Spinal Cord Injuries
Wounds and Injuries
Orthopedic Fixation Devices
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Spinal Cord Diseases
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Spinal Cord Compression
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
Recovery of Function
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Spinal Cord Neoplasms
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
Injury Severity Score
Electric Stimulation Therapy
Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)
A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)
Disease Models, Animal
Intervertebral Disc Displacement
Spinal Cord Ischemia
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
Spinal Nerve Roots
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Spinal Cord Regeneration
Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
Viral Fusion Proteins
Prostheses and Implants
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Low Back Pain
The branch of medicine concerned with the delivery of comprehensive medical care to hospitalized patients. Practitioners include physicians and non-physician providers who engage in clinical care, teaching, research, or leadership in the field of general hospital medicine.(from http://www.hospitalmedicine.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Hospitalist_Definition)
Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Bone Demineralization Technique
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)
Acute Lung Injury
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Posterior Horn Cells
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Muscular Atrophy, Spinal
A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Activities of Daily Living
Acute Kidney Injury
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Trauma Severity Indices
Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal
Chondroitin ABC Lyase
Anterior Horn Cells
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Range of Motion, Articular
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Gait Disorders, Neurologic
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Abbreviated Injury Scale
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory
Analysis of Variance
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Head Injuries, Closed
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Amino Acid Sequence
Soft Tissue Injuries
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Diffuse Axonal Injury
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
She underwent spinal realignment and cervical spine fusion, but the injury to her spinal cord was extensive, and left her ...
This makes them at high risk for spinal cord injury, which could be exacerbated by movement of the person and could lead to ... "Cervical spinal fusion". WebMD. Retrieved 2008-03-07. Shantanu S Kulkarni, DO and Robert H Meier III, "Spinal Orthotics", ... or may require a halo fixation device to support the neck during recovery after surgery such as cervical spinal fusion. A soft ... Cervical collars are also used therapeutically to help realign the spinal cord and relieve pain, although they are usually not ...
... renamed Spinal Cord Injuries Australia Analytical quality assurance IATA code for Araraquara Airport This disambiguation page ... Wales and Northern Ireland The Aquatic Sector in the Metroid Fusion video game Australian Quadriplegic Association, ...
... because of compression on the spinal cord. Spinal stenosis also adds damage to the spinal cord resulting in symptoms that are ... As a result of having congenital Klippel-Feil syndrome, the spinal anatomy of the individual will present abnormal fusion of ... or an injury pertaining to the neck: cervical area, that damages the spinal nerves traveling through the cervical region ... The body is innervated by spinal nerves that branch off from the spinal cord. This innervation enables the brain to receive ...
Prior to the pre-production, Reeves underwent a two-level fusion of his cervical spine due to spinal cord compression from a ... Reeves' injury and his insufficient training with wires prior to filming meant he was unable to perform the triple kicks ... Due to Reeves' neck injury, some of the action scenes had to be rescheduled to wait for his full recovery. As a result, the ... Weaving had to undergo hip surgery after he sustained an injury during the training process. All but a few scenes were filmed ...
Le Kevin Smith
... the doctor told Smith that he had sustained a neck injury and found 3 bulging spinal disc and spinal cord damage at his C3/C4. ... Four months after surgery, Smith fully recovered from the neck fusion. Doctors said he could go back to physical training and ... play football again because he was a lineman and would put himself at too much risk of permanently damaging his spinal cord and ... In April 2012 Smith had an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion. ...
Andrew C. Hecht
He directs the acute spine and spinal cord injury program for the New York Jets and routinely cares for athletes who sustain ... Biology of Spine Fusion, in Advanced Spinal Surgical Technologies, ed. Corbin T, Connolly P, Yuan H, Bao Q, Boden SD, Quality ... 191-247, 2004 Qureshi S, Hecht AC: Epidemiology of Spinal Cord Injury, Atlas of Spine Trauma: Adult and Pediatric, ed. Kim DH, ... Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, (submitted to Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, 2008) Taitsman LA, Altman ...
"Edge To Have Spinal Cord Fusion Surgery". Syracuse Post-Standard. 03 Mar 2003. Dee, Louie (2007-05-18). "Neck surgery for ... At the time, Austin's injury was the worst of its type that Youngblood had ever seen in his professional career. He later ... After his fame in performing neck operations increased, he performed neck fusions on Bob Holly, Amy Dumas (Lita), Terry Gerin ( ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Tweddell, Ross (2014-12-05). "10 Wrestlers Who Left WWE Due To Injuries". WhatCulture. ...
... elected in August 2016 to have a spinal-cord stimulator implanted to suppress pain. The device failed after about one month; ... However, he was placed on the disabled list on July 2 with a hip injury. Bowie was outrighted to the minor leagues on October ... Bowie developed back problems during his playing career and rather than undergo disk fusion surgery that might need to be ... Louis, Missouri, by the same doctor who had repaired his groin injury in 2007. He has 8% of his former lung capacity. Bowie was ...
"Three-dimensional imaging of the unsectioned adult spinal cord to assess axon regeneration and glial responses after injury". ... "Evidence of direct cell-cell fusion in Borrelia by cryogenic electron tomography". Cellular Microbiology. 13 (5): 731-741. doi: ... Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques. 30 (6): E702-E706. doi:10.1097/BSD.0000000000000249. PMID 28632556. S2CID 4401218. ... "Digital 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Paravertebral Lumbar Muscles After Circumferential Single-level Fusion". ...
위키백과:미번역 문서/의학 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
en:Spinal cord injury (20) *en:Spinal disease (2). *en:Spinal fusion (9) ...
Scott Spann (surgeon)
In September 2005 Spann suffered a severe spinal cord injury, rendering him unable to move from the neck down. After a surgery ... that included an anterior and posterior fusion, an iliac bone graft and a Harm's Cage insertion, he underwent physical therapy ... Spann developed a company called Pantheon Spinal. Pantheon Spinal is a surgical device company dedicated to bringing innovation ... In 2005 Spann began researching stem cells and their effectiveness in treating orthopaedic injuries. As a result he became one ...
Posterolateral fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: Analysis of fusion rate and clinical results. Journal of Spinal ... surgically removes part or all of the lamina from the bony ring of the vertebra to reduce the pressure on the spinal cord. The ... Psychological Response to Injury, Recovery and Social Support: A Survey of Athletes at an NCAA Division I University Digital ... There are two main types of surgery for this condition: Spinal fusion: This procedure is recommended when a set of vertebrae ...
... uses electrical currents to activate nerves innervating extremities affected by paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury ( ... Spinal fusion surgery may be required to treat this condition, with many patients improving their function and experiencing ... which is caused by impingement of the nerve roots within the spinal canal distal to the end of the spinal cord; Spinal cord ( ... spinal cord or brain) or peripheral (nerves located connecting from the spinal cord to an end-site muscle or sensory receptor ...
Paddlers are classified based on loss of muscle strength equivalent to a spinal cord injury complete at T12 level and impaired ... joint fusion. This classification is for disability athletes. This classification is one of several classification for athletes ... equivalent to incomplete spinal cord injury at S1 or the loss of ten muscle grade points on one limb or fifteen points across ...
Spinal cord trauma Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves Tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves Intracerebral ... Spine fusions could be performed as open surgery or as minimally invasive surgery. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a ... Some indications for spine surgery include spinal cord compression resulting from trauma, arthritis of the spinal discs, or ... Some of the techniques include implantation of deep brain stimulators, spinal cord stimulators, peripheral stimulators and pain ...
... but his spinal cord remained intact. On Tuesday, doctors operated on Bolton to fuse-spinal fusion-his C2 and C3 vertebrae, ... Despite his previous injuries, he still managed to qualify for the finals, right inside the cut line. Bolton finished up in ... His bull riding career was cut short by a neck injury sustained during a dismount from a bull he had just finished making an 8- ... In October 2015, Bolton came back from an injury to compete on the BFTS again. The event this time was the Cooper Tires Take ...
"Simvastatin protects bladder and renal functions following spinal cord injury in rats". Journal of Inflammation. Subach, BR; ... "100th Robot-Guided Spinal Fusion Surgery Is Performed by Dr. Christopher R. Good of the Virginia Spine Institute". Yahoo ... He performed the first hybrid multi-level cervical artificial disc replacement with spinal fusion in the country. He founded a ... He performed the first hybrid multi-level cervical artificial disc replacement with spinal fusion in the country. He leads a ...
Nerves and spinal cords It has been shown that macrogol can improve healing of spinal injuries in dogs. One of the earlier ... Krause, T. L.; Bittner, G. D. (1990). "Rapid morphological fusion of severed myelinated axons by polyethylene glycol". PNAS. 87 ... The subcutaneous injection of macrogol 2000 in guinea pigs after spinal cord injury leads to rapid recovery through molecular ... Borgens, R. B.; Bohnert, D (2001). "Rapid recovery from spinal cord injury after subcutaneously administered polyethylene ...
