Heterodimeric transcription factors containing a DNA-binding alpha subunits, (CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS), along with a non-DNA-binding beta subunits, CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT. Core Binding Factor regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.

Expression pattern, regulation, and biological role of runt domain transcription factor, run, in Caenorhabditis elegans. (1/202)

The Caenorhabditis elegans run gene encodes a Runt domain factor. Runx1, Runx2, and Runx3 are the three known mammalian homologs of run. Runx1, which plays an essential role in hematopoiesis, has been identified at the breakpoint of chromosome translocations that are responsible for human leukemia. Runx2 plays an essential role in osteogenesis, and inactivation of one allele of Runx2 is responsible for the human disease cleidocranial dysplasia. To understand the role of run in C. elegans, we used transgenic run::GFP reporter constructs and a double-stranded RNA-mediated interference method. The expression of run was detected as early as the bean stage exclusively in the nuclei of seam hypodermal cells and lasted until the L3 stage. At the larval stage, expression of run was additionally detected in intestinal cells. The regulatory elements responsible for the postembryonic hypodermal seam cells and intestinal cells were separately located within a 7.2-kb-long intron region. This is the first report demonstrating that an intron region is essential for stage-specific and cell type-specific expression of a C. elegans gene. RNA interference analysis targeting the run gene resulted in an early larva-lethal phenotype, with apparent malformation of the hypodermis and intestine. These results suggest that run is involved in the development of a functional hypodermis and gut in C. elegans. The highly conserved role of the Runt domain transcription factor in gut development during evolution from nematodes to mammals is discussed.  (+info)

The common retroviral insertion locus Dsi1 maps 30 kilobases upstream of the P1 promoter of the murine Runx3/Cbfa3/Aml2 gene. (2/202)

The Dsi1 locus was identified as a common integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) in rat thymic lymphomas, but previous efforts to identify a gene affected by these insertions were unsuccessful. We considered the Runx3 gene a potential candidate on the basis of genetic mapping which showed that Dsi1 and Runx3 are closely linked on mouse chromosome 4 and the precedent of the related Runx2 gene, which emerged recently as a Myc-collaborating gene activated by retroviral insertion in thymic lymphomas of CD2-MYC mice. We now report the physical mapping of the Dsi1 locus to a site 30 kb upstream of the distal (P1) promoter of the murine Runx3 gene. Comparison with the syntenic region of human chromosome 1 shows that the next gene is over 250 kb 5' to Runx3, suggesting that Runx3 may be the primary target of retroviral insertions at Dsi1. Screening of CD2-MYC lymphomas for rearrangements at Dsi1 revealed a tumor cell line harboring an MLV provirus at this locus, in the orientation opposite that of Runx3. Proviral insertion was associated with very high levels of expression of Runx3, with a preponderance of transcripts arising at the P1 promoter. These results confirm that Runx3 is a target of retroviral insertions at Dsi1 and indicate that Runx3 can act as an alternative to Runx2 as a Myc-collaborating gene in thymic lymphoma.  (+info)

Causal relationship between the loss of RUNX3 expression and gastric cancer. (3/202)

Runx3/Pebp2alphaC null mouse gastric mucosa exhibits hyperplasias due to stimulated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in epithelial cells, and the cells are resistant to growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing action of TGF-beta, indicating that Runx3 is a major growth regulator of gastric epithelial cells. Between 45% and 60% of human gastric cancer cells do not significantly express RUNX3 due to hemizygous deletion and hypermethylation of the RUNX3 promoter region. Tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer cell lines in nude mice was inversely related to their level of RUNX3 expression, and a mutation (R122C) occurring within the conserved Runt domain abolished the tumor-suppressive effect of RUNX3, suggesting that a lack of RUNX3 function is causally related to the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer.  (+info)

Expression of transcription factor AML-2 (RUNX3, CBF(alpha)-3) is induced by Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-2 and correlates with the B-cell activation phenotype. (4/202)

To identify cell proteins regulated by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcription factor EBNA-2, we analyzed a cell line with conditional EBNA-2 activity by using microarray expression profiling. This led to the identification of two novel target genes induced by EBNA-2. The first of these, interleukin-16, is an immunomodulatory cytokine involved in the regulation of CD4 T cells. The second, AML-2, is a member of the Runt domain family of transcription factors. Quiescent B cells initially expressed AML-1 but, 48 h after virus infection, the levels of AML-1 decreased dramatically, whereas the amount of AML-2 protein increased. Analysis of a panel of B-cell lines indicated that AML-2 expression is normally predominant in EBV latency III, whereas AML-1 is associated with EBV latency I or EBV-negative cells. The AML genes are the first example of cell transcription factors whose expression correlates with the latency I/III phenotype.  (+info)

RUNX: a trilogy of cancer genes. (5/202)

The RUNX family of transcription factors plays pivotal roles during normal development and in neoplasias. Recent data involve RUNX3 as an important tumor suppressor in gastric cancers and pose interesting questions about how perturbed levels and interspecific competition among RUNX family members may contribute to tumorigenesis.  (+info)

The Runx3 transcription factor regulates development and survival of TrkC dorsal root ganglia neurons. (6/202)

The RUNX transcription factors are important regulators of linage-specific gene expression in major developmental pathways. Recently, we demonstrated that Runx3 is highly expressed in developing cranial and dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Here we report that within the DRGs, Runx3 is specifically expressed in a subset of neurons, the tyrosine kinase receptor C (TrkC) proprioceptive neurons. We show that Runx3-deficient mice develop severe limb ataxia due to disruption of monosynaptic connectivity between intra spinal afferents and motoneurons. We demonstrate that the underlying cause of the defect is a loss of DRG proprioceptive neurons, reflected by a decreased number of TrkC-, parvalbumin- and beta-galactosidase-positive cells. Thus, Runx3 is a neurogenic TrkC neuron-specific transcription factor. In its absence, TrkC neurons in the DRG do not survive long enough to extend their axons toward target cells, resulting in lack of connectivity and ataxia. The data provide new genetic insights into the neurogenesis of DRGs and may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying somatosensory-related ataxia in humans.  (+info)

Pathways in blood and vessel development revealed through zebrafish genetics. (7/202)

Studies in zebrafish have potential to contribute to understanding of the vertebrate hematopoietic and vasculogenic systems. Our research has examined the roles of several molecules in pathways that lead to the development of blood and vessels in zebrafish, and has provided insights into the regulation of these processes. Gdf6a/radar, a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, is expressed in the zebrafish hypochord and primitive gut endoderm; structures that flank the developing dorsal aorta and posterior cardinal vein. This pattern of expression positions Gdf6a/radar as a candidate regulator of vasculogenesis. Support for such a role has come from experiments where Gdf6a/radar function was depleted with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides. This resulted in vascular leakiness, suggesting that Gdf6a/radar is involved in maintenance of vascular integrity. The transcription factor Runx1 is known to play a critical role in mammalian definitive hematopoiesis. When Runx1 expression domains and function were analyzed in zebrafish, the importance of this gene in definitive hematopoiesis was confirmed. However there was also evidence for a wider role, including involvement in vascular development and neuropoiesis. This work has laid the foundation for an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen based on runx1 whole-mount in situ hybridzation, that aims to identify genes operative in the runx1 pathway. An additional member of the Runx family, Runx3, is also involved in developmental hematopoiesis, with a function distinct from that of Runx1. We hypothesize that Runx1 and Runx3 form a continuum of transcriptional control within the hematopoietic system. An added attraction of zebrafish is that models of human disease can be generated, and we have shown that this system has potential for the study of Runx1-mediated leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of growth of mouse gastric cancer cells by Runx3, a novel tumor suppressor. (8/202)

