Corneal transplantation , also known as corneal grafting , is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft). (
  • The corneal transplantation is performed when medicines, keratoconus conservative surgery and cross-linking cannot heal the cornea anymore. (
  • Cosmetic: To improve the appearance of patients with corneal scars that have given a whitish or opaque hue to the cornea. (
  • Corneal ectasia is a relative weakness in the structure of the cornea, which produces a progressive change in its shape which results in visual distortion. (
  • Bullous keratopathy is a condition where corneal endothelial cells, which do not normally proliferate in vivo, are extensively impaired by trauma, disease, surgery or the like and do not longer maintain the transparency of the cornea, leading to edema and turbidity. (
  • The corneal dystrophies are a group of bilateral inherited disorders associated with the development of either opacities in the normally clear cornea or endothelial dysfunction that may result in corneal edema and loss of corneal clarity. (
  • It is used to increase the rigidity of the cornea by inducing additional cross-links within or between collagen fibers using UVA light and a photomediator, riboflavin, with the goal of slowing, possibly stabilizing, and even perhaps reversing, the progression of corneal ectasia in patients with keratoconus. (
  • Endothelial cells work to keep excess water out of the main body of the cornea. (
  • Corneal reshaping inlays improve near vision by increasing the curvature of the central part of the anterior surface of the cornea. (
  • Refractive corneal inlays change the refractive index of the cornea. (
  • Pocket procedures also preserve the peripheral biomechanical properties of the cornea, which like the anterior lamellae, provide a majority of the biomechanical corneal stability. (
  • The intracameral injectable formulation of TTHX1114, which is undergoing IND-enabling studies, is designed to regenerate the endothelial cell layer and reduce or eliminate the symptoms associated with endothelial dystrophy, the leading cause of cornea transplantation surgeries. (
  • The corneal transplantation is performed when medicines, keratoconus conservative surgery and cross-linking can no longer heal the cornea. (
  • Because corneal endothelial cells have an extremely limited proliferative ability in vivo, treatment for corneal endothelial dysfunction involves the transplantation of donor corneal tissue. (
  • Global survey of corneal transplantation and eye banking. (
  • Corneal transplantation can treat corneal endothelial diseases. (
  • Damage to the endothelial cells can significantly affect corneal transparency by altering hydration of the corneal stroma, which can lead to irreversible endothelial cell pathology requiring corneal transplantation. (
  • 4 - 6 Corneal transplantation is the only therapeutic choice for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, but this procedure is fraught with several associated problems, including a worldwide shortage of donor corneas and the technical difficulty of the surgical procedure itself, especially for patients with aphakia, postfiltration surgery, and post-tube surgery for glaucoma. (
  • The effect on stromal de-swelling in cell therapy treated corneas was assessed 3, 7 and 10 days post-transplantation followed by histological evaluation. (
  • Direct transplantation of cultured primary hCECs to bare posterior corneal stroma devoid of DM resulted in the formation of an endothelial monolayer and restoration of stromal hydration to physiological thickness, substantiating the role of cell therapy to treat corneal endothelial disorders. (
  • We are developing automated analysis of corneal-endothelial-cell-layer, specular microscopic images so as to determine quantitative biomarkers indicative of corneal health following corneal transplantation. (
  • We used 130 corneal endothelial cell images following one type of corneal transplantation (Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty) with expert-reader annotated cell borders. (
  • Corneal transplantation is the primary treatment option to restore vision for patients with corneal endothelial blindness. (
  • These findings indicate that cultured adult HCECs, transplanted with DSAEK surgery, maintain corneal transparency after transplantation and suggest the feasibility of performing DSAEK with HCECs to treat endothelial dysfunction. (
  • In high-risk corneal transplantation, where the graft bed is inflamed and vascularized, immature APCs in the donor corneal stroma quickly mature and migrate to lymphoid tissues to sensitize host T cells. (
  • In this study, using a mouse model of corneal transplantation, we investigated whether enrichment of tolerogenic APCs (tolAPCs) in donor corneas can enhance graft survival in corneal allograft recipients with inflamed graft beds. (
  • Transplantation of these tolAPC-enriched corneas decreased frequencies of interferon gamma (IFNγ) + effector T cells (Teffs), as well as allosensitization in the hosts, diminished graft infiltration of CD45 + and CD4 + cells, and significantly improved corneal allograft survival compared to saline-injected controls. (
  • A limited HCE cell density may cause opacity which can ultimately only be treated by corneal transplantation (keratoplasty). (
  • The transplantation of in vitro developed endothelial cells with desirable density is a promising idea. (
  • Annually approximately 100,000 people in a country like India require corneal transplantation. (
  • Methods: Human corneal endothelial cells from human donor tissue not suitable for transplantation were cultured. (
  • The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a drug, bevacizumab (Avastin), in preventing blood vessels that often occur after a corneal transplantation which are considered at 'high-risk' for rejection. (
  • Corneal endothelial (CE) dysfunction is the main indication for corneal transplantation, an invasive procedure with several limitations. (
  • The prevalence of each of the corneal endothelial dystrophies varies significantly from one population to another, although they constitute common indications for corneal transplantation in published series from around the world [ 1, 2 ]. (
  • In the United States, FECD affects as much as 5% of the population over 40 years of age, and visually significant corneal edema secondary to FECD is the most common indication for corneal transplantation, accounting for 47% of endothelial keratoplasty procedures performed in 2012 [ 3, 4 ]. (
  • Management of CHED primarily involves corneal transplantation. (
  • The age that corneal transplantation is required is variable, however, it is usually necessary fairly early in life. (
  • To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. (
  • Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD), mean cell area (MCA), coefficient of variation (CV) in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT). (
  • Endothelial cell density in the Turkish eyes is less than that described in the Japanese, American, Chinese, and Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes. (
  • Clinical observations indicate that an endothelial cell density of 400 to 600 cells/mm 2 is a crucial point at which endothelial decompensation develops [ 7 ]. (
  • Some studies have reported that the endothelial cell density decreases progressively after AGV implantation in the anterior chamber [ 14 - 16 ]. (