The removal of disc material due to discectomy meant that Woods eventually had to go through spinal fusion to recover. In the U ... is the surgical removal of abnormal disc material that presses on a nerve root or the spinal cord. The procedure involves ... Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a critical injury for elite athletes that could cause extreme pain and significantly hinder ... weakness or numbness by stressing the spinal cord or radiating nerves. The traditional open discectomy, or Love's technique, ...
... if the force of the injury is severe enough that the vertebral body of C2 is severely subluxed from C3 does the spinal cord ... showed that the result of fracture fusion reduced after one year but only one patient died of other disease during the follow- ... Mar 2010). "A nationwide review of the associations among cervical spine injuries, head injuries, and facial fractures". J ... of spinal fractures and 55% of cervical fractures (in patients with head injury). Within C2 fractures, the hangman's fracture ...
Patients with cervical myelopathy caused by narrowing of the spinal canal are at higher risks of acute spinal cord injury if ... Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: A surgical treatment of nerve root or spinal cord compression by decompressing the ... Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or ... or the spinal cord. The most common forms are cervical spinal stenosis, which are at the level of the neck, and lumbar spinal ...
ICD-9-CM Volume 3
Diagnostic procedures on spinal cord and spinal canal structures (03.31) Spinal tap (04) Operations on cranial and other nerves ... Spinal fusion (81.1) Arthrodesis and arthroereisis of foot and ankle (81.2) Arthrodesis of other joint (81.3) Refusion of spine ... Unspecified operation on bone injury (80) Incision and excision of joint structures (80.2) Arthroscopy (80.5) Excision or ... Operations on spinal cord and spinal canal structures (03.0) Exploration and decompression of spinal canal structures (03.09) ...
"Brooke Burns' Scary Spinal Cord Injury Gave Her a New Purpose". brainandlife.org. Retrieved December 12, 2020. "Brooke Burns ... Although she made a full recovery, she has a titanium fusion in her neck consisting of a plate, rod, and 10 screws. In May 2014 ... She also supports the Life Rolls On Foundation, an organization that aims to help people with spinal cord injuries return to an ... In 2006, as a result of her diving injury, she became involved with the Think First National Injury Prevention Foundation and ...
Failed back syndrome
... the results of spinal fusions are mediocre. New epidemiological studies show that "spinal fusion must be accepted as a non ... spinal arachnoiditis). Its diagnosis and treatment by spinal cord stimulation". Spine. 8 (6): 593-603. doi:10.1097/00007632- ... In theory, all failed back patients have some sort of nerve injury or damage which leads to a persistence of symptoms after a ... In addition, spinal fusion itself, particularly if more than one spinal level is operated on, may result in "adjacent segment ...
جراحی مغز و اعصاب - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves. *Tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves ... Spine fusions maybe performed as open surgery or as minimally invasive surgery. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion is a ... Some indications for spine surgery include spinal cord compression resulting from trauma, arthritis of the spinal discs, or ... Al-Zahrawi performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions ...
... to enter the spinal cord and release pressure on the nerve roots. Laminoplasty and spinal fusion surgeries are other ... NC is also more likely present in individuals with other spinal comorbidities. A history of spinal injuries or deformities is ... microdiscectomy and placement of a spinal cord stimulator. The MILD procedure aims to relieve spinal cord compression by ... The effectiveness of laminectomy, microdiscectomy, laminoplasty and spinal fusion surgeries as an alternative to spinal ...
... and the American Spinal Cord Injury Association. Androgens and Cardiovascular Disease, Rob D. Dickerman, University of North ... Patients then tend to have a shorter recovery time than those receiving traditional spinal fusion (which can take over a year ... "Socioeconomics of Spinal Injuries", Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Spine, Jack Jallo, Alexander Richard Vaccaro, editors ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Texas spine surgeon finds fusion success by simply injecting adult stem cells into ...
... is most commonly performed to relieve the pain and pressure on the spinal cord that results when a disc ( ... Chapter 9: Cervical Spine Injuries. In: Schenck, R. F., AAOS. Athletic Training in Sports Medicine. Jones & Bartlett Publishers ... Lumbar and cervical spinal fusions are more commonly performed than thoracic fusions. Degeneration happens more frequently ... 80,095 - Upper thoracic level primary spinal fusion (2003-2013) . *$55,547 - Revision of previous fusion surgery due to ...
Cilmes šūna - Vikipēdija
"Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... 2] These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the ... "A 37-year-old spinal cord-injured female patient, transplanted of multipotent stem cells from human UC blood, with improved ... Stem-cell therapy shows promise for horse soft-tissue injury, disease». DVM Newsmagazine, 2008-05-01. Skatīts: 2008-06-12. ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells
Role in spinal cord injuriesEdit. Traumatic spinal cord damage causes a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions in the ... "CD46 on glial cells can function as a receptor for viral glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion". Glia. 52 (3): 252-8. doi ... Transplantation of OECs into the spinal cord has become a possible therapy for spinal cord damage and other neural diseases in ... Multiple studies have shown that OECs may assist in treating spinal cord injury (SCI) due to their regenerate properties in the ...
... for example when the tumor is wrapped around a vulnerable structure such as the spinal cord or a major organ or blood vessel.[ ... In the CNS for example, cranial nerve injury typically presents as a visual acuity loss 1-14 years post treatment. In the ... When Dupuytren's disease is at the nodules and cords stage or fingers are at a minimal deformation stage of less than 10 ... "Gastroduodenal injury after radioembolization of hepatic tumors". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 102 (6): 1216-20. ...
Spinal cord injury. These conditions can impair coughing, swallowing, clearing the airways, and in the worst cases, breathing. ... "An open receptor-binding cavity of hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein from newly-identified Influenza D Virus: Basis ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Spinal cord compression can occur with metastases to the spine and can be treated with steroids, surgery, or radiation therapy ... "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-11-11. Retrieved ... In men who are candidates for active surveillance, fusion MR/US guided prostate biopsy detected 33% of cancers compared to 7% ... Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing tingling, leg weakness and urinary and fecal ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Cancer spreading into the Central nervous system (brain or spinal cord) has worse outcomes. ... Examples of this include the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene that combines two factors that promote blood cell development and the BCR- ... "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015 ... also known as a spinal tap) can determine whether the spinal column and brain have been invaded. Brain and spinal column ...
In a radiculopathy, the problem occurs at or near the root of the nerve, shortly after its exit from the spinal cord. However, ... With a recent injury (e.g. one that occurred one week ago), a formal physical therapy referral is not yet indicated. Often mild ... Regarding surgical interventions for cervical radiculopathy, the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion procedure is more ... tethered spinal cord syndrome, or transverse myelitis.[verification needed] Repeated, longer term exposure (5 years or more ...
... exhibits normal forebrain formation and a decreased programmed cell death in some neuronal populations and in the spinal cord, ... In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly ... This assay is used to disrupt gene function by creating an intragenic gene fusion. When an APAF-1 gene trap is introduced into ... Kerr JF (October 1965). "A histochemical study of hypertrophy and ischaemic injury of rat liver with special reference to ...
Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals. Spinal injuries occur in two ... Brain and spinal cord injury. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury. ... 2012). "Functional recovery after spinal cord injury in dogs treated with a combination of Matrigel and neural-induced adipose- ...
Soon after describing Stegosaurus, Marsh noted a large canal in the hip region of the spinal cord, which could have ... This study showed that 9.8% of Stegosaurus specimens examined had injuries to their tail spikes. Additional support for this ... The specimens can be identified as not mature because they lack the fusion of the scapula and coracoid, and the lower hind ... Buchholz (née Giffin) EB (1990). "Gross Spinal Anatomy and Limb Use in Living and Fossil Reptiles". Paleobiology. 16 (4): 448- ...
The largest of these is the foramen magnum that allows the passage of the spinal cord as well as nerves and blood vessels. ... Injuries and treatmentEdit. Injuries to the brain can be life-threatening. Normally the skull protects the brain from damage ... The fusion between the various bones is especially notable in birds, in which the individual structures may be difficult to ... Holbourn, A. H. S. (9 October 1943). "Mechanics of Head Injuries". The Lancet. 242 (6267): 438-41. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00) ...
... post-spinal cord injury spasticity, spasms of the head and neck, eyelid, vagina, limbs, jaw, and vocal cords.[ ... a member of the SNARE protein family which is responsible for fusion. The cleaved SNAP-25 is unable to mediate fusion of ... "Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Spasticity Caused by Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized, Controlled Trial". ... Other tests, such as brain scan and spinal fluid examination, may help to rule out other causes. If the symptoms of botulism ...
"Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... Such cells can construct a complete, viable organism. These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. ... 2010 in Atlanta for spinal cord injury research. On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial (Geron Corporation) ... Kang KS, Kim SW, Oh YH, Yu JW, Kim KY, Park HK, Song CH, Han H (2005). "A 37-year-old spinal cord-injured female patient, ...
Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Cochrane/Cochrane Review List/Musculoskeletal, Oral, Skin and Sensory
Positioning and spinal bracing for pain relief in metastatic spinal cord compression in adults PMID 26400848 https://doi.org/ ... Repositioning for pressure injury prevention in adults PMID 24700291 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009958.pub2 ... Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease PMID 21249667 https://doi. ... Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in adults PMID 26337716 https://doi.org/ ...
ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
sampling: fetal tissue (Chorionic villus sampling · Amniocentesis) · blood (Triple test · Percutaneous umbilical cord blood ... Spinal fusion. *Intervertebral discs *Discectomy. *Annuloplasty. *Arthroplasty. *Back examination *Straight leg raise ...
The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) plays a crucial role in the body's stress-related mechanisms. Whether one ... "The Fusion Model. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.. ... The stressor may involve threat to life (or viewing the actual death of someone else), serious physical injury, or threat to ...
... for example when the tumor is wrapped around a vulnerable structure such as the spinal cord or a major organ or blood vessel.[ ... In the CNS for example, cranial nerve injury typically presents as a visual acuity loss 1-14 years post treatment. In the ... When Dupuytren's disease is at the nodules and cords stage or fingers are at a minimal deformation stage of less than 10 ... the initial phase from microvascular injury, capillary damage and nerve demyelination. Subsequent damage occurs from ...
Anand N, Levine, DB, Burke S, Bansal M. Neuropathic spinal atrophy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. J Bone Joint Surg. 1997; 79- ... Patients with CMT must avoid periods of prolonged immobility such as when recovering from a secondary injury, as prolonged ... due to atrophy of vocal cords). A tremor can develop as muscles waste. Pregnancy has been known to exacerbate CMT, as well ...
... post-spinal cord injury spasticity, spasms of the head and neck, eyelid, vagina, limbs, jaw, and vocal cords. ... a member of the SNARE protein family which is responsible for fusion. The cleaved SNAP-25 is unable to mediate fusion of ... If there is good binocular vision, the brain mechanism of motor fusion, which aligns the eyes on a target visible to both, can ... Other tests, such as brain scan and spinal fluid examination, may help to rule out other causes. If the symptoms of botulism ...
He is known to have performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural ... Spinal fusion is an example of adjacent vertebrae connected allowing them to grow together into one piece. ... Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling. Apt test. Kleihauer-Betke test. Lung maturity. Lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio. ... Spinal anesthesia may be used when the surgical site is too large or deep for a local block, but general anesthesia may not be ...
... retina and spinal cord of vertebrates.. There has been some observation of weak neuron to glial cell coupling in the locus ... 1978). "Toward a mechanism of myoblast fusion". Prog Clin Biol Res. 23: 563-8. PMID 96453.. ... When cells are compromised due to disease or injury and start to die messages are transmitted to neighboring cells connected to ... related inflammatory-type responses to radiation-induced stress and injury? A review". Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 79 (1): 15-25. doi ...
Exoskeletons can also be applied in the area of rehabilitation of stroke or spinal cord injury patients. Such exoskeletons are ... including paraplegia as a result of spinal cord injury (SCI), to perform self-initiated standing, walking, and stair ascending ... Spinal flexibility is another challenge since the spine is effectively a stack of limited-motion ball joints. There is no ... Task B aimed to develop a scuba-like undersuit to aid in preventing injury and fatigue. The goal of Task B was also to utilize ...
Medieval medicine of Western Europe
... was in the field of the form and function of muscles and the function of the areas of the spinal cord. He also excelled in ... Another common injury faced was those caused by blades. If the wound was too advanced for simple stitch and bandage, it would ... Another example of the fusion of different medicinal theories is the combination of Christian and pre-Christian ideas about elf ... In the mid-fourteenth century, there were restrictions placed on London surgeons as to what types of injuries they were able to ...
स्नायु शल्यक्रिया - विकिपिडिया
... disorders of the spinal cord, meninges, र vertebral column, including those that may require treatment by fusion, ... Spinal cord trauma. *Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves. *Brain tumors. *Tumors of the spine, spinal cord र peripheral ... Neurosurgical conditions include primarily brain, spinal cord र peripheral nerve disorders. Conditions treated by neurosurgeons ... surgical र endovascular treatment of disorders of the intracranial र extracranial vasculature supplying the brain र spinal cord ...
Cut sciatic nerve and dorsal spinal cord of guinea pigs, causing abnormal nervous condition resembling epilepsy. Epileptic ... In 1987, Ryuichi Matsuda coined the term "pan-environmentalism" for his evolutionary theory which he saw as a fusion of ... Lamarck was not concerned with wounds, injuries or mutilations, and nothing that Lamarck had set forth was tested or "disproven ...
Spinal fusion is an example of adjacent vertebrae connected allowing them to grow together into one piece. ... Al-Zahrawi pioneered techniques of neurosurgery and neurological diagnosis, treating head injuries, skull fractures, spinal ... Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling. Apt test. Kleihauer-Betke test. Lung maturity. Lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio. ... Spinal anesthesia may be used when the surgical site is too large or deep for a local block, but general anesthesia may not be ...
Spinal Cord Injury - Failed Spinal Fusion With Reflex Symapthetic Dystrophy
... - Boston Injury Lawyer ... Gluck helps victims and their families receive compensation for their injuries in Injury and Accident cases. ... Spinal Cord Injury - Failed Spinal Fusion With Reflex Symapthetic Dystrophy. Injuries Spinal Cord Injury - Failed Spinal Fusion ... Failed Spinal Fusion with Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. The plaintiff, a woman with a history of scoliosis, underwent spinal ...
Spinal Cord Injury - Botched Spinal Fusion Resulting in Severe Nerve Damage
... - Boston Injury Lawyer ... Gluck helps victims and their families receive compensation for their injuries in Injury and Accident cases. ... Botched Spinal Fusion Resulting in Severe Nerve Damage. Injuries Spinal Cord Injury - Botched Spinal Fusion Resulting in Severe ... Botched Spinal Fusion Resulting in Severe Nerve Damage and Permanent Disability. To correct a herniated disc and lower back ...
Spinal Cord Injury During Cervial Fusion - Medical Animation
This 3D medical animation shows the anatomy of the spinal column and demonstrates how the spinal cord is accidentally impacted ... This 3D medical animation shows the anatomy of the spinal column and demonstrates how the spinal cord is accidentally impacted ... Young Male Figure with Thoracic, Abdominal, Face, Jaw and Brain Injuries - exh47350a. Medical Exhibit. Add to my lightbox. Find ... Post Fall Low Back Injuries - exh63536a-nl. Medical Exhibit. Add to my lightbox. Find More Like This. ...
Spinal Fusion Surgery Accident Lawyer :: Chicago Spinal Cord Injury Lawyer Rosenfeld Injury Lawyers LLC
Spinal Fusion Surgery Accident Lawyer - Chicago Spinal Cord Injury Lawyers Rosenfeld Injury Lawyers LLC. ... Rosenfeld Injury Lawyers LLC help victims and their families receive compensation for their injuries in Spinal Cord Injury and ... When is a Cervical or Lumbar Fusion Necessary For An Injury To The Back or Neck?. Many patients who have a spinal fusion ... What Is Spinal Fusion Surgery?. The procedure of spinal fusion is the process of "welding" pieces of vertebrae together to stop ...
Ask the Community about Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal fusion nightmare. Started by c_frank1225 on 01/31/2020 11:07pm ... Spinal fusion nightmare. Started by c_frank1225 on 01/31/2020 11:06pm ... i lost my sensation in body(i.e heat and cold ) due to spine cord compression Started by RAMESH DAHAL on 05/22/2020 5:19am ... Back surgery fusion not worth it. Started by DONT DO IT on 12/13/2019 8:19am ...
Cervical Spine Fusion Surgery Woodstock | Spinal Cord Injury Woodstock GA
GA performs cervical spine fusion surgery to provide stability and prevent injury to the spinal cord. ... A cervical spine fusion may be indicated to stabilize injuries and prevent fracture and spinal cord damage and to treat ... Cervical Spine Fusion. Cervical Spine Anatomy. Your spine consists of a spinal cord supported by a series of interlocking bones ... Risks and Complications of Cervical Spine Fusion As with all surgical procedures, cervical spinal fusion may be associated with ...
