Cordyceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Trichosurus: A genus of brush-tailed possums found chiefly in Australia and New Zealand. Secretions from their ANAL GLAND function both in defense and demarcating territory.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.SingaporeOceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tResearch Support, U.S. GovernmentPractice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Kava: Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrastis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.

Hypocholesterolemic effect of hot-water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. (1/76)

This study was conducted to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of the hot-water fraction (HW) from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in a 5 l fermenter. The composition of HW was mainly carbohydrate (83.9%) and protein (11.8%) on a dry basis, and the carbohydrate of HW consisted of glucose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose in the molecular ratio of 1.0 : 0.8 : 0.5 : 0.1, respectively. In mice fed a cholesterol-free diet and those fed a cholesterol-enriched diet, body and liver weights were not significantly different from those of the controls. The serum total cholesterol (TC) of all mice groups administered HW (150 and 300 mg/kg/d, respectively) with the cholesterol-enriched diet decreased more than in the control group. Among the mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet, HW also increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, but decreased the very low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL) cholesterol level. The changes in HDL- and VLDL+LDL-cholesterol levels consequently decreased the atherogenic value. The results indicate that HW in rats administered a cholesterol-enriched diet decreased the plasma cholesterol level. The 300 mg/kg dose had a significant effect on the serum TC level.  (+info)

Inhibitive effect of cordyceps sinensis on experimental hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism. (2/76)

AIM: To investigate the inhibitive effect and its possible mechanism of Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) on CCl(4)-plus ethanol-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in experimental rats. METHODS: Rats were randomly allocated into a normal control group, a model control group and a CS group. The latter two groups were administered with CCl(4) and ethanol solution at the beginning of the experiment to induce hepatic fibrosis. The CS group was also treated with CS 10 days after the beginning of CCl(4) and ethanol administration. All control groups were given corresponding placebo at the same time. At the end of the 9th week, rats in each group were humanely sacrificed. Blood and tissue specimens were taken. Biochemical, radioimmunological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological examinations were used to determine the level change of ALT, AST, HA, LN content in serum and TGFbeta(1), PDGF, collagen I and III expression in tissue at either protein or mRNA level or both of them. RESULTS: As compared with the model control group, serum ALT, AST, HA, and LN content levels were markedly dropped in CS group (86.0+/-34.4 vs 224.3+/-178.9, 146.7+/-60.2 vs 272.6+/-130.1, 202.0+/-79.3 vs 316.5+/-94.1 and 50.4+/-3.0 vs 59.7+/-9.8, respectively, P<0.05). Tissue expression of TGFbeta(1) and its mRNA, collagen I mRNA were also markedly decreased (0.2+/-0.14 vs 1.73+/-1.40, 1.68+/-0.47 vs 3.17+/-1.17, 1.10+/-0.84 vs 2.64+/-1.40, respectively, P<0.05). More dramatical drop could be seen in PDGF expression (0.87+/-0.43 vs 1.91+/-0.74, P<0.01). Although there was no statistical significance, it was still strongly suggested that collagen III mRNA expression was also decreased in CS group as compared with model control group (0.36+/-0.27 vs 0.95+/-0.65, P=0.0615). In this experiment, no significant change could be found in PDGF mRNA expression between two groups (0.35+/-0.34 vs 0.70+/-0.46, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Cordyceps sinensis could inhibit hepatic fibrogenesis derived from chronic liver injury, retard the development of cirrhosis, and notably ameliorate the liver function. Its possible mechanism involves inhibiting TGFbeta(1) expression, and thereby, down regulating PDGF expression, preventing HSC activation and deposition of procollagen I and III.  (+info)

Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. (3/76)

This study was conducted to investigate the chemical component of the hot water (HW) fraction of mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis and its antifatigue and antistress effect against a stimulus in vivo using rats and mice. The growth of mycelia reached a maximum level of 31.6 g/l after 120 h of incubation. The main chemical composition of the HW fraction of mycelia of C. sinensis was found to be carbohydrate (78.9%) with 5% moisture. The swimming endurance capacity of mice orally administered with the HW fraction (150 and 300 mg/kg/d, respectively) was significantly prolonged from 75 to 90 min with a lessening of fatigue. When the HW fraction (150 mg/kg/d) was given to rats for 8 d including a 48 h stress period, the weight changes of the adrenal gland, spleen, thymus, and thyroid, which is an index of stress, were suppressed. The HW fraction also significantly inhibited the increase in total cholesterol and the decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels as biochemical parameters of immobilization stress in rats.  (+info)

Regulatory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis. (4/76)