We reported recently that the silencing of RUNX3 is causally related to gastric cancer in humans. Here we report that in three of four cell lines derived from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mouse glandular stomach carcinomas, Runx3 is silenced due to hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region, as we also observed for human gastric cancer cells. Although two of the sites we tested in the promoter of the fourth line were not methylated, in all four cases the silencing of Runx3 could be reversed by treatment of the cells with 5'-azacytidine and trichostatin A. Interestingly, the exogenous expression of RUNX3 in cell lines that do not express the endogenous gene caused an inhibition of growth in soft agar, suggesting that anchorage-independent growth could be used as an assay of RUNX3 activity in vitro. These observations suggest that the mouse system described here may be useful as a model for the study of human gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Core binding factors (CBFs) are a group of proteins that play critical roles in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, which are the cells responsible for the formation of blood and immune systems. The term "core binding factor" refers to the ability of these proteins to bind to specific DNA sequences, known as core binding sites, and regulate gene transcription.

The two main CBFs are:

1. Core Binding Factor Alpha (CBF-α): Also known as RUNX1 or AML1, this protein forms a complex with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to regulate the expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis. Mutations in CBF-α have been associated with various types of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.
2. Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β): Also known as PEBP2B, this protein partners with CBF-α to form the active transcription factor complex. CBF-β enhances the DNA binding affinity and stability of the CBF-α/CBF-β heterodimer.

In certain types of leukemia, chromosomal abnormalities can lead to the formation of fusion proteins involving CBF-α or CBF-β. These fusion proteins disrupt normal hematopoiesis and contribute to the development of cancer. Examples include the t(8;21) translocation that creates the AML1/ETO fusion protein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the inv(16) inversion that forms the CBFB-MYH11 fusion protein in AML.

Core Binding Factor (CBF) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development and differentiation of various tissues, including hematopoietic cells. It is composed of two subunits: alpha (CBFA or AML1) and beta (CBFB or PEBP2b).

The CBFA subunit, also known as RUNX1, is a transcription factor that binds to DNA and regulates the expression of target genes involved in hematopoiesis, neurogenesis, and other developmental processes. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the runt homology domain (RHD) that recognizes specific DNA sequences.

Mutations in CBFA have been associated with various hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML (FDPA). These mutations can lead to altered gene expression, impaired differentiation, and increased proliferation of hematopoietic cells, contributing to the development of these diseases.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit, also known as CBF-A1 or RUNX1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis, which is the process of blood cell development. It is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) complex, which regulates gene transcription and is essential for the differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature blood cells.

The CBF complex consists of three subunits: CBF-A, CBF-B, and a histone deacetylase (HDAC). The CBF-A subunit can have several isoforms, including CBF-A1, which is encoded by the RUNX1 gene. Mutations in the RUNX1 gene have been associated with various hematological disorders, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), familial platelet disorder with propensity to develop AML, and thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome.

CBF-A1/RUNX1 functions as a transcription factor that binds to DNA at specific sequences called core binding factors, thereby regulating the expression of target genes involved in hematopoiesis. Proper regulation of these genes is essential for normal blood cell development and homeostasis.

Core Binding Factor-beta (CBF-β) is a subunit of the Core Binding Factor (CBF), which is a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of a DNA-binding alpha subunit and a non-DNA binding beta subunit. The CBF plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell development, by regulating the expression of various genes involved in this process.

The CBF-β subunit is a 36 kDa protein that is encoded by the CBFB gene in humans. It does not bind to DNA directly but instead forms a complex with the DNA-binding alpha subunit, which is either RUNX1 (also known as AML1), RUNX2, or RUNX3. The CBF-β subunit stabilizes the interaction between the alpha subunit and DNA, enhances its DNA-binding affinity, and increases the transcriptional activity of the complex.

Mutations in the CBFB gene have been associated with several hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML (FPD/AML). These mutations can lead to aberrant transcriptional regulation of hematopoietic genes, resulting in the development of these disorders.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit, also known as CBF-A2 or CEBP-α, is a protein that forms a complex with other proteins to act as a transcription factor. Transcription factors are proteins that help regulate the expression of genes by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA.

CBF-A2 is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, which are important in regulating various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and inflammation. CBF-A2 forms a heterodimer with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to form the active transcription factor complex known as the core binding factor (CBF).

The CBF complex binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes. By binding to this sequence, the CBF complex can either activate or repress the transcription of target genes, depending on the context and the presence of other regulatory factors.

Mutations in the gene encoding CBF-A2 have been associated with several human diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma. In AML, mutations in the CBF-A2 gene can lead to the formation of abnormal CBF complexes that disrupt normal gene expression patterns and contribute to the development of leukemia.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit (also known as CBFA3 or AML1) is a protein that forms part of a complex responsible for the regulation of gene transcription, particularly those involved in hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells). It is a member of the runt-domain family of transcription factors and plays a critical role in normal blood cell development.

Mutations in the CBFA3 gene have been associated with certain types of leukemia, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These mutations can lead to abnormal blood cell development and cancer.

Transcription Factor AP-2 is a specific protein involved in the process of gene transcription. It belongs to a family of transcription factors known as Activating Enhancer-Binding Proteins (AP-2). These proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called enhancers, which are located near the genes they control.

AP-2 is composed of four subunits that form a homo- or heterodimer, which then binds to the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. This sequence is typically found in the promoter regions of target genes. Once bound, AP-2 can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors.

AP-2 plays crucial roles during embryonic development, particularly in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and face. It is also involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of AP-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including various types of cancer.

Smooth muscle myosin is a type of motor protein that is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles, which are found in various organs such as the bladder, blood vessels, and digestive tract. Smooth muscle myosin is composed of two heavy chains and four light chains, forming a hexameric structure. The heavy chains have an N-terminal head domain that contains the ATPase activity and a C-terminal tail domain that mediates filament assembly.

The smooth muscle myosin molecule has several unique features compared to other types of myosins, such as skeletal or cardiac myosin. For example, smooth muscle myosin has a longer lever arm, which allows for greater force generation during contraction. Additionally, the regulatory mechanism of smooth muscle myosin is different from that of skeletal or cardiac myosin. In smooth muscles, the contractile activity is regulated by phosphorylation of the light chains, which is mediated by a specific kinase called myosin light chain kinase (MLCK).

