A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
Heterodimeric transcription factors containing a DNA-binding alpha subunits, (CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS), along with a non-DNA-binding beta subunits, CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT. Core Binding Factor regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

A mechanism of repression by acute myeloid leukemia-1, the target of multiple chromosomal translocations in acute leukemia. (1/119)

AML1 is one of the most frequently translocated genes in human leukemia. Here we demonstrate that acute myeloid leukemia-1 (AML-1) (Runx-1) represses transcription from a native promoter, p21(Waf1/Cip1). Unexpectedly, this repression did not require interactions with the Groucho co-repressor. To define the mechanism of repression, we asked whether other co-repressors could interact with AML-1. We demonstrate that AML-1 interacts with the mSin3 co-repressors. Moreover, endogenous AML-1 associated with endogenous mSin3A in mammalian cells. A deletion mutant of AML-1 that did not interact with mSin3A failed to repress transcription. The AML-1/mSin3 association suggests a mechanism of repression for the chromosomal translocation fusion proteins that disrupt AML-1.  (+info)

Indispensable role of the transcription factor PEBP2/CBF in angiogenic activity of a murine endothelial cell MSS31. (2/119)

Mice lacking the AML1/PEBP2alphaB/CBFa2 gene or PEBP2beta/CBFb gene exhibit a defect in definitive hematopoiesis and die in utero because of hemorrhage in the central nervous system. Hematopoiesis in the embryo is considered to be tightly associated with vascular development. Here we examined whether PEBP2/CBF plays any role in angiogenesis besides that in definitive hematopoiesis. We found that AML1/PEBP2alphaB/CBFa2, PEBP2alphaA/CBFa1, and PEBP2beta/CBFb were expressed in a murine endothelial cell line MSS31. The expression of these molecules as well as the DNA binding activity of PEBP2/CBF were augmented by angiogenic growth factors such as bFGF and VEGF. Moreover, the expression of PEBP2 alpha/CBFa protein in endothelial cells was confirmed at the site of angiogenesis in vivo. To further clarify the role of PEBP2/CBF in angiogenesis, we established permanent transfectants of PEBP2 beta-MYH11 gene, one that interacts with the runt domain of the alpha subunit and deregulates PEBP2/CBF in a dominant interfering manner. Proliferation, migration, and tube formation of the PEBP2 beta-MYH11 transfectants were significantly reduced in comparison with those activities of the mock transfectants. These results suggest that transcription factor PEBP2/CBF plays an important role in angiogenesis.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of interactions between the core binding factor alpha and beta subunits and DNA. (3/119)

Core binding factors (CBFs) play key roles in several developmental pathways and in human disease. CBFs consist of a DNA binding CBFalpha subunit and a non-DNA binding CBFbeta subunit that increases the affinity of CBFalpha for DNA. We performed sedimentation equilibrium analyses to unequivocally establish the stoichiometry of the CBFalpha:beta:DNA complex. Dissociation constants for all four equilibria involving the CBFalpha Runt domain, CBFbeta, and DNA were defined. Conformational changes associated with interactions between CBFalpha, CBFbeta, and DNA were monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The data suggest that CBFbeta 'locks in' a high affinity DNA binding conformation of the CBFalpha Runt domain.  (+info)

Runt domain factor (Runx)-dependent effects on CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein delta expression and activity in osteoblasts. (4/119)

Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) is normally associated with acute-phase gene expression. However, it is expressed constitutively in primary osteoblast cultures where it increases insulin-like growth factor I synthesis in a cAMP-dependent way. Here we show that the 3' proximal region of the C/EBPdelta gene promoter contains a binding sequence for Runt domain factor Runx2, which is essential for osteogenesis. This region of the C/EBPdelta promoter directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts, and specifically bound Runx2 in osteoblast-derived nuclear extract. C/EBPdelta gene promoter activity was reduced by mutating the Runx binding sequence or by co-transfecting with Runx2 antisense expression plasmid, and was enhanced by overexpression of Runx-2. Exposure to prostaglandin E(2) increased Runx-dependent gene transactivation independently of Runx2 binding to DNA. Runx2 bound directly to the carboxyl-terminal region of C/EBPdelta itself, and its ability to drive C/EBPdelta expression was suppressed when C/EBPdelta or its carboxyl-terminal fragment was increased by overexpression. Consistent effects also occurred on C/EBPdelta-dependent increases in gene expression driven by synthetic or insulin-like growth factor I gene promoter fragments. These interactions between Runx2 and C/EBPdelta, and their activation by prostaglandin E(2), provide new evidence for their importance during skeletal remodeling, inflammatory bone disease, or fracture repair.  (+info)

Energetic and functional contribution of residues in the core binding factor beta (CBFbeta ) subunit to heterodimerization with CBFalpha. (5/119)

Core-binding factors (CBFs) are a small family of heterodimeric transcription factors that play critical roles in several developmental pathways, including hematopoiesis and bone development. Mutations in CBF genes are found in leukemias and bone disorders. CBFs consist of a DNA-binding CBFalpha subunit (Runx1, Runx2, or Runx3) and a non-DNA-binding CBFbeta subunit. CBFalpha binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner, whereas CBFbeta enhances DNA binding by CBFalpha. Recent structural analyses of the DNA-binding Runt domain of CBFalpha and the CBFbeta subunit identified the heterodimerization surfaces on each subunit. Here we identify amino acids in CBFbeta that mediate binding to CBFalpha. We determine the energy contributed by each of these amino acids to heterodimerization and the importance of these residues for in vivo function. These data refine the structural analyses and further support the hypothesis that CBFbeta enhances DNA binding by inducing a conformational change in the Runt domain.  (+info)

Association with the nuclear matrix and interaction with Groucho and RUNX proteins regulate the transcription repression activity of the basic helix loop helix factor Hes1. (6/119)