  • The spindle-shaped morphological change did not occur in response to other growth factors, was not related to cell density, and was reversible within 24 hr after removal of EGF from the media or subculture in the absence of EGF. (
  • The corneal thickness was used as a surrogate measure of CE function and was measured using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Decompensated corneas were subjected to cultured endothelial cell therapy using immortalized HCEC -12 cells (group 1), primary human corneal endothelial cells (hCECs) at 0 passage (group 2) and hCECs at passage 2 (group 3) with defined seeding cell density. (
  • As a result of aging, diseases, injury or surgeries, corneal blindness may occur due to dysfunctional human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), such that there are insufficient numbers and density of HCEC in a disease so called 'bullous keratopathy' (reviewed in [ 4 ]) or fibroblast metaplasia due to endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [ 5 ]. (
  • Increase in endothelial cell density, decrease in central corneal thickness (CCT), recovery of corneal transparency, and improvement of visual acuity were documented in all patients. (
  • 0.8) in 75% of cases, while six months postoperatively 22-47% of patients attained a BCVA of at least 20/20 together with an endothelial cell density of about 1,800-2,000 cells/mm [3] , [4] . (
  • Purpose To observe the most peripheral region of the corneal endothelial cell (CEC) layer as long as optically recordable by use of a prototype slit-scanning wide-field contact specular microscope and produce a panoramic image to evaluate the variation of CEC density with ageing. (
  • The corneal endothelial layer of each eye was recorded in a horizontal direction, from nasal to temporal, with a slit-scanning wide-field contact specular microscope (Konan) and endothelial cell density (ECD) in three specific regions (central, mid-peripheral, and peripheral) was automatically calculated via built-in analysis software. (
  • RESULTS: Mean (SEM) endothelial cell density of the TECD eyes increased from 642 (41) cells/mm2 to 849 (50) cells/mm2 at 4 years postoperatively (p = 0.005). (
  • There was no correlation between endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation, or percentage of hexagonal cells and endothelial permeability in the TECD eyes. (
  • Further expansion of human corneal endothelial monolayers with a normal phenotype and a higher density became feasible by prolonging treatment of p120-catenin siRNA followed by withdrawal. (
  • In young adults, the corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) is approximately 3000 cells/mm 2 . (
  • The device automatically measured the CECD, with cell density recorded as the number of cells per square millimeter. (
  • Changes of corneal endothelial cell density after EX-PRESS? (
  • Changes of corneal endothelial cell density after EX-PRESS® Glaucoma shunt implantation: 2-year follow-up study. (
  • Purpose: To evaluate effects of the EX-PRESS® glaucoma filtering device on the corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) in eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG). (
  • Low-density EP cell cultures maintained on HR-9-BM could be induced to proliferate at a rate approaching that of cultures exposed to serum when they were exposed to medium supplemented with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 750 micrograms protein/ml) and transferrin (50 micrograms/ml). (
  • However, corneal endothelial cells do not proliferate in vivo, resulting in decreased cell density over time. (
  • Purpose: To compare corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) and morphology between flap creation with a femtosecond laser and flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome 5 years after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). (
  • Methods : PCEC cultures were seeded at an initial cell density of 400 cells/cm2 in the presence or absence of 20,000 murine-irradiated 3T3 fibroblast/cm2 in the classic media Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). (
  • These results suggest that generating bioinspired surface topographies augments the formation of CE monolayers with the desired cell density, addressing the in vitro development of CE layers. (
  • In order to meet the high demand for transplants with an appropriate human corneal endothelial cell density as a prerequisite for corneal function, several tissue engineering techniques have been developed to generate transplantable endothelial cell sheets. (
  • Endothelial Cell Density (Assessed at Weeks 26 & 52). (
  • Mean endothelial cell density was 2195 ± 383 cells/mm² at the beginning of the preservation (range, 1361-2899 cells/mm²). (
  • Donor endothelial cell density was between 1500 to 2000 cells/mm² in 9 corneas, 2000 to 2500 in 11 corneas, 2500 to 3000 in 5, and higher than 3000 in 2 corneas at baseline. (
  • Endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation, and percentage of hexagonal cells between the Perseus and CEM-530 differ statistically. (
  • Sequence variation at ANAPC1 accounts for 24% of the variability in corneal endothelial cell density. (
  • Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study of corneal endothelial cell density (cells/mm 2 ), coefficient of cell size variation (CV), percentage of hexagonal cells (HEX) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in 6,125 Icelanders and find associations at 10 loci, including 7 novel. (
  • Most notably, an intergenic variant close to ANAPC1 (rs78658973[A], frequency = 28.3%) strongly associates with decreased cell density and accounts for 24% of the population variance in cell density (β = -0.77 SD, P = 1.8 × 10 -314 ) and associates with increased CH (β = 0.19 SD, P = 2.6 × 10 -19 ) without affecting risk of corneal diseases and glaucoma. (
  • Our findings indicate that despite correlations between cell density and eye diseases, low cell density does not increase the risk of disease. (
  • The average a cell density, b HEX, c CV, and d CCT values for subjects belonging to a 10 year age group (e.g., age = 30 for individuals between 26 and 35) against age, for men and women. (
  • e The average cell density for subjects belonging to a 10 year age group against age for noncarriers, heterozygous, and homozygous carriers of the ANAPC1 variant, rs78658973. (
  • a cell density, b HEX, c CV, and d CCT. (
  • ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 promoted recovery of corneal endothelial cell density and wound healing in terms of both morphology and function. (
  • cell density reached approximately 3000 cells/mm(2), as opposed to 1500 cells/mm(2) in the control group. (
  • To determine the effects of phacoemulsification surgery on corneal endothelial cell density and corneal thickness in patients undergoing cataract surgery. (
  • The change in the corneal endothelial cell count or density and central corneal thickness (CCT) number were compared preoperatively and one day, one week, one month, and three months post-operatively. (
  • The average cell density of the monolyer was as high as 3602.22±45.22cell/mm 2 (equivalent to HCE cell density of a 0~3 years old baby). (
  • To evaluate the surgical outcome of cataract surgery in eyes with a low preoperative corneal endothelial cell density (ECD). (
  • Mean (±SD) endothelial cell density of the right vs. left eyes was 2790±245 vs. 2739±246 at preoperative period (P=0.419), 2732±213 vs. 2727±222 at 2 weeks (P=0.918), and 2761±187 vs. 2694±228 (P=0.223) at 3 months after operation. (
