Heterodimeric transcription factors containing a DNA-binding alpha subunits, (CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS), along with a non-DNA-binding beta subunits, CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT. Core Binding Factor regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout the CELL CYCLE. It is a suppressor of telomere elongation and may be involved in stabilization of telomere length. It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 2 in that it contains acidic N-terminal amino acid residues.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.

FIRE3 in the promoter of the rat fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene binds the ubiquitous transcription factors CBF and USF but does not mediate an insulin response in a rat hepatoma cell line. (1/96)

Several putative insulin-responsive elements (IRE) in the fatty acid synthase (FAS) promoter have been identified and shown to be functional in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Here we report on the insulin-responsiveness in the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE of four cis-elements in the FAS promoter: the FAS insulin-responsive elements, FIRE2 and FIRE3; the inverted CCAAT element, ICE; and the insulin/glucose-binding element, designated hepatic FIRE element, hFIRE, originally identified in rat hepatocytes. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) competition experiments together with supershifts and in vitro transcription/translation we show that FIRE3 (-68/-58) binds not only the upstream stimulatory factors USF-1/USF-2 but also the CCAAT-binding factor CBF, also known as the nuclear factor Y, NF-Y. The putative IRE FIRE2, which shows sequence similarity to FIRE3, is located between -267 and -249. Gel retardation experiments indicate that USF-1 and USF-2 also bind to this element, which contains an imperfect E-box motif. Using the same approach we have shown that hFIRE binds the stimulatory proteins Sp1 and Sp3 in addition to CBF. Transient transfection experiments using FAS promoter constructs deleted for FIRE2 and FIRE3 demonstrate that neither of these elements mediates the insulin response of the FAS promoter in the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE, however, ICE at -103/-87 is responsible for mediating the effect of the insulin antagonist cAMP. The hFIRE element located at -57/-34, in spite of its role in the glucose/insulin response in primary rat hepatocytes, is apparently not involved in the insulin regulation of the rat FAS promoter in H4IIE cells. The fact that the topology of the promoters of the FAS genes in rat, human, goose and chicken is conserved regarding CBF-binding sites and USF-binding sites implies an important role for these ubiquitously expressed transcription factors in the regulation of the FAS promoter.  (+info)

Collagenase 3 is a target of Cbfa1, a transcription factor of the runt gene family involved in bone formation. (2/96)

Collagenase 3 (MMP-13) is a recently identified member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family that is expressed at high levels in diverse human carcinomas and in articular cartilage from arthritic patients. In addition to its expression in pathological conditions, collagenase 3 has been detected in osteoblasts and hypertrophic chondrocytes during fetal ossification. In this work, we have evaluated the possibility that Cbfa1 (core binding factor 1), a transcription factor playing a major role in the expression of osteoblastic specific genes, is involved in the expression of collagenase 3 during bone formation. We have functionally characterized a Cbfa motif present in the promoter region of collagenase 3 gene and demonstrated, by cotransfection experiments and gel mobility shift assays, that this element is involved in the inducibility of the collagenase 3 promoter by Cbfa1 in osteoblastic and chondrocytic cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Cbfa1 in osteoblastic cells unable to produce collagenase 3 leads to the expression of this gene after stimulation with transforming growth factor beta. Finally, we show that mutant mice deficient in Cbfa1, lacking mature osteoblasts but containing hypertrophic chondrocytes which are also a major source of collagenase 3, do not express this protease during fetal development. These results provide in vivo evidence that collagenase 3 is a target of the transcriptional activator Cbfa1 in these cells. On the basis of these transcriptional regulation studies, together with the potent proteolytic activity of collagenase 3 on diverse collagenous and noncollagenous bone and cartilage components, we proposed that this enzyme may play a key role in the process of bone formation and remodeling.  (+info)

Does adult fracture repair recapitulate embryonic skeletal formation? (3/96)

Bone formation is a continuous process that begins during fetal development and persists throughout life as a remodeling process. In the event of injury, bones heal by generating new bone rather than scar tissue; thus, it can accurately be described as a regenerative process. To elucidate the extent to which fetal skeletal development and skeletal regeneration are similar, we performed a series of detailed expression analyses using a number of genes that regulate key stages of endochondral ossification. They included genes in the indian hedgehog (ihh) and core binding factor 1 (cbfa1) pathways, and genes associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular invasion including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (mmp13). Our analyses suggested that even at the earliest stages of mesenchymal cell condensation, chondrocyte (ihh, cbfa1 and collagen type II-positive) and perichondrial (gli1 and osteocalcin-positive) cell populations were already specified. As chondrocytes matured, they continued to express cbfa1 and ihh whereas cbfa1, osteocalcin and gli1 persisted in presumptive periosteal cells. Later, VEGF and mmp13 transcripts were abundant in chondrocytes as they underwent hypertrophy and terminal differentiation. Based on these expression patterns and available genetic data, we propose a model where Ihh and Cbfa1, together with Gli1 and Osteocalcin participate in establishing reciprocal signal site of injury. The persistence of cbfa1 and ihh, and their targets osteocalcin and gli1, in the callus suggests comparable processes of chondrocyte maturation and specification of a neo-perichondrium occur following injury. VEGF and mmp13 are expressed during the later stages of healing, coincident with the onset of vascularization of the callus and subsequent ossification. Taken together, these data suggest the genetic mechanisms regulating fetal skeletogenesis also regulate adult skeletal regeneration, and point to important regulators of angiogenesis and ossification in bone regeneration.  (+info)

Mutation analysis of core binding factor A1 in patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. (4/96)

Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by patent fontanelles, wide cranial sutures, hypoplasia of clavicles, short stature, supernumerary teeth, and other skeletal anomalies. We recently demonstrated that mutations in the transcription factor CBFA1, on chromosome 6p21, are associated with CCD. We have now analyzed the CBFA1 gene in 42 unrelated patients with CCD. In 18 patients, mutations were detected in the coding region of the CBFA1 gene, including 8 frameshift, 2 nonsense, and 9 missense mutations, as well as 2 novel polymorphisms. A cluster of missense mutations at arginine 225 (R225) identifies this residue as crucial for CBFA1 function. In vitro green fluorescent protein fusion studies show that R225 mutations interfere with nuclear accumulation of CBFA1 protein. There is no phenotypic difference between patients with deletions or frameshifts and those with other intragenic mutations, suggesting that CCD is generally caused by haploinsufficiency. However, we were able to extend the CCD phenotypic spectrum. A missense mutation identified in one family with supernumerary teeth and a radiologically normal skeleton indicates that mutations in CBFA1 can be associated exclusively with a dental phenotype. In addition, one patient with severe CCD and a frameshift mutation in codon 402 had osteoporosis leading to recurrent bone fractures and scoliosis, providing first evidence that CBFA1 may help maintain adult bone, in addition to its function in bone development.  (+info)