Overall, the proper regulation and function of smooth muscle myosin are critical for maintaining normal physiological functions in various organs. Dysregulation or mutations in smooth muscle myosin can lead to several diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Human chromosome pair 16 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 16 contains two homologous chromosomes, which are similar in size, shape, and genetic content but may have slight variations due to differences in the DNA sequences inherited from each parent.

Chromosome pair 16 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs, meaning it contains non-sex chromosomes that are present in both males and females. Chromosome 16 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it contains around 2,800 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 16 can lead to genetic disorders such as chronic myeloid leukemia, some forms of mental retardation, and other developmental abnormalities.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

A chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement where a segment of a chromosome has been reversed end to end, so that its order of genes is opposite to the original. This means that the gene sequence on the segment of the chromosome has been inverted.

In an inversion, the chromosome breaks in two places, and the segment between the breaks rotates 180 degrees before reattaching. This results in a portion of the chromosome being inverted, or turned upside down, relative to the rest of the chromosome.

Chromosome inversions can be either paracentric or pericentric. Paracentric inversions involve a segment that does not include the centromere (the central constriction point of the chromosome), while pericentric inversions involve a segment that includes the centromere.

Inversions can have various effects on an individual's phenotype, depending on whether the inversion involves genes and if so, how those genes are affected by the inversion. In some cases, inversions may have no noticeable effect, while in others they may cause genetic disorders or predispose an individual to certain health conditions.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Human chromosome pair 21 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and they are identical to each other. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains genetic information that determines many of an individual's traits and characteristics.

Chromosome pair 21 is one of the 23 pairs of human autosomal chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y). Chromosome pair 21 is the smallest of the human chromosomes, and it contains approximately 48 million base pairs of DNA. It contains around 200-300 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Down syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delays, distinct facial features, and sometimes heart defects, is caused by an extra copy of chromosome pair 21 or a part of it. This additional genetic material can lead to abnormalities in brain development and function, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of Down syndrome.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Osteocalcin is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. It is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins found in bones and plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Osteocalcin contains a high affinity for calcium ions, making it essential for the mineralization of the bone matrix.

Once synthesized, osteocalcin is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it binds to hydroxyapatite crystals, helping to regulate their growth and contributing to the overall strength and integrity of the bones. Osteocalcin also has been found to play a role in other physiological processes outside of bone metabolism, such as modulating insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and male fertility.

In summary, osteocalcin is a protein produced by osteoblasts that plays a critical role in bone formation, mineralization, and turnover, and has been implicated in various other physiological processes.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-α) is a type of growth factor, specifically a peptide growth factor, that plays a role in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It belongs to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of growth factors. TGF-α binds to the EGF receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells and activates intracellular signaling pathways that promote cellular growth and division.

TGF-α is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue repair. However, abnormal regulation of TGF-α has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. Overexpression or hyperactivation of TGF-α can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor progression by stimulating the proliferation of cancer cells and inhibiting their differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

TGF-α is produced by various cell types, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. It can be secreted in a membrane-bound form (pro-TGF-α) or as a soluble protein after proteolytic cleavage.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Leukemia, myeloid is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. Myeloid leukemia affects the myeloid cells, which include red blood cells, platelets, and most types of white blood cells. In this condition, the bone marrow produces abnormal myeloid cells that do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells hinder the production of normal blood cells, leading to various symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, increased risk of infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

There are several types of myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). AML progresses rapidly and requires immediate treatment, while CML tends to progress more slowly. The exact causes of myeloid leukemia are not fully understood, but risk factors include exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, smoking, genetic disorders, and a history of chemotherapy or other cancer treatments.