  • The density of endothelial cells decreased postoperatively (day 30) by 7.38% (Group A) and 7.47% (Group B) without any significant statistical difference ( P = 0.983) between two groups. (
  • To compare the effect of femtosecond thin-flap LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on postoperative endothelial cell density. (
  • The central corneal endothelial cell density was measured using the Nidek Confoscan 4 preoperatively, and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. (
  • Changes in endothelial cell density were analyzed over time between the two refractive techniques. (
  • In PRK, the average preoperative endothelial cell density was 3011±329 cells/mm2, which decreased to 2951±327 cells/mm2 at 1 month (P=.5736) and 2982±365 cells/mm2 at 3 months (P=.6513). (
  • In thin-flap LASIK, the average preoperative endothelial cell density was 2995±325 cells/mm2, which decreased to 2977±358 cells/mm2 at 1 month (P=.5756) and 2931±369 cells/mm2 at 3 months (P=.4106). (
  • No statistically significant change was noted in endothelial cell density following either PRK or thin-flap LASIK for the treatment of myopia. (
  • CCT and corneal endothelial cell density were measured preoperatively, and central lens capsule thickness was measured postoperatively. (
  • The mean central endothelial cell density was 2045±493 cell/mm 2 in the PXS group and 2098±431 cell/mm 2 in the control group (P=0.57). (
  • However, there were no significant differences between corneal endothelial density and anterior lens capsule thickness between PXS group and control group. (
  • Zare M A, Fakhraie G, Asadi Amoli F, Abdollahi A, Z-Mehrjardi H. Central Corneal Thickness, Corneal Endothelial Cell Density, and Lens Capsule Thickness in Normotensive Patients with and without Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome. (
  • They found that the patient group with the highest cumulative amandatine intake and/or longest duration of treatment (up to 8 years) had the most significant reductions in endothelial cell density (ECD). (
  • This prospective study aimed to describe the endothelial cell characteristics and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes in regard to age and gender and reports the rate of endothelial cell loss with increasing age. (
  • The central corneal thickness increased significantly (from 530.47±2.60 to 540.91±36.07). (
  • All eyes had a preoperative sphere of − 6.00 D or more with a cylinder of at least 2.00 D. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA), manifest spherical equivalent refraction (MSE), ICL vault measurements and central corneal thickness (CCT) were collected. (
  • Coefficient of variation, hexagonality, and central corneal thickness were also not different between groups (P>0.05 for each time-point). (
  • abstract = "We studied 12 patients who had sustained penetrating corneal lacerations with corneal wound lengths ranging from 1 to 9 mm to determine whether wound size was directly proportional to endothelial cell loss 3 or more months after injury. (
  • abstract = "The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the apoptosis of corneal endothelial cells after argon laser iridotomy (ALI). (
  • When transplanted directly onto the posterior corneal stroma the human CECs were able to attach and achieved physiological corneal thickness of 458.91 ± 90.07 μm, 489.65 ± 94.62 μm and 613.7 ± 94.62 μm for cell therapy groups -1, -2 and -3 respectively. (
  • The stroma cells are usually a group of small quiescent cells, which play an important role in maintenance of corneal functions [ 1 ]. (
  • Without additional intervention, gradual corneal clearance and presence of endothelial cells on the posterior recipient's stroma were observed in all patients three months postoperatively. (
  • DMEK is described as a superior technique over other lamellar techniques like Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) for treatment of corneal endothelial disorders [2] , due to minimal alteration of the posterior corneal stroma involved. (
  • A successful outcome of DMEK has been strongly associated with the adherence of the donor graft to the posterior surface of the corneal stroma [3] , [5] . (
  • Mature corneal endothelial cells are arranged in a single layer that is critical for maintaining hydration of the corneal stroma, via metabolic pumps that actively transport fluid out of the stroma and into the anterior chamber. (
  • We have previously shown that resident bone marrow-derived CD11b + and CD11c + cells in the central corneal stroma stay in a highly immature state under normal conditions, expressing very low levels of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules. (
  • The corneal stroma makes up to about 90% of the corneal thickness and is predominantly composed of collagen type I layers. (
  • The images revealed highly refractive microdots and refractive bodies immediately below the corneal epithelium, in Bowman's layer, and in the anterior stroma. (
  • The principle of the procedure is to induce collagen crosslinking of the corneal stroma by the using riboflavin/UVA-treatment. (
  • The glycosaminoglycans of the corneal stroma develop a continuous swelling pressure that should be counteracted by the corneal endothelial cells through active transport mechanisms to move the water to the anterior chamber. (
  • Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD), associated with ZEB1 insufficiency, provides a new biological context in which to understand and evaluate the classic EMT/MET paradigm. (
  • Analysis of the Genotype/Phenotype Relationship in the Fuchs' Corneal Endothelial Dystrophy in France. (
  • The pathophysiology of the most common corneal endothelial dystrophies (Fuchs' Corneal Endothelial Dystrophy (FECD)) is beginning to be dismembered. (
  • We report three cases of corneal clearance after graft detachment in patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy and provide a review of the literature. (
  • An 81-year-old and a 69-year-old phakic patient as well as a 56-year-old pseudophakic patient with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy underwent Triple-DMEK and DMEK, respectively. (
  • Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is a standardized technique, which is utilized for treatment of primary or/and secondary corneal endothelial disorders [1] such as Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. (
  • Due to technical difficulties, treatment for corneal endothelial decompensation, such as pseudophakic or aphakic bullous keratopathy and Fuchs dystrophy, has been limited to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). (
  • Purpose: The unfolded protein response (UPR) is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). (
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of K-321 in patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) after descemetorhexis. (
  • Many etiologies, including Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy, surgical trauma, and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy, lead to endothelial cell dysfunction. (
  • The most common indication in this category is pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, followed by keratoconus , corneal degeneration, keratoglobus and dystrophy , as well as scarring due to keratitis and trauma . (
  • A review of the English language peer-reviewed literature describing the molecular genetic basis of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD), congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED), Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy (XECD) was performed. (