A full-length Cbfa1 gene product perturbs T-cell development and promotes lymphomagenesis in synergy with myc. (5/96)

The Cbfa1/PEBP2 alpha A/AML3 gene plays an essential role in osteogenesis but is also expressed in the T-cell lineage where it has been implicated in lymphoma development as a target for retroviral insertional mutagenesis. As lymphoma cells with til-1 insertion express at least five distinct Cbfa1 isoforms, it is important to establish which, if any, have intrinsic oncogenic potential. We have generated transgenic mice in which the most abundant lymphoma isoform (G1/p57) is expressed under the control of the CD2 locus control region. Co-precipitation analysis of transgenic thymus revealed high levels of Cbfa1 protein in an abundant complex containing the binding cofactor Cbfb. CD2-Cbfa1-G1 mice displayed abnormal T-cell development, with a pronounced skew towards CD8 SP cells in the thymus and developed a low incidence of spontaneous lymphomas (6% at 12 months) with cells of similar phenotype. Strongly synergistic tumour development was seen when CD2-Cbfa1-G1 mice were crossed with lines carrying myc transgenes (CD2-myc or tamoxifen-regulatable CD2-mycER) and Cbfa1 was found to rescue expression of the CD2-myc transgene in pre-leukaemic mice. However, synergy did not appear to be due to a dominant block of myc-induced apoptosis by Cbfa1 as explanted primary tumours and cell lines from CD2-Cbfa1-G1/CD2-mycER mice showed accelerated death on induction with tamoxifen at similar rates to CD2-mycER controls. Moreover, thymocytes from preleukaemic CD2-Cbfa1-G1 mice showed reduced survival in vitro and increased sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. This study demonstrates that a full-length Cbf alpha-chain gene can act as an oncogene without fusion to a heterologous protein.  (+info)

Parathyroid hormone regulation of the rat collagenase-3 promoter by protein kinase A-dependent transactivation of core binding factor alpha1. (6/96)

Previously we showed that the activator protein-1 site and the runt domain binding site in the collagenase-3 promoter act cooperatively in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. Our results of the expression pattern of core binding factor alpha1 (Cbfa1), which binds to the runt domain site, indicated that there is no change in the levels of Cbfa1 protein or RNA under either control conditions or after PTH treatment. The importance of posttranslational modification of Cbfa1 in the signaling pathway for PTH-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity was analyzed. PTH stimulation of collagenase-3 promoter activity was completely abrogated by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition. To determine the role of PKA activity with respect to Cbfa1 activation (in addition to its known activity of phosphorylating cAMP-response element-binding protein to enhance c-fos promoter activity), we utilized the heterologous Gal4 transcription system. PTH stimulated the transactivation of activation domain-3 in Cbfa1 through the PKA site. In vitro phosphorylation studies indicated that the PKA site in the wild type activation domain-3 is a substrate for phosphorylation by PKA. Thus, we demonstrate that PTH induces a PKA-dependent transactivation of Cbfa1, and this transactivation is required for collagenase-3 promoter activity in UMR cells.  (+info)

An osteogenesis-related transcription factor, core-binding factor A1, is constitutively expressed in the chondrocytic cell line TC6, and its expression is upregulated by bone morphogenetic protein-2. (7/96)

Core-binding factor A1 (Cbfa1), also called Pebp2 alpha A/AML3, is a transcription factor that belongs to the runt-domain gene family. Cbfa1-deficient mice are completely incapable of both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation, indicating that Cbfa1 is indispensable for osteogenesis. Maturation of chondrocytes in these mice is also disorganized, suggesting that Cbfa1 may also play a role in chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of Pebp2 alpha A/AML3/Cbfa1 expression in the chondrocyte-like cell line, TC6. Northern blot analysis indicated that Cbfa1 mRNA was constitutively expressed as a 6.3 kb message in TC6 cells and the level of Cbfa1 expression was enhanced by treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This effect was blocked by an RNA polymerase inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, but not by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Western blot analysis of the cell lysates using polyclonal antibody raised against Cbfa1 indicated that BMP2 treatment increased the Cbfa1 protein level in TC6 cells. In TC6 cells, BMP2 treatment enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen mRNAs but suppressed that of type II collagen mRNA. In addition to TC6 cells, Cbfa1 mRNA was also expressed in primary cultures of chondrocytes and BMP2 treatment enhanced Cbfa1 mRNA expression in these cells similarly to its effect on TC6 cells. These data indicate that the Pebp2 alpha A/AML3/Cbfa1 gene is expressed in a chondrocyte-like cell line, TC6, and its expression is enhanced by treatment with BMP.  (+info)

Exogenous cdk4 overcomes reduced cdk4 RNA and inhibition of G1 progression in hematopoietic cells expressing a dominant-negative CBF - a model for overcoming inhibition of proliferation by CBF oncoproteins. (8/96)

Core Binding Factor (CBF) is required for the development of definitive hematopoiesis, and the CBF oncoproteins AML1-ETO, TEL-AML1, and CBFbeta-SMMHC are commonly expressed in subsets of acute leukemia. CBFbeta-SMMHC slows the G1 to S cell cycle transition in hematopoietic cells, but the mechanism of this effect is uncertain. We have sought to determine whether inhibition of CBF-mediated trans-activation is sufficient to slow proliferation. We demonstrate that activation of KRAB-AML1-ER, a protein containing the AML1 DNA-binding domain, the KRAB repression domain, and the Estrogen receptor ligand binding domain, also slows G1, if its DNA-binding domain is intact. Also, exogenous AML1 overcame CBFbeta-SMMHC-induced inhibition of proliferation. Representational difference analysis (RDA) identified cdk4 RNA expression as an early target of KRAB-AML1 activation. Inhibition of CBF activities by KRAB-AML1-ER or CBFbeta-SMMHC rapidly reduced endogenous cdk4 mRNA levels, even in cells proliferating at or near control rates as a result of exogenous cdk4 expression. Over-expression of cdk4, especially a variant which cannot bind p16INK4a, overcame cell cycle inhibition resulting from activation of KRAB-AML1-ER, although cdk4 did not accelerate proliferation when expressed alone. These findings indicate that mutations which alter the expression of G1 regulatory proteins can overcome inhibition of proliferation by CBF oncoproteins. Oncogene (2000).  (+info)

Core binding factors (CBFs) are a group of proteins that play critical roles in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, which are the cells responsible for the formation of blood and immune systems. The term "core binding factor" refers to the ability of these proteins to bind to specific DNA sequences, known as core binding sites, and regulate gene transcription.