Hairy/Enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) is a mammalian transcriptional repressor that plays crucial roles in the regulation of several developmental processes, including neuronal differentiation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that regulate the transcription repression activity of Hes1. It is shown here that Hes1 associates with the nuclear matrix, the ribonucleoprotein network of the nucleus that plays important roles in transcriptional regulation. Nuclear matrix binding is mediated by the same Hes1 C-terminal domain that is also required for transcriptional repression. This domain contains the WRPW motif that acts as a binding site for the transcriptional corepressor Groucho, which also localizes to the nuclear matrix. Both the nuclear matrix association and transcription repression activity of Hes1 are inhibited by deletion of the WRPW motif, indicating that Groucho acts as a transcriptional corepressor for Hes1. This corepressor role is not modulated by the Groucho-related gene product Grg5. In contrast, the Runt-related protein RUNX2, which localizes to the nuclear matrix and interacts with Groucho and Hes1, can inhibit both the Groucho.Hes1 interaction and the transcription repression ability of Hes1. Together, these observations suggest that transcriptional repression by Hes1 requires interactions with Groucho at the nuclear matrix and that RUNX proteins act as negative regulators of the repressive activity of Groucho.Hes1 complexes.  (+info)

Cloning and embryonic expression patterns of the zebrafish Runt domain genes, runxa and runxb. (7/119)

We isolated zebrafish homologues of the Runt-related transcription factor gene family (Runx family), runxa and runxb, and analyzed their developmental expression patterns. The deduced amino acid sequence of Runxa was highly homologous to that of AML1 (also called CBFA2, PEBP2alphaB or Runx1), a critical regulator of mammalian hematopoiesis expressed in cells of the hematopoietic lineage as well as other tissues. During zebrafish development, the runxa gene was not expressed in hematopoietic tissues but in the olfactory placodes and cells attached to the otic vesicles. We identified three kinds of runxb transcripts, which encoded two types of proteins with different N-terminal regions. The Runxb proteins were highly similar to AML2 (CBFA3, PEBP2alphaC or Runx3). The expression sites of the shared region of runxb mRNAs during development were the trigeminal ganglions, dorsal neurons of the neural tube and the lateral line primordia. These findings show that expression patterns of the zebrafish Runx genes are distinct from that of the mammalian genes.  (+info)

Zebrafish homolog of the leukemia gene CBFB: its expression during embryogenesis and its relationship to scl and gata-1 in hematopoiesis. (8/119)

Mammalian CBFB encodes a transcription factor (CBF beta) that in combination with CBF alpha 2 binds to specific DNA sequences and regulates expression of a number of hematopoietic genes. CBFB is associated with human leukemias through a chromosome 16 inversion and is essential for definitive hematopoiesis during mouse embryo development. We have isolated a zebrafish cbfb complementary DNA (cDNA) clone from a zebrafish kidney cDNA library. This cbfb is highly homologous to human and mouse CBFB/Cbfb genes at both the DNA and protein level. In biochemical analyses, cbfbeta binds to human CBF alpha 2 and enhances its DNA binding. During zebrafish development, cbfb is expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm at tail bud stage and in the intermediate cell mass (ICM, the location of embryonic hematopoiesis) between the 21- to 26-somite stages. The cbfb is also expressed in Rohon-Beard cells, cranial nerve ganglia, hindbrain, retina, branchial arches, jaw, and fin buds. Expression of cbfb is decreased or absent in the ICM and Rohon-Beard cells in some hematopoietic mutants and is unaffected in others. We have also analyzed the expression of scl and gata-1 in the same hematopoietic mutants to ascertain the relative order of these transcription factors to cbfb in zebrafish hematopoiesis. Our results indicate that cbfb is expressed in early hematopoietic progenitors and that its expression pattern in the hematopoietic mutants is similar to that of scl. (Blood. 2000;96:4178-4184)  (+info)

Core Binding Factor (CBF) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development and differentiation of various tissues, including hematopoietic cells. It is composed of two subunits: alpha (CBFA or AML1) and beta (CBFB or PEBP2b).

The CBFA subunit, also known as RUNX1, is a transcription factor that binds to DNA and regulates the expression of target genes involved in hematopoiesis, neurogenesis, and other developmental processes. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the runt homology domain (RHD) that recognizes specific DNA sequences.

Mutations in CBFA have been associated with various hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML (FDPA). These mutations can lead to altered gene expression, impaired differentiation, and increased proliferation of hematopoietic cells, contributing to the development of these diseases.

Core binding factors (CBFs) are a group of proteins that play critical roles in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, which are the cells responsible for the formation of blood and immune systems. The term "core binding factor" refers to the ability of these proteins to bind to specific DNA sequences, known as core binding sites, and regulate gene transcription.

The two main CBFs are:

1. Core Binding Factor Alpha (CBF-α): Also known as RUNX1 or AML1, this protein forms a complex with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to regulate the expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis. Mutations in CBF-α have been associated with various types of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.
2. Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β): Also known as PEBP2B, this protein partners with CBF-α to form the active transcription factor complex. CBF-β enhances the DNA binding affinity and stability of the CBF-α/CBF-β heterodimer.

In certain types of leukemia, chromosomal abnormalities can lead to the formation of fusion proteins involving CBF-α or CBF-β. These fusion proteins disrupt normal hematopoiesis and contribute to the development of cancer. Examples include the t(8;21) translocation that creates the AML1/ETO fusion protein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the inv(16) inversion that forms the CBFB-MYH11 fusion protein in AML.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit, also known as CBF-A1 or RUNX1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis, which is the process of blood cell development. It is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) complex, which regulates gene transcription and is essential for the differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature blood cells.

The CBF complex consists of three subunits: CBF-A, CBF-B, and a histone deacetylase (HDAC). The CBF-A subunit can have several isoforms, including CBF-A1, which is encoded by the RUNX1 gene. Mutations in the RUNX1 gene have been associated with various hematological disorders, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), familial platelet disorder with propensity to develop AML, and thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome.

CBF-A1/RUNX1 functions as a transcription factor that binds to DNA at specific sequences called core binding factors, thereby regulating the expression of target genes involved in hematopoiesis. Proper regulation of these genes is essential for normal blood cell development and homeostasis.

Core Binding Factor-beta (CBF-β) is a subunit of the Core Binding Factor (CBF), which is a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of a DNA-binding alpha subunit and a non-DNA binding beta subunit. The CBF plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell development, by regulating the expression of various genes involved in this process.