Ask the Community about Spinal Cord Injury - Page 4
Cervical Spinal Fusion Complications. Started by mlward on 09/29/2018 3:48am ... Spinal Fusion recovery. Started by johnsondarlene66 on 08/11/2018 5:36pm ... Question Regarding Lumbar Fusion Hardware Removal. Started by pchgenius on 10/16/2018 4:40am ... Cervical fusion, dealing with nerve issues. Started by Dom on 10/04/2018 10:50pm ...
Occurrence of infection in anterior cervical fusion for spinal cord injury after tracheostomy. - Semantic Scholar
... of the clinical data of 1800 spinal cord injury patients seen from 1979 to the present at the Regional Spinal Cord Injury ... OBJECTIVES The primary goal was to show that anterior cervical spine surgery in the setting of spinal cord injury is a viable ... SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Respiratory failure after cervical cord injury commonly requires tracheostomy, possibly increasing ... CONCLUSIONS The authors concluded that in patients with cervical cord damage resulting from nonpenetrating trauma, tracheostomy ...
Dr. Shankar Gopinath, MD - Reviews - Houston, TX
Dr. Stanley Hoang, MD | Shreveport, LA | Healthgrades
Patent US7828800 - Threaded frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants - Google Patents
... and for the purpose of advancing the spinal fusion implant into the fusion site. The spinal fusion implants of the present ... The spinal fusion implants of the present invention may have wells extending into the material of the implant from the surface ... The present invention is directed to a variety of interbody spinal fusion implants having at least a partially frusto-conical ... for the purpose of holding fusion promoting materials and to provide for areas of bone ingrowth fixation. ...
Patent US7291149 - Method for inserting interbody spinal fusion implants - Google Patents
... forming a bore from the anterior or posterior aspect of the spinal column across a distracted disc space between the adjacent ... vertebral bodies and into the adjacent vertebral bodies, and inserting into the bore the spinal implant having opposed arcuate ... The present invention is directed to methods of inserting a variety of interbody spinal fusion implants across a disc space ... Harris, P., et al.; Spinal Deformity After Spinal Cord Injury; Paraplegia, vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 232-238 (Feb. 1969).. ...
Find a Spokesperson
Arya N. Shamie, MD : Orthopaedic Surgery, Spine | Orthopaedic Surgery - Santa Monica, California
Spinal Compression Fracture & Fusion. *Spinal Cord Injury. *Spinal Cord Stimulators. *Spinal Infections ... Spinal Surgery, UCLA School of Medicine, 2000-2001. Residency. Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Marys Medical Center, 1996-2000. ... Additionally, he is actively involved in scientific and clinical research projects pertinent to spinal disorders. Dr. Shamie ...
Daniel C. Lu, MD, PhD : Neurological Surgery - Santa Monica, California
Spinal Cord Injury Research. Minimally Invasive Tubular Surgery for Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion. Minimally Invasive ... Spinal stimulator recaptures hand motion, strength after cervical spinal cord injury. Numerous news outlets reported Dec. 13 on ... Beckers Spine Review: Spinal Cord Injury Research (Beckers Spine Review). *A conversation with Dr. Lu (Healio - Spine Surgery ... Experimental implant shows promise for restoring voluntary movement after spinal cord injury. ...
Pediatric Rehabilitation & Therapy | Cleveland Clinic Children's
Spinal cord injury. *Orthopedic rehabilitation needs, such as surgery or injury. *Spinal fusions and traction ... Physiatrists diagnose and treat disability resulting from disease or injury. They develop a comprehensive program to help ... we provide specialized care for children with chronic conditions due to injury or illness. We encourage the entire family to ... injury or complex medical or congenital conditions. ...
Acute spinal cord injury | SpringerLink
Acute spinal cord injury is a devastating disease with enormous repercussions, not only for the victims and their families but ... Northrup BE, Vaccaro AR, Rosen JE, et al.: Occurrence of infection in anterior cervical fusion for spinal cord injury after ... Spinal Cord Injury Mean Arterial Blood Pressure American Spinal Injury Association Acute Spinal Cord Injury Cervical Spinal ... Prusmack C, Rochman AS, Levi AD: The effect of age on survival following traumatic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2006, ...
OSTEOCONDUCTIVE MATRICES COMPRISING CALCIUM PHOSPHATE PARTICLES AND STATINS AND METHODS OF USING THE SAME - WARSAW ORTHOPEDIC,...
... for excision of spinal cord tumors; for an anterior cervical or thoracic operation; for the repairs of a spinal injury; for ... and used in a spinal fusion such as an interbody fusion.. FIG. 1 illustrates a magnified side sectional view of an embodiment ... excision of spinal cord tumors; anterior cervical and thoracic operations; repairs of spinal injuries; scoliosis, lordosis and ... spinal fusion or internal vertebral fixation; for tumor surgery; for deficit filling; for discectomy; for laminectomy; ...
Epidural News, Research
There are more than 290,000 people estimated to be living in the United States with a spinal cord injury. Previously, it has ... Robotic technology for spinal fusion at Norwalk Hospital helps great grandmother stay active Lifelong Norwalk, Connecticut ... Paralyzed man regains his ability to stand, walk with spinal cord stimulation and physical therapy Spinal cord stimulation and ... Epidural stimulation aids in recovery of individuals with spinal cord injury For the first time since 2009, Stefanie Putnam is ...
Methylprednisolone Protects Oligodendrocytes But Not Neurons after Spinal Cord Injury | Journal of Neuroscience
2005) Exogenous Bcl-xL fusion protein spares neurons after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci Res 79:628-637. ... Results of the Third National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Randomized Controlled Trial. National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. ... It is widely used for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in which white matter injury plays a prominent but not exclusive role, ... Spinal cord extracts were also run on a DNA gel to assess DNA laddering (D). Sections from contused spinal cords were ...
Fusion Techniques for Degenerative Disease | SpringerLink
2Since that time many types of fusion have been described, but the specific indications for performing... ... The era of spinal fusion surgery began with the first reports of Hibbs and Albee in 1911.1, ... Surgical techniques of anterior decompression and fusion for spinal cord injuries. Clin Orthop 1981;54:57-67.Google Scholar ... A new technique for intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord function: multichannel recording of spinal cord and subcortical ...
Cervical Spinal Fusion
After an injury, to stabilize the neck and prevent a bone fracture from causing instability or damage to the spinal cord, which ... Often spinal fusion is needed to keep the spine stable after injury, infection, or a tumor. ... Cervical spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is a surgery that joins selected bones in the neck (cervical spine). There are different ... Because there are so many things to consider when spinal fusion is recommended, seek a second opinion before making a decision. ...
Results - Personal Injury Injury Attorneys | Ehline Law Firm
And the plaintiff suffered severe spinal cord injuries. Also, spinal fusion surgery was required. ... Confidential Settlement involving a motorcycle accident with severe spinal cord injuries. Required surgery. ... Below, you can take a look at just some of the few representative cases in which our Los Angeles personal injury law firm has ... And it has over 100 years of collective experience in the art of personal injury claims. Also, Michael Ehline of Ehline Law ...
Farmersville Back Injury Lawyer » Farmersville Back Injury Lawyer 93223
Find best Farmersville back injury lawyer. (800) 400-5050 Free Consultation 247. Farmersville back injury lawyer 93223. (800) ... Spinal fusion. *Nerve compression. *Spinal cord injury. *Paraplegia. *Whiplash. *Thoracic spine injuries (chest, rib area, mid ... There are many different types of neck and head injuries, neck fractures, spinal injuries, and more discussed in this post. ... work injuries, and other injuries to people. Additionally, most Farmersville back injury lawyers work on a contingency basis ...
Cervical Radiculopathy : Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics
Spinal cord injury as a complication of elective anterior cervical fusion. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1975;(112):130-141. ... Vertebral artery injuries are rare as are spinal cord injuries. Kraus and Stauffer reported a 0.3 % incidence of spinal cord ... If herniation is directly posterior, may cause compression on the ventral aspect of the dura resulting in spinal cord ... Intra-operative SSEP and MEP monitoring has contributed to the safety and reduction in neural and spinal cord complications. ...
Research Keyword Faculty Listing | Yale School of Medicine
Fitness after Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal rods or fusion. Individuals with spinal hardware or a fusion should be cleared for all activities by the spinal surgeon ... In long-term spinal cord injury, the rib cage compartment actually may get stiff due to a combination of spasticity and lack of ... Theres no doubt about it, FES can be a good way to exercise if you have spinal cord injuries, but its not available for ... Many people with spinal cord injury, especially those in manual wheelchairs, develop muscle tightness in the front of the ...