The two main CBFs are:

1. Core Binding Factor Alpha (CBF-α): Also known as RUNX1 or AML1, this protein forms a complex with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to regulate the expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis. Mutations in CBF-α have been associated with various types of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.
2. Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β): Also known as PEBP2B, this protein partners with CBF-α to form the active transcription factor complex. CBF-β enhances the DNA binding affinity and stability of the CBF-α/CBF-β heterodimer.

In certain types of leukemia, chromosomal abnormalities can lead to the formation of fusion proteins involving CBF-α or CBF-β. These fusion proteins disrupt normal hematopoiesis and contribute to the development of cancer. Examples include the t(8;21) translocation that creates the AML1/ETO fusion protein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the inv(16) inversion that forms the CBFB-MYH11 fusion protein in AML.

Core Binding Factor-beta (CBF-β) is a subunit of the Core Binding Factor (CBF), which is a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of a DNA-binding alpha subunit and a non-DNA binding beta subunit. The CBF plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell development, by regulating the expression of various genes involved in this process.

The CBF-β subunit is a 36 kDa protein that is encoded by the CBFB gene in humans. It does not bind to DNA directly but instead forms a complex with the DNA-binding alpha subunit, which is either RUNX1 (also known as AML1), RUNX2, or RUNX3. The CBF-β subunit stabilizes the interaction between the alpha subunit and DNA, enhances its DNA-binding affinity, and increases the transcriptional activity of the complex.

Mutations in the CBFB gene have been associated with several hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML (FPD/AML). These mutations can lead to aberrant transcriptional regulation of hematopoietic genes, resulting in the development of these disorders.

Core Binding Factor (CBF) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development and differentiation of various tissues, including hematopoietic cells. It is composed of two subunits: alpha (CBFA or AML1) and beta (CBFB or PEBP2b).

The CBFA subunit, also known as RUNX1, is a transcription factor that binds to DNA and regulates the expression of target genes involved in hematopoiesis, neurogenesis, and other developmental processes. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the runt homology domain (RHD) that recognizes specific DNA sequences.

Mutations in CBFA have been associated with various hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML (FDPA). These mutations can lead to altered gene expression, impaired differentiation, and increased proliferation of hematopoietic cells, contributing to the development of these diseases.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit, also known as CBF-A2 or CEBP-α, is a protein that forms a complex with other proteins to act as a transcription factor. Transcription factors are proteins that help regulate the expression of genes by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA.

CBF-A2 is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, which are important in regulating various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and inflammation. CBF-A2 forms a heterodimer with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to form the active transcription factor complex known as the core binding factor (CBF).

The CBF complex binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes. By binding to this sequence, the CBF complex can either activate or repress the transcription of target genes, depending on the context and the presence of other regulatory factors.

Mutations in the gene encoding CBF-A2 have been associated with several human diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma. In AML, mutations in the CBF-A2 gene can lead to the formation of abnormal CBF complexes that disrupt normal gene expression patterns and contribute to the development of leukemia.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit, also known as CBF-A1 or RUNX1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis, which is the process of blood cell development. It is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) complex, which regulates gene transcription and is essential for the differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature blood cells.

The CBF complex consists of three subunits: CBF-A, CBF-B, and a histone deacetylase (HDAC). The CBF-A subunit can have several isoforms, including CBF-A1, which is encoded by the RUNX1 gene. Mutations in the RUNX1 gene have been associated with various hematological disorders, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), familial platelet disorder with propensity to develop AML, and thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome.

CBF-A1/RUNX1 functions as a transcription factor that binds to DNA at specific sequences called core binding factors, thereby regulating the expression of target genes involved in hematopoiesis. Proper regulation of these genes is essential for normal blood cell development and homeostasis.

Transcription Factor AP-2 is a specific protein involved in the process of gene transcription. It belongs to a family of transcription factors known as Activating Enhancer-Binding Proteins (AP-2). These proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called enhancers, which are located near the genes they control.

AP-2 is composed of four subunits that form a homo- or heterodimer, which then binds to the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. This sequence is typically found in the promoter regions of target genes. Once bound, AP-2 can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors.

AP-2 plays crucial roles during embryonic development, particularly in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and face. It is also involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of AP-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including various types of cancer.

Smooth muscle myosin is a type of motor protein that is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles, which are found in various organs such as the bladder, blood vessels, and digestive tract. Smooth muscle myosin is composed of two heavy chains and four light chains, forming a hexameric structure. The heavy chains have an N-terminal head domain that contains the ATPase activity and a C-terminal tail domain that mediates filament assembly.

The smooth muscle myosin molecule has several unique features compared to other types of myosins, such as skeletal or cardiac myosin. For example, smooth muscle myosin has a longer lever arm, which allows for greater force generation during contraction. Additionally, the regulatory mechanism of smooth muscle myosin is different from that of skeletal or cardiac myosin. In smooth muscles, the contractile activity is regulated by phosphorylation of the light chains, which is mediated by a specific kinase called myosin light chain kinase (MLCK).

Overall, the proper regulation and function of smooth muscle myosin are critical for maintaining normal physiological functions in various organs. Dysregulation or mutations in smooth muscle myosin can lead to several diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Human chromosome pair 16 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 16 contains two homologous chromosomes, which are similar in size, shape, and genetic content but may have slight variations due to differences in the DNA sequences inherited from each parent.