The CBF-β subunit is a 36 kDa protein that is encoded by the CBFB gene in humans. It does not bind to DNA directly but instead forms a complex with the DNA-binding alpha subunit, which is either RUNX1 (also known as AML1), RUNX2, or RUNX3. The CBF-β subunit stabilizes the interaction between the alpha subunit and DNA, enhances its DNA-binding affinity, and increases the transcriptional activity of the complex.

Mutations in the CBFB gene have been associated with several hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML (FPD/AML). These mutations can lead to aberrant transcriptional regulation of hematopoietic genes, resulting in the development of these disorders.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit, also known as CBF-A2 or CEBP-α, is a protein that forms a complex with other proteins to act as a transcription factor. Transcription factors are proteins that help regulate the expression of genes by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA.

CBF-A2 is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, which are important in regulating various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and inflammation. CBF-A2 forms a heterodimer with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to form the active transcription factor complex known as the core binding factor (CBF).

The CBF complex binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes. By binding to this sequence, the CBF complex can either activate or repress the transcription of target genes, depending on the context and the presence of other regulatory factors.

Mutations in the gene encoding CBF-A2 have been associated with several human diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma. In AML, mutations in the CBF-A2 gene can lead to the formation of abnormal CBF complexes that disrupt normal gene expression patterns and contribute to the development of leukemia.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit (also known as CBFA3 or AML1) is a protein that forms part of a complex responsible for the regulation of gene transcription, particularly those involved in hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells). It is a member of the runt-domain family of transcription factors and plays a critical role in normal blood cell development.

Mutations in the CBFA3 gene have been associated with certain types of leukemia, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These mutations can lead to abnormal blood cell development and cancer.

Transcription Factor AP-2 is a specific protein involved in the process of gene transcription. It belongs to a family of transcription factors known as Activating Enhancer-Binding Proteins (AP-2). These proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called enhancers, which are located near the genes they control.

AP-2 is composed of four subunits that form a homo- or heterodimer, which then binds to the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. This sequence is typically found in the promoter regions of target genes. Once bound, AP-2 can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors.

AP-2 plays crucial roles during embryonic development, particularly in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and face. It is also involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of AP-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including various types of cancer.

Smooth muscle myosin is a type of motor protein that is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles, which are found in various organs such as the bladder, blood vessels, and digestive tract. Smooth muscle myosin is composed of two heavy chains and four light chains, forming a hexameric structure. The heavy chains have an N-terminal head domain that contains the ATPase activity and a C-terminal tail domain that mediates filament assembly.

The smooth muscle myosin molecule has several unique features compared to other types of myosins, such as skeletal or cardiac myosin. For example, smooth muscle myosin has a longer lever arm, which allows for greater force generation during contraction. Additionally, the regulatory mechanism of smooth muscle myosin is different from that of skeletal or cardiac myosin. In smooth muscles, the contractile activity is regulated by phosphorylation of the light chains, which is mediated by a specific kinase called myosin light chain kinase (MLCK).

Overall, the proper regulation and function of smooth muscle myosin are critical for maintaining normal physiological functions in various organs. Dysregulation or mutations in smooth muscle myosin can lead to several diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Human chromosome pair 16 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 16 contains two homologous chromosomes, which are similar in size, shape, and genetic content but may have slight variations due to differences in the DNA sequences inherited from each parent.

Chromosome pair 16 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs, meaning it contains non-sex chromosomes that are present in both males and females. Chromosome 16 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it contains around 2,800 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 16 can lead to genetic disorders such as chronic myeloid leukemia, some forms of mental retardation, and other developmental abnormalities.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

A chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement where a segment of a chromosome has been reversed end to end, so that its order of genes is opposite to the original. This means that the gene sequence on the segment of the chromosome has been inverted.

In an inversion, the chromosome breaks in two places, and the segment between the breaks rotates 180 degrees before reattaching. This results in a portion of the chromosome being inverted, or turned upside down, relative to the rest of the chromosome.

Chromosome inversions can be either paracentric or pericentric. Paracentric inversions involve a segment that does not include the centromere (the central constriction point of the chromosome), while pericentric inversions involve a segment that includes the centromere.

Inversions can have various effects on an individual's phenotype, depending on whether the inversion involves genes and if so, how those genes are affected by the inversion. In some cases, inversions may have no noticeable effect, while in others they may cause genetic disorders or predispose an individual to certain health conditions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

A protein subunit refers to a distinct and independently folding polypeptide chain that makes up a larger protein complex. Proteins are often composed of multiple subunits, which can be identical or different, that come together to form the functional unit of the protein. These subunits can interact with each other through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces, as well as covalent bonds like disulfide bridges. The arrangement and interaction of these subunits contribute to the overall structure and function of the protein.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Human chromosome pair 21 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and they are identical to each other. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains genetic information that determines many of an individual's traits and characteristics.