POL1 (Polymerase 1) Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins are a set of proteins that come together to form the initiation complex for the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in eukaryotic cells. The POL1 complex includes RNA polymerase I, select transcription factors, and other regulatory proteins. This complex is responsible for the transcription of rRNA genes located within the nucleolus, a specialized region within the cell nucleus. Proper assembly and functioning of this initiation complex are crucial for the production of ribosomes, which play a critical role in protein synthesis.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Protein CBFA2T3 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: CBFA2T3 core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3". Hoogeveen AT, Rossetti S, ... Calabi F, Cilli V (Dec 1998). "CBFA2T1 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3), a gene ... and a brefeldin A-sensitive association of RII-alpha protein with one of the isoforms has been demonstrated in the Golgi ...
"Entrez Gene: CBFA2T2 core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 2". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, ... The protein encoded by this gene binds to the AML1-MTG8 complex and may be important in promoting leukemogenesis. Several ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 20 gene stubs). ... The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the RUNX1 (AML1) gene fused to the 3'-region of the ...
... core-binding factor (CBF), alpha-B subunit, etc.) binds to the core site, 5'-pygpyggt-3', of a number of enhancers and ... The protein is a heterodimer of alpha- and beta-subunits. The alpha-subunit binds DNA as a monomer, and appears to have a role ... highly similar to the Drosophila melanogaster segmentation gene runt and to the mouse transcription factor PEBP2 alpha subunit ... In addition to the highly conserved Runt domain, the AML-1 gene product carries a putative ATP-binding site (GRSGRGKS), and has ...
The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position ... Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 11 also known as TAFII28, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF11 ... The conserved region contains four alpha helices and three loops arranged as in histone H3. TAF11 has been shown to interact ... In molecular biology, TAFII28 refers to the TATA box binding protein associated factor. Together with the TATA-binding protein ...
The core RNA polymerase (consisting of 2 alpha (α), 1 beta (β), 1 beta-prime (β'), and 1 omega (ω) subunits) binds a sigma ... Due to the higher expression, the factor will bind with a high probability to the polymerase-core-enzyme. Doing so, other ... Instead, it changes its binding with the core during initiation and elongation. Therefore, the sigma factor cycles between a ... Different sigma factors are utilized under different environmental conditions. These specialized sigma factors bind the ...
... which include two alphas, a beta, and a beta prime (α, α, β, and β'). A fifth subunit, sigma (called the σ-factor), is only ... The binding of the σ-factor to the promoter is the first step in initiation. Once the σ-factor releases from the polymerase, ... When the σ-factor detaches, it is in core polymerase form. The σ-factor recognizes promoter sequences at -35 and -10 regions ... Bacteria have a σ-factor that detects and binds to promoter sites but eukaryotes do not need a σ-factor. Instead, eukaryotes ...
These core binding factors, or nuclear factors (NF-Y), are composed of three subunits - NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. Whereas in ... The first domain (A1) contains 20 amino acids that forms an alpha helix that appears significant in its interactions with NF-YB ... It is essential to the transcription that these core binding factors (also referred to as nuclear factor Y or NF-Y) are able to ... the core binding factor (CBF)-DNA complex retains a high degree of conservation within the CCAAT binding motif, as well as the ...
... or core-binding factor subunit alpha-2 (CBFA2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1 gene. RUNX1 is a ... a DNA binding CBFα chain (RUNX1 or RUNX2) and a non-DNA-binding subunit called core binding factor β (CBFβ); the binding ... Wang, S, Speck, NA (January 1992). "Purification of core-binding factor, a protein that binds the conserved core site in murine ... It belongs to the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) family of genes which are also called core binding factor-α (CBFα). ...
"Core-binding factor β and Runx transcription factors promote adaptive natural killer cell responses". Science Immunology. 2 (18 ... Binding of IL-12 to IL-12R, which is composed of two different subunits (IL12Rβ1 and IL12Rβ2), leads to the interaction of ... "Increased sensitivity to interferon-alpha in psoriatic T cells". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 125 (5): 936-44. doi ... Receptor for IL-23 contains IL12β1 and IL23R subunits, which upon binding of IL-23 promotes the phosphorylation STAT4. The ...
... it allosterically enhances DNA binding by the alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and ... Core-binding factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBFB gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: CBFB core-binding factor, beta subunit". The Cancer Genome Atlas Network (2012). "Comprehensive molecular ... the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the PEBP2/CBF transcription factor family ...
Selective factor 1 is composed of the TATA-binding protein and three TAF (TATA box-binding protein-associated factor) subunits ... It contains two short alpha helices and a long central alpha helix. TAF1 (TAFII250) TAF2 (CIF150) TAF3 (TAFII140) TAF4 ( ... for example the downstream promoter element or gene-specific core promoter sequence Due to such interactions, they contribute ... The TBP-associated factors (TAF) are proteins that associate with the TATA-binding protein in transcription initiation. It is a ...
This gene encodes a germ cell-specific counterpart of the large (alpha/beta) subunit of general transcription factor TFIIA that ... pre-initiation complex on a eukaryotic core promoter involve the effects of TFIIA on the interaction between TATA-binding ... TFIIA-alpha and beta-like factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2A1L gene. The assembly and stability of the ... "Entrez Gene: ALF TFIIA-alpha/beta-like factor". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ...
This gene encodes one of the smaller subunits of TFIID that binds to the basal transcription factor GTF2B as well as to several ... The protein complex that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to ... "Induced alpha helix in the VP16 activation domain upon binding to a human TAF". Science. 277 (5330): 1310-3. doi:10.1126/ ... TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa, also known as TAF9, is a protein that in ...
This complex consists of three membrane proteins- alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the beta-subunit protein. The Sec61 ... Chen Y, Le Cahérec F, Chuck SL (1998). "Calnexin and other factors that alter translocation affect the rapid binding of ... Knight BC, High S (1998). "Membrane integration of Sec61alpha: a core component of the endoplasmic reticulum translocation ... 1999). "A novel ADP-ribosylation like factor (ARL-6), interacts with the protein-conducting channel SEC61beta subunit". FEBS ...
In normoxia, HIF alpha subunits are marked for the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway through hydroxylation of proline- ... "Structural basis for binding of hypoxia-inducible factor to the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases". Structure. 17 (7): 981-9. ... The catalytic domain consists of a double-stranded β-helix core that is stabilized by three α-helices packed along the major β- ... X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy showed that both peptides bind to the same binding site on PHD2, in a cleft on the ...
The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position ... "Structure-function analysis of the estrogen receptor alpha corepressor scaffold attachment factor-B1: identification of a ... This gene encodes a subunit of TFIID present in a subset of TFIID complexes. Translocations involving chromosome 17 and ... TATA-binding protein-associated factor 2N is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF15 gene. Initiation of transcription ...
Chen Y; Le Cahérec F; Chuck SL (1998). "Calnexin and other factors that alter translocation affect the rapid binding of ... This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also contains beta and gamma subunits. GRCh38: ... Knight BC; High S (1998). "Membrane integration of Sec61alpha: a core component of the endoplasmic reticulum translocation ... Protein transport protein Sec61 subunit alpha isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEC61A1 gene. The protein ...
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) also known as core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (CBF-alpha-1) is a protein that ... The protein can bind DNA both as a monomer or, with more affinity, as a subunit of a heterodimeric complex. Transcript variants ... This protein is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and has a Runt DNA-binding domain. It is essential for ... Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) are cofactors of Runx2. Binding of the ...
"The alpha-like RNA polymerase II core subunit 3 (RPB3) is involved in tissue-specific transcription and muscle differentiation ... cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIB". J. Mol. Biol. 261 (5): 599-606. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... "HIV-1 Tat acts as a processivity factor in vitro in conjunction with cellular elongation factors". Genes Dev. 6 (4): 655-66. ... The product of this gene exists as a heterodimer with another polymerase subunit; together they form a core subassembly unit of ...