Chromosome pair 16 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs, meaning it contains non-sex chromosomes that are present in both males and females. Chromosome 16 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it contains around 2,800 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 16 can lead to genetic disorders such as chronic myeloid leukemia, some forms of mental retardation, and other developmental abnormalities.

A chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement where a segment of a chromosome has been reversed end to end, so that its order of genes is opposite to the original. This means that the gene sequence on the segment of the chromosome has been inverted.

In an inversion, the chromosome breaks in two places, and the segment between the breaks rotates 180 degrees before reattaching. This results in a portion of the chromosome being inverted, or turned upside down, relative to the rest of the chromosome.

Chromosome inversions can be either paracentric or pericentric. Paracentric inversions involve a segment that does not include the centromere (the central constriction point of the chromosome), while pericentric inversions involve a segment that includes the centromere.

Inversions can have various effects on an individual's phenotype, depending on whether the inversion involves genes and if so, how those genes are affected by the inversion. In some cases, inversions may have no noticeable effect, while in others they may cause genetic disorders or predispose an individual to certain health conditions.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Human chromosome pair 21 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and they are identical to each other. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains genetic information that determines many of an individual's traits and characteristics.

Chromosome pair 21 is one of the 23 pairs of human autosomal chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y). Chromosome pair 21 is the smallest of the human chromosomes, and it contains approximately 48 million base pairs of DNA. It contains around 200-300 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Down syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delays, distinct facial features, and sometimes heart defects, is caused by an extra copy of chromosome pair 21 or a part of it. This additional genetic material can lead to abnormalities in brain development and function, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of Down syndrome.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Osteocalcin is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. It is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins found in bones and plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Osteocalcin contains a high affinity for calcium ions, making it essential for the mineralization of the bone matrix.

Once synthesized, osteocalcin is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it binds to hydroxyapatite crystals, helping to regulate their growth and contributing to the overall strength and integrity of the bones. Osteocalcin also has been found to play a role in other physiological processes outside of bone metabolism, such as modulating insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and male fertility.

In summary, osteocalcin is a protein produced by osteoblasts that plays a critical role in bone formation, mineralization, and turnover, and has been implicated in various other physiological processes.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

Leukemia, myeloid is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. Myeloid leukemia affects the myeloid cells, which include red blood cells, platelets, and most types of white blood cells. In this condition, the bone marrow produces abnormal myeloid cells that do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells hinder the production of normal blood cells, leading to various symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, increased risk of infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

There are several types of myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). AML progresses rapidly and requires immediate treatment, while CML tends to progress more slowly. The exact causes of myeloid leukemia are not fully understood, but risk factors include exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, smoking, genetic disorders, and a history of chemotherapy or other cancer treatments.

POL1 (Polymerase 1) Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins are a set of proteins that come together to form the initiation complex for the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in eukaryotic cells. The POL1 complex includes RNA polymerase I, select transcription factors, and other regulatory proteins. This complex is responsible for the transcription of rRNA genes located within the nucleolus, a specialized region within the cell nucleus. Proper assembly and functioning of this initiation complex are crucial for the production of ribosomes, which play a critical role in protein synthesis.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit (also known as CBFA3 or AML1) is a protein that forms part of a complex responsible for the regulation of gene transcription, particularly those involved in hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells). It is a member of the runt-domain family of transcription factors and plays a critical role in normal blood cell development.

Mutations in the CBFA3 gene have been associated with certain types of leukemia, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These mutations can lead to abnormal blood cell development and cancer.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1 (TRF1) is a protein that binds to the telomeres, which are the repetitive DNA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes. TRF1 plays a crucial role in the protection and regulation of telomere length. It helps to form a protective cap on the end of the chromosome, preventing it from being recognized as damaged or broken. Additionally, TRF1 is involved in the negative regulation of telomerase, an enzyme that adds repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby controlling the length of the telomeres. Mutations in TRF1 have been associated with certain types of cancer and premature aging disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "G-Box Binding Factors" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or molecular biology literature. The "G-box" is a specific sequence of DNA that can be found in the promoter regions of many genes and serves as a binding site for various transcription factors. Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and either promoting or inhibiting the initiation of transcription.

However, "G-Box Binding Factors" is too broad since multiple transcription factors can bind to the G-box sequence. Some examples of transcription factors known to bind to the G-box include proteins like GBF (G-box binding factor), HSF (heat shock transcription factor), and bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) proteins, among others.

If you have a more specific context or reference related to "G-Box Binding Factors," I would be happy to help provide further information based on that context.