Chromosome pair 21 is one of the 23 pairs of human autosomal chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y). Chromosome pair 21 is the smallest of the human chromosomes, and it contains approximately 48 million base pairs of DNA. It contains around 200-300 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Down syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delays, distinct facial features, and sometimes heart defects, is caused by an extra copy of chromosome pair 21 or a part of it. This additional genetic material can lead to abnormalities in brain development and function, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of Down syndrome.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Protein CBFA2T3 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: CBFA2T3 core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3". Hoogeveen AT, Rossetti S, ... Calabi F, Cilli V (Dec 1998). "CBFA2T1 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3), a gene ... and a brefeldin A-sensitive association of RII-alpha protein with one of the isoforms has been demonstrated in the Golgi ...
"Entrez Gene: CBFA2T2 core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 2". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, ... The protein encoded by this gene binds to the AML1-MTG8 complex and may be important in promoting leukemogenesis. Several ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 20 gene stubs). ...
... subunit of 150 kDa, a beta prime subunit (β′) of 155 kDa, and a small omega (ω) subunit. A sigma (σ) factor binds to the core, ... RNA polymerase "core" from E. coli consists of five subunits: two alpha (α) subunits of 36 kDa, a beta (β) ... The core enzyme has five subunits (~400 kDa): β′ The β′ subunit is the largest subunit, and is encoded by the rpoC gene. The β ... The ω subunit facilitates assembly of RNAP and stabilizes assembled RNAP. In order to bind promoters, RNAP core associates with ...
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) also known as core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (CBF-alpha-1) is a protein that ... The protein can bind DNA both as a monomer or, with more affinity, as a subunit of a heterodimeric complex. Transcript variants ... This protein is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and has a Runt DNA-binding domain. It is essential for ... Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) are cofactors of Runx2. Binding of the ...
... core-binding factor (CBF), alpha-B subunit, etc.) binds to the core site, 5'-pygpyggt-3', of a number of enhancers and ... The protein is a heterodimer of alpha- and beta-subunits. The alpha-subunit binds DNA as a monomer, and appears to have a role ... highly similar to the Drosophila melanogaster segmentation gene runt and to the mouse transcription factor PEBP2 alpha subunit ... In addition to the highly conserved Runt domain, the AML-1 gene product carries a putative ATP-binding site (GRSGRGKS), and has ...
... or core-binding factor subunit alpha-2 (CBFA2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1 gene. RUNX1 is a ... a DNA binding CBFα chain (RUNX1 or RUNX2) and a non-DNA-binding subunit called core binding factor β (CBFβ); the binding ... Wang, S, Speck, NA (January 1992). "Purification of core-binding factor, a protein that binds the conserved core site in murine ... It belongs to the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) family of genes which are also called core binding factor-α (CBFα). ...
The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position ... Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 11 also known as TAFII28, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF11 ... The conserved region contains four alpha helices and three loops arranged as in histone H3. TAF11 has been shown to interact ... In molecular biology, TAFII28 refers to the TATA box binding protein associated factor. Together with the TATA-binding protein ...
... it allosterically enhances DNA binding by the alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and ... Core-binding factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBFB gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: CBFB core-binding factor, beta subunit". The Cancer Genome Atlas Network (2012). "Comprehensive molecular ... the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the PEBP2/CBF transcription factor family ...
These core binding factors, or nuclear factors (NF-Y), are composed of three subunits - NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. Whereas in ... The first domain (A1) contains 20 amino acids that forms an alpha helix that appears significant in its interactions with NF-YB ... It is essential to the transcription that these core binding factors (also referred to as nuclear factor Y or NF-Y) are able to ... the core binding factor (CBF)-DNA complex retains a high degree of conservation within the CCAAT binding motif, as well as the ...
The core RNA polymerase (consisting of 2 alpha (α), 1 beta (β), 1 beta-prime (β'), and 1 omega (ω) subunits) binds a sigma ... Due to the higher expression, the factor will bind with a high probability to the polymerase-core-enzyme. Doing so, other ... Instead, it changes its binding with the core during initiation and elongation. Therefore, the sigma factor cycles between a ... Different sigma factors are utilized under different environmental conditions. These specialized sigma factors bind the ...
... which include two alphas, a beta, and a beta prime (α, α, β, and β'). A fifth subunit, sigma (called the σ-factor), is only ... The binding of the σ-factor to the promoter is the first step in initiation. Once the σ-factor releases from the polymerase, ... When the σ-factor detaches, it is in core polymerase form. The σ-factor recognizes promoter sequences at -35 and -10 regions ... Bacteria have a σ-factor that detects and binds to promoter sites but eukaryotes do not need a σ-factor. Instead, eukaryotes ...
"Core-binding factor β and Runx transcription factors promote adaptive natural killer cell responses". Science Immunology. 2 (18 ... Binding of IL-12 to IL-12R, which is composed of two different subunits (IL12Rβ1 and IL12Rβ2), leads to the interaction of ... "Increased sensitivity to interferon-alpha in psoriatic T cells". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 125 (5): 936-44. doi ... association with regulatory factors; 3. central DNA-binding domain - binding to the enhancer region of IFN-γ activated sequence ...
Selective factor 1 is composed of the TATA-binding protein and three TAF (TATA box-binding protein-associated factor) subunits ... It contains two short alpha helices and a long central alpha helix. TAF1 (TAFII250) TAF2 (CIF150) TAF3 (TAFII140) TAF4 ( ... for example the downstream promoter element or gene-specific core promoter sequence Due to such interactions, they contribute ... The TBP-associated factors (TAF) are proteins that associate with the TATA-binding protein in transcription initiation. It is a ...
This gene encodes a germ cell-specific counterpart of the large (alpha/beta) subunit of general transcription factor TFIIA that ... pre-initiation complex on a eukaryotic core promoter involve the effects of TFIIA on the interaction between TATA-binding ... TFIIA-alpha and beta-like factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2A1L gene. The assembly and stability of the ... "Entrez Gene: ALF TFIIA-alpha/beta-like factor". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ...
This gene encodes one of the smaller subunits of TFIID that binds to the basal transcription factor GTF2B as well as to several ... The protein complex that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to ... "Induced alpha helix in the VP16 activation domain upon binding to a human TAF". Science. 277 (5330): 1310-3. doi:10.1126/ ... TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa, also known as TAF9, is a protein that in ...
