An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Diseases of the cornea.
Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.
A surgical procedure or KERATOPLASTY involving selective stripping and replacement of diseased host DESCEMET MEMBRANE and CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM with a suitable and healthy donor posterior lamella. The advantage to this procedure is that the normal corneal surface of the recipient is retained, thereby avoiding corneal surface incisions and sutures.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Loss of CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM usually following intraocular surgery (e.g., cataract surgery) or due to FUCHS' ENDOTHELIAL DYSTROPHY; ANGLE-CLOSURE GLAUCOMA; IRITIS; or aging.
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.
Alloxan is a chemical compound, specifically an organic compound, that is used in scientific research to induce diabetes in laboratory animals by destroying their insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Abnormal fluid retention by the body due to impaired cardiac function or heart failure. It is usually characterized by increase in venous and capillary pressure, and swollen legs when standing. It is different from the generalized edema caused by renal dysfunction (NEPHROTIC SYNDROME).
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
A rare disorder consisting of microangiopathy of brain, retina, and inner ear ARTERIOLES. It is characterized by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, BRANCH RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION and VERTIGO/hearing loss.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Estimation of corneal endothelial pump function in long-term contact lens wearers. (1/128)

PURPOSE: To study the effects of long-term contact lens wear on morphologic and physiologic properties of corneal endothelial cells. METHODS: The endothelial permeability to fluorescein and the rate of corneal deswelling from hypoxia-induced edema were measured in 20 long-term (mean, 17+/-9 years; range, 5-33 years) contact lens wearers and 20 age-matched control subjects. From these data, the relative endothelial pump rate in each subject was estimated, based on the pump-leak hypothesis of corneal hydration control. Corneal autofluorescence and the aqueous humor flow rate were determined by fluorescein fluorophotometry. Images of corneal endothelial cells were recorded by using specular microscopy, and morphologic indices (cell density, coefficient of variation of cell area, percentage of hexagonal cells, and skewness) were determined. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the contact lens and control groups in endothelial permeability, corneal deswelling, relative endothelial pump rate ([mean +/- SD] 1.07+/-0.33 relative pump units versus 1.01+/-0.25 relative pump units; contact lens versus control; P = 0.57), and endothelial cell density. Contact lens wearers had a significantly higher aqueous humor flow rate (3.57+/-1.03 microl/min versus 2.77+/-0.51 microl/min; P = 0.005), coefficient of variation of cell area (0.35+/-0.09 versus 0.28+/-0.04; P = 0.006), and corneal autofluorescence (3.1+/-0.6 ng/ml versus 2.3+/-0.3 ng/ml fluorescein equivalents; P < 0.001) than did non-contact lens wearers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the known effects of long-term contact lens wear on corneal endothelial morphometry, no effect on endothelial function was found.  (+info)

Effects of experimental exposure to triethylamine on vision and the eye. (2/128)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of triethylamine (TEA) on the cornea and to evaluate the cause of blurred vision. To find the lowest observed effect concentration of exposure to TEA. METHODS: Four people were exposed to TEA for 4 hours at concentrations of 40.6, 6.5, and 3.0 mg/m3. Before and after every exposure, symptoms and ocular microscopy findings were recorded. Binocular visual acuity and contrast sensitivity at 2.5% contrast were also measured. Also, before and after the 40.6 mg/m3 exposure, corneal thickness was measured and ocular dimensions were recorded by ultrasonography, endothelial cells of the cornea were analysed, and serum and lacrimal specimens were collected for the analysis of TEA. RESULTS: After exposure to 40.6 mg/m3 TEA there was a marked oedema in the corneal epithelium and subepithelial microcysts. However, corneal thickness increased only minimally because of the epithelial oedema. The lacrimal concentrations of TEA were, on average (range) 41 (18-83) times higher than the serum TEA concentrations. The vision was blurred in all subjects and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. After exposure to TEA at 6.5 mg/m3 two subjects experienced symptoms, and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. There were no symptoms or decreases in contrast sensitivity after exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3. CONCLUSIONS: TEA caused a marked oedema and microcysts in corneal epithelium but only minor increases in corneal thickness. The effects may be mediated by the lacrimal fluid owing to its high TEA concentration. Four hour exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3 seemed to cause no effects, whereas exposure to 6.5 mg/m3 for the same period caused blurred vision and a decrease in contrast sensitivity.  (+info)

Clinical estimation of corneal endothelial pump function. (3/128)

PURPOSE: To develop a technique to estimate the corneal endothelial pump rate in human subjects. METHODS: Corneal hydration control is thought to be maintained by a pump-leak mechanism whereby the leak of solutes and fluid across the endothelial barrier into the stroma is, in the steady state, exactly balanced by the pumping of solutes and passive fluid transfer across the endothelium to the aqueous humor. Overall corneal hydration control can be measured from the rate at which the swollen cornea thins (deswells), and a measure of the leak can be obtained simultaneously from the endothelial permeability to fluorescein. From the pump-leak hypothesis, the deswelling rate is directly proportional to the pump rate and inversely proportional to the leak rate. The relative endothelial pump rate can be estimated as the product of the normalized deswelling rate and the normalized endothelial permeability. This procedure was used to obtain the relative endothelial pump rate in 41 patients with diabetes mellitus, 12 patients with long-term corneal transplants, 20 long-term wearers of contact lenses, and 19 normal volunteer subjects after the short-term administration of topical dorzolamide. RESULTS: The relative endothelial pump rate did not differ significantly from that of control subjects in diabetics, in contact lens wearers, and after dorzolamide administration, but was markedly decreased in the patients with corneal transplants, despite a reduction in permeability (reduced leak). CONCLUSIONS: This method allows the estimation of both the barrier and pump arms of corneal endothelial function and should be useful in the investigation of causes and mechanisms of functional endothelial insufficiency.  (+info)

Sympathetic swelling response of the control eye to soft lenses in the other eye. (4/128)

PURPOSE: To compare central corneal swelling and light scatter after 8 hours of sleep in eyes wearing high- and low-Dk hydrogel lenses and to the contralateral control eyes. METHODS: Twenty neophyte subjects wore a Lotrafilcon A (Dk, 140; Ciba Vision, Duluth GA) silicone hydrogel lens and an Etafilcon A (Dk, 18; Acuvue; Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL) 58% water content hydrogel lens of similar center thickness in random order in the right eye only, for overnight 8-hour periods. The contralateral nonwearing left eyes served as controls. Central corneal thickness was measured using an optical pachometer and light scatter using a Van den Berg stray-light meter before lens insertion, after lens removal on waking, and every 20 minutes for the next 3 hours. RESULTS: Central corneal swelling induced by the Etafilcon A lens on eye opening was significantly higher than with the Lotrafilcon A lens (8.66%+/-2.84% versus 2.71%+/-1.91%; P<0.00001). Light scatter induced by the Etafilcon A lens on eye opening was significantly higher than with the Lotrafilcon A lens (46.09+/-5.62 versus 42.78+/-6.07 Van den Berg units, P = 0.0078). The swelling of the control eyes paired with the Etafilcon A lens-wearing eyes was also slightly but significantly higher than that of the control eyes paired with the Lotrafilcon A lens-wearing eyes (2.34%+/-1.26% versus 1.44%+/-0.91%; P = 0.0002). Light-scatter measurements were not significantly different between control sets of eyes but showed the same trend. CONCLUSIONS: In neophyte subjects, corneal swelling of the contralateral control eyes appears to be influenced by the swelling of the fellow lens-wearing eyes-that is, the swelling of the contralateral control eye was significantly lower when there was less swelling of the fellow eye wearing the high-Dk lens. Although there was no statistically significant difference in light-scatter measurements between the control sets of eyes, a trend similar to the corneal swelling results was observed, which could be used to support the suggestion that this may be a sympathetic physiological response rather than an unusual sampling coincidence.  (+info)

Acute hydrops in the corneal ectasias: associated factors and outcomes. (5/128)

PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with the development of hydrops and affecting its clinical outcome. METHODS: Chart review of all patients with acute hydrops seen by a referral cornea service during a 2.5-year period between June 1996 and December 1998. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (22 eyes) with acute hydrops were seen. Nineteen patients had keratoconus, 2 had pellucid marginal degeneration, and 1 had keratoglobus. Twenty-one of 22 (95%) eyes had seasonal allergies and 20 of 22 (91%) eyes had allergy-associated eye-rubbing behavior. Six of 22 (27%) had a diagnosis of Down's syndrome. Six patients were able to identify a traumatic inciting event: vigorous eye rubbing in 4 and traumatic contact lens insertion in 2. The affected area ranged from 7% to 100% of the corneal surface area and was related to disease duration and final visual acuity. Proximity of the area of edema to the corneal limbus ranged from 0 to 2.3 mm and was also related to prognosis. Three serious complications were observed: a leak, an infectious keratitis, and an infectious keratitis and coincidental neovascular glaucoma. Various medical therapies did not differ significantly in their effect on outcome, and ultimately 4 (18%) of 22 patients underwent penetrating keratoplasty. Best-corrected visual acuity was equal to or better than prehydrops visual acuity in 5 of the 6 patients in whom prehydrops visual acuity was known, without corneal transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Allergy and eye-rubbing appear to be important risk factors in the development of hydrops. Visual results are acceptable in some patients without surgery. Close observation allows for the early detection and treatment of complications such as perforation and infection.  (+info)

Anomalous acute inflammatory response in rabbit corneal stroma. (6/128)

PURPOSE: To investigate the nature and cause of an acute, anomalous stromal edema after epithelial debridement in the rabbit cornea. METHODS: Series I: Adult New Zealand White rabbit corneas were mounted in perfusion chambers. The endothelium was bathed with Ringer's fluid, and the outer surface was covered with silicone oil. The epithelium of one eye was debrided with a scalpel before mounting, and the cornea of the fellow eye was debrided with a rotating brush after stabilization in the perfusion chamber. Using specular microscope tracking software, it was possible to measure total swelling and local swelling within the cornea. Series II: Diclofenac sodium ophthalmic solution 0.1% or a placebo was applied topically, 1 drop per 45 minutes for 3 hours before animals were euthanatized. RESULTS: Series I: Corneas with their epithelium scraped with a scalpel before mounting were 37.5 +/- 17.5 microm (n = 6; P < 0.001) thicker in vitro than the stromas of perfused, intact fellow corneas. Epithelial debridement with a rotating brush after mounting resulted in an immediate (within 8 minutes) stromal swelling that plateaued in 1 hour at 31.0 +/- 5.3 microm (n = 6; P < 0.001). Curiously, in six of six corneas, the anterior stroma swelled more than the posterior stroma. In four of six corneas, the posterior stroma thinned. Analysis showed this pattern to be consistent with a sudden increase in anterior swelling pressure or osmotic pressure and to be inconsistent with a change in endothelial transport properties. Series II: Placebo-treated corneas swelled 30.6 +/- 7.7 microm (n = 5) 1 hour after debridement, whereas corneas pretreated with diclofenac sodium swelled only 19.2 +/- 3.1 microm (n = 6; P < 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The anterior stromal swelling occurs rapidly and near the site of epithelial injury suggesting messenger and/or enzymatic involvement with an effect parallel to apoptosis. Reduction of the swelling response with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) implicates the cyclooxygenase pathway. The swelling is similar to the unexplained acute edema that occurs during inflammation in the rat paw edema model, and may represent a general mechanism for mobilization of inflammatory cells.  (+info)

Measurement of mRNAs for TGFss and extracellular matrix proteins in corneas of rats after PRK. (7/128)

PURPOSE: To assess the role of the transforming growth factor (TGF)ss system in formation of corneal haze after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), levels of mRNAs for three TGFss isoforms (TGFss1, TGFss2, and TGFss3), the TGFss type II receptor (TssRII), and extracellular matrix (ECM) genes including fibronectin (FN), collagen I, collagen III, and collagen IV were measured in rat corneas. METHODS: Corneas were graded for corneal haze at 0, 1.5, 7, 21, 42, and 91 days after PRK. Total RNA was isolated from pooled corneas, and the levels of mRNAs were measured using competition-based quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Severe corneal haze developed by day 42 and persisted to day 91. Levels of TGFss1 mRNA were high in rat corneas before PRK and remained relatively constant. In contrast, levels of TGFss2 and TGFss3 mRNAs were very low in normal corneas, increased 300-fold and 25-fold, respectively, on day 21, and remained elevated on day 91. Levels of mRNA for TssRII increased, with a peak elevation of 50-fold on day 42 after PRK. Levels of mRNAs for ECM proteins also increased. Fibronectin mRNA was nondetectable in normal corneas but rapidly increased to 675 copies/cell on day 7 and remained elevated to day 91. Collagen III mRNA levels peaked on day 21 with a 700-fold increase compared with a very low level of expression in normal cornea, and then decreased on day 91. Expression of collagen I mRNA lagged expression of collagen III mRNA and peaked at day 42 after PRK with a 1200-fold increase over normal cornea. In contrast, mRNA for collagen alpha(1)IV, a major component in basement membranes, remained relatively stable through day 21 and then increased slightly on days 42 and 91. CONCLUSIONS: The synchronized increase in mRNA synthesis for both the TGFss system and key ECM genes supports the hypothesis that TGFss is a key growth factor promoting stromal haze formation in corneas after PRK and suggests that limiting TGFss system may reduce corneal scarring after excimer laser ablation.  (+info)

Blockade of TGF-beta by in vivo gene transfer of a soluble TGF-beta type II receptor in the muscle inhibits corneal opacification, edema and angiogenesis. (8/128)

Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of TGF-beta in the process of corneal opacity, which is one of the serious causes of visual loss. However, whether TGF-beta is indeed critical for the pathogenesis remains unknown. We constructed an adenovirus expressing an entire ectodomain of the human type II TGF-beta receptor fused to Fc portion of human IgG (AdTbeta-ExR): this soluble receptor is secreted from AdTbeta-ExR-infected cells, binds to TGF-beta and inhibits TGF-beta signaling. When AdTbeta-ExR was injected into the femoral muscle of Balb/c mice, a high level of the soluble receptor protein (2.0-3.5 x 10(3) pM) was detectable in the serum and in the ocular fluid for at least 10 days. In the mice subjected to corneal injury with silver nitrate and to intramuscular injection with either saline or a control adenovirus expressing beta-galactosidase (AdLacZ), corneal opacification composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, of infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, and of angiogenesis were all induced. In contrast, they were markedly reduced in the mice injected with AdTbeta-ExR. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TGF-beta, fibronectin, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were densely stained in the edge of wounded cornea, but they were scarcely present in the injured-cornea of AdTbeta-ExR-treated mice. Our results demonstrate that TGF-beta indeed plays a critical role in the process of cornea opacification, and that adenovirus-mediated expression of a soluble TGF-beta receptor can be therapeutically useful.  (+info)

Corneal edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. This buildup of fluid causes the cornea to swell and thicken, resulting in blurry or distorted vision. Corneal edema can be caused by various factors, including eye injuries, certain medications, eye surgeries, and diseases that affect the eye's ability to pump fluids out of the cornea. In some cases, corneal edema may resolve on its own or with treatment, but in severe cases, it may require a corneal transplant.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Corneal diseases are a group of disorders that affect the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an important role in focusing vision, and any damage or disease can cause significant visual impairment or loss. Some common types of corneal diseases include:

1. Keratoconus: A progressive disorder in which the cornea thins and bulges outward into a cone shape, causing distorted vision.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: A genetic disorder that affects the inner layer of the cornea called the endothelium, leading to swelling, cloudiness, and decreased vision.
3. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly, causing discomfort, redness, and blurred vision.
4. Corneal ulcers: Open sores on the cornea that can be caused by infection, trauma, or other factors.
5. Herpes simplex keratitis: A viral infection of the cornea that can cause recurrent episodes of inflammation, scarring, and vision loss.
6. Corneal dystrophies: Inherited disorders that affect the structure and clarity of the cornea, leading to visual impairment or blindness.
7. Bullous keratopathy: A condition in which the endothelium fails to pump fluid out of the cornea, causing it to swell and form blisters.
8. Corneal trauma: Injury to the cornea caused by foreign objects, chemicals, or other factors that can lead to scarring, infection, and vision loss.

Treatment for corneal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity of the disease. Options may include eyedrops, medications, laser surgery, corneal transplantation, or other treatments.

Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy is a medical condition that affects the eye's cornea. It is a slowly progressing disorder that causes the endothelium, a thin layer of cells lining the inner surface of the cornea, to deteriorate and eventually fail to function properly. This results in swelling of the cornea, leading to cloudy vision, distorted vision, and sensitivity to light.

The condition is typically inherited and tends to affect both eyes. It is more common in women than in men and usually becomes apparent after the age of 50. There is no cure for Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy, but treatments such as corneal transplantation can help improve vision and alleviate symptoms.

Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK) is a type of corneal transplant surgery that involves replacing the damaged endothelium (inner layer) of the cornea with healthy endothelial cells from a donor. In this procedure, the surgeon removes the patient's Descemet's membrane (a thin, clear tissue beneath the endothelium) along with the damaged endothelium. Then, a thin disc of donor tissue, which includes both the endothelium and a small portion of the adjacent corneal stroma, is inserted into the eye and positioned using an air bubble. The new endothelial cells help to pump excess fluid out of the cornea, allowing it to become clear again. DSEK typically results in faster visual recovery and lower rejection rates compared to traditional full-thickness corneal transplantation.

The endothelium of the cornea is the thin, innermost layer of cells that lines the inner surface of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped structure at the front of the eye. This single layer of specialized cells is essential for maintaining the transparency and proper hydration of the cornea, allowing light to pass through it and focus on the retina.

The endothelial cells are hexagonal in shape and have tight junctions between them, creating a semi-permeable barrier that controls the movement of water and solutes between the corneal stroma (the middle layer of the cornea) and the anterior chamber (the space between the cornea and the iris). The endothelial cells actively pump excess fluid out of the cornea, maintaining a delicate balance of hydration that is critical for corneal clarity.

Damage to or dysfunction of the corneal endothelium can result in corneal edema (swelling), cloudiness, and loss of vision. Factors contributing to endothelial damage include aging, eye trauma, intraocular surgery, and certain diseases such as Fuchs' dystrophy and glaucoma.

The Descemet membrane is the thin, transparent basement membrane that is produced by the corneal endothelial cells. It is located between the corneal stroma and the corneal endothelium, which is the innermost layer of the cornea. The Descemet membrane provides structural support for the corneal endothelium and helps to maintain the proper hydration and clarity of the cornea. It is named after the French physician Jean Descemet, who first described it in 1752.

Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a type of corneal transplant surgery where the entire thickness of the host's damaged or diseased cornea is removed and replaced with a similar full-thickness portion of a healthy donor's cornea. The procedure aims to restore visual function, alleviate pain, and improve the structural integrity of the eye. It is typically performed for conditions such as severe keratoconus, corneal scarring, or corneal ulcers that cannot be treated with other, less invasive methods. Following the surgery, patients may require extended recovery time and rigorous postoperative care to minimize the risk of complications and ensure optimal visual outcomes.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to absorb and retain water. These lenses are made from materials that have an affinity for water, which helps them to remain moist and comfortable on the eye. The water content of hydrophilic contact lenses can vary, but typically ranges from 30-80% by weight.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are often used to correct refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. They can be made in a variety of materials, including soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel.

One advantage of hydrophilic contact lenses is that they tend to be more comfortable to wear than other types of contacts, as they retain moisture and conform closely to the shape of the eye. However, they may also be more prone to deposits and buildup, which can lead to protein accumulation and discomfort over time. Proper care and cleaning are essential to maintain the health of the eyes when wearing hydrophilic contact lenses.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Corneal endothelial cell loss refers to the decrease in the number of corneal endothelial cells, which is a layer of cells that line the inner surface of the cornea. These cells are essential for maintaining the clarity and health of the cornea, as they help to pump fluids out of the cornea and maintain its transparency.

Corneal endothelial cell loss can occur due to various reasons such as aging, eye trauma, surgery (such as cataract surgery), diseases (such as Fuchs' dystrophy), or inherited conditions. When the number of endothelial cells decreases below a certain threshold, it can lead to corneal swelling, cloudiness, and vision loss.

The rate of corneal endothelial cell loss varies from person to person, but on average, people lose about 0.6% of their endothelial cells per year. Factors such as age, certain medical conditions, and previous eye surgery can increase the rate of cell loss. In some cases, corneal transplantation may be necessary to replace damaged or lost endothelial cells and restore vision.

Pseudophakia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person's natural lens in the eye has been replaced with an artificial one. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy, natural lens is removed and replaced with a clear, artificial lens to improve vision. The prefix "pseudo" means false or fake, and "phakia" refers to the natural lens of the eye, hence the term "Pseudophakia" implies a false or artificial lens.

Iris diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the iris, which is the colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil. Some common iris diseases include:

1. Iritis: This is an inflammation of the iris and the adjacent tissues in the eye. It can cause pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and blurred vision.
2. Aniridia: A congenital condition characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the iris. This can lead to decreased visual acuity, sensitivity to light, and an increased risk of glaucoma.
3. Iris cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the iris. They are usually benign but can cause vision problems if they grow too large or interfere with the function of the eye.
4. Iris melanoma: A rare type of eye cancer that develops in the pigmented cells of the iris. It can cause symptoms such as blurred vision, floaters, and changes in the appearance of the iris.
5. Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE): A group of rare eye conditions that affect the cornea and the iris. They are characterized by the growth of abnormal tissue on the back surface of the cornea and can lead to vision loss.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of iris diseases, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve your vision.

Pulmonary edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitial spaces (the area surrounding the alveoli) within the lungs. This buildup of fluid can lead to impaired gas exchange, resulting in shortness of breath, coughing, and difficulty breathing, especially when lying down. Pulmonary edema is often a complication of heart failure, but it can also be caused by other conditions such as pneumonia, trauma, or exposure to certain toxins.

In the early stages of pulmonary edema, patients may experience mild symptoms such as shortness of breath during physical activity. However, as the condition progresses, symptoms can become more severe and include:

* Severe shortness of breath, even at rest
* Wheezing or coughing up pink, frothy sputum
* Rapid breathing and heart rate
* Anxiety or restlessness
* Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) due to lack of oxygen

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, chest X-ray, and other diagnostic tests such as echocardiography or CT scan. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care such as supplemental oxygen, diuretics to help remove excess fluid from the body, and medications to help reduce anxiety and improve breathing. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support respiratory function.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Foreign bodies in the eye refer to any object or particle that is not normally present in the eye and becomes lodged in it. These foreign bodies can range from small particles like sand or dust to larger objects such as metal shavings or glass. They can cause irritation, pain, redness, watering, and even vision loss if they are not removed promptly and properly.

The symptoms of an eye foreign body may include:

* A feeling that something is in the eye
* Pain or discomfort in the eye
* Redness or inflammation of the eye
* Watering or tearing of the eye
* Sensitivity to light
* Blurred vision or difficulty seeing

If you suspect that you have a foreign body in your eye, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. An eye care professional can examine your eye and determine the best course of treatment to remove the foreign body and prevent any further damage to your eye.

Contact lenses are thin, curved plastic or silicone hydrogel devices that are placed on the eye to correct vision, replace a missing or damaged cornea, or for cosmetic purposes. They rest on the surface of the eye, called the cornea, and conform to its shape. Contact lenses are designed to float on a thin layer of tears and move with each blink.

There are two main types of contact lenses: soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP). Soft contact lenses are made of flexible hydrophilic (water-absorbing) materials that allow oxygen to pass through the lens to the cornea. RGP lenses are made of harder, more oxygen-permeable materials.

Contact lenses can be used to correct various vision problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. They come in different shapes, sizes, and powers to suit individual needs and preferences. Proper care, handling, and regular check-ups with an eye care professional are essential for maintaining good eye health and preventing complications associated with contact lens wear.

Occlusive dressings are specialized bandages or coverings that form a barrier over the skin, preventing air and moisture from passing through. They are designed to create a moist environment that promotes healing by increasing local blood flow, reducing wound desiccation, and encouraging the growth of new tissue. Occlusive dressings can also help to minimize pain, scarring, and the risk of infection in wounds. These dressings are often used for dry, necrotic, or hard-to-heal wounds, such as pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and burns. It is important to monitor the wound closely while using occlusive dressings, as they can sometimes lead to skin irritation or maceration if left in place for too long.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Keratitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an essential role in focusing vision, and any damage or infection can cause significant visual impairment. Keratitis can result from various causes, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as trauma, allergies, or underlying medical conditions such as dry eye syndrome. Symptoms of keratitis may include redness, pain, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a feeling of something foreign in the eye. Treatment for keratitis depends on the underlying cause but typically includes antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-fungal medications, as well as measures to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

Iritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye. The iris controls the size of the pupil and thus regulates the amount of light that enters the eye. Iritis can cause symptoms such as eye pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), blurred vision, and headaches. It is often treated with anti-inflammatory medications and may require prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as glaucoma or vision loss. The underlying cause of iritis can vary and may include infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or other conditions.

The corneal stroma, also known as the substantia propria, is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing vision.

The corneal stroma makes up about 90% of the cornea's thickness and is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. These fibers give the cornea its strength and transparency. The corneal stroma also contains a small number of cells called keratocytes, which produce and maintain the collagen fibers.