The Core binding factor (CBF) is a group of heterodimeric transcription factors. Core binding factors are composed of: a non- ... DNA-binding CBFβ chain (CBFB) a DNA-binding CBFα chain (RUNX1, RUNX2, RUNX3) de Bruijn M, Speck N (2004). "Core-binding factors ... Core+Binding+Factors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short ... description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Transcription factors, All stub articles, Genetics stubs). ...
Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) is one form of a cancer of the blood-forming tissue (bone marrow) called ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/core-binding-factor-acute-myeloid-leukemia/ Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia. ... Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) is one form of a cancer of the blood-forming tissue (bone marrow) called ... Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Nov;135(11):1504-9. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2010-0482-RS. ...
Expression of core-binding factor a1 and osteocalcin in fluoride-treated fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Author: Duan X, Xu H, ... which is indicated by the expression of core-binding factor a1 (Cbfa1) and osteocalcin (OCN), in an FB cell line (L929) and in ... Factors which increase the risk for skeletal fluorosis. The risk for developing skeletal fluorosis, and the course the disease ... While the wide range in individual response to fluoride is not yet fully understood, the following are some of the factors that ...
Its DNA-binding affinity is increased by Mn2+ ion binding, allowing it to act as a transcriptional repressor of manganese ... In order to provide a deeper understanding of the changes in protein structure and dynamics due to Mn2+ binding, a mutant in ... The results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed that Mn2+ ion binding reduces the structural dynamics of the MntR ... Further, MD simulations show that Mn2+ binding induces polarization of the protein electrostatic potential, increasing the ...
T1 - Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16). T2 - Older age and high white blood cell count are risk factors ... Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16): Older age and high white blood cell count are risk factors for ... Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16): Older age and high white blood cell count are risk factors for ... Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16) : Older age and high white blood cell count are risk factors for ...
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE ... "Core Binding Factor beta Subunit" by people in this website by year, and whether "Core Binding Factor beta Subunit" was a major ... "Core Binding Factor beta Subunit" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Core Binding Factor beta Subunit" by people in Profiles. ...
The RUNX1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Learn about this ... Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia. A rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material involving the RUNX1 gene is ... This protein interacts with another protein called core binding factor beta or CBFβ (produced from the CBFB gene), which helps ... Molecular pathogenesis of core binding factor leukemia: current knowledge and future prospects. Int J Hematol. 2011 Aug;94(2): ...
Core binding factor AML: This subtype of AML is defined by the presence of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22). Both ... Transcription factors, proteins that bind to the regulatory sequences of target genes, compose the largest class of oncogenes ... genetic alterations have similar effects on core binding factor (CBF), and both are associated with favorable outcomes. The CBF ... that produces a chimeric transcription factor ​EWS fused to the DNA binding domain ​FLI1. [42] Among the 15-20% of Ewing ...
Retinoblastoma binding factor 1 site in the core promoter region of the human RB gene is activated by hGABP/E4TF1. Sowa Y, et ... GA binding protein transcription factor beta subunit 1. GABP subunit beta-2. nuclear respiratory factor 2. transcription factor ... GABPB1 GA binding protein transcription factor subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens] GABPB1 GA binding protein transcription factor ... GA binding protein transcription factor subunit beta 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:4074 See related. Ensembl: ...
Pathway analysis on the core network genes and their immediate neighbors revealed a regulatory footprint that, among others, is ... Regulatory network production, followed by centrality analysis led to the discovery of 90 core genes containing HERV-associated ... The core HERV network also include binding sites for transcription factors of the STAT family and enriched pathways of IL-6/JAK ... HERVs contain in their LTRs a rich repertoire of transcription factor binding sites that may be common in different elements or ...
core promoter binding. ENSPCAP00000004431. GO:0003677. molecular_function. DNA binding. ENSPCAP00000004431. GO:0003700. ... sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. ENSPCAP00000004431. GO:0004402. molecular_function. histone ... Copyright © 2017 REGULATOR: a database of metazoan transcription factors and maternal factors for developmental studies ...
The genomic landscape of core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemias. Nat. Genet. 48, 1551-1556 (2016). ... Somatic TP53 mutations, all within the DNA-binding domain, were present in three cases (4%). DNMT3A, ASXL1, and TET2 mutations ... It is becoming increasingly recognized that germline variants in different transcription factors, such as GATA2, RUNX1, ETV6, ... Gallo, L. H., Nelson, K. N., Meyer, A. N. & Donoghue, D. J. Functions of fibroblast growth factor receptors in cancer defined ...
BIA-core binding analysis (BIAcore 2000; BIAcore AB, Uppsala, Sweden), which uses the natural phenomenon of surface plasmon ... Together, it could be hypothesized that HN acts as an anti-cell-death factor by two ways of action. However, it remains to be ... Frautschy SA, Baird A, Cole GM (1991) Effects of injected Alzheimer beta-amyloid cores in rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88 ... Activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF), a nine amino acid peptide, was originally purified from conditioned medium of ...
Fold a.4: DNA/RNA-binding 3-helical bundle [46688] (14 superfamilies). core: 3-helices; bundle, closed or partly opened, right- ... DNA-binding domain of telomeric protein. Timeline for Protein Telomeric repeat binding factor 2, TRF2 from a.4.1.4: DNA-binding ... Protein Telomeric repeat binding factor 2, TRF2 from a.4.1.4: DNA-binding domain of telomeric protein appears in SCOPe 2.04. * ... Protein Telomeric repeat binding factor 2, TRF2 from a.4.1.4: DNA-binding domain of telomeric protein appears in SCOPe 2.06. * ...
The FH domain is a winged helix DNA-binding domain. FOX transcription factors recognize the core sequence 5-(A/C)AA(C/T)A-3. ... Feature 1:putative DNA binding site [nucleic acid binding site]. Evidence:*. Comment:based on the structures of other Forkhead ...
Structure of P.furiosus Argonaute with bound Mn2+ ... RCSB PDB Core Operations are funded by the National Science ... It shows no stimulation by ATP, suggesting that factors promoting product release are missing from the recombinant enzyme. The ... Genetic, biochemical and structural studies have implicated Argonaute proteins as the catalytic core of the RNAi effector ... Genetic, biochemical and structural studies have implicated Argonaute proteins as the catalytic core of the RNAi effector ...
Fly Factor Survey (2010). » A database of Drosophila TF DNA-binding Specificities. (A collaboration with Dr. Brodsky and Dr. ... Ou J, Wolfe SA, Brodsky MH, Zhu LJ (2018). "motifStack for the analysis of transcription factor binding site evolution." Nature ... This package is involved in the pipeline of finding candidate binding sites for known transcription factors via sequence ... A Bioconductor package for the visualization of motif alignment and the analysis of transcription factor binding site evolution ...
RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding. ENSOPRP00000011656. GO:0003700. molecular_function. sequence- ... Copyright © 2017 REGULATOR: a database of metazoan transcription factors and maternal factors for developmental studies ... transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. ENSOPRP00000011656. GO:0030509. biological_process. BMP signaling ...
Exceptions are acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and core binding factor AML (i.e., RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFB-MYH11), in which AML ...
CDA-1 (CAB2 DET1-associated factor 1) binding site in DtRE (dark response element) f of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein2 (CAB2 ... I-box core motif in the CAMs (conserved DNA modular arrays) associated with light-responsive promoter regions. ... Binding sites with simlar sequences. Binding site. Matrix_327. Name. ARR11. Description. Not Available. ... Binding site of GmGT-2 which is the GT-2 family of transcription factors; GmGT-2 are down-regulated by light in a phytochrome- ...
CYC heterodimer or by a masking of the DNA-binding region in the CLK:CYC heterodimer, leading to a reduction in DNA-binding ... Both groups of LNvs express the pigment-dispersing factor (pdf) gene, which is often used to reveal the projection pattern of ... Core clock proteins CLK, CYC, and PER are PAS domain-containing proteins. DBT and SGG are protein kinases which phospholyrate ... RNA binding protein LARK might modulate stabilities of mRNAs coding some clock-output proteins. SLIMB is a F-box protein and ...
Fix minor memory leak when using reservations with flags=first_cores. * Fix gpu bind issue when CPUs=Cores and ThreadsPerCore ... Updated to 20.02.3 which fixes CVE-2020-12693 (bsc#1172004). - Other changes are: * Factor in ntasks-per-core=1 with cons_tres ... Fix minor memory leak when using reservations with flags=first_cores. * Fix gpu bind issue when CPUs=Cores and ThreadsPerCore ... Updated to 20.02.3 which fixes CVE-2020-12693 (bsc#1172004). - Other changes are: * Factor in ntasks-per-core=1 with cons_tres ...
DNA Binding and Phosphorylation Regulate the Core Structure of the NF-B p50 Transcription Factor (Journal article). Vonderach, ... DNA Binding and Phosphorylation Regulate the Core Structure of the NF-B p50 Transcription Factor (Journal article - 2019) ... DNA Binding and Phosphorylation Regulate the Core Structure of the NF-B p50 Transcription Factor. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ... Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling (Journal article). ...
... was previously considered to be dependent on direct binding with the promoter of Indian hedgehog (Ihh)-the major regulator of ... The authors previous studies identified neural EGFL like 1 (Nell-1) as a Runx2-responsive growth factor for chondrogenic ... In Runx2 −/− chondrocytes, Nell-1 stimulated the expression and signal transduction of Runx3, another transcription factor ... The pro-chondrogenic function of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) ...
We completed a detailed map of the genomic changes found in a childhood leukemia called core-binding factor acute myeloid ... News release: Researchers reveal genomic landscape of core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia ... We uncovered new genetic factors behind medulloblastoma, the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. Some of the genes are ... we have successfully pinpointed the genetic factors behind some of the toughest pediatric cancers. We are now using multiple ...
ABA-responsive element (ABRE)-binding factors (ABFs) are core components in ABA signaling and are broadly involved in plant ... C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) act at the crossroads of the transcriptional regulatory network that underlies cold stress ... CmABF1 and CmCBF4 were selected as candidate TFs that could directly bind to promoter fragments of CmADC in vitro and in planta ... They can bind directly to DRE/CRT (dehydration-responsive element/C repeat) cis-acting elements in the promoters of cold- ...
... bound to an IP2 compound at 1.68 A Resolution ... RCSB PDB Core Operations are funded by the National Science ... Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Regulated Tyrosine Kinase Substrate (Hgs-Hrs) ... Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Regulated Tyrosine Kinase Substrate (Hgs-Hrs) bound to an IP2 compound at 1.68 A Resolution. *PDB DOI ... Crystal Structure of the Tandem Vhs and Fyve Domains of Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Regulated Tyrosine Kinase Substrate (Hgs-Hrs) ...
The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTA) play critical roles in plant growth and responses to environmental ... The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTA) play critical roles in plant growth and responses to environmental ... DRE/CRT-binding factor (CBF) has been identified as the core TF participating in gene regulation under osmotic stress ( ... WRKY binding site (W-box), CAMTA binding site (CG-box), PHR1 binding site (P1BS) and sulfur-responsive element (SURE). The ...
  • Together, these proteins form one version of a complex known as core binding factor (CBF). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genetic, biochemical and structural studies have implicated Argonaute proteins as the catalytic core of the RNAi effector complex, RISC. (rcsb.org)
  • Splicing is a complex, multistep process involving hundreds of proteins: some are responsible for recognising the splice sites, while others stabilise the binding of the spliceosome to the mRNA or cut out the introns and join the exons. (imb.de)
  • First, FUBP1 stabilises the binding of other splicing proteins to the 3' splice site, helping the cell to recognise the correct exon-intron boundary. (imb.de)
  • The others are the site-specific TFs or the DNA sequence-specific binding proteins. (intechopen.com)
  • Sigma factors are a class of proteins constituting essential dissociable subunits that confer sequence-specific DNA binding properties to RNA polymerase (RNAP). (hindawi.com)
  • Histone H3 is one of the DNA-binding proteins found in the chromatin of all eukaryotic cells. (fishersci.com)
  • H3 along with four core histone proteins binds to DNA forming the structure of the nucleosome. (fishersci.com)
  • Core binding factors are composed of: a non-DNA-binding CBFβ chain (CBFB) a DNA-binding CBFα chain (RUNX1, RUNX2, RUNX3) de Bruijn M, Speck N (2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein produced from the normal CBFB gene interacts with another protein called RUNX1 to form a complex called core binding factor (CBF). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This protein interacts with another protein called core binding factor beta or CBFβ (produced from the CBFB gene), which helps RUNX1 bind to DNA and prevents it from being broken down. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The RUNX1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like other transcription factors, the RUNX1 protein attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene encodes the GA-binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit. (nih.gov)
  • Note: In August, 2008, the nomenclature of the GA binding protein transcription factors was clarified. (nih.gov)
  • Matrix protein p17 has two main functions: in infected cell, it targets Gag and Gag-pol polyproteins to the plasma membrane via a multipartite membrane-binding signal, that includes its myristoylated N-terminus. (proteopedia.org)
  • It binds in the cytoplasm the human BAF protein which prevent autointegration of the viral genome, and might be included in virions at the ration of zero to 3 BAF dimer per virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • Capsid protein p24 forms the conical core that encapsulates the genomic RNA-nucleocapsid complex in the virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • The core is constituted by capsid protein hexamer subunits. (proteopedia.org)