One species that looked at is Drosophila, and in the subunits of the Drosophila transcription initiation factor has specific ... conserved motif found near the C-terminus in every core histone sequence in a histone octamer responsible for the binding of ... The histone fold averages about 70 amino acids and consists of three alpha helices connected by two short, unstructured loops. ... Also the histone fold was first found in TATA box-binding protein-associated factors, which is a main component in ...
This complex consists of three membrane proteins- alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the beta-subunit protein. The Sec61 ... Chen Y, Le Cahérec F, Chuck SL (1998). "Calnexin and other factors that alter translocation affect the rapid binding of ... Knight BC, High S (1998). "Membrane integration of Sec61alpha: a core component of the endoplasmic reticulum translocation ... 1999). "A novel ADP-ribosylation like factor (ARL-6), interacts with the protein-conducting channel SEC61beta subunit". FEBS ...
The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position ... "Structure-function analysis of the estrogen receptor alpha corepressor scaffold attachment factor-B1: identification of a ... This gene encodes a subunit of TFIID present in a subset of TFIID complexes. Translocations involving chromosome 17 and ... TATA-binding protein-associated factor 2N is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF15 gene. Initiation of transcription ...
In normoxia, HIF alpha subunits are marked for the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway through hydroxylation of proline- ... "Structural basis for binding of hypoxia-inducible factor to the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases". Structure. 17 (7): 981-9. ... The catalytic domain consists of a double-stranded β-helix core that is stabilized by three α-helices packed along the major β- ... X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy showed that both peptides bind to the same binding site on PHD2, in a cleft on the ...
The smaller subunit of this Damaged DNA Binding protein complex is known as DDB2 and is able to directly bind DNA lesions ... Recent reports show that IMiDs bind to CRL4CRBN and promote the degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 transcription factors, which are ... RBX1 is a core component of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes and functions to recruit E2 ubiquitin conjugating ... CUL4A protein is 759 amino acids long and forms an extended, rigid structure primarily consisting of alpha-helices. At the N- ...
Chen Y; Le Cahérec F; Chuck SL (1998). "Calnexin and other factors that alter translocation affect the rapid binding of ... This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also contains beta and gamma subunits. GRCh38: ... Knight BC; High S (1998). "Membrane integration of Sec61alpha: a core component of the endoplasmic reticulum translocation ... Protein transport protein Sec61 subunit alpha isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEC61A1 gene. The protein ...
"The alpha-like RNA polymerase II core subunit 3 (RPB3) is involved in tissue-specific transcription and muscle differentiation ... cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIB". J. Mol. Biol. 261 (5): 599-606. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... "HIV-1 Tat acts as a processivity factor in vitro in conjunction with cellular elongation factors". Genes Dev. 6 (4): 655-66. ... The product of this gene exists as a heterodimer with another polymerase subunit; together they form a core subassembly unit of ...
"The XPB subunit of repair/transcription factor TFIIH directly interacts with SUG1, a subunit of the 26S proteasome and putative ... which interacts with the seven-membered alpha ring of 20S core particle and establishes an asymmetric interface between the 19S ... It also have subunits that can bind with nucleotides (e.g., ATPs) in order to facilitate the association between 19S and 20S ... These subunits can be categorized into two classes based on the ATP dependence of subunits, ATP-dependent subunits and ATP- ...
The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are ... It also binds closely to the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, which is a regulator of the degradation of p53 and retinoblastoma ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes ...
"Multidomain organization of eukaryotic guanine nucleotide exchange translation initiation factor eIF-2B subunits revealed by ... The structure can be divided into a structural C-terminal core onto which the two N-terminal helices are attached. The core ... The W2 domain has a globular fold and is exclusively composed out of alpha-helices. ... the eIF-W2 domain functions as the binding site for Mnk eIF4E kinase, an enzyme that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation ...
It belongs to the thioredoxin superfamily fold which is defined by a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helices. The active ... This two-subunit enzyme produces resistance to arsenite and antimonite. Arsenate, however, must first be reduced to arsenite ... Li S, Rosen BP, Borges-Walmsley MI, Walmsley AR (July 2002). "Evidence for cooperativity between the four binding sites of ... The arsC family also comprises the Spx proteins which are Gram-positive bacterial transcription factors that regulate the ...
This contains a core of two compact domains with each having five alpha helices. The first five-helix bundle is a conserved ... Viral cyclin D binds human Cdk6 and inhibits Rb by phosphorylating it, resulting in free transcription factors which result in ... A simplification in yeast is that all cyclins bind to the same Cdc subunit, the Cdc28. Cyclins in yeast are controlled by ... A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast ...
November 1993). "A third recognition element in bacterial promoters: DNA binding by the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase". ... RNA polymerase holoenzymes containing other sigma factors recognize different core promoter sequences. ← upstream downstream ... In the case of a transcription factor binding site, there may be a single sequence that binds the protein most strongly under ... An inactive enhancer may be bound by an inactive transcription factor. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor may activate ...
Ruediger R, Fields K, Walter G (1999). "Binding specificity of protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme for regulatory B subunits and ... 1990). "alpha- and beta-forms of the 65-kDa subunit of protein phosphatase 2A have a similar 39 amino acid repeating structure ... Hong Y, Sarge KD (1999). "Regulation of protein phosphatase 2A activity by heat shock transcription factor 2". J. Biol. Chem. ... It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, ...
The core enzyme of RNA polymerase has five subunits (protein subunits) (~400 kDa). Because of the RNA polymerase association ... with sigma factor, the complete RNA polymerase therefore has 6 subunits: the sigma subunit-in addition to the two alpha (α), ... also known as basal transcriptional factors, are a class of protein transcription factors that bind to specific sites (promoter ... The RNA polymerase core associates with the sigma factor to form RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Sigma factor reduces the affinity ...
Protein CBFA2T3 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: CBFA2T3 core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3". Hoogeveen AT, Rossetti S, ... Calabi F, Cilli V (Dec 1998). "CBFA2T1 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3), a gene ... and a brefeldin A-sensitive association of RII-alpha protein with one of the isoforms has been demonstrated in the Golgi ...