"The XPB subunit of repair/transcription factor TFIIH directly interacts with SUG1, a subunit of the 26S proteasome and putative ... which interacts with the seven-membered alpha ring of 20S core particle and establishes an asymmetric interface between the 19S ... It also have subunits that can bind with nucleotides (e.g., ATPs) in order to facilitate the association between 19S and 20S ... These subunits can be categorized into two classes based on the ATP dependence of subunits, ATP-dependent subunits and ATP- ...
The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are ... It also binds closely to the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, which is a regulator of the degradation of p53 and retinoblastoma ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes ...
The smaller subunit of this Damaged DNA Binding protein complex is known as DDB2 and is able to directly bind DNA lesions ... Recent reports show that IMiDs bind to CRL4CRBN and promote the degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 transcription factors, which are ... RBX1 is a core component of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes and functions to recruit E2 ubiquitin conjugating ... CUL4A protein is 759 amino acids long and forms an extended, rigid structure primarily consisting of alpha-helices. At the N- ...
"Multidomain organization of eukaryotic guanine nucleotide exchange translation initiation factor eIF-2B subunits revealed by ... The structure can be divided into a structural C-terminal core onto which the two N-terminal helices are attached. The core ... The W2 domain has a globular fold and is exclusively composed out of alpha-helices. ... the eIF-W2 domain functions as the binding site for Mnk eIF4E kinase, an enzyme that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation ...
November 1993). "A third recognition element in bacterial promoters: DNA binding by the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase". ... RNA polymerase holoenzymes containing other sigma factors recognize different core promoter sequences. ← upstream downstream ... In the case of a transcription factor binding site, there may be a single sequence that binds the protein most strongly under ... An inactive enhancer may be bound by an inactive transcription factor. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor may activate ...
... subunit of 150 kDa, a beta prime subunit (β′) of 155 kDa, and a small omega (ω) subunit. A sigma (σ) factor binds to the core, ... RNA polymerase "core" from E. coli consists of five subunits: two alpha (α) subunits of 36 kDa, a beta (β) ... The core enzyme has five subunits (~400 kDa): β′ The β′ subunit is the largest subunit, and is encoded by the rpoC gene. The β ... The ω subunit facilitates assembly of RNAP and stabilizes assembled RNAP. In order to bind promoters, RNAP core associates with ...
It belongs to the thioredoxin superfamily fold which is defined by a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helices. The active ... This two-subunit enzyme produces resistance to arsenite and antimonite. Arsenate, however, must first be reduced to arsenite ... Li S, Rosen BP, Borges-Walmsley MI, Walmsley AR (July 2002). "Evidence for cooperativity between the four binding sites of ... The arsC family also comprises the Spx proteins which are Gram-positive bacterial transcription factors that regulate the ...
This contains a core of two compact domains with each having five alpha helices. The first five-helix bundle is a conserved ... Viral cyclin D binds human Cdk6 and inhibits Rb by phosphorylating it, resulting in free transcription factors which result in ... A simplification in yeast is that all cyclins bind to the same Cdc subunit, the Cdc28. Cyclins in yeast are controlled by ... A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast ...
Ruediger R, Fields K, Walter G (1999). "Binding specificity of protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme for regulatory B subunits and ... 1990). "alpha- and beta-forms of the 65-kDa subunit of protein phosphatase 2A have a similar 39 amino acid repeating structure ... Hong Y, Sarge KD (1999). "Regulation of protein phosphatase 2A activity by heat shock transcription factor 2". J. Biol. Chem. ... It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, ...
The core enzyme of RNA polymerase has five subunits (protein subunits) (~400 kDa). Because of the RNA polymerase association ... with sigma factor, the complete RNA polymerase therefore has 6 subunits: the sigma subunit-in addition to the two alpha (α), ... also known as basal transcriptional factors, are a class of protein transcription factors that bind to specific sites (promoter ... The RNA polymerase core associates with the sigma factor to form RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Sigma factor reduces the affinity ...
... binding studies reveal DNA binding specificity mechanisms and functional interplay amongst Forkhead transcription factors". ... binding and recruitment of accessory subunits respectively. CysB coordinates an [4Fe-4S] cluster added through Cytosolic Iron- ... The major replicative activity in S phase of cell cycle depends on three DNA polymerases - Polymerase alpha (Polα), Polymerase ... The maturation process is mediated by the core targeting complex CIA1-CIA2B/FAM96B-MMS19, which interacts with the apoprotein ...
Protein CBFA2T3 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3) is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: CBFA2T3 core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3". Hoogeveen AT, Rossetti S, ... Calabi F, Cilli V (Dec 1998). "CBFA2T1 (core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3), a gene ... and a brefeldin A-sensitive association of RII-alpha protein with one of the isoforms has been demonstrated in the Golgi ...
SL3/AKV core-binding factor alpha A subunit. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. ... The RUNX2 protein is a transcription factor, which means it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the ... 2010 Mar;59(3):117-27. English, Italian. Citation on PubMed. *Dincsoy Bir F, Dinckan N, Guven Y, Bas F, Altunoglu U, Kuvvetli ... 2006 Jan 3 [updated 2023 Apr 13]. In: Adam MP, Mirzaa GM, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Gripp KW, Amemiya A, editors. ...
The RUNX1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Learn about this ... SL3/AKV core-binding factor alpha B subunit. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. ... Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia. A rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material involving the RUNX1 gene is ... This protein interacts with another protein called core binding factor beta or CBFβ (produced from the CBFB gene), which helps ...
RUNX1(AML1, CBFA2) encodes the alpha subunit of core binding factor and is a transcription factor important in normal ... Of note, RUNX1 may also be involved in large intragenic deletions and translocations (e.g., t(8;21)(RUNX1-ETO), t(3;21)(RUNX1- ... 3% of systemic mastocytosis, 2% of essential thrombocythemia and 2% of polycythemia vera. The mutations include frameshift, ...
... ectopic expression of Med19 and ectopic expression of core-binding factor subunit alpha 2 to translocation 3 (CBFA2T3) were ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) functions as a potent proliferation inhibitor and apoptosis inducer in the early stages ... Rack1 mediates Src binding to drug transporter P-glycoprotein and modulates its activity through regulating Caveolin-1 ... Importantly, Rack1 acts as a signaling hub and mediates Src binding to P-gp, thereby facilitating the phosphorylation of Cav1 ...
Most core are conical, with only 7% tubular. The core is constituted by capsid protein hexamer subunits. The core is ... Lys binds to the primer-binding site (PBS) situated at the 5-end of the viral RNA. RT uses the 3 end of the tRNA primer to ... This capsid restriction by TRIM5 is one of the factors which restricts HIV-1 to the human species (By similarity). Nucleocapsid ... Interaction with human PPIA/CYPA protects the virus from restriction by human TRIM5-alpha and from an unknown antiviral ...
Most core are conical, with only 7% tubular. The core is constituted by capsid protein hexamer subunits. The core is ... Lys binds to the primer-binding site (PBS) situated at the 5-end of the viral RNA. RT uses the 3 end of the tRNA primer to ... This capsid restriction by TRIM5 is one of the factors which restricts HIV-1 to the human species (By similarity). Nucleocapsid ... Interaction with human PPIA/CYPA protects the virus from restriction by human TRIM5-alpha and from an unknown antiviral ...
... upregulation of osteochondrogenic genes like core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (Cbfa-1) and osteopontin (OPN), and ... Factor de impacto. El factor de impacto mide la media del número de citaciones recibidas en un año por trabajos publicados en ... 31 Factors such as FGF-23, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP-4), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), and matrix ... Changes in the efficiency of Pi transport are the primary factor responsible for the regulation of Pi homeostasis.16 PTH,17 FGF ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit. * Disease Management. * Genetic Association Studies. * Genetic Predisposition to Disease ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics, G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene ... KW - Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics. KW - G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics ... Y1 - 2019/3. N2 - The t(8;21) translocation is one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities associated with acute myeloid ... 3, 03.2019, blz. 2027-2040.. Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschrift › Artikel › peer review ...
Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit. *Cytodiagnosis. *Diagnosis, Differential. *Disease Models, Animal ...
Crystal structure of full length centaurin alpha-1. 3fm8. Crystal structure of full length centaurin alpha-1 bound with the FHA ... The core of the molecule is an antiparallel beta-sheet consisting of seven strands. The C terminus is folded into a long alpha- ... The PH domain in beta-adrenergic receptor kinase may be involved in binding to the beta gamma subunits of a trimeric G-protein ... A family of NMR solution structures of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) SH2 domain has been determined by ...
Crystal structure of full length centaurin alpha-1. 3fm8. Crystal structure of full length centaurin alpha-1 bound with the FHA ... The core of the molecule is an antiparallel beta-sheet consisting of seven strands. The C terminus is folded into a long alpha- ... The PH domain in beta-adrenergic receptor kinase may be involved in binding to the beta gamma subunits of a trimeric G-protein ... A family of NMR solution structures of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) SH2 domain has been determined by ...
... a portal for the functional and evolutionary study of plant transcription factors ... Plant bZIP proteins preferentially bind to DNA sequences with an ACGT core. Binding specificity is regulated by flanking ... To bind DNA, two subunits adhere via interactions between the hydrophobic sides of their helices, which creates a superimposing ... The bZIP domain consists of two structural features located on a contiguous alpha-helix: first, a basic region of ~ 16 amino ...
The diagnosis of pregnancy requires a multifaceted approach using 3 main diagnostic tools. These are history and physical ... alpha or beta subunit, and degraded form, or beta core fragment. Intact and free beta subunit are initially the predominant ... rheumatoid factor, heterophile antibodies, and binding proteins. Most false-positive results are characterized by serum levels ... hCG is composed of alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunit of hCG is similar to the alpha subunit of FSH, LH, and ...
New core promoter element in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription: Sequence-specific DNA binding by transcription factor ... Determinants of the C-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit important for transcription at class ... DNA-binding determinants of the α subunit of RNA polymerase: Novel DNA-binding domain architecture Genes and Development. 10: ... Structure of the DNA-binding and RNA-polymerase-binding region of transcription antitermination factor λQ. Structure (London, ...
Core transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, individually form complexes with nucleophosmin (Npm1) to control embryonic ... Subunits of the chaperonin CCT interaction with F-actin and influence cell shape and cytoskeletal assembly.. Brackley, K.I. and ... Down-Regulation of Cilia-Localized IL-6R{alpha} by 17{beta}-Estradiol in Mouse and Human Fallopian Tubes.. Shao R, Nutu M, ... "Deficiency in Calcium-Binding Protein S100a4 Impairs the Adjuvant Action of Cholera Toxin." Front Immunol 8 (2017): 1119. http ...
Transcription factor that binds to the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-responsive elements identified in the promoters of various acute- ... Subunit: Forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with a related family member (at least STAT1). Interacts with NCOAL, PELP1, SOCS7 ... Tyrosine phosphorylated in response to IL-6, IL-11, CNTF, LIF, CSF-1, EGF, PDGF, IFN-alpha and OSM. Phosphorylated on serine ... Interacts with HCV core protein. Interacts with IL23r in presence of IL23. Interacts with IL31ra ...
RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding, transcription factor activity and RNA polymerase II core ... KEGG pathways enriched by genes in cluster 4 and where the hub gene with large degree value, integrin subunit alpha M (ITGAM/ ... EGF, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor are cytokines and growth factors. In areas of caseation necrosis ... Glycoprotein binding, protein binding, metal ion binding and protein heterodimerization are molecular activities. Rap1 ...
... retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha), thereby inhibiting long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation by decreasing STAT3 (signa... ... retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha), thereby inhibiting long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation by decreasing STAT3 (signal ... transducer and activator of transcription 3) expression and phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Risperidone increases adipocyte lipid ... nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1), Tnfrsf1b (TNF receptor superfamily member 1B), Ikbkb (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B ...
OXYTRICHA TELOMERE-BINDING PROTEIN - SEPARABLE DNA-BINDING AND DIMERIZATION DOMAINS OF THE ALPHA-SUBUNIT Journal Article ... The 2.1-A crystal structure of an archaeal preinitiation complex: TATA-box-binding protein/transcription factor (II)B core/TATA ... MECHANISMS OF TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA (TNF-ALPHA) HYPERALGESIA Journal Article * MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN (MAP) KINASE ... The mouse mammary tumour virus promoter positioned on a tetramer of histones H3 and H4 binds nuclear factor 1 and OTF1 Journal ...
Deng WG, Zhu Y, Wu KK: Up-regulation of p300 binding and p50 acetylation in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cyclooxygenase- ... a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded ... The DNA binding subunit of NF-kappa B is identical to factor KBF1 and homologous to the rel oncogene product. Cell. 1990 Sep 7; ... Cloning of the DNA-binding subunit of human nuclear factor kappa B: the level of its mRNA is strongly regulated by phorbol ...
Retinoblastoma binding factor 1 site in the core promoter region of the human RB gene is activated by hGABP/E4TF1. Sowa Y, et ... beta subunit. This protein forms a tetrameric complex with the alpha subunit, and stimulates transcription of target genes. The ... GA-binding protein subunit beta-1. Names. GA binding protein transcription factor beta subunit 1. GABP subunit beta-2. nuclear ... GABPB1 GA binding protein transcription factor subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens] GABPB1 GA binding protein transcription factor ...
Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing ... Transcription factor binding. Specific Function. Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of ... the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo.... Gene ... UAlpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein. Not Available. Humans. UHemoglobin subunit alpha. Not Available. Humans. ...
Consistent with previous studies, different TF binding motifs were identified at FOXM1 binding sites, while the NFY binding ... In this study, a comprehensive meta-analysis of genome-wide FOXM1 binding sites in ECC-1, GM12878, K562, MCF-7, and SK-N-SH ... motif was found at 81% of common FOXM1 binding sites in promoters of cell cycle-related genes. The results indicated that FOXM1 ... is a key transcription factor (TF) that regulates a common set of genes related to the cell cycle in various cell types. ...
We will also describe evidence about the ability of semaphorins to affect the expression and activity of transcription factors ... activated by hypoxia, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Finally, we will focus our attention on findings reporting the role ... These transcription factors are composed of an alpha subunit (HIF-1α, HIF-2α and HIF-3α), and a beta subunit (HIF-1β) [20]. ... in addition to binding different semaphorins, also shows semaphorin-independent function, binding proangiogenic factors or ...
... of its largest subunit (Rpb1). Dynamic phosphorylation of Ser2, Ser5 and Ser7 residues orchestrates the binding of ... regions of genes coordinates the binding of transcription and RNA processing factors to .... ,READ MORE, ... Here, we identify the SWI/SNF helicase ATRX (alpha-thalassemia/ MR, X-linked) as a novel macroH2A-interacting protein. Unlike ... Cascaded Photoinduced Drug Delivery to Cells from Multifunctional Core-Shell Mesoporous Silica. ...
calcium binding protein 39 CACNA1S calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit ... transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma) ZMAT3 zinc finger, matrin-type 3 ... far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein 1 GCNT1 glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 1, core 2 ... inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein ID4 inhibitor of DNA binding 4, dominant negative helix- ...
  • The RUNX2 protein is a transcription factor, which means it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The RUNX1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like other transcription factors, the RUNX1 protein attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Transcription factor RUNX1 promotes survival of acute myeloid leukemia cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • RUNX1(AML1, CBFA2) encodes the alpha subunit of core binding factor and is a transcription factor important in normal hematopoietic development. (cornell.edu)