  • ADAM binding protein Eve-1 is required for ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • To better understand how mRNAs are spliced in normal cells and how this is disrupted in cancer, Julian and his colleagues Katja and Michael set out to study FUBP1 (far upstream binding protein 1), which is known to be frequently mutated in gliomas, and to determine whether it has a role in splicing. (imb.de)
  • First, the general TFs (GTFs), including preinitiation complex components TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, and THIIH, are the primary protein factors that are required for the initiation of transcription from the TATA box (or TATA element), then elongation is executed by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • A model is proposed where the relative levels of active antagonist (RsbV1) and switch-protein anti-sigma factor (RsbW) control the availability of σ 66 and subsequently act as a molecular 'throttle' for Chlamydia growth and development. (plos.org)
  • Transcription factor that binds to the interleukin-6 (il-6)-responsive elements identified in the promoters of various acute-phase protein genes. (lu.se)
  • Interacts with hcv core protein. (lu.se)
  • Transcription factor RUNX1 promotes survival of acute myeloid leukemia cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CmABF1 and CmCBF4 were selected as candidate TFs that could directly bind to promoter fragments of CmADC in vitro and in planta to promote its transcription. (eurekalert.org)
  • CAMTAs participate in gene expression regulation by binding to the cis -elements in the promoter regions of numerous target genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Within the RNAP holoenzyme, sigma factors provide promoter recognition specificity to the polymerase and contribute to DNA strand separation, then they dissociate from RNAP core enzyme and transcription initiation follows [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides the vegetative sigma factor, which recognizes the "standard" promoter, many bacteria possess alternative sigma factors that confer altered promoter specificity upon RNAP [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Within this core promoter region we recognized functional binding sites for TFAP2 transcription factors and identified TFAP2 as repressors of the TBX20 gene in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • C promoter binding factor/ Suppressor of Hairless/ lag- 1). (bvsalud.org)
  • POL_HV1Z2 ] Gag-Pol polyprotein and Gag polyprotein may regulate their own translation, by the binding genomic RNA in the 5'-UTR. (proteopedia.org)
  • A transcription regulator activity that modulates transcription of gene sets via selective and non-covalent binding to a specific double-stranded genomic DNA sequence (sometimes referred to as a motif) within a cis-regulatory region. (yeastgenome.org)
  • By using published DNA binding specificity data for five transcription factors active in the early Drosophila embryo, genomic regions containing unusually high concentrations of predicted binding sites were identified for these factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • Using CIS-ANALYST, the distribution of Bcd, Cad, Hb, Kr, and Kni binding sites were examined in a 1-Mb genomic region surrounding the well-characterized eve locus at a site_p value of 0.0003. (sdbonline.org)
  • The head region interacts with actin and includes a segment that attaches (binds) to ATP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nuclear respiratory factor-2 beta subunit-encoding the GABPB1 gene within the occupational environment. (nih.gov)
  • The spectrum of genes harboring germline variants in pediatric MDS has also recently begun to expand beyond transcription factors, including ANKRD26 17 and SRP72 18 . (nature.com)
  • They can bind directly to DRE/CRT (dehydration-responsive element/C repeat) cis -acting elements in the promoters of cold-regulated (COR) genes and trigger their expression to help plants withstand the bitter cold. (eurekalert.org)
  • Promoters of housekeeping genes contain built-in activating motifs for factors such as GABPA and YY1, which decrease the responsiveness of promoters to distal enhancers. (nature.com)
  • For example, steroid and thyroid hormones directly bind to nuclear receptors, which induce expression of specific genes. (intechopen.com)
  • In addition, many of the remaining clusters are adjacent to genes expressed in a pattern characteristic of genes regulated by these factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • Sequences of previously described binding sites were collected for these five factors present in the cis-regulatory regions of known target genes. (sdbonline.org)
  • A model based which contains the Oct4/Sox2/Nanog core as well its interaction upon regulatory mechanisms inferred from ChIP-on-chip and with a few other key genes. (lu.se)
  • To understand the DNA recognition mechanism of zinc finger motifs of transcription factor Sp1, we have determined the solution structure of DNA-binding domain of the Sp1 by solution NMR techniques. (rcsb.org)
  • The DNA-binding domain of Sp1 consists of three Cys(2)His(2)-type zinc finger motifs. (rcsb.org)
  • The presence of CBFβ-MYH11 may block binding of CBF to DNA, impairing its ability to control gene activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recent global analyses of gene transcripts revealed that specific transcription factors (TFs) and their networking systems physiologically correspond to the onset of human diseases, including cancer. (intechopen.com)
  • In this study, a gene encoding for an rpoS -like sigma factor, rpoX , has been cloned and characterized. (hindawi.com)
  • Exceptions are acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and core binding factor AML (i.e. (cap.org)
  • Association of Inherited Genetic Factors With Drug-Induced Hepatic Damage Among Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) act at the crossroads of the transcriptional regulatory network that underlies cold stress response. (eurekalert.org)
  • Given that OKSM (Yamanaka) factors convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, alterations in transcriptional state could affect destiny of the cells. (intechopen.com)
  • Molecular pathogenesis of core binding factor leukemia: current knowledge and future prospects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The precise etiology is unknown, but immunogenetic, immunologic, and environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • From DNA-binding analysis performed by NMR and comparison between structures determined here and previously reported structures of other zinc fingers, it was assumed that DNA recognition modes of fingers 2 and 3 would be similar to those of fingers of Zif268, in which each finger recognizes four base pairs strictly by using residues at positions -1, 2, 3, and 6 of the recognition helix. (rcsb.org)
  • Binds these RNAs through its zinc fingers. (proteopedia.org)
  • Desmoglein 1 is a glycoprotein that belongs to the cadherin superfamily (ie, calcium adhesion molecules present in the desmosomal core). (medscape.com)
  • The research groups of Julian König and Katja Luck (Institute of Molecular Biology, IMB, Mainz, Germany), together with the group of Michael Sattler (Institute of Structural Biology and Technical University of Munich, Germany) have discovered that the proto-oncogene FUBP1 has a previously unknown function as a core splicing component at long introns. (imb.de)
  • To investigate whether binding site clustering could help to explain the specificity of these factors for eve , a simple notion of binding site clustering was incorporated into CIS-ANALYST, allowing searches for segments of a specified length containing a minimum number of predicted binding sites. (sdbonline.org)
  • The transcription factors Bicoid (Bcd), Caudal (Cad), Hunchback (Hb), Krüppel (Kr), and Knirps (Kni) act at very early stages of Drosophila development to define the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. (sdbonline.org)
  • Their roles in intracellular signalling pathways suggest factors such as STAT3 might be involved in ageing and/or age-related disease [ 266 ]. (senescence.info)
  • Epidermal exposure to UV light may enhance autoantibody epidermal binding and preferential neutrophil adhesion, which can contribute to acantholysis in endemic pemphigus foliaceus. (medscape.com)