The RUNX1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Learn about this ... SL3-3 enhancer factor 1 alpha B subunit. *SL3/AKV core-binding factor alpha B subunit ... Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia. A rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material involving the RUNX1 gene is ... This protein interacts with another protein called core binding factor beta or CBFβ (produced from the CBFB gene), which helps ...
core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 1; cyclin D-related ... The protein produced from the normal RUNX1 gene is part of a protein complex known as core binding factor (CBF). As part of CBF ... Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia. A rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material involving the RUNX1T1 gene is ... Molecular pathogenesis of core binding factor leukemia: current knowledge and future prospects. Int J Hematol. 2011 Aug;94(2): ...
CBF-alpha-3; core binding factor alpha 3; Core-binding factor subunit alpha-3; core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit ... Runt-related transcription factor 3; SL3-3 enhancer factor 1 alpha C subunit; SL3/AKV core-binding factor alpha C subunit; ... PEA2-alpha C; PEBP2 alpha C; PEBP2-alpha C; Polyomavirus enhancer-binding protein 2 alpha C subunit; runt domain, alpha subunit ... sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding protein binding ATP binding DNA ...
... runt related transcription factor 2, SL3/AKV core-binding factor alpha A subunit, and SL3-3 enhancer factor 1 alpha A subunit. ... Core-binding factor subunit alpha-1, MGC120023, ML3, oncogene AML-3, OSF2, osteoblast-specific transcription factor 2, PEA2aA, ... RUNX2 is a heterodimer of an alpha and beta subunit where the alpha subunit binds DNA through the runt domain and the binding ... Core-binding factor subunit alpha-1. *core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 1 ...
The CBF complex is a heterodimer with a DNA binding alpha subunit and a non-DNA binding beta subunit, CBFβ, which ... Core binding factor AML: This subtype of AML is defined by the presence of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22). Both ... Transcription factors, proteins that bind to the regulatory sequences of target genes, compose the largest class of oncogenes ... genetic alterations have similar effects on core binding factor (CBF), and both are associated with favorable outcomes. ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit Medicine & Life Sciences 59% * Transcription Factors Medicine & Life Sciences 52% ... In this study, we investigated the expression profile of the xCT subunit of the antiporter as well as the master regulator of ... In this study, we investigated the expression profile of the xCT subunit of the antiporter as well as the master regulator of ... In this study, we investigated the expression profile of the xCT subunit of the antiporter as well as the master regulator of ...
Core Binding Factor alpha Subunits 39% * Mutation 37% * Proteins 24% View all 20 research outputs ...
... it allosterically enhances DNA binding by alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and ... The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the ... produces a chimeric transcript consisting of the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion ... The beta subunit is a non-DNA binding regulatory subunit; ... core-binding factor subunit beta , PEBP2B Cellular Localization ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit, Transcription, Genetic, Mice, Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental, Cell Line, Tumor, Female, ... Transcription factor RUNX3 is inactivated in a number of malignancies, including breast cancer, and is suggested to function as ... N2 - Transcription factor RUNX3 is inactivated in a number of malignancies, including breast cancer, and is suggested to ... AB - Transcription factor RUNX3 is inactivated in a number of malignancies, including breast cancer, and is suggested to ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit * Culture Media * Dental Cements * Dentinogenesis * Drug Combinations ...
core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 2 0.349753 ... ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase) ... UTP6, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast) 0.23209 SMARCA2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin ... PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 2 (liprin beta 2) 0.214132 SGIP1 SH3-domain GRB2-like (endophilin) interacting ...
core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 2. nuclear receptor corepressor 2. ... Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). *Constitutive Signaling by ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit. *Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors. *Interferon Regulatory Factors ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit. *Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit ...
Most core are conical, with only 7% tubular. The core is constituted by capsid protein hexamer subunits. The core is ... A tRNA(3)-Lys binds to the primer-binding site (PBS) situated at the 5-end of the viral RNA. RT uses the 3 end of the tRNA ... This capsid restriction by TRIM5 is one of the factors which restricts HIV-1 to the human species (By similarity). Nucleocapsid ... Interaction with human PPIA/CYPA protects the virus from restriction by human TRIM5-alpha and from an unknown antiviral ...
... and core-binding factor subunit alpha (CBFA) complex in the group 4 subgroup. Likewise, single-cell sequencing provided ... The exact etiology of BHT remains unclear, and both extrinsic and intrinsic factors are potentially contributive. Several types ... fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 (-51%) and serum phosphate levels (-19%), renal angiotensin II concentration (-43%), fibrosis ... index (-70%), renal expressions of collagen I (-55%) and transforming growth factor ß (-59%) (p. ...
However depletion of the large Pol_II subunit Rpb1 by a 4h alpha-amanitin treatment did not significantly alter nucleosome ... 100 bp having a central core of G+C rich sequences that promote nucleosome occupancy (Tillo and Hughes 2009 (Fig. 2A). Next we ... Transcription factors (TFs) preferentially bind sites contained in regions of computationally. Transcription factors (TFs) ... Pu.1 binding scores were significantly higher in the 1st decile but related across all the others (Fig. 1C). Taken collectively ...
Crystal structure of full length centaurin alpha-1. 3fm8. Crystal structure of full length centaurin alpha-1 bound with the FHA ... The core of the molecule is an antiparallel beta-sheet consisting of seven strands. The C terminus is folded into a long alpha- ... The PH domain in beta-adrenergic receptor kinase may be involved in binding to the beta gamma subunits of a trimeric G-protein ... A family of NMR solution structures of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) SH2 domain has been determined by ...
Crystal Structure of human DNA polymerase gamma accessory subunit ... subunit that binds with high affinity to the catalytic core, ... and elucidate the role of the accessory subunit as a novel type of processivity factor in stimulating pol gamma activity and in ... pol gamma-alpha, to stimulate its activity and enhance holoenzyme processivity. We find that human pol gamma-beta shares a high ... which suggests multiple regions of subunit interaction between pol gamma-beta and the human catalytic core that allow it to ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit. *Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit. *Dacarbazine. *Deoxycytidine. *Deoxyribose. *Dietary Supplements. *Disease Progression ...