Disorders that affect the corneal stroma can cause vision loss or other eye problems. For example, conditions such as keratoconus, in which the cornea becomes thin and bulges outward, can distort vision and make it difficult to see clearly. Other conditions, such as corneal scarring or infection, can also affect the corneal stroma and lead to vision loss or other eye problems.

Corneal opacity refers to a condition in which the cornea, the clear front part of the eye, becomes cloudy or opaque. This can occur due to various reasons such as injury, infection, degenerative changes, or inherited disorders. As a result, light is not properly refracted and vision becomes blurred or distorted. In some cases, corneal opacity can lead to complete loss of vision in the affected eye. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, corneal transplantation, or other surgical procedures.

Anterior uveitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the front portion of the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye. The uvea includes the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (a structure behind the iris that helps focus light onto the retina), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina).

Anterior uveitis is characterized by inflammation of the iris and/or the ciliary body, leading to symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a small pupil. The condition can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or unknown causes (idiopathic).

Treatment of anterior uveitis typically involves the use of topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and cycloplegics to relieve pain and prevent spasms of the ciliary muscle. In some cases, oral medications may be necessary to control the inflammation. Prompt treatment is important to prevent complications such as glaucoma, cataracts, or permanent vision loss.

Alloxan is a chemical compound that is primarily used in laboratory research. Its medical definition is:

A toxic, crystalline substance, C6H4O6, derived from uric acid, and used experimentally to produce diabetes in animals by destroying their insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas. Alloxan monohydrate is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. It is used as a reagent in analytical chemistry and in photography.

In scientific research, alloxan is often used to induce diabetes in laboratory animals (like rats and mice) in order to study the disease and potential treatments. The compound is toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to a decrease in insulin production and an increase in blood glucose levels, similar to what occurs in type 1 diabetes in humans. However, it's important to note that alloxan-induced diabetes does not perfectly mimic the human form of the disease, and results from such studies may not always translate directly to human treatments.

Corneal transplantation, also known as keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced with healthy corneal tissue from a deceased donor. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that plays an important role in focusing vision. When it becomes cloudy or misshapen due to injury, infection, or inherited conditions, vision can become significantly impaired.

During the procedure, the surgeon carefully removes a circular section of the damaged cornea and replaces it with a similarly sized piece of donor tissue. The new cornea is then stitched into place using very fine sutures that are typically removed several months after surgery.

Corneal transplantation has a high success rate, with more than 90% of procedures resulting in improved vision. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, rejection of the donor tissue, and bleeding. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for any signs of complications and ensure proper healing.

Cataract extraction is a surgical procedure that involves removing the cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye. This procedure is typically performed to restore vision impairment caused by cataracts and improve overall quality of life. There are two primary methods for cataract extraction:

1. Phacoemulsification: This is the most common method used today. It involves making a small incision in the front part of the eye (cornea), inserting an ultrasonic probe to break up the cloudy lens into tiny pieces, and then removing those pieces with suction. After removing the cataract, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted to replace the natural lens and help focus light onto the retina.

2. Extracapsular Cataract Extraction: In this method, a larger incision is made on the side of the cornea, allowing the surgeon to remove the cloudy lens in one piece without breaking it up. The back part of the lens capsule is left intact to support the IOL. This technique is less common and typically reserved for more advanced cataracts or when phacoemulsification cannot be performed.

Recovery from cataract extraction usually involves using eye drops to prevent infection and inflammation, as well as protecting the eye with a shield or glasses during sleep for a few weeks after surgery. Most people experience improved vision within a few days to a week following the procedure.

Aphakia, postcataract is a medical condition that refers to the absence of the lens in the eye after cataract surgery. A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens inside the eye that can cause vision loss. During cataract surgery, the cloudy lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens implant. However, if there is a complication during the procedure and the artificial lens is not placed in the eye or if it becomes dislocated after surgery, then the patient will develop aphakia, postcataract.

Patients with aphakia, postcataract have poor vision and may experience symptoms such as blurry vision, glare, and halos around lights. They are also at an increased risk of developing glaucoma and retinal detachment. To correct the vision in patients with aphakia, they can wear special contact lenses or glasses with high-powered lenses, or undergo a secondary surgical procedure to implant an artificial lens in the eye.

Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a surgical procedure that involves placing a small artificial lens inside the eye to replace the natural lens that has been removed. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an IOL to restore clear vision.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and the cloudy lens is broken up and removed using ultrasound waves or laser energy. Then, the folded IOL is inserted through the same incision and positioned in the correct place inside the eye. Once in place, the IOL unfolds and is secured into position.

There are several types of IOLs available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodating lenses. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at one distance, while multifocal lenses offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric lenses correct astigmatism, and accommodating lenses can change shape to focus on objects at different distances.

Overall, intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective procedure that can help restore clear vision in patients with cataracts or other eye conditions that require the removal of the natural lens.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Endophthalmitis is a serious inflammatory eye condition that occurs when an infection develops inside the eyeball, specifically within the vitreous humor (the clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina). This condition can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms that enter the eye through various means, such as trauma, surgery, or spread from another infected part of the body.

Endophthalmitis is often characterized by symptoms like sudden onset of pain, redness, decreased vision, and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). If left untreated, it can lead to severe complications, including blindness. Treatment typically involves administering antibiotics or antifungal medications, either systemically or directly into the eye, and sometimes even requiring surgical intervention to remove infected tissues and relieve intraocular pressure.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Edema, cardiac is a type of edema (swelling) that occurs due to the accumulation of fluid in the body tissues as a result of heart failure. When the heart is not able to pump blood efficiently, it can cause blood to back up in the veins and increase pressure in the capillaries. This increased pressure forces fluid out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues, causing edema.

Cardiac edema most commonly affects the lower extremities, such as the legs, ankles, and feet, but it can also occur in other parts of the body, including the lungs (pulmonary edema). Symptoms of cardiac edema may include swelling, weight gain, shortness of breath, and coughing. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying heart condition through medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

"Cell count" is a medical term that refers to the process of determining the number of cells present in a given volume or sample of fluid or tissue. This can be done through various laboratory methods, such as counting individual cells under a microscope using a specialized grid called a hemocytometer, or using automated cell counters that use light scattering and electrical impedance techniques to count and classify different types of cells.

Cell counts are used in a variety of medical contexts, including hematology (the study of blood and blood-forming tissues), microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms), and pathology (the study of diseases and their causes). For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a routine laboratory test that includes a white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value, and platelet count. Abnormal cell counts can indicate the presence of various medical conditions, such as infections, anemia, or leukemia.

Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a medical condition characterized by the blockage or obstruction of the retinal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the retina. This blockage typically occurs due to embolism (a small clot or debris that travels to the retinal artery), thrombosis (blood clot formation in the artery), or vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels).

There are two types of retinal artery occlusions:

1. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO): This type occurs when the main retinal artery is obstructed, affecting the entire inner layer of the retina. It can lead to severe and sudden vision loss in the affected eye.
2. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion (BRAO): This type affects a branch of the retinal artery, causing visual field loss in the corresponding area. Although it is less severe than CRAO, it can still result in noticeable vision impairment.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for both types of RAO to improve the chances of recovery and minimize potential damage to the eye and vision. Treatment options may include medications, laser therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition.

Neovascular glaucoma is a type of glaucoma that is characterized by the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels on the iris (the colored part of the eye) and/or over the drainage channels (trabecular meshwork) in the corner of the eye. These new blood vessels can interfere with the normal flow of fluid out of the eye, leading to an increase in eye pressure (intraocular pressure or IOP). This elevated IOP can cause damage to the optic nerve and result in permanent vision loss if not treated promptly and effectively.

Neovascular glaucoma is often associated with other underlying conditions that affect the blood vessels, such as diabetes, central retinal vein occlusion, or ocular ischemic syndrome. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, as well as controlling the IOP with medications, laser treatment, or surgery to prevent further vision loss.

A retinal artery is a small branch of the ophthalmic artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the inner layers of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. There are two main retinal arteries - the central retinal artery and the cilioretinal artery. The central retinal artery enters the eye through the optic nerve and divides into smaller branches to supply blood to the entire retina, while the cilioretinal artery is a smaller artery that supplies blood to a small portion of the retina near the optic nerve. Any damage or blockage to these arteries can lead to serious vision problems, such as retinal artery occlusion or retinal artery embolism.

Susac syndrome, also known as retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy, is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by the inflammation and damage to small blood vessels in the brain, retina, and inner ear. It primarily affects young adults, particularly women, and can lead to various neurological, auditory, and visual symptoms.