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Francis Shen, MD | Orthopedics | UVA
When surgery is required for spinal pathology, Dr. Shen combines both traditional open surgical techniques with cutting-edge ... Spinal fusion, spinal cord injury and regeneration. Clinical Practice: Neck Fracture, Vertebral Compression Fracture, Cervical ... Spinal Fusion, Lumbar Stenosis, Cervical Disc Disease, Lumbar Disc Herniation, Cervical Disc Herniation, Cervical Stenosis, ... Shen cares for patients with spinal pathology through a combination of both operative and nonoperative techniques. When surgery ...
WARNING: if considering full spinal fusion, it may disable and end your life as mine. - Page 5
Just because you have one of the best spinal surgeons does NOT mean that you will end up in LESS pain!!! I had this done 3 ... I had full spinal fusion, T-3 to sacrum, after having 80 and 60 degree curves, with the renowned Dr. Lenke. ... Emergency screw removal Spinal Cord Injury T4,5 sec to PJK 2015: Revision Broken Bil T & L rods and no fusion: 2 revision ... Emergency screw removal Spinal Cord Injury T4,5 sec to PJK 2015: Revision Broken Bil T & L rods and no fusion: 2 revision ...
StenosisSpineTumorsScoliosisSurgeryVertebraeNerveNervesDisordersDecompressionDeformitiesFractureTraumaSpondylolisthesisNeurologicNeckDeformityInterbody fusionDegenerative diseaseLaminectomyProcedureInstabilityNeurosurgerySurgicalParalysisHerniated discDiscectomyAcute spinal cord iUnderwentSurgeriesInfectionInfectionsCervical spinal cord injParaplegiaStabilizeCanalSurgeonAnterior cervical fusionThoracic spinal cordAmerican Spinal Injury AssociationBonesComplicationsMinimally invasive spinal fusionMyelopathyGetting a spinal stimulatorPeople with spinal cord injDiagnosisFractures of the spinalBone covering the spinVertebral BodyCompression of the spinal cordLumbar spinal fusionPosterior spinal fusionDiscsClinical TrialsSyndromeEpidural hematomaBrain or spinal cord
- As a follow-up procedure to treat spinal stenosis , a herniated disc , the effects of rheumatoid arthritis , an infection, tumors, or spinal deformities. (healthwise.net)
- A cervical spinal fusion is also used as a follow-up treatment for spinal stenosis, disc hernia, rheumatoid arthritis, and other types of spinal deformities. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- Conditions treated include degenerative diseases, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, tumors and spinal-cord injuries. (christianacare.org)
- I have spinal stenosis at C4-5 (severe cord compression to 6.5 mm) and had a posterior laminectomy in 8/02 for C6-7 and still having all the tricep pain and forearm spasms and cramping. (healthboards.com)
- It sounds like they didn't explain too much to you but it certainly sounds like you have spinal cord compression either from your herniated disks or spinal stenosis or cervical spondylosis. (healthboards.com)
- Mr. Hoecker suffered debilitating leg pain and numbness due to degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. (news-medical.net)
- The surgeries were for conditions such as herniated disc, spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal) and degenerative disc disease. (bio-medicine.org)
- Your spine consists of a spinal cord supported by a series of interlocking bones called vertebrae. (atlasorthopaedics.com)
- The vertebrae and discs may get damaged by injury, disease or wear-and-tear, compromising the cervical spine. (atlasorthopaedics.com)
- Cervical spine fusion is a surgery performed to fuse weak cervical vertebrae with adjacent vertebrae to provide stability and prevent injury to the spinal cord. (atlasorthopaedics.com)
- A cervical spine fusion may be indicated to stabilize injuries and prevent fracture and spinal cord damage and to treat misalignment of the vertebrae, herniated discs, arthritis, tumor, deformities, and infection. (atlasorthopaedics.com)
- STUDY DESIGN This study retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 11 patients treated for a cervical spine injury with a tracheostomy placed before anterior cervical spine surgery. (semanticscholar.org)
- OBJECTIVES The primary goal was to show that anterior cervical spine surgery in the setting of spinal cord injury is a viable option in patients with previous tracheostomy. (semanticscholar.org)
- AANS Guidelines for the Management of Acute Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injuries. (springer.com)
- The goal of this chapter is to provide a selection of recommended techniques of spinal fusion that may be used to stabilize the spine following degenerative disease. (springer.com)
- Fusion in the Lumbar Spine in Lumbar Disc Disease. (springer.com)
- Ehni G. The role of spine fusion: question 9. (springer.com)
- The role of spine fusion, question 3. (springer.com)
- The results of anterior interbody fusion of the cervical spine. (springer.com)
- Anterior fusion of the lumbar spine. (springer.com)
- Anterior interbody lumbar spine fusion, analysis of Mayo Clinic Series. (springer.com)
- Posterolateral fusion of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. (springer.com)
- Often spinal fusion is needed to keep the spine stable after injury, infection, or a tumor. (healthwise.net)
- He also manages degenerative conditions, spinal deformity, trauma, tumors and infections of the spine. (uvahealth.com)
- Anterior spinal fusion surgery is when the surgeon has to approach the spine from the front. (chkd.org)
- What does fusion of the spine mean? (chkd.org)
- The fusion keeps the parts of the spine in a corrected position. (chkd.org)
- When the fusion is done in the thoracic (chest) section, there is no significant change in flexibility since that region of the spine naturally has little range of motion. (chkd.org)
- Also, you could make your injury far worse, turning whiplash into severe spine injuries, nerve damage, or paralysis. (ehlinelaw.com)
- The Veritas Health platform comprising of Spine-health.com , Arthritis-health.com , Sports-health.com , and Pain-health.com , provides comprehensive information on back pain, arthritis, sports injuries, and chronic pain conditions. (spine-health.com)
- There are several different types of spinal fusions based on factors, such as the part of the spine involved, placement of the incisions, and the parts of the vertebra that are initially fused. (denverhealth.org)
- Spinal nerves exit the spine between the vertebrae. (denverhealth.org)
- The surgery involves fusion or joining of certain bones in the cervical spine or neck. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- There are many different ways to perform a cervical spine fusion, and the most common ones are as follows. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- If this incision is made in the front of the neck, it is called as an anterior cervical spine fusion, and if it is made on the back of the neck, it is called as a posterior cervical spine fusion. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- The global spine market is expected to grow in future due to increasing cases of spinal cord injury, increasing ageing population. (slideshare.net)
- 2. Executive Summary 2 Global Spine Market with Focus on Spinal Fusion: Industry Analysis & Outlook (2017-2021) Spine, also known as vertebral column or back bone, is a series of several irregular bones (vertebrae) located in the back of a human. (slideshare.net)
- Spine houses a spinal canal which protects the spinal cord by enclosing it. (slideshare.net)
- Spinal fusion segment has witnessed significant growth in the spine market because of increased cases of severe lumber and cervical disorders. (slideshare.net)
- The U.S. is likely to experience further growth of spine market with technological advancements in surgical devices, growing cases of spinal diseases in older populace and rising adoption of spinal fusion. (slideshare.net)
- The global spine market is expected to grow in future due to increasing cases of spinal cord injury, increasing ageing population and obese population, rise in healthcare expenditure, increasing disposable income and rapid urbanization. (slideshare.net)
- The report "Global Spine Market with Focus on Spinal Fusion: Industry Analysis & Outlook (2017-2021)" by Koncept Analytics provides an extensive research and detailed analysis of the present market along with future outlook. (slideshare.net)
- Keller & Keller's history of helping clients who have suffered permanent injuries to their spine dates back to 1936. (2keller.com)
- SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Controversy exists regarding the most appropriate imaging studies required to 'clear' the spine in patients suspected of having a spinal column injury. (semanticscholar.org)
- Preventable diagnostic errors in fatal cervical spine injuries: a nationwide register-based study from 1987 to 2010. (semanticscholar.org)
- Roebuck, 46, suffered hernias and fractures of the cervical spine and a spinal cord injury, among other injuries, in the accident. (mcall.com)
- The common complications of spine decompression and fixation in this series were surgical site infections (11.4%) and chest infections (11.4%), especially in high cervical injury. (ajol.info)
- Spinal cord decompression with spinal stabilization enhances the rehabilitation of patients with unstable spine and completes spinal cord injuries. (ajol.info)
- Fusion stabilizes the spine to stop the painful motion and decompress pinched nerves. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- When back and leg pain result from injury or degenerative changes in the spine, AxiaLIF surgery may be recommended (Fig. 1). (mayfieldclinic.com)
- Fusion stabilizes the spine and prevents painful motion. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- Injuries of the cervical spine are commonly associated with devastating trauma to the spinal cord with consequential neurological impairment. (scielo.org.za)
- Inclusion criteria - 1) All adult patients who had acute cervical spinal cord injuries between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008 who had an MRI done of their cervical spine. (scielo.org.za)
- The cervical spine provides musculoskeletal stability and supports for the cranium, and a flexible and protective column for movement, balance adaptation, and housing of the spinal cord and vertebral artery. (chiro.org)