Animals; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; Cell Lineage; Cell Nucleus; Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit; DNA-Binding Proteins; ... Transcription Factor AP-2; Transcription Factors; Transcription, Genetic; Transforming Growth Factor beta. Life Sciences. ...
These are: ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPF1B), collagen alpha-1 chain (COL1A1), epidermal growth factor (EGFR), fibronectin 1 ( ... other classical SASP factors were found, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 binding protein 2-4 (IGFBP2), tissue inhibitor of ... 13 core SASP factors were identified, including three of the four top core SASP proteins, which are GDF15, matrix ... The six proteins with the lowest q-value are chorionic gonadotrophin subunit alpha (CGA), follicle-stimulating hormone subunit ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism ... and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor regulating the function of vascular smooth ... insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7), complement C1qB (C1QB), complement C1qC (C1QC), Caveolin 1 (CAV1), von ... In recent years, studies have shown that aging is one of the risk factors for vascular calcification. The purpose of this study ...
Subunit: Binding of TNF to the extracellular domain leads to homotrimerization. The aggregated death domains provide a novel ... Binds bag4. Constitutively associated with trpc4ap. Interacts with hcv core protein.. Subcellular location: Type I membrane ... Receptor for TNFSF2/TNF-alpha and homotrimeric TNFSF1/lymphotoxin-alpha. The adapter molecule fadd recruits caspase-8 to the ... Photochemically-Enhanced Binding Of Small Molecules To The Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1. ...
core-binding factor subunit beta [Source:.... Q14469. 3280. HES1. hes family bHLH transcription factor 1 [S.... ... PID_P38_ALPHA_BETA_DOWNSTREAM_PATHWAY PID_P38_ALPHA_BETA_PATHWAY PID_P38_GAMMA_DELTA_PATHWAY PID_P38_MK2_PATHWAY PID_P38_MKK3_ ... TFT: Transcription Factor Targets TFT:GTRD: GTRD TFT:TFT_LEGACY: TFT_Legacy C4: Computational 3CA: Curated Cancer Cell Atlas ... PID_ALPHA_SYNUCLEIN_PATHWAY PID_AMB2_NEUTROPHILS_PATHWAY PID_ANGIOPOIETIN_RECEPTOR_PATHWAY PID_ANTHRAX_PATHWAY PID_AP1_PATHWAY ...
The external triphosphate which is subunit protein initiates cardiac recruitment title amino factors( SNAREs), which determine ... ECM-bound transporter and caspase-8 release. NODAL are response-field form. protein quinone cleaves of core results. reviewed ... Alpha proteins are However types new as intestine, von Willebrand heterodimerization, deubiquitination copies and transporter ... Numerous unsaturated synthase cassette factors: a exhibit in the binding of a F1 phosphatase. f corresponding from enzyme ...
... but not by a promoter in which the GATA binding site is mutated, in Caco-2 and nonintestinal QT6 cells. GATA factor binding to ... and exons 1 and 2 interrupted by an approximately 20-kilobase intron at the codon for amino acid 7 of the alpha subunit. The ... EMSAs demonstrated that PDX-1 can interact with the lactase promoter binding site but not with a site in which the core PDX-1 ... but not by a promoter in which the GATA binding site is mutated, in Caco-2 and nonintestinal QT6 cells. GATA factor binding to ...
We determine that recombinant non-core IFT-As can bind directly to lipids and provide the first in-situ evidence of a novel ... alpha-Synuclein and ALPS motifs are membrane curvature sensors whose contrasting chemistry mediates selective vesicle binding. ... We reveal deep sequence homology of WDR35 and other IFT-A subunits to α and ß COPI coatomer subunits, and demonstrate an ... However, the factors promoting rapid granule biogenesis are unknown. Here we show that beta-cell stimulation induces the ...
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, and a brefeldin A-sensitive association of RII-alpha protein with one of the isoforms has been demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RUNX1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like other transcription factors, the RUNX1 protein attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This protein interacts with another protein called core binding factor beta or CBFβ (produced from the CBFB gene), which helps RUNX1 bind to DNA and prevents it from being broken down. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein produced from the normal RUNX1 gene is part of a protein complex known as core binding factor (CBF). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A heterodimer of this protein and a beta subunit forms a complex that binds to the core DNA sequence 5'-PYGPYGGT-3' found in a number of enhancers and promoters, and can either activate or suppress transcription. (thermofisher.com)
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • In femurs of these ovariectomized mice, a significant decrease was seen in mRNA and protein levels of Runx2 along with increased expression of both mRNA and the corresponding protein for the xCT subunit. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the PEBP2/CBF transcription factor family which master-regulates a host of genes specific to hematopoiesis (e.g. (genetex.com)
  • Matrix protein p17 has two main functions: in infected cell, it targets Gag and Gag-pol polyproteins to the plasma membrane via a multipartite membrane-binding signal, that includes its myristoylated N-terminus. (proteopedia.org)
  • It binds in the cytoplasm the human BAF protein which prevent autointegration of the viral genome, and might be included in virions at the ration of zero to 3 BAF dimer per virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • Capsid protein p24 forms the conical core that encapsulates the genomic RNA-nucleocapsid complex in the virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • The core is constituted by capsid protein hexamer subunits. (proteopedia.org)
  • Regulators of small G-proteins like guanine nucleotide releasing factor GNRP (Ras-GRF) (which contains 2 PH domains), guanine nucleotide exchange proteins like vav, dbl, SoS and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC24, GTPase activating proteins like rasGAP and BEM2/IPL2, and the human break point cluster protein bcr. (embl.de)
  • Mouse protein citron, a putative rho/rac effector that binds to the GTP-bound forms of rho and rac. (embl.de)
  • Interacts with hcv core protein. (lu.se)
  • cAMP responsive element binding protein 1. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • protein kinase C alpha [Source:HGNC Symbo. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • E1A binding protein p300 [Source:HGNC Sym. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • protein quinone cleaves of core results. (erik-mill.de)
  • The external triphosphate which is subunit protein initiates cardiac recruitment title amino factors( SNAREs), which determine into processes to be a multicopy hydrolysis change repair. (erik-mill.de)
  • In this study, we investigated the expression profile of the xCT subunit of the antiporter as well as the master regulator of osteoblastogenesis runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) in ovariectomized mouse bone. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Together, these proteins form one version of a complex known as core binding factor (CBF). (medlineplus.gov)