  • An accurate classification of the corneal endothelial dystrophies requires a critical review of the evidence to support the role of each suggested chromosomal locus, gene and genetic mutation associated with a corneal endothelial dystrophy. (
  • Less common than FECD but more common than CHED in the United States, PPCD is a dominantly inherited corneal endothelial dystrophy that is associated with a varied phenotype, ranging from asymptomatic corneal endothelial changes to congenital corneal edema and glaucoma, the latter of which develops in 15-40% of affected patients (Fig. 1 ) [ 5, 6 ]. (
  • X-linked endothelial dystrophy remains the least common of the corneal endothelial dystrophies, reported in only a single family to date [ 7 ]. (
  • The causative factors of ECD loss was laser iridectomy to treat acute glaucoma attack in 2 eyes, prophylactic laser iridectomy in 3 eyes, psudoexfoliation in 2 eyes, traumatic injury with corneal opacity in 2 eyes, syphilis in 5 eyes, Fuch s corneal dystrophy in 2 eyes, and diabetes in 4 eyes. (
  • Congenital hereditary corneal dystrophy (CHED) is a form of corneal endothelial dystrophy that presents at birth. (
  • However in 2015, the International Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) renamed the condition "CHED1" to become posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, and renamed the condition "CHED2" to become, simply, CHED. (
  • Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (for the condition previously referred to as CHED1) Corneal dystrophy Bowes Hamill, M. (2015). (
  • PPCD is characterized by a cadherin-switch and transition to an epithelial-like transcriptomic and cellular phenotype, which we study in a cell-based model of PPCD generated using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated ZEB1 knockout in corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs). (
  • Transcriptomic and functional studies support the hypothesis that CEnC undergo a MET-like transition in PPCD, termed endothelial to epithelial transition (EnET), and lead to the conclusion that EnET may be considered a corollary to the classic EMT/MET paradigm. (
  • Intracellular pH regulation in epithelial cells. (
  • Endothelial cells were separated from keratocytes and epithelial cells by the polygonal cell morphology as well as by immunohistochemistry. (
  • Exclusion criteria included having any significant ocular diseases or history in the operated eye (other than glaucoma or cataract), or exhibiting any other corneal epithelial or stromal disorders that could potentially cause issues during the specular microscopy. (
  • Comparison of the ability of basement membranes produced by corneal endothelial and mouse-derived Endodermal PF-HR-9 cells to support the proliferation and differentiation of bovine kidney tubule epithelial cells in vitro. (
  • The proliferation and morphological differentiation of bovine kidney collecting-tubule epithelial cells has been examined as a function of substrata and plasma factors. (
  • Conclusions: The morphologic similarity of the endothelial and epithelial mucinous layers is a serendipitous finding that should prove valuable in experimental design. (
  • Limbal explant cultures resulted in partially stratified epithelial sheets with upregulation of the putative stem cell marker p63. (
  • Epithelial and endothelial cells exhibited adhesive structures (desmosomes and hemidesmosomes) and evidence of apical specialization (microplicae), while endothelial cells also produced a Descemet's membrane-like basal lamina. (
  • Epithelial progenitor cells reside in niches at the anterior corneal limbus and ensure a continuous regeneration of the epithelium. (
  • The basal epithelial cells reside on Bowman's membrane, a condensed layer comprised of mainly collagen type I that cannot be reproduced once it is destroyed. (
  • To evaluate the possible toxic effect of 20% ethanol-assisted corneal epithelial removal on corneal endothelial cells. (
  • Right eyes of each patient underwent 20% ethanol-assisted (12-20 seconds) corneal epithelial removal (study group), and left eyes of same patients were regarded as controls, in which epithelial removal were performed using hocky spatula. (
  • 20% ethanol-assisted corneal epithelial removal up to 20 seconds caused no corneal endothelial damage at short and intermediate postoperative period. (
  • Trefoil Therapeutics is a private biotechnology company focused on leveraging its engineered fibroblast growth factor-1 protein (eFGF-1) technology platform to develop first-in-class pharmacologic treatments for serious corneal endothelial diseases and epithelial disorders. (
  • These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface. (
  • However, corneal endothelial cells (CECs) tend to exhibit fibroblastic transformation, thereby losing their functional phenotype when cultured. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of surface markers of CECs displaying fibroblastic phenotypes as a means of cell characterization. (
  • The expression levels of 242 cell surface antigens were screened in cultured human and monkey CECs using flow cytometry. (
  • Nonfibroblastic and fibroblastic CECs were mixed, and CD73-positive and -negative cells were sorted using flow cytometry and further cultured. (
  • Aim: To establish an in vitro human corneal decompensation model and to use it for the evaluation of a cell-therapy approach for treating corneal endothelial (CE) disorders and to test the expression profile of positive regulatory domain proteins (PRDMs) as potential markers for corneal endothelial cells (CECs). (
  • We investigated the impact of mitogenic and resting culture systems on the identity of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) for tissue engineering purposes. (
  • Purpose of our work is to define an appropriate environment and a biological substrate for cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs) proliferation in vitro. (
  • Explants of the endothelial - Descemet's membrane, removed mechanically, were seeded in wells coated with a substrate of extracellular matrix secreted by bovine CECs. (
  • Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are firmly attached to the underlying Descemet's membrane. (
  • Methods: Descemet's membranes with corneal endothelial cells (CECs) were obtained during keratoplasty, and expression of aggresomes, type 1 collagen, fibronectin, and agrin was evaluated. (
  • In the presented study, we prepared polyacrylamide (PA) cell substrates that have a microfabricated topography inspired by the dimensions of CECs. (
  • Purpose: To investigate the cytotoxicity of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) suspensions to corneal endothelial cells (CECs). (
  • Although various behaviors of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) have been investigated, the interaction of CECs with different biodegradable biomaterials has not been systematically well explored. (
  • Extracellular Matrix Protein Coating of Processed Fish Scales Improves Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Proliferation. (
  • 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation evaluated cell proliferation. (
  • Although these studies have reported promising outcomes for the use of p120 siRNA or Y-27632, the individual effects on corneal endothelial proliferation and TJ restoration merit further investigation. (
  • A functional analysis of the 308 human annotated differentially expressed genes revealed around 13 functional clusters related to important biological terms, such as extracellular matrix, collagen type 4, immune responses, cell proliferation, and wound healing. (