- Because of its great mobility and relatively small structures, the cervical spine is the most frequent site of severe spinal nerve injury and subluxations. (chiro.org)
- Spinal fusion is done most commonly in the lumbar (lower back) region of the spine, but it is also used to treat cervical and thoracic problems. (bumrungrad.com)
- Less common are spinal instability, a structural weakening of the spine, and neurological disability. (mountsinai.org)
- If you already have a spinal tumor or osteoporosis, minor blows to the spine can further weaken your bones. (mountsinai.org)
- Fusion includes stabilizing the bones of your spine (vertebrae) that are structurally weak or have too much abnormal motion. (mountsinai.org)
- General Principles of Spine Injuries. (slideserve.com)
- The thoracic spine demonstrates the best natural defense against traumatic injury, since the spinal cord is well protected by large and strong vertebrae which do not suffer the same degree of degeneration as the upper and lower ends of the backbone. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Spinal fusion surgery requires the fusing of a segment of the spine to a healthy bone on either side of the fusion using a bone graft. (dignityhealth.org)
- Spinal fusion is a procedure that promotes the fusing, or growing together, of two or more vertebrae in the spine. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, approximately a quarter-million spinal fusions are performed each year, half on the upper and half on the lower spine. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- The spinal disks act as shock absorbers, cushioning the spine, and preventing individual bones from contacting each other. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Progressive and perhaps uneven weakening of the spinal muscles leads to gradual inability to support the spine in an upright position. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Spine is one of the most important support systems for the body that enables the body to bend, twist, safeguard spinal cord, etc. (grandviewresearch.com)
- Spinal distortion is known as a curvature in the spine where the arrangement is outside of defined standard limits. (grandviewresearch.com)
- Spine Biologics consists of material that can be used in degenerative disc disease, bone fusion surgery, and spinal cord injury. (grandviewresearch.com)
- The usage of biologics has always been crucial in case of spine surgery as a vital element for at all spinal fusion surgery. (grandviewresearch.com)
- On the basis of surgery type, the global Spine Biologics Market has been classified as Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF), Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF), Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF), and Transforamenal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF). (grandviewresearch.com)
- In 2014 the Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) surgery type accounted for the largest share of the global Spine Biologics Market tracked by Transforamenal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF). (grandviewresearch.com)
- Dr. Sekhon is a highly skilled spine neurosurgeon whose practice includes motion preservation techniques and technologies, artificial discs, dynamic stabilization, interbody fusion, and other procedures including minimally invasive spine surgery.Dr. Sekhon is Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, at the University of Nevada, School of Medicine in Reno and Las Vegas. (healthtap.com)
- Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries 19. (whsmith.co.uk)
- Spinal Cord and Nerve Injuries in the Cervical Spine 52. (whsmith.co.uk)
- Klippel Feil syndrome is a syndrome that leads to fusion of at least 2 of the seven vertebrae is the cervical spine. (pediatriconcall.com)
- In addition, patients may have fusion of the vertebrae in the thoracic or lumbar spine. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Our team of highly experienced neurosurgeons at Sanford Brain & Spine Center in Bismarck, ND, specializes in complex spinal deformities and cranial procedures, peripheral nerve disease, vascular, and pediatric and functional neurosurgery. (sanfordhealth.org)
- Traumatic injuries to the brain, spinal cord, bones of the spine, nerves and skull. (sanfordhealth.org)
- By replacing the disc and removing it, as in the case of spinal fusion procedure, the spine keeps its natural mobility, therefore preventing abnormal motion or stress on the other spinal segments. (placidway.com)
- Although many spine injuries can (and should) be treated without surgery, it is sometimes the best option. (placidway.com)
- Some spine injuries are caused by trauma, while others are caused by internally degenerative conditions that accompany age or some disease processes. (placidway.com)
- Artificial disc replacement is a type of spinal surgical procedure that replaces damaged or degenerating vertebral discs in the spine. (placidway.com)
- He specializes in complex and minimally invasive spine surgery which includes spinal injuries, spinal fusion, spinal deformity, spinal tumors, spinal cord decompression, spinal tumors, and disk surgery. (spine-health.com)
- Dr. Hain works with the team at Nebraska Spine Hospital to provide a center for spinal care. (spine-health.com)
- She underwent spinal realignment and cervical spine fusion, but the injury to her spinal cord was extensive, and left her paralysed from the mid-chest down. (wikipedia.org)
- Thoracic spinal cord injuries occur as a result of high-speed motor vehicular accidents, tumors that have compressed the spinal cord, and ischemic injuries of the spinal cord. (rutgers.edu)
- He has special expertise in the diagnosis and management of many conditions including cervical myelopathy, degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis, spinal tumors, and trauma. (healthtap.com)
- Primary Tumors of the Spinal Cord 23. (whsmith.co.uk)
- Many patients who have a spinal fusion surgery have had an injury to the vertebrae or discs in their back (lumbar) or neck (cervical). (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Patients who undergo spinal fusion surgery are often in pain from many types of everyday movements. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Patients who undergo spinal fusion surgery can expect several months of rehabilitation while the bones finish the process of fusing. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Like most surgical procedures, there is a very broad range in the recovery prospect for a person who requires a fusion surgery. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- As lawyers who represent people in all types of back and neck injury cases, Rosenfeld Injury Lawyers LLC are familiar with both the medical expenses related to back surgery as well as the injuries impact on the individuals earning capacity. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Kimball J., Yew A., Getachew R., Lu D.C . Minimally invasive tubular surgery for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. (uclahealth.org)
- Much of the controversy in the treatment of these injuries stems from insufficient knowledge about the pathophysiology of the disease as well as the timing of certain treatments such as surgery. (springer.com)
- The era of spinal fusion surgery began with the first reports of Hibbs and Albee in 1911. (springer.com)
- And research also suggests that a complex surgery that includes fusion is not better than a simpler surgery to take the pressure off the nerve. (healthwise.net)
- Also, spinal fusion surgery was required. (ehlinelaw.com)
- Either posterior spinal fusion surgery or anterior spinal fusion surgery is recommended when bracing or casting has been unable to stop the progression of the curve. (chkd.org)
- This monitoring significantly lowers the risk of neurological injury during surgery. (chkd.org)
- A spinal fusion is a surgery to weld together two or more vertebrae. (denverhealth.org)
- Spinal fusion can be done by open surgery or using a minimally invasive technique. (denverhealth.org)
- I had spinal fusion surgery July 19 2012 and I have never gone a day without pain since then. (experienceproject.com)
- I hate to say my spinal fusion surgery caused this but to be honest I had no interest in smoking marijuana until I experienced the pain of the surgery. (experienceproject.com)
- In addition, otolaryngologic and anesthetic considerations in Down syndrome are also discussed, as well as advances in surgery that have made the operative fusion of these patients easier and safer. (ds-health.com)
- She was paralyzed as a result of spinal fusion surgery. (travisroyfoundation.org)
- Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a well-known postoperative complication of spinal surgery. (hindawi.com)
- Symptomatic SEH usually presents with spinal nerve deficits, including paralysis and acute, severe pain, and usually requires revision surgery. (hindawi.com)
- Cases of symptomatic SEH after spinal surgery without decompression are rare. (hindawi.com)
- We present a case of SEH after thoracolumbar posterior fusion without decompression surgery for a thoracic vertebral fracture. (hindawi.com)
- The goal of surgery for people with upper limb dysfunction due to brain injury is to decrease muscle spasticity, correct joint contractures and improve limb appearance, as well as enhance muscle function if voluntary muscle control exists. (mayoclinic.org)
- The goals of surgery for people who've suffered spinal cord injuries are to restore elbow straightening (extension), the ability to grasp and the function of pinch. (mayoclinic.org)
- My son is coming up on his spinal surgery revision june 14th, but he is still struggling with stopping smoking. (scoliosis.org)
- These include minimally invasive surgery with image guidance, spinal fusion, artificial disks and disk replacement. (christianacare.org)
- ChristianaCare was ranked #1 in 2019 by CareChex for spinal surgery in the greater Philadelphia area for surgical procedures performed in the inpatient setting which includes spinal fusion and cervical spinal fusion. (christianacare.org)
- 2-4 Some require surgery, which may rectify injury, but pain during recovery is often inevitable, and the road to recovery is not guaranteed to be smooth. (amjorthopedics.com)
- Some of these treatments could be planned concurrently with neurosurgical approaches that are themselves beneficial to decrease secondary damage (e.g., decompression/reconstructive spinal surgery). (jneurosci.org)