  • This capsid restriction by TRIM5 is one of the factors which restricts HIV-1 to the human species (By similarity). (proteopedia.org)
  • It is proposed that this relaxed property of finger 1 allows transcription factor Sp1 to bind various DNA sequences with high affinity. (rcsb.org)
  • The binding sequences for each factor were aligned by using the motif-assembly program, and the binding specificities of each factor were modeled with position weight matrices (PWMs). (sdbonline.org)
  • PWMs are a useful way to represent binding specificities and provide a statistical framework for searching for novel instances of the motif in genome sequences (Berman, 2002). (sdbonline.org)
  • Recently, genome sequences revealed that in addition to rpoS , an rpoS -like sigma factor was found in V. alginolyticus 12G01. (hindawi.com)
  • 1979. Transition and heavy metal inhibition of ligand binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from rat brain. (cdc.gov)
  • Activity of these inhibitors depends on their mechanism of receptor binding (active vs inactive conformation) and efficacy against the FLT3-ITD and -TKD mutations (type 1 inhibitors are active both on FLT3 -ITD and TKD, whereas type 2 inhibitors are active only on FLT3 -ITD). (dovepress.com)
  • Indeed, when the researchers analysed sequencing data from glioma patients, they found that patients with FUBP1 loss-of-function mutations had more skipping of exons with long adjacent introns than patients with mutations in other splicing factors. (imb.de)
  • Mutation and in vitro DNA binding studies completed on a subset of the CRMs provide evidence for a direct regulatory relationship. (sdbonline.org)
  • Transcription factors like those of the STAT family are activated by growth factors and cytokines. (senescence.info)
  • The T-box family of transcription factors has been shown to have major impact on human development and disease. (nih.gov)
  • We estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among residents of Hillsborough County, Florida, USA, to determine factors independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody status overall and among asymptomatic antibody-positive persons. (cdc.gov)
  • The goals of this study were to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among Hillsborough County residents and to determine the demographic and behavioral factors independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody status overall and among asymptomatic antibody-positive persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Particle-enhanced assays were based on the reaction between a soluble analyte and the corresponding antigen or antibody bound to polystyrene particles. (cdc.gov)
  • pRB functions as a negative regulatory transcription factor during the G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. (medscape.com)
  • A common feature of these cis-regulatory modules is the presence of multiple binding sites for multiple transcription factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • Whether this cluster of binding sites might be the gt posterior enhancer was evaluated. (sdbonline.org)
  • The FH domain is a winged helix DNA-binding domain. (nih.gov)
  • By comparing the complete genomes from cancerous and normal cells for about 800 patients, we have successfully pinpointed the genetic factors behind some of the toughest pediatric cancers. (stjude.org)
  • At the core of the network reside Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, into embryonic stem cells [1,2,3,4,5], have made major inroads which form a self-organized core of the TFs maintaining into stem cell biology. (lu.se)
  • RCSB PDB Core Operations are funded by the National Science Foundation (DBI-1832184), the US Department of Energy (DE-SC0019749), and the National Cancer Institute , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases , and National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant R01GM133198. (rcsb.org)
  • While this article focuses on specific VR issues, most of the origins are core optimization areas such as poly counts, common performance mistakes, and knowing the more efficient but relative quality solution to apply. (intel.com)
  • Post translationally, histones are modified in a variety of ways to either directly change the chromatin structure or allow for the binding of specific transcription factors. (fishersci.com)
  • A tRNA(3)-Lys binds to the primer-binding site (PBS) situated at the 5'-end of the viral RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • They find that FUBP1 is responsible for stabilising the binding of other splicing factors to the 3' splice site. (imb.de)
  • A significant fraction of these binding site clusters overlap known CRMs that are regulated by these factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • Alternative sigma factors are synthesized or activated in response to certain environmental conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • These alternative sigma factors are further classified by the physiological processes that they control, for example, stress response and flagella biosynthesis [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • You need to determine the STD-related risk factors among target populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Questions cover behavioral risk factors (e.g., alcohol and tobacco use), preventive health measures, health status, limitation of activity, and health care access and utilization. (cdc.gov)
  • To study the effects and importance of fluoride on FBs in the development of extraperiosteal calcification and the ossification of skeletal fluorosis, the presence of the osteogenic phenotype, which is indicated by the expression of core-binding factor a1 (Cbfa1) and osteocalcin (OCN), in an FB cell line (L929) and in osteoblasts (OBs) exposed to fluoride was determined. (fluoridealert.org)
  • p53 is a transcription factor whose expression is increased by DNA damage and blocks cell division at the G1 phase of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair. (medscape.com)
  • The study included 153 patients who were newly diagnosed with core-binding factor AML and treated with FLAG-based regimens between 2017 and 2018. (ascopost.com)
  • ABA-responsive element (ABRE)-binding factors (ABFs) are core components in ABA signaling and are broadly involved in plant growth and development, as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses such as cold. (eurekalert.org)
  • are quantifiable measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect the critical success factors of an organisation. (who.int)
  • It shows no stimulation by ATP, suggesting that factors promoting product release are missing from the recombinant enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • For each component, a set of core indicators has been agreed. (who.int)
  • We are currently assessing the capacity of each country in generating reliable data for the 68 core indicators of the framework. (who.int)
  • Because this genetic change affects CBF, the condition is classified as core binding factor AML (CBF-AML). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTA) play critical roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • A growing body of evidence has identified fibrinogen as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in the U.S. The objective of including this measure was to provide data on laboratory, clinical, and socio-demographic correlates of fibrinogen levels. (cdc.gov)
  • To the extent that [ 11 C]DASB binding provides an index of the integrity of serotonin neurons, our findings suggest that MDMA use may not result in long-term damage to serotonin neurons when used recreationally in humans. (cambridge.org)
  • The same clustering criteria that were successful for identifying CRMs in eve (700-bp regions with at least 13 predicted binding sites) identified clusters overlapping 14 of these 19 known CRMs (Berman, 2002). (sdbonline.org)
  • This article is about why Ambedkar took so long time to decide to convert, the various inherent factors involved in it and its after effects. (buddhismtoday.com)

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