  • It performs this function by attaching (binding) to proteins that normally turn genes on and blocking their activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Guo C, Hu Q, Yan C, Zhang J. Multivalent binding of the ETO corepressor to E proteins facilitates dual repression controls targeting chromatin and the basal transcription machinery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The hematopoietic and osteogenic Runx (Cbfa/AML) transcription factors are punctately organized in the interphase nucleus and provide a model for understanding the subnuclear organization of tissue-specific regulatory proteins after mitosis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The domain family possesses multiple functions including the abilities to bind inositol phosphates, and various proteins. (embl.de)
  • Oxysterol binding proteins OSBP, S. cerevisiae OSH1 and YHR073w. (embl.de)
  • Several S. cerevisiae proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and bud formation like BEM2, BEM3, BUD4 and the BEM1-binding proteins BOI2 (BEB1) and BOI1 (BOB1). (embl.de)
  • Alpha proteins are However types new as intestine, von Willebrand heterodimerization, deubiquitination copies and transporter proceeds that that present nucleotide-binding gene at the OverDrive of series. (erik-mill.de)
  • Here we have used quantitative in situ immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analysis to show that Runx factors undergo progressive changes in cellular localization during mitosis while retaining a punctate distribution. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Transcription factor RUNX1 promotes survival of acute myeloid leukemia cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene encodes a member of the runt domain-containing family of transcription factors. (thermofisher.com)
  • It also interacts with other transcription factors. (thermofisher.com)
  • pRB functions as a negative regulatory transcription factor during the G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. (medscape.com)
  • p53 is a transcription factor whose expression is increased by DNA damage and blocks cell division at the G1 phase of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair. (medscape.com)
  • Transcription factor RUNX3 is inactivated in a number of malignancies, including breast cancer, and is suggested to function as a tumor suppressor. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) preferentially bind sites contained in regions of computationally predicted CI994 (Tacedinaline) large nucleosomal occupancy suggesting that nucleosomes are gatekeepers of TF binding sites. (sciencepop.org)
  • activating transcription factor 2 [Source. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • hes family bHLH transcription factor 1 [S. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • We seek to define the interactions of the lactase gene elements and nuclear factors involved in mediating transcriptional control. (stanford.edu)
  • To date, most identified mutations leading to severe FXIII deficiency and a bleeding disorder involve subunit A, with very few mutations reported involving subunit B. The gene for subunit A is located on chromosome 6 bands p24-25. (medscape.com)
  • How Reliable Are Gene Expression-Based and Immunohistochemical Biomarkers Assessed on a Core-Needle Biopsy? (lu.se)
  • it allosterically enhances DNA binding by alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and promoters, including murine leukemia virus, polyomavirus enhancer, T-cell receptor enhancers and GM-CSF promoters. (genetex.com)
  • POL_HV1N5 Gag-Pol polyprotein and Gag polyprotein may regulate their own translation, by the binding genomic RNA in the 5'-UTR. (proteopedia.org)
  • Three point mutations designed to disrupt the interaction of Emg1 with SAM each caused>100-fold reduction in SAM binding in vitro. (rcsb.org)
  • Point mutations cluster into the positively charged end of the molecule around the predicted binding site for phosphatidylinositol lipids. (embl.de)
  • At TSS-proximal Pu.1 sites the relationship between NDR occupancy and Pol_II was opposite than at enhancers with higher Pol_II loading in less occupied regions (Fig. S1B C). We next analyzed the sequence features of the DNA associated with the distal Pu.1 binding sites. (sciencepop.org)
  • Fig. 2 Sequence features discriminate among enhancers with different nucleosome occupancy and placement Compared to distal sites sequence composition at TSS-proximal bound sites showed some fundamental variations. (sciencepop.org)
  • This structure identifies Emg1 as a novel member of the alpha/beta knot fold methyltransferase (SPOUT) superfamily. (rcsb.org)
  • In some cases, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] produces a chimeric transcript consisting of the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11. (genetex.com)
  • transforming growth factor beta 2 [Source. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Extracellular Domain Of The 55Kda Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor. (lu.se)
  • Crystallographic evidence for dimerization of unliganded tumor necrosis factor receptor. (lu.se)
  • Numerous unsaturated synthase cassette factors: a exhibit in the binding of a F1 phosphatase. (erik-mill.de)
  • A point mutation within a basic patch on this surface almost completely abolished RNA binding in vitro. (rcsb.org)
  • The differentiation model of VSC into SMC established in vitro was induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (10 μg/L) for 7 days. (bvsalud.org)
  • Molecular pathogenesis of core binding factor leukemia: current knowledge and future prospects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When associated with this translocation, the condition is classified as core binding factor AML (CBF-AML). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A tRNA(3)-Lys binds to the primer-binding site (PBS) situated at the 5'-end of the viral RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • This is consistent with the notion that motif finding within the sequences from each decile returned as first hit the known Pu.1 binding site with very similar statistical significance (Fig. 1B right). (sciencepop.org)
  • The 2 Ca 2+ -binding sites and a thrombin-inactivation site have been identified at other locations. (medscape.com)
  • Receptor for TNFSF2/TNF-alpha and homotrimeric TNFSF1/lymphotoxin-alpha. (lu.se)
  • These toxins bind to specific receptors of the intestinal epithelial cells and cause secretion of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. (cdc.gov)
  • Antígeno nuclear que juega un papel en la síntesis y reparación del ADN, y en la progresión del ciclo celular. (bvsalud.org)
  • However depletion of the large Pol_II subunit Rpb1 by a 4h alpha-amanitin treatment did not significantly alter nucleosome occupancy (MS IB and GN unpublished observations). (sciencepop.org)
  • To evaluate the possible role of the antiporter in osteoblastogenesis, stable transfectants were established with the xCT subunit toward the culture with osteoblastic differentiation inducers in MC3T3-E1 cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Interaction with human PPIA/CYPA protects the virus from restriction by human TRIM5-alpha and from an unknown antiviral activity in human cells. (proteopedia.org)
  • Phenotypic transformation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is a key factor in pulmonary vascular remodeling. (bvsalud.org)
  • This capsid restriction by TRIM5 is one of the factors which restricts HIV-1 to the human species (By similarity). (proteopedia.org)
  • Because this genetic change affects CBF, the condition is classified as core binding factor AML (CBF-AML). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition to the conserved SPOUT core, Emg1 has two unique domains that form an extended surface, which we predict to be involved in binding of RNA substrates. (rcsb.org)
  • ligand, a speck-like binding type( Vyas et al. (erik-mill.de)
  • Taken collectively these results show that different Pu.1 binding affinities do not contribute to a different NDR occupancy. (sciencepop.org)