We demonstrate the mechanism by which Cordyceps sinensis (CS) mycelium regulates Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Mouse Leydig cells were treated with forskolin, H89, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, staurosporine, or steroidogenic enzyme precursors with or without 3 mg/ml CS; then testosterone production was determined. H89, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or staurosporine, decreased CS-treated Leydig cell steroidogenesis. CS inhibited Leydig cell steroidogenesis by suppressing the activity of P450scc enzyme, but not 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17alpha-hydroxylase, 20alpha-hydroxylase, or 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. Thus, CS activated the cAMP-protein kinase A signal pathway, but not protein kinase C, and attenuated P45scc enzyme activity to reduce human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis in purified mouse Leydig cells.  (+info)

Structures of the mating-type loci of Cordyceps takaomontana. (5/76)

Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2.  (+info)

Activation and proliferation signals in primary human T lymphocytes inhibited by ergosterol peroxide isolated from Cordyceps cicadae. (6/76)

Effects of ergosterol peroxide (C28H44O3; Cpd 6A) from Cordyceps cicadae on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cell proliferation were studied in primary human T cells. The results showed that Cpd 6A suppressed T-cell proliferation for about 24 h after stimulation with PHA. Cell cycle analysis indicated that Cpd 6A arrested the cell cycle progression of activated T cells from the G1 transition to the S phase. To localize the point in the cell cycle where arrest occurred, a set of key regulatory events leading to the G1/S boundary, including the expression of cyclins D2, E, A1, and B1, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and activating protein-1 (AP-1), was examined. Cpd 6A suppressed, in activated T lymphocytes, the production and mRNA expression of cyclin E, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of AP-1 proteins, consisting of c-Fos and c-Jun, in activated T lymphocytes was decreased by Cpd 6A. The kinetic study indicated that the inhibitory effects of Cpd 6A on IL-2 mRNA expressed in T cells might be related to blocking c-Fos protein synthesis. T-cell proliferation after Cpd 6A treatment was partially restored by addition of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma. These suppressant effects of Cpd 6A on T-cell proliferation, activated by PHA, appeared to be mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of early gene transcripts, especially those of cyclin E, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4, and by arresting cell cycle progression in the cells.  (+info)

Upregulation of steroidogenic enzymes and ovarian 17beta-estradiol in human granulosa-lutein cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium. (7/76)

There is increasing evidence that 17beta-estradiol (E2) directly influences the quality of maturing oocytes and thus the outcome of assisted reproduction treatment. Although Cordyceps sinensis (CS) mycelium, a Chinese herbal medicine, is believed to enhance libido and fertility in both sexes, the mechanism of its effect in women has not been determined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of CS on steroidogenic enzyme expression and E2 biosynthesis in human granulosa-lutein cells (GLC). We found that CS induced E2 production by GLC in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that a 3-h treatment with CS induced increased levels of mRNAs coding for the P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), and aromatase. Western blot analysis demonstrated that, after treatment with CS for 3 h, protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase were upregulated while P450scc and 3beta-HSD levels showed no substantial change. New protein synthesis was required for CS-induced E2 production because it was abrogated by cycloheximide pretreatment. Addition of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, thus bypassing the need for StAR protein, did not induce as much E2 production as CS treatment, indicating that upregulation of StAR protein was not the only factor contributing to CS-induced steroidogenesis. Cotreatment of GLCs with CS and aminoglutethimide, an aromatase inhibitor, completely abolished CS-induced E2 production. In conclusion, treatment of GLCs with CS results in increased E2 production due, at least in part, to increased StAR and aromatase expression. These data may help in the development of treatment regimens to improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization.  (+info)

Dynamical influence of Cordyceps sinensis on the activity of hepatic insulinase of experimental liver cirrhosis. (8/76)

BACKGROUND: Cordeceps sinensis (CS) is a herb which can inhibit the liver fibrosis. Hyperinsulinemia is common in liver cirrhosis patients. The activity of insulin degrading enzyme could reflect the metabolism of insulin. This study was to detect the dynamical effects and mechanisms of CS on the activity of hepatic insulinase in CCl4 induced liver cirrhosis in rats. METHODS: Rats were randomly allocated into three groups: normal group, model group and CS group. The rats in the normal group were sacrificed at the beginning of experiment, and the other two groups were sacrificed randomly at the end of the third, sixth and ninth weeks. Blood and tissue specimens were taken. Biochemical assays were used to determine the changes of alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin levels in serum. And radioimmunological assays were used to determine the changes of hyaluronic acid (HA), insulin levels in serum and the activity of hepatic insulinase. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen in the serum levels of ALT, albumin, HA between the CS group and the model group at the third and sixth weeks (P>0.05). The serum levels of ALT, HA in the CS group were lower than those in the model group at the ninth week (P<0.05), but the serum level of albumin in the CS group was higher than that in the model group at the ninth week (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the serum levels of insulin and the activity of hepatic insulinase between the CS and model groups at the third week and the normal group (P>0.05). The serum levels of insulin in the CS and model groups at the sixth and ninth weeks were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05). But the activity of hepatic insulinase was lower than that in the normal group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). No significant differences were found in the serum levels of insulin and the activity of hepatic insulinase between the CS and model groups at the third, sixth and ninth weeks (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CS may decrease the damage to hepatocyte by CCl4, and inhibit hepatic fibrogenesis. Six weeks after CCl4 administration, the activity of hepatic insulinase began decreasing. CS could not inhibit the decrease of the activity of hepatic insulinase.  (+info)