  • METHODS: Using nuclear extracts from Jurkat cells and primary human CD8+ T cells, the effects of rs4648889 on allele-specific transcription factor (TF) binding were investigated by DNA pull-down assay and quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS), with validation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Western blotting of the pulled-down eluates, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Further functional effects were tested by small interfering RNA knockdown of the gene for interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), followed by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of IFNγ messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein, respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transcription initiation at a consensus bacterial promoter proceeds via a 'bind-unwind-load-and-lock' mechanism. (academictree.org)
  • Transcription factor that binds to the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-responsive elements identified in the promoters of various acute-phase protein genes. (lu.se)
  • Intersecting analysis, molecular docking, and pathway validation analysis showed that risperidone influences the adipocytokine signaling pathway by targeting MAPK14 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 14), MAPK8 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8), and RXRA (retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha), thereby inhibiting long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation by decreasing STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) expression and phosphorylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is present in almost all cell types and is involved in many biological processed such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. (hmdb.ca)
  • This gene encodes the GA-binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit. (nih.gov)
  • This protein forms a tetrameric complex with the alpha subunit, and stimulates transcription of target genes. (nih.gov)
  • Note: In August, 2008, the nomenclature of the GA binding protein transcription factors was clarified. (nih.gov)
  • Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) is a key transcription factor (TF) that regulates a common set of genes related to the cell cycle in various cell types. (mdpi.com)
  • We will also describe evidence about the ability of semaphorins to affect the expression and activity of transcription factors activated by hypoxia, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These transcription factors are composed of an alpha subunit (HIF-1α, HIF-2α and HIF-3α), and a beta subunit (HIF-1β) [ 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study provides evidence that a switch-protein kinase regulatory network controls availability of σ 66 , the main sigma subunit for transcription in Chlamydia . (plos.org)
  • e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens. (lookformedical.com)
  • A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. (lookformedical.com)
  • This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. (lookformedical.com)
  • The most-extensively studied core promoter element in eukaryotes is a short DNA sequence known as a TATA box, found 25-30 base pairs upstream from the start site of transcription. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • The TATA box is recognized by a transcription factor called TATA-binding protein (TBP), which is part of a larger complex called TFIID. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Other transcription factors and RNA polymerase then assemble on the promoter to form a pre-initiation complex (PIC). (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Each RNA polymerase requires the assistance of several other proteins or protein complexes, called general (or basal) transcription factors, which must assemble into a complex on the promoter in order for RNA polymerase to bind and start transcription. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Most promoters for RNA polymerase II also have a conserved sequence called the TATA box, which is recognized by a subunit of the transcription factor TFIID. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Together, these proteins form one version of a complex known as core binding factor (CBF). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The domain family possesses multiple functions including the abilities to bind inositol phosphates, and various proteins. (embl.de)
  • Regulators of small G-proteins like guanine nucleotide releasing factor GNRP (Ras-GRF) (which contains 2 PH domains), guanine nucleotide exchange proteins like vav, dbl, SoS and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC24, GTPase activating proteins like rasGAP and BEM2/IPL2, and the human break point cluster protein bcr. (embl.de)
  • Oxysterol binding proteins OSBP, S. cerevisiae OSH1 and YHR073w. (embl.de)
  • Several S. cerevisiae proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and bud formation like BEM2, BEM3, BUD4 and the BEM1-binding proteins BOI2 (BEB1) and BOI1 (BOB1). (embl.de)
  • Plant bZIP proteins preferentially bind to DNA sequences with an ACGT core. (gao-lab.org)
  • Like all other GTPases, Rho proteins act as molecular switches, with an active GTP-bound form and an inactive GDP-bound form. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The active conformation is promoted by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors, and the inactive state by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) which stimulate the intrinsic GTPase activity of small G proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In particular, we propose that Arg 85 and Asn 194 are involved in binding G proteins and enhancing GTPase activity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • While mRNA of alfa subunits (HIFs- α) are not altered by exposure to hypoxia, alfa, but not beta, proteins are stabilized by hypoxia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • download of been proteins appears the architectural subunit of including acids within enzymes and represents the inhibitor gene conjugation SSA to intracellular families that initiate dramatically synaptic from those short at the thyroid beta. (erik-mill.de)
  • opposed factor is and stimulates group of transport proteins to DNA DSBs( Beamish et al. (erik-mill.de)
  • Podosomes are structurally divided into a core, which mainly contains proteins involved in actin polymerization (such as WASP, the Arp2/3 complex and cortactin ), and a surrounding ring populated by integrin receptors and adhesion proteins (for example, paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK/Pyk2) ) [15] . (cellmigration.org)
  • Proteins which bind to DNA. (lookformedical.com)
  • The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases. (lookformedical.com)
  • Mutations are altering proteins and specific protein regions different from, or in addition to, those of previously prevalent variants such as Alpha B.1.1.7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molydopterin dinucleotide binding domain, Molybdopterin oxidoreductase Fe4S4 domain [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Oxidoreductase FAD-binding domain, Oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain, 2Fe-2S iron-sulfur cluster binding domain [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Co-transcriptional pre-mRNA processing relies on reversible phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). (cipsm.de)
  • Instead, termination is coupled with polyadenylation, a process that adds a poly-A tail to the 3` end of the mRNA transcript. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • A cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) recognizes a polyadenylation signal (AAUAAA) on the pre-mRNA and cleaves it downstream of this signal. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2. (lookformedical.com)
  • protein_coding" "AAC73960","hcp","Escherichia coli","hybrid-cluster [4Fe-2S-2O] subunit of anaerobic terminal reductases [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the association of rs4648889 with AS reflects allele-specific binding of this enhancer-like region to certain TFs, including IRF5, IKZF3, and members of the NuRD complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • p50 binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence 5'- GGRNNYYCC-3', located in the enhancer region of genes involved in immune response and acute phase reactions. (hmdb.ca)
  • To bind DNA, two subunits adhere via interactions between the hydrophobic sides of their helices, which creates a superimposing coiled-coil structure. (gao-lab.org)
  • The domain is composed of seven alpha helices. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The structure is an unusual arrangement of nine alpha-helices, the core of which includes a four-helix bundle. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Accordingly, Syntaxin-1 and Synaptobrevin-2 each contribute one and SNAP25 contributes two alpha-helices to the ternary SNARE complex. (nature.com)
  • Free beta subunits are degraded by macrophage enzymes in the kidney to make a beta subunit core fragment, which is primarily detected in urine samples. (medscape.com)
  • The MutS requirements suppress with conformational enzymes binding other MLH and MutL, the later bind aromatic release family favour and catalytic cytokine to the MLH Canadians, widely eventually as RPA, EXO1, RFC, well long, and D-fructose less intrinsic lipids. (erik-mill.de)
  • The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. (hmdb.ca)
  • This enzyme displays a DNA polymerase activity that can copy either DNA or RNA templates, and a ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity that cleaves the RNA strand of RNA-DNA heteroduplexes in a partially processive 3' to 5' endonucleasic mode. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cheng A, Wan D, Ghatak A, Wang C , Feng D, Fondell JD, Ebright RH , Fan H. Identification and Structural Modeling of the RNA Polymerase Omega Subunits in Chlamydiae and Other Obligate Intracellular Bacteria. (academictree.org)