The medical definition of Susac syndrome includes:

1. Encephalopathy (brain dysfunction) - This is characterized by headaches, cognitive impairment, behavioral changes, seizures, or psychiatric symptoms due to inflammation in the brain.
2. Branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO) - These are blockages of small blood vessels in the retina, leading to visual disturbances such as blurry vision, scotomas (blind spots), or even permanent vision loss.
3. Sensorineural hearing loss - This is caused by damage to the inner ear structures responsible for hearing, resulting in difficulties with hearing, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), or vertigo (dizziness).

The triad of these symptoms is necessary for a definitive diagnosis of Susac syndrome. However, not all patients may present with all three components simultaneously. The presence of any two features should raise suspicion for this condition, and further diagnostic workup is required to confirm the diagnosis. Early recognition and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes in patients with Susac syndrome.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Amaurosis fugax is a medical term that describes a temporary loss of vision in one eye, which is often described as a "shade or curtain falling over the field of vision." It's usually caused by a temporary interruption of blood flow to the retina or optic nerve. This condition is often associated with conditions such as giant cell arteritis, carotid artery stenosis, and cardiovascular disease.

It's important to note that Amaurosis fugax can be a warning sign for a more serious medical event, such as a stroke, so it's essential to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of this condition.

Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication that is primarily used to treat seizure disorders (epilepsy) and neuropathic pain. It works by decreasing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Carbamazepine may also be used off-label for other conditions such as bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets, extended-release tablets, chewable tablets, and suspension. It is usually taken two to four times a day with food to reduce stomach upset. Common side effects of carbamazepine include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait.

It is important to note that carbamazepine can interact with other medications, including some antidepressants, antipsychotics, and birth control pills, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting carbamazepine. Additionally, carbamazepine levels in the blood may need to be monitored regularly to ensure that the medication is working effectively and not causing toxicity.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the head. It carries sensations from the face to the brain.

Medically, trigeminal neuralgia is defined as a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions). The pain can be triggered by simple activities such as talking, eating, brushing teeth, or even touching the face lightly.

The condition is more common in women over 50, but it can occur at any age and in either gender. While the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not always known, it can sometimes be related to pressure on the trigeminal nerve from a nearby blood vessel or other causes such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy, also known as grand mal epilepsy, is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. This type of epilepsy is characterized by two distinct phases: the tonic phase and the clonic phase.

During the tonic phase, which usually lasts for about 10-20 seconds, the person loses consciousness and their muscles stiffen, causing them to fall to the ground. This can result in injuries if the person falls unexpectedly or hits an object on the way down.

The clonic phase follows immediately after the tonic phase and is characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the limbs, face, and neck. These movements are caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the muscles and can last for several minutes. The person may also lose bladder or bowel control during this phase.

After the seizure, the person may feel tired, confused, and disoriented. They may also have a headache, sore muscles, and difficulty remembering what happened during the seizure.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infection, or stroke. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment may include medication, surgery, or dietary changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

Generalized epilepsy is a type of epilepsy characterized by seizures that involve both halves of the brain (generalized onset) from the beginning of the seizure. These types of seizures include tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, absence (petit mal) seizures, and myoclonic seizures. Generalized epilepsy can be caused by genetic factors or brain abnormalities, and it is typically treated with medication. People with generalized epilepsy may experience difficulties with learning, memory, and behavior, and they may have a higher risk of injury during a seizure. It's important for individuals with generalized epilepsy to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their condition and reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.

Epilepsy, partial is a type of epilepsy characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures that originate in a specific, localized area of the brain. These seizures are also known as focal seizures and can vary in severity and symptoms depending on the location of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

Partial epilepsies can be further classified into two main categories: simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures. Simple partial seizures do not involve a loss of consciousness, while complex partial seizures are associated with impaired awareness or responsiveness during the seizure.

The causes of partial epilepsies can include brain injury, infection, stroke, tumors, genetic factors, or an unknown cause. Treatment typically involves anti-seizure medications, and in some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the specific area of the brain responsible for the seizures.