  • 10,000 per kilo for the fruiting bodies of the un-cultivatable C. sinensis [ 8 ] - very little is known about sex and developmental processes in Cordyceps species, and remedying this deficiency should help in production/cultivation of these enigmatic fungi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They work to balance the technological and ecological when it comes to producing the fungi that go into their cordyceps. (bestchoicereviews.org)
  • Stamina - Cordyceps is the world's most researched mushroom for increasing endurance. (prohealth.com)
  • Science & Tradition - Cordyceps has been revered traditionally and researched extensively for multiple benefits, including stamina and endurance. (prohealth.com)
  • Several studies suggest that cordyceps can boost athletic performance - improving physical abilities, endurance and stamina - partially because they boost the body's supply of ATP, one of the primary sources of energy during exercise. (savvy-team.com)
  • Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris extract in diet-streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats," BioMed Research International , vol. 2014, Article ID 160980, 11 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Cordyceps is a type of medicinal mushroom that has been a staple in holistic medicine for centuries and has long been revered for its potent anti-ageing, health-promoting properties. (savvy-team.com)
  • Similarly, another study out of China found that administering Cordyceps extract to fruit flies significantly prolonged their lifespan by blocking oxidative stress to the cells, confirming the potent anti-ageing properties of Cordyceps. (savvy-team.com)
  • Cordyceps & Reishi Mushroom Herbal Tea (BEST SELLER! (theherbdepot.ca)
  • Cordyceps & Reishi Herbal Tea strengthens immune system, regulates internal secretion, prevents cancer, relieves uneasiness of body & mind, nourishes skin, supports healthy energy, reinforces joints and has anti-aging effect. (theherbdepot.ca)
  • Cordyceps preparation may disrupt the action of some immunosuppressive drugs (medications reducing the activity of the immune system used e.g. in transplant rejection prevention), therefore remember to inform your doctor about its use. (tiens-health.com)
  • The theory is that Cordyceps can stimulate the immune system to fight certain cancers. (newwayherbs.com)
  • Cordyceps is used to support the immune system, act as an anti-viral agent, help control blood sugar and protect liver and kidney health. (nutritioningredients.co.uk)
  • Considered an 'energising adaptogen', cordyceps are often used to help fight fatigue, treat muscle aches and prevent weakness. (savvy-team.com)
  • Studies have shown consistently that the extracts of Cordyceps Sinensis have a broad range of activity against cancer cell lines, including prostate, colonic lymphocytic, hepatoma, and breast cancer cells. (newwayherbs.com)
  • The extracts of Cordyceps are believed to increase oxygen levels, which is also helps to oxygenate the body's extremities, so organ systems of the body, as a whole, run more efficiently. (newwayherbs.com)
  • This has resulted in sales of wild-harvested Cordyceps being strictly regulated by the CFDA (China Food and Drug Administration) since 2016. (savvy-team.com)
  • Most cordyceps sold on the market today are produced from anamorphs of the mushroom that have been grown in liquid fermentation, and they produce nearly the same results as their more expensive counterpart does (without dead things in it, of course). (bestchoicereviews.org)
  • Other products are sourced from cordyceps that have been grown and cultivated on grain. (bestchoicereviews.org)
  • This company provides all of the cordyceps used for their extract, so they can ensure precisely how they were grown. (bestchoicereviews.org)
  • Cordyceps is known to help with discomforts from tired legs and several studies have shown that the herbal tincture improves blood flow in the body and relaxes smooth muscles of the vessels and allows them to expand, reducing contractions of the blood vessels in legs (the main cause of tired legs. (newwayherbs.com)
  • Zane Finest Cordyceps Tea - A great Herbal Tea for nocturia Cordyceps tea could improve frequent urination at night, Cordyceps from nature is an excellent herb for all types of ailments. (zane.sg)
  • Here we show that the mycelium extract of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a Chinese immunomodulatory herbal medicine, increased phagocytosis in U937 cells. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. (biomedcentral.com)