  • RNA polymerase clamp conformational dynamics: long-lived states and modulation by crowding, cations, and nonspecific DNA binding. (academictree.org)
  • RNA synthesis occurs in the 5' → 3' direction with the RNA polymerase catalyzing a nucleophilic attack by the 3-OH of the growing RNA chain on the alpha-phosphorus atom on an incoming ribonucleoside 5-triphosphate. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Characterization of DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and regulated nuclear association of recombinant human NFATp. (colorado.edu)
  • Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a widely expressed family of protein phosphatases made of a core dimer, composed of a catalytic (C) subunit and a structural (A) subunit, in association with a third variable regulatory (B) subunit. (ac.be)
  • The regulation of PP2A is mainly accomplished by the identity of the regulatory B-type subunit, which determines substrate specificity, subcellular localization and catalytic activity of the PP2A holoenzyme. (ac.be)
  • The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling. (lookformedical.com)
  • Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2. (lookformedical.com)
  • A retinoblastoma-binding protein that has an affinity for core HISTONES. (lookformedical.com)
  • LysR substrate binding domain, Bacterial regulatory helix-turn-helix protein [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Construction of the Central Protuberance and L1 stalk during 60S subunit biogenesis Mol. (db-engine.de)
  • Translation elongation factor P (EF-P) is critical for virulence in bacteria. (cipsm.de)
  • Histidine 66 in Escherichia coli elongation factor tu selectively stabilizes aminoacyl-tRNAs. (colorado.edu)
  • The interface between Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu and aminoacyl-tRNA. (colorado.edu)
  • Elongation factor TS [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the AML1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It binds in the cytoplasm the human BAF protein which prevent autointegration of the viral genome, and might be included in virions at the ration of zero to 3 BAF dimer per virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • hCG is present in the maternal circulation as either an intact dimer, alpha or beta subunit, and degraded form, or beta core fragment. (medscape.com)
  • RUNX1 mutations have been reported in approximately 10% of myelodysplastic cases, 5-15% of acute myeloid leukemia, 8-37% of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, 10% of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 3% of systemic mastocytosis, 2% of essential thrombocythemia and 2% of polycythemia vera. (cornell.edu)
  • Point mutations cluster into the positively charged end of the molecule around the predicted binding site for phosphatidylinositol lipids. (embl.de)
  • To date, most identified mutations leading to severe FXIII deficiency and a bleeding disorder involve subunit A, with very few mutations reported involving subunit B. The gene for subunit A is located on chromosome 6 bands p24-25. (medscape.com)
  • This mutation, S112L, exists in isolates previously obtained in the U.S. The S112L mutation substitutes a bulky hydrophobic side chain for a polar side chain, which results in a non-conservative substitution within the protein that may affect antibody-binding affinity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Risperidone upregulates fatty acid synthase (FASN) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) expression in hepatocyte cultures and mouse liver by targeting the hepatic SREBP-1c/FASN couple, which is also one of the mechanisms by which risperidone induces weight gain ( 24 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Binding specificity is regulated by flanking nucleotides. (gao-lab.org)
  • This protein interacts with another protein called core binding factor beta or CBFβ (produced from the CBFB gene), which helps RUNX1 bind to DNA and prevents it from being broken down. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most commonly used assays are for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (medscape.com)
  • hCG is composed of alpha and beta subunits. (medscape.com)
  • The free beta subunit of hCG differs from the others in that it has a 30-amino acid tailpiece at the COOH terminus. (medscape.com)
  • The beta-hCG subunit is present in the syncytial layer of the blastomere. (medscape.com)
  • Intact and free beta subunit are initially the predominant forms of hCG, with the beta core fragment emerging as the predominant form in the fifth week after conception. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, intact and free beta subunit have the most day-to-day variability and are transiently undetectable even 10 days after detection of pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] Optimally, tests used for early pregnancy detection should be able to recognize all forms of intact hCG, including the free beta subunit and the beta core fragment. (medscape.com)
  • Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nuclear respiratory factor-2 beta subunit-encoding the GABPB1 gene within the occupational environment. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are responsible for the transcriptional responses to hypoxic stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein_coding" "AAC74319","hns","Escherichia coli","global DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator H-NS [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Molecular pathogenesis of core binding factor leukemia: current knowledge and future prospects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Molecular Chaperone CCT Sequesters Gelsolin and Protects it from Cleavage by Caspase-3. (gu.se)
  • A model is proposed where the relative levels of active antagonist (RsbV1) and switch-protein anti-sigma factor (RsbW) control the availability of σ 66 and subsequently act as a molecular 'throttle' for Chlamydia growth and development. (plos.org)
  • It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. (lookformedical.com)
  • Antígeno nuclear que juega un papel en la síntesis y reparación del ADN, y en la progresión del ciclo celular. (bvsalud.org)
  • Translation initiation factor 1A / IF-1 [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments. (lookformedical.com)
  • Mouse protein citron, a putative rho/rac effector that binds to the GTP-bound forms of rho and rac. (embl.de)
  • Within this sub-lineage we generated whole genome sequences of a cluster of SARS-CoV-2 isolates obtained from vaccinated individuals in CO between June 3 and June 21, 2021. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prominent mechanistic models imply cooperation of the ISWI ATPase domain with a C-terminal DNA-binding function residing in the HAND-SANT-SLIDE (HSS) domain. (cipsm.de)
  • alpha of the intestinal rRNA, soluble to the density-fluctuation of bacterium requirements, domains in vasodilator of microenvironment from its domain. (erik-mill.de)
  • Probable molybdopterin binding domain [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • tRNA synthetase class II core domain (G, Seryl-tRNA synthetase N-terminal domain [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 4Fe-4S binding domain, 4Fe-4S dicluster domain [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Tetratricopeptide repeat, Rubredoxin metal binding domain [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The disease is the result of infection with a subset of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), expressing plasmid-encoded F18 fimbriae and α-hemolysin ( hly ) and prophage-encoded Stx2e subtype ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Crystal structures of Rea1-MIDAS bound to its ribosome assembly factor ligands resembling integrin-ligand-type complexes. (db-engine.de)
  • Of note, RUNX1 may also be involved in large intragenic deletions and translocations (e.g., t(8;21)(RUNX1-ETO), t(3;21)(RUNX1-EVI1), t(12;21)(TEL-RUNX1) which are not detected by this assay. (cornell.edu)
  • Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The consensus core of HRE sequence is 5′-RCGTG-3′ (where R is A or G). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is considered that the risk of TB in T2DM individuals is nearly threefold greater when compared to non-diabetic patients [ 3 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • A tRNA(3)-Lys binds to the primer-binding site (PBS) situated at the 5'-end of the viral RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • RT uses the 3' end of the tRNA primer to perform a short round of RNA-dependent minus-strand DNA synthesis. (proteopedia.org)
  • This ssDNA/tRNA hybridizes with the identical R region situated at the 3' end of viral RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • PPTs and tRNA primers are then removed by RNase H. The 3' and 5' ssDNA PBS regions hybridize to form a circular dsDNA intermediate. (proteopedia.org)
  • DMSO reductase anchor subunit (DmsC) [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Nitrate reductase delta subunit [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • YbaB/EbfC DNA-binding family [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Translation initiation factor SUI1 [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. (lookformedical.com)
  • Capsid protein p24 forms the conical core that encapsulates the genomic RNA-nucleocapsid complex in the virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • To achieve this, the neuronal SNARE (i.e., soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex brings the vesicle and presynaptic membranes in close proximity, thereby, mediating the fusion of the two membranes resulting in exocytosis of neurotransmitters. (nature.com)