The corneal layers show edema and striae. There is mild anterior uveitis. A cherry-red spot may be seen in the macula, along ... the edema reducing properties of HBO, along with down regulation of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the improvement in ...
Most patients remain asymptomatic and corneal edema is usually absent. Congenital hereditary endothelial corneal dystrophy is ... of lattice corneal dystrophy Granular corneal dystrophy, type 1 Granular corneal dystrophy, type 2 Macular corneal dystrophy ... Lattice corneal dystrophy Granular corneal dystrophy Macular corneal dystrophy Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy ... Recurrent corneal erosion Keratoconus Keratoglobus Corneal dystrophies in dogs Dyskeratosis corneal and photophobia in XLPDR ...
Symptoms mainly consist of decreased vision due to corneal edema. In some cases they are present from birth, other patients are ... Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD; sometimes also Schlichting dystrophy) is a type of corneal dystrophy, ... "Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy". Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM). Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy ... The corneal endothelium is normally a single layer of cells that lose their mitotic potential after development is complete. In ...
This prevents corneal edema, which gives it a cloudy appearance. It is also a barrier to infectious agents. The epithelium ... Other eye conditions can cause corneal ulcers, such as entropion, distichiae, corneal dystrophy, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca ... or corneal transplant. Topical corticosteroids and anesthetics should not be used on any type of corneal ulcer because they ... as disruption of the corneal epithelium allows attachment and colonisation of the underlying tissues by normal corneal ...
Signs include epithelial defects and edema, and often redness of the eye. The vision may be blurred, both from any swelling of ... "Corneal abrasions and corneal foreign bodies: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis". "BestBets: Mydriatics in corneal abrasion ... Fowler GC (2011), "Corneal Abrasions and Removal of Corneal or Conjunctival Foreign Bodies", Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures ... Ahmed F, House RJ, Feldman BH (September 2015). "Corneal Abrasions and Corneal Foreign Bodies". Primary Care. 42 (3): 363-75. ...
Other symptoms include corneal edema, thickening of Descemet membrane, and degenerative pannus. Abnormalities were found in ... Corneal dystrophy is also epithelian instead of being stromal. Medicine portal Rare disease "Orphanet: Corneal cerebellar ... Corneal-cerebellar syndrome differs from the spastic ataxia-corneal dystrophy syndrome by causing intellectual disability. ... Bilateral corneal opacification started in the second year of life and led to severe visual impairment. However, cornea surgery ...
Leakage of fluid into the cornea causes edema, causing a bluish appearance. This will eventually involve the whole cornea. ... Corneal dystrophies are a group of diseases that affect the cornea in dogs. Corneal dystrophy in dogs usually does not cause ... Corneal endothelial dystrophy is an age-related change that affects the inner layer of the corneal, the endothelium. ... Suboptimal vision caused by corneal dystrophy usually requires surgical intervention in the form of corneal transplantation. ...
Evidence of pulmonary edema, including rales and wheezes, may be noted on auscultation. Pulmonary thromboses are prominent ... More severe exposures can result in keratitis, iritis, corneal perforation, and blindness. Respiratory: Irritation of the ... Eyes: Eye examination typically demonstrates conjunctivitis, lacrimation, lid edema, and blepharospasm after even minute ...
Corneal perforation can occur in patients with untreated or partially treated infectious keratitis and requires surgical ... The eyelids and adnexa involved shows edema and redness, conjunctiva is chemosed. Ulcer may be present. It is a dry looking ... from the corneal scraping. Recent advances have been made in PCR ref 3./immunologic tests which can give a much quicker result ... corneal ulcer with satellite lesions in the surrounding cornea. Usually associated with fungal ulcer is hypopyon, which is ...
... facial edema (puffy eyelids); peripheral edema, epicanthus, long upper lip, microretrognathia, gingival hypertrophy (thick ... Macular cherry-red spots in 50% by 6-10 months; corneal opacities in some Facial dysmorphology: frontal bossing, wide nasal ... corneal clouding in some patients, and dystonia (sustained muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or ...
... the remaining corneal endothelial cells usually recover with complete resolution of the corneal edema and a return to normal ... Damage (poisoning) of the cornea endothelium results in corneal stromal edema and decreased visual acuity. Although there is ... The clinical course of this condition suggests that Calotropis is paradoxically relatively nontoxic to corneal epithelium and ... highly toxic to corneal endothelium. The painless clinical course may be related to anesthetic properties of Calotropis latex ...
O'Brien WJ, Taylor JL (August 1991). "Therapeutic response of herpes simplex virus-induced corneal edema to trifluridine in ... and edema of the eyelids. Adverse effects of the anti-cancer formulation have only been evaluated for the combination ...
Acute angle closure glaucoma may further present with corneal edema, engorged conjunctival vessels and a fixed and dilated ... Also, the corneal appearance is not as hazy. A reduction in visual acuity can occur followed neuroretinal breakdown. Associated ... measuring corneal thickness (pachymetry), and visual field testing. Glaucoma has been classified into specific types: Primary ... with temporal clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery for open-angle glaucoma and visually significant cataract: one ...
Other features include possible mild iris changes, corneal edema, and normal to slight elevations in intraocular pressure. ... On exam patients have normal to decreased visual acuity, and a "beaten metal appearance" of the corneal endothelium, corneal ... of diseases characterized by slowly progressive abnormalities of the corneal endothelium and features including corneal edema, ... The exact mechanism is unknown, however there appears to be a component of abnormal corneal endothelium that proliferates onto ...
... but corneal edema was a common complication. Squirrel adenovirus (SqAdV) is reported to cause enteritis in red squirrels in ... November 2015). "Recombination of the epsilon determinant and corneal tropism: Human adenovirus species D types 15, 29, 56, and ...
This made corneal lens better suited to the methods of mass production. Because of the ease of production, corneal contact ... Oxygen was needed to keep the cornea from experiencing edema, which temporarily clouded the cornea. Also, the scleral lenses ... Wesley and Jessen worked to develop the plastic lenses known as the rigid corneal contact lens. The corneal lens fit floated on ... This vast difference in wearing duration between the scleral and corneal lenses was due to the fact that the corneal lens ...
Corneal edema and signs of liver disease, such as jaundice, vomiting, and hepatic encephalopathy, may also occur. Severe cases ... However, most dogs recover after a brief illness, although chronic corneal edema and kidney lesions may persist. Diagnosis is ...
Use of ultrasound in phacoemulsification can cause effects such as corneal edema, and macular edema after surgery. However, in ... The wound is then hydrated with BSS, which causes corneal epithelial cells to expand and compress each other and helps seal the ... OVDs are used to protect the corneal endothelium from mechanical trauma and to maintain volume and form of the intraocular ... Posterior capsule rupture can cause lens fragments to be retained, corneal oedema, and cystoid macular oedema; it is also ...
"Corneal Edema - Products for temporary daytime and nighttime relief when you suffer from Corneal Edema : Bausch + Lomb". www. ... Hypertonic saline solution used as eye drops may be used to reduce the corneal edema,[unreliable medical source?] the use of ... If the development of the iris is hindered, the ectoderm of the eye (which forms the lens and corneal epithelium) may split, ... anti-glaucomatous topicals to help improve corneal edema, and aqueous suppressants that are accompanied by miotics, include ...
Pathology includes anorexia, dyspnea, corneal opacity, nasal discharge, frothy nasal discharge, diarrhea, pulmonary edema, ... The ultimate factor that causes death is pulmonary edema. In May 2010, a vaccine to protect cattle against East Coast fever ...
This serves as a primary indication of regional dryness in the pre-corneal tear film after fluorescein injections. If TBUT is ... Staphylococcal blepharitis is diagnosed by examining erythema and edema of the eyelid margin. Patients may exhibit alopecia ... Other signs may include telangiectasia on the anterior eyelid, collarettes encircling the lash base, and corneal changes. ... Seborrheic blepharitis is distinguished by less erythema, edema, and telangiectasia of the eyelid margins. Posterior ...
There is not enough evidence to decide that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs help in preventing cystoid macular edema. ... Ketorolac eye drops have also been used to manage pain from corneal abrasions. During treatment with ketorolac, clinicians ...
In addition, excessive corneal hydration can result in edema of the corneal epithelial layer, which creates irregularity at the ... In early stages of corneal edema, symptoms of blurred vision and episodic ocular pain predominate, due to edema and blistering ... In cases in which irreversible corneal endothelial failure develops, severe corneal edema ensues, and the only effective remedy ... Corneal edema can also occur as the result of compromised endothelial function due to intraocular inflammation or other causes ...
... edema, corneal opacity, and ulceration. This disease is highly contagious and occurs worldwide. Younger animals are more ... UV light also directly damages the corneal epithelium, leading to a breakdown in host innate immunity. Dust, dried-up plants, ... Anti-inflammatory therapy can help shorten recovery times, but topical corticosteroids should be used with care if corneal ... and corneal ulceration. Cattle show signs of pain, increased lacrimation, excessive blinking, and conjunctivitis. More severe ...
This opacification may extend to other distal parts of the eye such as the limbus and angular corneal opacities. Granulomas ... Within the sclera, white, opaque nodules develop in conjunction with local edema or hyperemia. ...
Very severe exposure to vapor or exposure to liquid can cause photophobia (aversion to light), corneal ulceration, and ... edema) in the eyelids, increased pain, and redness. ...
... blepharospasm and photophobia may be missed until the corneal edema becomes apparent. Two of the more commonly encountered ... Corneal opacity that results from hereditary dystrophies is usually symmetric. Corneal enlargement may result from megalocornea ... infant who has congenital glaucoma usually is initially referred to an ophthalmologist because of apparent corneal edema. The ... Buphthalmos and Haab's striae can often be seen in case of congenital glaucoma.[citation needed] Corneal cloudiness may have ...
The inflammation and edema of the extraocular muscles lead to gaze abnormalities. The inferior rectus muscle is the most ... About 3-5% have severe disease with intense pain, and sight-threatening corneal ulceration or compression of the optic nerve. ... Veins become compressed and are unable to drain fluid, causing edema. Annual incidence is 16/100,000 in women, 3/100,000 in men ... Topical lubrication of the eye is used to avoid corneal damage caused by exposure. Corticosteroids are efficient in reducing ...
When used in ophthalmological procedures, sodium hyaluronate may cause postoperative inflammation, corneal edema or ... Mechanical protection for tissues (iris, retina) and cell layers (corneal, endothelium, and epithelium) are provided by the ... corneal transplant, glaucoma filtration, and retina attachment surgery and in the treatment of dry eyes. In surgical procedures ... as well as the corneal endothelium. Sodium hyaluronate functions as a tissue lubricant and is thought to play an important role ...