  • In contrast, p120 siRNA also uniquely promoted proliferation of the endothelial cells by activating p120-catenin trafficking to the nucleus, thus relieving repression by nuclear Kaiso. (
  • The proliferation of fibroblastic cells when exposed to serum-supplemented medium was best expressed when cells were maintained on a basement membrane produced by bovine corneal endothelial cells. (
  • This basement membrane has a composition, which in previous studies has been shown to favor the proliferation of mesenchymal cells. (
  • In contrast, the proliferation of EP cells was best expressed when cells were maintained on a basement membrane produced by the mouse-derived endodermal cell line PF-HR-9 (HR-9-BM). (
  • This observation indicates that EP cells do not need to reach confluence to undergo morphogenesis, and that HDL, which in the presence of transferrin supports the cell proliferation, can favor their differentiation into tubulelike structures once its concentration becomes limiting for mitogenesis. (
  • Purpose : To optimize the growth condition of porcine corneal endothelial cells (PCEC), we evaluated the effect of coculturing with a feeder layer (irradiated 3T3 fibroblasts) with the addition of various exogenous factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), bovine pituitary extract (BPE), ascorbic acid, and chondroitin sulfate, on cell proliferation, size, and morphology. (
  • The behavior of bovine corneal endothelial cells on these substrates was investigated and results show that cell proliferation on small patterned substrates was significantly (p = 0.0004) higher than the large patterned substrates. (
  • During angiogenesis, specialized ECs located at the vascular front undergo dynamic and coordinated phenotypic alterations in morphology, cell-to-cell (and/or cell-to-matrix) communication, and proliferation ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • This study suggests that human corneal endothelial cells have the capacity for extensive proliferation, but the proliferation of untransfected cells is regulated through mechanisms that have not yet been characterized. (
  • TTHX1114 is an engineered form of FGF-1 designed to stimulate proliferation and migration of corneal endothelial cells. (
  • Trefoil's lead product TTHX1114 is an engineered from of FGF-1 designed to treat corneal disorders by stimulating cell proliferation and migration. (
  • The main steps of regeneration of corneal tissues and their disorders that lead to outstripping proliferation of myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix in the wound area and eventually cause the formation of connective tissue scar and corneal opacity are considered. (
  • AIMS: To investigate the long term relation between corneal thickness, endothelial morphometric variables, and endothelial permeability in patients with endothelial cell counts under 900 cells/mm2 as a result of endothelial cell destruction after cataract surgery. (
  • Mean (SD) corneal thickness of the TECD eyes and control eyes was similar, 0.51 (0.02) mm and 0.49 (0.01) mm, respectively (p = 0.65). (
  • Relationships between endothelial cell loss and contact lens wear, residual bed thickness, and preoperative refractive error were evaluated. (
  • Endothelial cell loss was not associated with contact lens wear, residual bed thickness, or preoperative refractive error. (
  • It is placed in a stromal pocket at a depth of approximately three-fifths of the corneal thickness. (
  • Terry, M. A. & Ousley, P. J. Deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty visual acuity, astigmatism, and endothelial survival in a large prospective series. (
  • Price, M. O., Giebel, A. W., Fairchild, K. M. & Price, F. W. Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty: prospective multicenter study of visual and refractive outcomes and endothelial survival. (
  • The objectives of this study are to compare the visual and refractive outcomes of deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK) with penetrating keratoplasty as treatment for certain cases. (
  • Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is the gold standard procedure for treatment of primary corneal endothelial disorders. (
  • Corneas that have had either method of flap creation could be accepted as donor tissue for endothelial keratoplasty from the standpoint of endothelial health. (
  • Even after penetrating keratoplasty, HCE cell loss of up to 50 % occurs. (
  • Nowadays, the trend is to perform selective endothelial keratoplasty, including Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty and Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty, to manage corneal endothelial dysfunction. (
  • Both patients required explantation OU, one eye has required trabeculectomy, and one eye with bullous keratopathy is being evaluated for Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty. (
  • Corneal endothelial dysfunction leads to corneal edema, pain, and vision loss. (
  • Cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) are anticipated to serve as an alternative to donor corneas for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. (
  • However, human corneal endothelial cells are notorious for their limited proliferative capability in vivo and are therefore prone to corneal endothelial dysfunction that eventually may lead to blindness. (
  • Cultured HCEC (P5 BM and P5 CM) injection in a rabbit corneal endothelial dysfunction model. (
  • Herein, we describe the etiologies and manifestations of human corneal endothelial cell dysfunction. (
  • We also summarize the available options for as well as recent developments in the management of corneal endothelial dysfunction. (
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of Rho kinase (ROCK)-inhibitor eye drops on a corneal endothelial dysfunction primate model and human clinical case series of corneal endothelial dysfunction. (
  • For clinical study, the effect of Y-27632 eye drops after transcorneal freezing was evaluated in eight corneal endothelial dysfunction patients: four central corneal edema patients and four diffuse corneal edema patients. (
  • In addition to the animal study findings, the clinical study findings showed that Y-27632 eye drops effectively improved corneal edema of corneal endothelial dysfunction patients with central edema. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that rock inhibitor Y-27632 eye drops promote corneal endothelial wound healing in a primate animal model and suggest the possibility of Y-27632 as a novel therapeutic modality for certain forms of corneal endothelial dysfunction. (
  • Only after the separation of evidence from opinion is performed can a critical examination of the molecular pathways that lead to endothelial dysfunction in each of these disorders be accurately performed. (
  • Frozen sections showed a monolayer of DiI-labelled cells on Descemet's membrane. (
  • Here, we show that the 'spring constant' of the effective interaction potential between endothelial cells in a confluent monolayer serves as a biomarker of the quality of corneal endothelial cells in vitro and of the long-term prognosis of corneal restoration in patients treated with culture-expanded endothelial cells or with transplanted corneas. (
  • however, a few cells within the monolayer appeared enlarged and exhibited characteristics of more senescent cells. (
  • Histological analyses confirmed that the endothelial cells adhered and grew on the fibrin film, maintaining proper morphology and monolayer disposition. (
  • Although the fibroblast confluent monolayer maintained on bovine corneal endothelial cell extracellular matrix did not undergo morphogenesis, the confluent monolayer of EP cells maintained on HR-9-BM shows hemicyst formation, suggesting that they were capable of vectorial fluid transport. (
  • Some tubules became grossly visible and floated into the tissue culture medium, remaining tethered to the cell monolayer at either end of the tubule. (
  • Out of a total of 389 hybridomas, TAG-1A3 and TAG-2A12 were found to be specific to the corneal endothelial monolayer by immunostaining of frozen tissue sections. (
  • Corneal endothelial cells are believed to be of neural crest origin [ 1 , 2 ] and form a monolayer of hexagonal cells. (
  • They form a very tightly packed monolayer with tight junctions between cells. (
  • The final selected medium consistently allowed the growth of a contact-inhibited cell monolayer of small, polygonal-shaped cells. (
  • Small patterned substrates enabled a more densely populated cell monolayer compared to other groups (p = 0.001 vs. flat and p (
  • Results of morphology and structure examination showed that polygonal mcHCE2401 cells formed a continuous and intact monolayer on mdAM with extensive cellcell and cellmdAM cell junctions. (
  • The biomarker can be measured from phase contrast imaging in vitro and from specular microscopy in vivo, and may enable a shift from passive monitoring to pre-emptive intervention in patients with severe corneal disorders. (
  • Fig. 4: Quality control of in vitro cell sources. (
  • Rabbit corneal endothelial cells in vitro: effects of EGF. (
  • To investigate the possible toxic effect of air exposure for an in vitro model of primary human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). (
  • The present study illustrates that the toxic effect of air exposure for the studied in vitro model of primary human-cultured corneal endothelial cells is not significant for the period of 3 hours, whereas after 6 hours it starts to induce major apoptotic mechanisms, leading to reduced viability until the period of 24 hours where the percentage of living cells is drastically decreased. (
  • Due to the global shortage of donor corneas, it is vital to engineer corneal tissue in vitro that could potentially be transplanted clinically. (
  • In this review, we summarize the advances in understanding the behavior of human corneal endothelial cells, their current engineering strategy in vitro and their potential applications. (
  • Such EMT also occurs in in vitro culture of HCECs if the cell-cell junctions are disrupted. (
  • Citation: Ju C, Zhang K, Wu X (2012) Derivation of Corneal Endothelial Cell-Like Cells from Rat Neural Crest Cells In Vitro. (
  • Purpose: To describe the basic concept of redox fluorometry microscopy and investigate its efficacy in evaluating the state of cultured human corneal endothelial cells in different solutions when ultrasonic energy was applied in vitro. (
  • Conclusion: Redox fluorometry, with further technological improvement, might be an interesting and potentially useful tool for evaluation of phacoemulsification-induced corneal endothelial damage and screening of protective agents in vitro. (
  • Consequently, in vitro expansion of human corneal endothelial cells is evolving as a sustainable choice. (
  • This method is intended to prepare corneal endothelial cells in vitro that can be transferred to the eye. (
  • This goal has proved to be challenging as corneal endothelial cells (CEnC) are blocked in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle in vivo and, albeit retaining proliferative capacity in vitro, this is further hindered by endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. (
  • Mouse and human corneal endothelial cells were cultured in vitro, and apoptosis was induced by nutrient deprivation. (
  • In conclusion, a monoclonal cell strain with normal morphology, structure, karyotype and celljunction and membrane transport protein expression has been established, and "youngest"TEHCE with similar morphology and structure to those of HCE in situ has been reconstructed successfully in vitro and provides a promising equivalent of donated HCE for clinical treatment of diseases caused by corneal endothelial disorders. (
  • In silico and in vitro analysis of cation-activated potassium channels in human corneal endothelial cells. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'In silico and in vitro analysis of cation-activated potassium channels in human corneal endothelial cells. (
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients developed the so called toxic endothelial cell destruction (TECD) syndrome following routine cataract surgery because of the intracameral injection of a toxic detergent residue. (
  • Phacoemulsification resulted in significant corneal endothelial damage, which is particularly important in patients with a borderline reservoir of endothelial cell, such as diabetic patients, which highlights the necessity of refining the current surgical methods and instruments to minimize the endothelial damage. (
  • Methods: In a non-randomized controlled comparative case series, 69 adult patients (43 males and 26 females) with 78 cataract and 48 glaucoma eyes with corneal PEX material were assessed by confocal biomicroscopy (Confoscan 2, Nidek) and values compared to normative US and Omani Arab population values. (
  • The methods of cell therapy aimed at the restoration of stem cell pool of corneal tissues are the most promising. (
  • Corneal endothelial cell abnormalities may be associated with a number of corneal and systemic diseases. (
  • However, the implant can be placed through pars plana in eyes with advanced glaucoma having secondary angle closure or angle neovascularization, corneal diseases, and other anterior chamber abnormalities [ 4 - 6 ]. (
  • Bovine corneal endothelial cells can be used in studying diseases of the eye. (
  • There is HCE cell loss during life and after corneal injury or diseases. (
  • Another study in Andhra Pradesh estimated that 1,200 people per million are blind from corneal diseases. (
  • We assess the effects of these variants on various ocular biomechanics such as corneal hysteresis (CH), as well as eye diseases such as glaucoma and corneal dystrophies. (
  • Taken together these results underscore the potential importance of the ionic channels in the pathophysiology of corneal diseases. (
  • Trefoil is developing products based on this engineered form of FGF-1 to restore lost vision in patients with corneal diseases by regenerating corneal tissue. (
  • these cells can serve as a source for regeneration of the tissues at injury or various diseases. (
  • Human corneal endothelial cells are responsible for controlling corneal transparency, however they are notorious for their limited proliferative capability. (
  • In three patients a permanent corneal decompensation occurred. (
  • The main treatment for corneal decompensation is replacement of the abnormal corneal layers with normal donor tissue. (
  • Our results suggest that patients with corneal lacerations sustain significant endothelial cell loss, which correlates closely with wound length, and that patients with larger wounds may be at greater risk for developing corneal decompensation with additional procedures or trauma. (
  • All donor corneas were stored in Eusol-C at 4°C. Daily donor corneal endothelial cell counting was performed with an eye bank specular microscope. (