... and corneal edema, which manifests as haziness. Other symptoms include a prominent eyeball, Haab's striae tear in the ... Corneal diameter of greater than 11mm before the age of one year or corneal diameter greater than 13mm at any age are ... with cornea epithelial/stromal edema). This is useful in enabling immediate visualization of the anterior chamber angle. ...
... refer to the development of irreversible corneal edema as a complication of cataract surgery. As corneal edema progresses and ... worsens, first stromal and then intercellular epithelial edema develops. ... 1] As corneal edema progresses and worsens, first stromal and then intercellular epithelial edema develops. Epithelial edema is ... encoded search term (Postoperative Corneal Edema) and Postoperative Corneal Edema What to Read Next on Medscape ...
ICD-10 code H18.211 for Corneal edema secondary to contact lens, right eye is a medical classification as listed by WHO under ... ICD-10-CM Code for Corneal edema secondary to contact lens, right eye H18.211 ICD-10 code H18.211 for Corneal edema secondary ...
Page Last Updated: 04/15/2024. Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players ...
Corneal ulceration *Conjunctivitis *Eyelid edema *Eye pain/burning *Lacrimation *Photophobia Cardiovascular signs * ...
The corneal layers show edema and striae. There is mild anterior uveitis. A cherry-red spot may be seen in the macula, along ... the edema reducing properties of HBO, along with down regulation of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the improvement in ...
Above effects and reddening, lid edema, moderate pain. 3-6 hours. Eyes - severe. Marked lid edema, possible corneal damage, ... High concentrations of vapor or liquid can cause corneal edema, perforation, blindness, and later scarring. ... Once the lid edema and blepharospasm subside and the eyes are open, dark glasses may reduce the discomfort of photophobia. Some ...
2014). Corneal Edema. Retrieved from http://www.uwmedicine.org/health-library/Pages/corneal-edema.aspx ...
Corneal ulceration *Conjunctivitis *Eyelid edema *Eye pain/burning *Lacrimation *Photophobia Cardiovascular signs * ...
There are more than 20 different forms of inherited corneal dystrophies. A corneal dystrophy can occur in otherwise healthy ... Depending on the type of condition and the age of the individual, a corneal dystrophy may either cause no problems, moderate ... Source for information on Corneal dystrophy: Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders dictionary. ... Corneal dystrophyDefinitionCorneal dystrophy is a condition that causes a layer of the cornea to cloud over and impair visual ...
Corneal edema. *Corneal clouding. *Corneal decompensation. Systemic (Rare). *Bradycardia. *Flushing. *Hypotension. *Breathing ...
Figure 6. Large, deep corneal ulcer. Figure 7. Corneal edema (blue appearance). Figure 8b. Large melting corneal ulcer. Figure ... This film is distributed over the corneal surface each time the eyelids close or blink. Disruption of the corneal tear film ... Conjunctival grafts and deep corneal ulcers: Prognosis is good to guarded. Often leave corneal scarring, even with successful ... Rupture (Corneal Perforation and Iris Prolapse): A full thickness hole in the cornea may be the result of traumatic injury to ...
Corneal Edema. *Dehydration. *Drug Overdose. *Drug Toxicity. *Dry Eye Syndromes. *Dyspepsia. *Gastroesophageal Reflux ...
Corneal Edema. *Dehydration. *Dry Eye Syndromes. *Hyponatremia. *Shock, Hemorrhagic. *Wounds And Injuries ...
... and edema. Specific visual effects included corneal edema, misty vision, halo vision, and blue or grey vision with haziness. ... edema and rupture of the corneal epithelium, blockade of parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia, and histamine release. ... corneal edema; cycloplegia; dimethylethylamine; halo vision; histamine; mydriasis; tertiary amines; triethylamine; vision ...
Intraocular pressure should be measured in all eyes with diffuse corneal edema. ... Corneal degeneration, the result of previous corneal inflammation (look for blood vessels) or associated with systemic diseases ... All corneal lesions result in a decrease in the transparency of the cornea. There are only 4 basic changes that can result in a ... It occurs following chronic irritation or ulceration of the cornea and appears as a brown-black corneal lesion. If you see a ...
... and pulmonary edema; Emergency treatment: "Formaldehyde" [HSDB] A severe skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant; May cause ... A severe skin and eye irritant that may cause urticaria and corneal burns; Inhalation can cause irritation, inflammation, ...
Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) * View other providers who treat Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) ... View other providers who treat Corneal Diseases Degenerative Disorders of Globe * View other providers who treat Degenerative ...
... corneal edema, corneal opacities, decreased dark adaptation. - Gastrointestinal disorders: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ...
In particular, IOP measurements taken with GAT have been demonstrated to be influenced by many corneal parameters, including ... The impact of corneal edema on intraocular pressure measurements using goldmann applanation tonometry, Tono-Pen XL, iCare, and ... corneal biomechanical parameters. The device measures corneal biomechanics data based on corneal deformation due to an applied ... 18], is not based on corneal applanation. It has a concave measuring tip, which is applied on the corneal surface to provide a ...
... corneal edema caused by an acute angle closure attack or anti-glaucoma procedures can be another possible explanation. Corneal ... Trabeculectomy was performed in cases with severe corneal edema or failed PI, such as persistent IIOP or progression of ... Shimmyo M, Ross AJ, Moy A, Mostafavi R: Intraocular pressure, Goldmann applanation tension, corneal thickness, and corneal ... We believe long-term change of corneal characteristics would be more applicable in assessing glaucoma since corneal ...
... with healthy endothelial cells is a long-term treatment to restore corneal transparency and reverse corneal edema caused by ...
If your eye is watery it could mean corneal edema or a small abrasion. It would be safer to use prophylactic antibiotic eye ... Use the drops: If your eye is watery it could mean corneal edema or a small abrasion. It would be safer to use prophylactic ...
... corneal epithelial cell loss, chronic corneal ulcers, and opacification. Corneal transplantation to correct permanent damage ... Exposure of the eye to chlorhexidine cleanser, generally during preparation for facial surgery, has resulted in eye pain, edema ... Postmarketing reports: Stomatitis, glossitis, ulcer, glossal edema, sialadenitis/inflammation of the salivary glands[Ref] ... Frequency not reported: Irreversible corneal damage, irritation to the conjunctiva[Ref]. ...
l. Keratomalacia: Corneal softening with deformity, either localized (usually central part of lower half of cornea) or total. m ... n. Lids and Sclera: Lid edema, lid infection, and ptosis. o. Angular lesions of lips: Record only if definitely present ... Also at this time check the extremities for pretibial edema, hyperpigmentation and pellagrous dermatitis, follicular ... to underlying edema, e.g., in protein deficiency. g. Pellagrous dermatitis: Areas of dry dermatitis-like lesions on the dorsal ...
Mean scores for corneal opacity, iris lesions, conjunctival redness and conjunctival edema (chemosis) were calculated for ... No signs of corneal opacity or iris irritation were seen during the study. Conjunctival redness (Grade 1) was noted for all ... There were no signs of corneal opacity or iris lesions in any of the treated animals. Chemosis (Grade 2) was present in all ... None of the three animals tested had an individual mean value of ≥1 for corneal opacity, ≥1 for iritis, ≥2 for conjunctival ...
Clinical utility of the KAMRA corneal inlay. Naroo, S. A. & Bilkhu, P. S., 18 May 2016, In: Clinical Ophthalmology. 10, p. 913- ... implant in the management of patients with chronic diabetic macular edema: a review of the current literature. Saedon, H., ... Corneal nerve changes following treatment with neurotoxic anticancer drugs. Chiang, J. C. B., Goldstein, D., Park, S. B., ... In-vivo corneal confocal microscopy: Imaging analysis, biological insights and future directions. Chiang, J. C. B., Roy, M., ...
  • Patients of Northern European descent do have an increased incidence of Fuchs corneal dystrophy. (medscape.com)
  • This dystrophy does predispose to the development of corneal edema (see Pathophysiology, Causes, Histologic Findings). (medscape.com)
  • Fuchs corneal dystrophy, a known predisposing factor in the development of postoperative corneal edema, occurs approximately 3 times more frequently in women than in men. (medscape.com)
  • Corneal dystrophy is a condition that causes a layer of the cornea to cloud over and impair visual clarity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A corneal dystrophy can occur in otherwise healthy individuals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depending on the type of condition and the age of the individual, a corneal dystrophy may either cause no problems, moderate vision impairment, or severe difficulties that require surgery. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some corneal dystrophies are named after the individual who discovered them, while others are descriptive of the pattern seen with the dystrophy or the location of the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The key forms of corneal dystrophy are congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED), epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, granular dystrophy, lattice dystrophy, macular corneal dystrophy, Meesmann's corneal dystrophy, posterior polymorphous dystrophy (PPD), and Reis-Bucklers' dystrophy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mutations on the BIGH3 gene of chromosome 5q31 cause granular corneal dystrophy and Reis-Bucklers' dystrophy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Macular corneal dystrophy has been mapped to an altered gene on chromosome 16. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy has been linked to the 20q11 locus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most corneal dystrophies, with the exception of congenital endothelial corneal dystrophy and macular dystrophy, are autosomal dominant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Both congenital endothelial corneal dystrophy and macular dystrophy are autosomal recessive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The symptoms vary with the type of corneal dystrophy and the location of the site. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, during Descemet stripping only for mild Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, 1,2 Descemet membrane is removed from the central cornea to encourage healing in the peripheral corneal endothelium. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Dysfunction can occur in eyes with various conditions, including moderate to advanced Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and viral corneal endotheliitis. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Spontaneous corneal abrasions may be associated with map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy or recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Background Central corneal thickness (CCT) and its association with intraocular pressure, which is a pivotal parameter in glaucoma management, has previously been reported. (researchsquare.com)
  • Furthermore, many recent publications have suggested that long-term use of anti-glaucoma medications, laser procedures, and surgeries affect corneal biomechanics, such as central corneal thickness (CCT). (researchsquare.com)