  • Corneal endothelial cells were evaluated using noncontact specular microscope before operation, and 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. (
  • Ex vivo culture or injury may cause corneal endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT) and lea. (
  • The appearance of the endothelial cells following EGF stimulation is similar to migrating cells closing a wound in vivo. (
  • This phenomenon explains poor regenerative capacity of in vivo human corneal endothelial cells during aging, injury, and surgery. (
  • In a recent study we have shown that ex vivo treatment of donor-type bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) with immunomodulatory cytokines (IL-10, TGFβ1) renders them tolerogenic, and when systemically transferred to corneal transplant recipients significantly improves allograft survival 19 . (
  • DKK2 induced during EC morphogenesis promoted angiogenesis in cultured human endothelial cells and in in vivo assays using mice. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Four years after TECD corneal endothelial wound healing is stable and the barrier function has been restored. (
  • Although many studies have been performed about corneal transparency, there are some gaps to be full field. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to be a mediator of this corneal neovascularization (NV), therefore we would like to test the safety and efficacy of local VEGF blockade in the promotion of graft survival in high risk corneal transplants. (
  • Contact lens wear is often complicated by episodes of intolerance, allergic reactions (eg, giant papillary conjunctivitis), corneal abrasions, neovascularization, and other problems, sometimes leading to total intolerance. (
  • A fully automated cell segmentation and morphometric parameter system for quantifying corneal endothelial cell morphology. (
  • The functional phenotype of the sorted cells was evaluated according to morphology and the expression of function-related (Na + /K + -ATPase and ZO-1) and fibroblastic (type I collagen and fibronectin) markers. (
  • Six hours after exposure to air, the endothelial cells started losing their typical hexagonal morphology and appeared enlarged and compromised. (
  • The addition of a stabilization step during CEC culture improves the cells' morphology and molecular identity, which agrees with transcriptome data. (
  • Purpose: The goal of this study was to characterize the morphology of the mucinous layer on rabbit, bovine, owl, and human corneal endothelial cells. (
  • Cell number, size and morphology of PCEC were assessed on different cell populations. (
  • In some cases, cell cultures were maintained after confluence to observe post-confluence changes in cell morphology. (
  • Keratocytes cultured in serum on CV exhibited stellate morphology along with a marked increase in expression of corneal crystallin ALDH and keratocan, (a keratan sulphate proteoglycan: KSPG), compared to identical cultures on tissue culture plastic. (
  • Results of morphology, structure and chromosome analysis, combined with the results of expression of cell-junction proteins and membrane transport proteins, suggested that the cells from mcHCE2401 monoclonal cell strains had steady and normal morphology, structure, karyotype, and positive expression of cell junction proteins and membrane transport proteins as well. (
  • Implantation of the NewColorIris cosmetic implant can lead to serious complications including hyphaema, uncontrolled IOP, severe endothelial cell loss, bullous keratopathy and anterior uveitis. (
  • The rate of endothelial cell loss, visual outcome, and incidence of bullous keratopathy were retrospectively assessed. (
  • Primary HCECs were isolated from donor corneal rings and cultivated at 37°C in 5% CO 2 and 95% humidified air. (
  • Full correction of high degrees of myopia or myopic astigmatism is seldom possible with corneal-based refractive procedures such as laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). (
  • A safe and effective solution for correcting presbyopia, a major advantage of corneal inlays is that they are relatively easy to implant, can be combined with other refractive procedures to treat ametropia and presbyopia, and are removable. (
  • Should patients on isotretinoin be excluded from corneal refractive procedures? (
  • In this study, researchers retrospectively assessed functional outcomes when patients underwent corneal refractive procedures while taking the acne drug isotretinoin (Acutane). (
  • The authors suggest that patients taking isotretinoin should not be excluded from corneal refractive surgery if no other contraindication is present. (
  • Therefore, corneal endothelial deficiency can result in irreversible corneal edema. (
  • While autosomal recessive CHED is relatively uncommon in the United States, it is one of the most frequently encountered corneal dystrophies in countries where consanguineous marriages are common, and is a well-recognized cause of congenital corneal edema. (
  • When there are too few endothelial cells, corneal edema (swelling) results and vision is impaired. (
  • There is an increased potential for developing corneal edema in patients with low endothelial cell counts. (
  • The epithelium is a well-characterized self-renewing layer with stem cells at its peripheral areas. (
  • The number of Langerhans cells was greatly increased in the basal cell layer of the focal corneal epithelium and in Bowman's layer in the four eyes affected by TSPK. (
  • The technique involves topical application of riboflavin/dextran solution onto eye after removal of corneal epithelium. (
  • [ 29 ] and UV-CXL corneal epithelium intact (epi-on) or removed (epi-off) techniques. (
  • The aim of this review was to provide an evidenced-based review of the genetic basis of the corneal endothelial dystrophies. (
  • We believe our engineered FGF-1, which is expected to enter clinical trials during 2020 in an intracameral formulation for the treatment of corneal endothelial dystrophies, has the potential to make a substantial difference in patients' lives. (
  • Ultimately, it is hoped that studies of the posterior corneal surface will deepen our knowledge of endothelial protection. (
  • Fluorescein microscopy one month after surgery showed numerous DiI-labelled cells on the posterior corneal surface in the DSAEK group. (
  • Recent progress in biomaterial science has greatly contributed to rapid development of corneal regenerative medicine. (
  • Magnetic Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Transplant: Delivery, Retention, and Short-Term Efficacy. (
  • Implanting cultivated human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) via a cell carrier has clinical value as an alternative therapeutic strate. (
  • Secondly, endothelial cell boundaries are detected using watershed transformations and Voronoi tessellations to accurately quantify the morphological parameters of the human corneal endothelial cells. (
  • Human corneal endothelial cells have two major functions: barrier function mediated by proteins such as ZO-1 and pump function mediated by Na-K-ATPase which help to maintain visual function. (
  • This study demonstrated that the conventional approach of expanding human corneal endothelial cells by disrupting contact inhibition with EDTA followed by bFGF actually activated the canonical Wnt signaling and lost the normal phenotype to endothelial-mesenchymal transition, especially if TGF-β1 was added. (
  • Consequently, proliferating human corneal endothelial cells maintained a hexagonal shape with junctional expression of N-cadherin, ZO-1, and Na-K-ATPase. (
  • This new strategy of perturbing contact inhibition by selective activation of p120-catenin/Kaiso signaling without disrupting adherent junction may be deployed to engineer surgical grafts containing normal human corneal endothelial cells to meet global corneal shortage and for endothelial keratoplasties. (
  • We hypothesize that topographical cue can differently regulate and improve human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) morphometry and phenotype when different biochemical cues are used. (
  • Tissue-engineered corneal endothelial grafts constructed using cultivated human corneal endothelial cells (hCENC) isolated from cadaveric corneas may serve as a potential graft source. (
  • Additionally, unlike other Prdx-6 mAbs, TAG-2A12 was found to specifically bind cell surface Prdx-6, which was only expressed on hCENC and not on other cell types screened such as human corneal stromal fibroblasts (hCSF) and human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC). (
  • Human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) do not replicate after wounding. (
  • Results: Human corneal endothelial cells exposed to increasing phacoemulsification times and ultrasonic energy displayed dose-dependent decreases in redox ratios. (
  • Nichi-In is now growing the animal and human corneal inner layer cells on a nano-scaffolding. (
  • Rabbit AH and supernatant from mouse I/CB cell cultures inhibited the apoptosis of mouse and human immortalized corneal endothelial cell lines. (
  • To transfect human corneal endothelial cells with a plasmid vector coding for the SV40 large T antigen to extend the life of the cells in culture. (
  • Human corneal endothelial cells were transfected with the SV40 large T antigen-coding plasmid pSV 3 neo using the electroporation method. (
  • In culture, the life of human corneal endothelial cells transfected with a plasmid vector coding for the Simian virus 40 large T antigen is extended. (
  • McCash, C. S. / Extended life of human corneal endothelial cells transfected with the SV40 large T antigen . (
  • The preoperative and postoperative endothelial cells, intraocular pressure (IOP), and postoperative complications during the follow-up in both groups were compared. (
  • To compare the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation with those after the anterior chamber AGV implantation for refractory glaucoma. (
  • Therefore, the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana implantation of an AGV implant with a vitrectomy were compared with those of the implantation of an AGV in the anterior chamber for the treatment of refractory glaucoma. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term changes in corneal endothelial cells that occurred for up to 1 year after undergoing trabeculectomy and EX-PRESS shunt surgeries for the treatment of glaucoma. (
  • Currently, tools for the characterization of cultured hCENC and enrichment of hCENC from potential contaminating cells such as stromal fibroblasts are lacking. (
  • Tectonic/reconstructive: To preserve corneal anatomy and integrity in patients with stromal thinning and descemetoceles , or to reconstruct the anatomy of the eye, e.g. after corneal perforation . (
  • Corneas stored 9 to 24 days in Eusol-C had a rate of endothelial cell damage of 3.1% per day. (
  • There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA, CV in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and CCT between genders and there was also no significant difference in these parameters between fellow eyes of subjects. (
  • and −11.83 ± 5.05 for percentage of hexagonal cells. (
  • However, due to the soft and fragile nature of cell sheet grafts, it is highly desirable to provide a temporary support structure for enhancing the graft-host integration during tissue reconstruction. (
  • During graft storage, about 30 % of the few available corneal grafts have to be discarded due to HCE cell loss. (
  • In addition, the durability of corneal grafts depends on the storage temperature. (
  • Since access to corneal grafts is limited, immortalized HCEC (HCEC-12) were used and primary cultivated HCEC were used additionally. (
  • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and Doshisha University jointly expanded corneal endothelial cells derived from donors and injected them into the anterior chamber of patients with keratopathy. (
  • Gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution may cause corneal endothelial cell injury if introduced directly into the anterior chamber of the eye. (
  • Assessment included visual acuity, photography, endothelial cell count and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) when possible. (
  • UV-CXL generally does not improve visual acuity (or at most improves 1-2 lines), although UV-CXL improves corneal clarity over untreated keratoconic corneas. (
  • Bourne, W. M. Clinical estimation of corneal endothelial pump function. (
  • The performance of the automated segmentation system was tested against manually traced ground-truth images based on a database consisting of 40 corneal confocal endothelial cell images in terms of segmentation accuracy and obtained clinical features. (
  • To compare the clinical outcome 2 years after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with conventional and accelerated ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation using riboflavin with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. (
  • Further understanding on endothelial homeostasis might lead to innovative approaches in handling endothelial disorders. (
  • But sometimes corneal disorders appear only after years of treatment, and the corneas of these patients often do not recover when amantadine is stopped. (
  • Regeneration and fibrosis of corneal tissues Simirskii, V. 2014-09-12 00:00:00 In this review, the features of the regeneration of corneal tissue and its disorders leading to the development of fibrosis are considered. (
  • The resulting cell sheets were evaluated using RT-PCR, in addition to light and electron microscopy. (
  • Corneal endothelial cell toxicity was assessed by light microscopy (trypan blue staining) and transmission electron microscopy. (
  • The metabolic function of these cells is also important because a reduced number of healthy endothelial cells may maintain corneal deturgescence better than a similar number of poorly functioning cells. (
  • First, the majority of peripheral corneal nerves are preserved, which helps to maintain corneal sensitivity and provide potentially quicker visual recovery. (
  • Rabbit corneal endothelial cells were grown in tissue culture. (
  • Watsky, MA & Rae, JL 1993, ' Ion channel involvement in the temperature-sensitive response of the rabbit corneal endothelial cell resting membrane potential ', The Journal of Membrane Biology , vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 61-71. (
  • Qualitative expression of the messenger RNA coding for each of these modulators was similar in proliferating primary corneal endothelial cells and proliferating or confluent transfected corneal endothelial cells. (
  • Endothelial cell damage in the ppAGV group for refractory glaucoma appeared to be lower than that in the acAGV group. (
  • The causative factor in these eyes was post-traumatic injury in one eye, post-glaucoma attack in one eye, diabetes in one eye with preoperative ECD of 1148, 686, and 752 cells/mm2, respectively. (