  • Exclusion criteria included secondary angle closure due to any possible causes, such as neovascular, uveitic glaucoma or trauma, corneal disorders that prevent accurate measurements, previous history of ocular surgery, trauma and other ocular disorders after intraocular surgery. (researchsquare.com)
  • It can also be a consequence of endothelial trauma during surgery (eg, cataract, glaucoma, vitreoretinal, laser iridotomy) and chronic corneal graft failure. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Symptoms of both are bilateral, intense papillary conjunctivitis with eyelid edema, chemosis, and mucopurulent discharge. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Examples include corneal or epithelial disease (eg, dry eye), superficial corneal injury or ocular injuries (eg, those due to foreign bodies), and contact lens wear (eg, daily disposable soft lenses, extended-wear soft lenses, gas-permeable lenses, hard polymethylmethacrylate lenses). (medscape.com)
  • However, the most important influence on corneal deturgescence is the presence of an active metabolic pump in the endothelium. (medscape.com)
  • The corneal endothelium is composed of a single layer of corneal endothelial cells (CECs). (crstodayeurope.com)
  • As a result, healing of the corneal endothelium primarily occurs through cell migration and enlargement rather than cell division. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Two primary cell-based approaches are thought to restore the corneal endothelium. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Cells from healthy corneal endothelium cultured in vitro exhibit heterogeneity in their structure and function (Figure 1). (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Diseases surgical technique developed since the start of the involving the corneal endothelium can be controlled twentieth century for the realization of corneal with endothelial or penetrating keratoplasties, and transplantation (CT). (bvsalud.org)
  • CT is the most common type those diseases that involve both the endothelium and of tissue transplantation made around the world, the corneal stroma generally require PK when there is substitution of all corneal layers (the (REINHART, 2011). (bvsalud.org)
  • Keratoconus surpassed PBK in 1990 as the leading indication for corneal transplantation in some studies in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Corneal transplantation with healthy endothelial cells is a long-term treatment to restore corneal transparency and reverse corneal edema caused by damage to the inner cell layer of the cornea. (pr.com)
  • Advances in cultured corneal endothelial cell transplantation therapy. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Corneal endothelial transplantation techniques employ donor grafts to restore corneal transparency. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Corneal endothelial transplantation, in contrast, does not require postoperative cell growth. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Corneal transplantation. (bvsalud.org)
  • A full thickness hole in the cornea may be the result of traumatic injury to the eye or progression of a melting corneal ulcer. (acvs.org)
  • Focal-- is generally the result of a corneal ulcer. (vin.com)
  • in this situation, the term corneal ulcer may be used. (medscape.com)
  • Fracture of the orbit may result in damage to the nerve that provides vision and cornea, resulting in corneal ulceration or blindness. (acvs.org)
  • It occurs following chronic irritation or ulceration of the cornea and appears as a brown-black corneal lesion. (vin.com)
  • Corneal transparency is, in a large part, dependent on the ability of the cornea to remain in a dehydrated state. (medscape.com)
  • All corneal lesions result in a decrease in the transparency of the cornea. (vin.com)
  • Evaporation from the corneal tear film results in slightly hypertonic tears that tend to draw fluid out of the cornea. (medscape.com)
  • Osmotic forces and the electrolyte balance within the corneal stroma also tend to draw water into the cornea. (medscape.com)
  • It results in corneal vascularization and pigmentation that will, if not controlled, advance across the entire cornea. (vin.com)
  • The most common features of this syndrome are the movement of endothelial cells off the cornea onto the iris leading to corneal swelling, distortion of the iris, and variable degrees of distortion of the pupil. (bvsalud.org)
  • A corneal abrasion is a defect in the surface of the cornea that is limited to the most superficial layer, the epithelium, and does not penetrate the Bowman membrane. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical trauma, inflammation, and corneal dystrophies can accelerate this normal aging loss. (medscape.com)
  • There are more than 20 different forms of inherited corneal dystrophies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some corneal dystrophies have the same genetic address. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The diversity of corneal dystrophies diseases makes it difficult to provide specific demographic data. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, most corneal dystrophies present before age 20. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Significant reduction in central corneal thickness (CCT) was observed over a long-time period in primary angle closure eyes. (researchsquare.com)
  • The conjunctival response to corneal wounding has been known since 1944, when Mann first observed that peripheral corneal abrasions heal by the sliding of limbal cells to cover the epithelial defect. (medscape.com)
  • This disease results from excessive fluid (edema) and swelling of the basement membrane into the epithelium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Experimental investigations have been conducted on mechanisms underlying the visual and systemic effects of tertiary amine exposure, included mydriasis and cylcoplegia due to effects on the innervation of the sphincter muscle of the iris, edema and rupture of the corneal epithelium, blockade of parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia, and histamine release. (cdc.gov)
  • It occurs because of a disruption in the integrity of the corneal epithelium or because the corneal surface scraped away or denuded as a result of physical external forces. (medscape.com)
  • However, deep corneal involvement may result in facet formation in the epithelium or scar formation in the stroma. (medscape.com)
  • Foreign body-related abrasions are defects in the corneal epithelium that are left behind after the removal of or spontaneous dislodgement of a corneal foreign body. (medscape.com)
  • Contact lens-related abrasions are defects in the corneal epithelium that are left behind after the removal of an overworn, improperly fitting, or improperly cleaned contact lens. (medscape.com)
  • Spontaneous defects in the corneal epithelium may occur with no immediate antecedent injury or foreign body. (medscape.com)
  • Eyes that have suffered a previous traumatic abrasion or eyes that have an underlying defect in the corneal epithelium are prone to this problem. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] This response is split into 2 phases: (1) the response of the limbal epithelium, which is the source of the corneal epithelial stem cells, and (2) the response of the conjunctival epithelium itself. (medscape.com)
  • In particular, IOP measurements taken with GAT have been demonstrated to be influenced by many corneal parameters, including central thickness, curvature, astigmatism and biomechanics. (intechopen.com)
  • Artificial Intelligence and Corneal Diseases Find out more about the emerging applications of artificial intelligence in the field of ophthalmology, specifically in relation to corneal conditions. (medscape.com)
  • I've worked out a regime of eyedrops that seems to keep the macular edema mostly at bay and holds dryness etc. to tolerable levels. (brockerhoff.net)
  • The remaining problem is a macular edema that appeared over a year ago, causing blurred vision. (brockerhoff.net)
  • Brolucizumab for the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema What have we learned about the efficacy and safety of brolucizumab as a treatment option for diabetic macular edema? (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] As corneal edema progresses and worsens, first stromal and then intercellular epithelial edema develops. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of corneal abrasion can be confirmed with slitlamp examination and fluorescein instillation (see Workup). (medscape.com)
  • Pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK) and aphakic bullous keratopathy (ABK) refer to the development of irreversible corneal edema as a complication of cataract surgery. (medscape.com)
  • The usual complications that effect cataract surgery patients are swelling or corneal edema, swelling around the middle of the retina, dislocation of newly implanted lens, myopia or hyperopia due to incorrect eye measurements, and cyanopsia, or a condition that leads to a blue tint in vision. (medicalmalpractice.net)
  • Diagnosis: cytology obtained by corneal scraping yields mast cells and/or eosinophils. (vin.com)
  • A traumatic corneal abrasion is the classic corneal abrasion in which mechanical trauma to the eye results in a defect in the epithelial surface. (medscape.com)
  • Corneal abrasion results from physical or chemical trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Treatments for limbal stem cell deficiency depend on the ongoing proliferation of corneal epithelial progenitor/stem cells. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Consequently, surgical approaches to corneal endothelial failure are distinct from those addressing limbal deficiency. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • With the development of new surgical techniques, instrumentation and pharmacological advances, corneal transplant procedures can undergo changes directly in the clinical profile of patients with the indication for penetrating keratoplasty technique. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lesions on a significant proportion of the total body surface area, which may be associated with edema and secondary bacterial or fungal infections among other complications. (cdc.gov)
  • Use the drops: If your eye is watery it could mean corneal edema or a small abrasion. (healthtap.com)
  • Corneal abrasion is probably the most common eye injury and perhaps one of the most neglected. (medscape.com)
  • Sousa, V. R. F. Severe Corneal Edema in a Dog Naturally Infected by Leishmania Spp. (ufrgs.br)
  • Smears and bacterial cultures should be done in patients with severe symptoms, immunocompromise, ineffective initial therapy, or a vulnerable eye (eg, after a corneal transplant, in exophthalmos due to Graves disease). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The first involves transplanting cultured CECs onto damaged corneal tissue. (crstodayeurope.com)
  • Bowel lesions that are exudative or cause significant tissue edema, leading to obstruction. (cdc.gov)
  • Las características más comunes de este síndrome son el movimiento de las células endoteliales fuera de la córnea hacia el iris que provoca inflamación corneal, distorsión del iris y grados variables de distorsión de la pupila. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fiddling around with eyedrops to find the least irritating ones is an ongoing process, complicated by two bouts with small corneal injuries - probably caused by forgetting to blink while using the computer. (brockerhoff.net)
  • Prophylactic topical antibiotics are given in patients with abrasions from contact lenses, who are at increased risk for infected corneal ulcers, but many emergency physicians have stopped using these agents for minor injuries. (medscape.com)
  • We believe, understanding the corneal changes in PAC eyes according to time is crucial since PAC itself and even its treatments can induce changes in various corneal parameters. (researchsquare.com)
  • when the cell density reaches a critically low level of about 300-500 cells/mm 2 , corneal edema develops. (medscape.com)
  • Success requires the transplanted cells to release beneficial molecules that help regenerate and reorganize the host cells, thereby restoring corneal function. (crstodayeurope.com)