- Many clients involved in accidents suffer back injuries and need to undergo a spinal fusion surgery. (hsinjurylaw.com)
- Decompression of the thoracic spinal cord often requires surgery because traction alone often cannot reposition the thoracic vertebral segments. (rutgers.edu)
- Because surgery on the thoracic spinal column usually requires the opening of the thoracic cavity, decompression of thoracic spinal cord injury may be delayed by many hours, days, or even weeks after injury. (rutgers.edu)
- The fusion process typically takes 6-12 months after surgery. (bumrungrad.com)
- As expected, the injury-a spinal cord contusion that eventually led to spinal fusion surgery just under one month later-massively complicates his return to the game. (bleacherreport.com)
- For patients suffering from back or spinal pain due to injury or arthritis, Dignity Health Central Coast Neuroscience Services offers spinal fusion surgery. (dignityhealth.org)
- Who Is A Candidate For Spinal Fusion Surgery? (dignityhealth.org)
- This surgery can be an excellent choice for those suffering from spinal disorders or a spinal cord injury. (dignityhealth.org)
- Wilson said he didn't feel any pain in his neck, and is waiting for X-rays to confirm that his spinal cord fusion surgery was successful. (nbcsports.com)
- I had a laminoplasty first where they drill out and replace the bones to enlarge the canal but it collapsed less than 3 months after surgery(a new world record apparently) and they had to do an emergency fusion. (healthboards.com)
- He needed emergency surgery and a spinal fusion. (enterprisenews.com)
- A minimally invasive spinal fusion back surgery results in less blood loss, less postoperative pain, smaller incisions, a shorter hospital stay and faster recovery and return to work. (news-medical.net)
- There is low-quality evidence for olfactory mucosal autograft surgery in patients with spinal cord injury. (cmaj.ca)
- Sagittal (A) T 2 -weighted, (B) T 1 -weighted and (C) proton density magnetic resonance images of an intramedullary cervical spinal mass in a 38-year-old man 12 years after olfactory mucosal autograft surgery. (cmaj.ca)
- Depending upon the extent and level of fusion, some people may develop cervical or craniocervical instability and require fusion surgery to prevent serious injury. (pediatriconcall.com)
- If spinal cord is compressed, surgery to relieve compression is required. (pediatriconcall.com)
- What is the cost for spinal cord surgery in India? (placidway.com)
- In the meantime, spinal cord surgery may allow many people with a spinal cord injury to lead productive, independent lives. (placidway.com)
- ADR is usually performed on the lower or lumbar region of the back and provides support, cushioning and improvement in mobility for spinal surgery patients. (placidway.com)
- Spinal Surgery Riskier for Certain Patients, S... ( TUESDAY Sept. 27 (Hea. (bio-medicine.org)
- Risk factors for complications included older age, congestive heart failure or history of heart attack, neurological problems before surgery, a history of spinal wound infection, corticosteroid use, a history of sepsis, long surgical times and a poor health rating according to an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system. (bio-medicine.org)
- The spinal column is made up of 24 vertebrae that are stacked upon each other, protecting the spinal cord. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- These vertebrae can through degenerative diseases, impact, lifting and twisting begin moving and causing pressure against the spinal nerves. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- The procedure of spinal fusion is the process of "welding" pieces of vertebrae together to stop movement that may be causing pain. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- It can also be due to a fall or impact injury where the jolt caused a herniated disc or fracture of the vertebrae such as the trauma related to a car or truck accident . (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- The entire vertebrae or the spinal disc may be removed, and the adjacent bones fused. (atlasorthopaedics.com)
- A spinal disc can be removed and the adjacent vertebrae fused. (healthwise.net)
- A spinal fusion removes damaged tissue and locks the two vertebra in place to prevent irritation of the spinal nerve between the vertebrae. (denverhealth.org)
- The MRI can assess whether or not the vertebrae presses upon the spinal cord. (ds-health.com)
- They removed the bad disc from the spinal cord and replaced it with bone graft between two vertebrae. (smore.com)
- An anterior cervical fusion operation between the fourth and fifth vertebrae was performed. (astm.org)
- Spinal fusion is a surgical technique used to combine two or more vertebrae. (bumrungrad.com)
- The goal of spinal fusion is to unite two or more vertebrae to prevent them from moving independently of each other. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- While the shapes of individual vertebrae differ among these regions, each is essentially a short hollow tube containing the bundle of nerves known as the spinal cord. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Individual nerves, such as those carrying messages to the arms or legs, enter and exit the spinal cord through gaps between vertebrae. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Two hours later, Baker underwent a spinal fusion to stabilize the broken vertebrae. (runnersworld.com)
- As with all surgical procedures, cervical spinal fusion may be associated with certain risks such as graft rejection, failure to fuse, nerve injury, bleeding, and infection. (atlasorthopaedics.com)
- Nerve or spinal cord injury. (healthwise.net)
- The occurrence of cervical nerve root compression is often insidious without an antecedent injury. (wheelessonline.com)
- If herniation is directly posterior, may cause compression on the ventral aspect of the dura resulting in spinal cord compression (Myelopathy) as well as nerve root compression. (wheelessonline.com)
- To give you an indication, Social Security's impairment listing for back disorders requires compromise or impingement of the spinal cord or a nerve root. (disabilitysecrets.com)
- narrowing of the spinal canal and nerve root canal as well as enlargement of the facet joints can pinch spinal nerves and cause pain and numbness in legs. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- He underwent C5-C6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for decompression and stabilization of his spinal cord nerve roots. (millerandzois.com)
- and (4) dangerous (eg, unstable fracture-dislocation, spinal cord or nerve root injury). (chiro.org)
- Spasm of the sternocleidomastoideus and trapezius can be due to strain or irritation of the sensory fibers of the spinal accessory nerve as they exit with the C2 C4 spinal nerves. (chiro.org)
- Decompression involves removing any bone, disc, or a blood clot that is pushing on a nerve or the spinal cord. (mountsinai.org)
- Once the disc is removed, the affected nerve root or spinal cord is decompressed and a spacer is placed in the position where the disc was removed. (spine.org)
- Neurologic injury: injury to the nerve root and/or the spinal cord may also occur. (spine.org)
- Meanwhile, partial spinal cord injuries will only reduce nerve signal to the affected areas and might spare some of the motor and sensory capabilities of the lower body. (cure-back-pain.org)
- A great number of patients endure reductions in both aspects of nerve functionality, but not to the degree of a complete injury. (cure-back-pain.org)
- This may be done to improve posture, increase ability to ventilate the lungs, prevent pain, or treat spinal instability and reduce the risk of nerve damage. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- First, he decompressed the spinal nerve roots. (news-medical.net)
- Peripheral nerve injuries or compression resulting in pain, numbness, weakness and wasting of the muscles in the face, arm, hand or leg. (sanfordhealth.org)
- Injuries and degenerative disc ruptures and can compress the nerve roots, causing pain. (placidway.com)
- Movement causes pressure against the spinal nerves and can be the source of disabling pain. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- These electrodes monitor the brain's ability to send and receive messages from the spinal cord and nerves. (chkd.org)
- To access the spinal bones, the surgeon must move muscles and nerves out of the way. (denverhealth.org)
- Injury to the spinal cord or nerves. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- Across the space, a rod restores the spacing between the two bones and relieves pinching of the spinal nerves (Fig. 2). (mayfieldclinic.com)
- Because this area is usually filled with fat, this presacral path to the disc can be made without disturbing the spinal cord and nerves. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- Thus, AxiaLIF lessens trauma to these soft tissues and avoids injury to the spinal nerves. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- The thoracic spinal roots form the intercostal nerves (nerves that run on the underside of the ribs). (rutgers.edu)
- The bulge can press against nerves located in the spinal cord or exiting from it, causing pain. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- In these cases, spinal fusion is employed to prevent the nerves from being damaged. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Spinal nerves are like a freeway," Dr. Lanig says. (runnersworld.com)
- Brain or spinal cord injuries resulting in neck or back pain, the pinching of nerves with resultant pain, numbness or weakness in the arms or legs. (sanfordhealth.org)
- A spinal cord injury - damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal - often causes permanent changes in strength, sensation and other body functions below the site of the injury. (placidway.com)
- Additionally, he is actively involved in scientific and clinical research projects pertinent to spinal disorders. (uclahealth.org)
- Dr. Lu's clinical expertise involves minimally invasive techniques in the surgical management of degenerative, traumatic, and neoplastic spinal disorders. (uclahealth.org)
- Methylprednisolone (MP) is used to treat a variety of neurological disorders involving white matter injury, including multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and spinal cord injury (SCI). (jneurosci.org)
- Methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic glucocorticoid (GC) agonist with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, is the mainstay of therapy for a variety of neurological disorders involving white matter injury. (jneurosci.org)
- A bout 70% of people in the United States experience at least 1 episode of back pain in their lifetime, 1 and more than 5 million are temporarily or permanently disabled by spinal disorders. (amjorthopedics.com)
- Neurovascular disorders such as strokes, brain hemorrhages, aneurysms, vascular malformations, traumatic or non-traumatic blood clots affecting the brain or spinal cord and carotid artery disease. (sanfordhealth.org)
- In the absence of a clear etiology, inadequate decompression or vascular insult such as ischemia/reperfusion injury are the usual suspects. (hindawi.com)
- The acute decompression of the herniated disc resulted in cord expansion and rush-in reperfusion. (hindawi.com)
- There are controversies regarding the importance and timing of spinal cord decompression following trauma. (ajol.info)
- Documented evidence shows that early decompression in the setting of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) improves neurologic outcomes. (ajol.info)
- Our objective was to evaluate the outcome of posttraumatic spinal cord decompression with or without spinal stabilization in our region. (ajol.info)
- Our experience shows improvement in neurological function in patients with spinal cord decompression despite the challenges of instrumentation in Sub-Saharan Africa. (ajol.info)
- If you are stable enough for spinal treatment, we will determine whether decompression, fusion, or bracing is appropriate. (mountsinai.org)
- The patient was brought to the operating room for posterolateral decompression of C4-C7 bilaterally and resection of the intramedullary spinal cord mass. (cmaj.ca)
- An operation for progressive spinal deformities. (springer.com)
- After an injury, to stabilize the neck and prevent a bone fracture from causing instability or damage to the spinal cord , which may result in paralysis . (healthwise.net)
- It takes enormous forces to fracture the thoracic spinal vertebral bodies. (rutgers.edu)
- At a mean age of 9 years, the patients presented with spinal instability that was associated with os odontoideum in 11 cases, rotatory subluxation in five cases, odontoid fracture in two cases, atlantooccipital dislocation in two cases, and congenital atlantoaxial instability in five patients, four of whom had Down's syndrome (trisomy 21). (thejns.org)
- PDF] Neurologic deterioration secondary to unrecognized spinal instability following trauma--a multicenter study. (semanticscholar.org)
- STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study was undertaken that evaluated the medical records and imaging studies of a subset of patients with spinal injury from large level I trauma centers. (semanticscholar.org)
- Assessment of cervical ligamentous injury in trauma patients using MRI. (semanticscholar.org)
- Trauma refers to an injury caused by a blow to the body. (mountsinai.org)
- Spinal trauma is usually caused by motor vehicle collisions and falls, often from a great height. (mountsinai.org)
- Fractures, dislocations, deformity, or spinal cord injury also occur commonly with spinal trauma. (mountsinai.org)
- Risk factors for spinal trauma are high-speed motor vehicle collisions, falls, advanced age, and osteoporosis. (mountsinai.org)
- As a result, young adults and the elderly are the most frequently affected by spinal trauma. (mountsinai.org)
- To prevent spinal trauma, it helps to maintain strong, healthy bones may offer protection and to avoid high-risk behaviors such as speeding, drinking and driving, diving into shallow water, or climbing high ladders. (mountsinai.org)
- Unfortunately, we cannot always predict or prevent spinal trauma. (mountsinai.org)
- At the Mount Sinai Health System, we give all patients with spinal trauma a thorough physical examination, including all organ systems by a multidisciplinary team of trauma specialists. (mountsinai.org)
- We at Mount Sinai are proud to offer a comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation hospital with a dedicated spinal trauma unit. (mountsinai.org)
- A thoracic spinal cord injury is typically more serious than a lumbar cord injury , yet not as bad as cervical spinal cord trauma . (cure-back-pain.org)
- This essay details thoracic cord trauma and disease and the resulting dysfunction produced in the anatomy. (cure-back-pain.org)
- This guidance document provides you with information regarding clinical studies for devices used in spinal vertebral body augmentation for the purpose of treating insufficiency fractures of the spinal vertebral body due to minor trauma, osteoporosis, or other lytic conditions. (fda.gov)
- Some children may have spinal cord injury after minor trauma due to high-risk patterns of cervical fusion. (pediatriconcall.com)
- A description of a technique and evaluation of results in anterior spinal fusion for deranged intervertebral disc and spondylolisthesis. (springer.com)
- OBJECTIVE To characterize patients with spinal injuries who had neurologic deterioration due to unrecognized instability. (semanticscholar.org)
- We postulate that this may have led to disruption in the blood brain barrier (BBB) and triggered a cascade of reperfusion injuries resulting in acute neurologic dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
- This means that half or more of the key muscles below the neurologic level of injury were active against gravitational resistance. (cmaj.ca)
- When the patient presented to us with deteriorating neurologic function, initial investigations included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which showed edema within the cervical cord and a discrete intramedullary lesion extending from about C4-C7 ( Figure 1 ). (cmaj.ca)
- When is a Cervical or Lumbar Fusion Necessary For An Injury To The Back or Neck? (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- You may experience slight stiffness of the neck because of cervical fusion, but it doesn't compromise its flexibility. (atlasorthopaedics.com)
- metal in neck discetomy and fusion issues? (spineuniverse.com)
- Although cervical spinal fusion stiffens part of the neck, this does not reduce neck flexibility for most people. (healthwise.net)
- There are many different types of neck and head injuries, neck fractures, spinal injuries, and more discussed in this post. (tortdeform.com)
- Generally, Farmersville back injury lawyer Jimmy Hanaie is here to represent individuals that have suffered a neck injury and seek financial compensation. (tortdeform.com)
- A spinal fusion may prevent permanent spinal cord injury in people whose neck bones are underdeveloped. (medlineplus.gov)
- For example, the small bones at the top of the neck may slip and damage the spinal cord, causing paralysis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cervical spinal fusion is a surgical technique that is used to stabilize the neck after acute injuries like fractures and dislocations. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- To perform a cervical spinal fusion procedure, the surgeon will need to make an incision in the neck. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- A cervical spinal fusion will not reduce the flexibility of the neck in a majority of the cases. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- Then in September 2011 he had a procedure called Spinal Fusion where they cut open the front of his neck. (smore.com)
- She suffers a painful neck injury, which requires prescription medical treatment. (millerandzois.com)
- Defendant admits liability but disputes the causation of the plaintiff's injuries, claiming the neck injury occurred from a pre-existing condition. (millerandzois.com)
- Due to relative head weight to neck strength and other anatomic differences, neck injury is more critical in the very young. (chiro.org)
- After the neck has been evaluated, check possible injury to other parts of the body. (chiro.org)
- However, comparing one serious neck injury to another is a dangerous game, as no two athletes nor injuries are alike. (bleacherreport.com)
- Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion involves an incision in the front of the neck. (spine.org)
- This makes cord injury in the thoracic region less common than in the neck or lower back. (cure-back-pain.org)
- The Falmouth Road Race is also an opportunity for them to raise awareness about neck and spinal injuries, which Bishop has sustained. (enterprisenews.com)
- Before the start of his final year, Bishop broke his neck and injured his spinal chord while diving into shallow water in a lake. (enterprisenews.com)
- Unfortunately, spinal deformity is a very complex problem. (scoliosis.org)
- The Upper Limb Reconstruction in Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome Clinic offers specialty care for people who've suffered an upper motor neuron (UMN) injury within their central nervous system and who now have shoulder, elbow, wrist, or hand dysfunction or deformity. (mayoclinic.org)
- The extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF) procedure, like any other surgical procedure, has certain potential risks and complications associated with it. (spine-health.com)
- Interbody fusion uses the surfaces in between the vertebra for fusion. (denverhealth.org)
- Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)-the incision is made in the back. (denverhealth.org)
- Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)-the incision is made from the side. (portsmouthhospital.com)
- Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)-the incision is made in the lower abdomen. (portsmouthhospital.com)
- AxiaLIF stands for axial lumbar interbody fusion . (mayfieldclinic.com)
- One such operation is called a minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). (news-medical.net)
- 1,2 Since that time many types of fusion have been described, but the specific indications for performing fusion in the setting of degenerative disease have remained less well defined. (springer.com)
- Laminectomy and Fusion 35. (whsmith.co.uk)
- GEMINI, the etymology of which is unclear, is the key procedure that will make the head transplant possible: the fusion, or connection, of two severed spinal cords into one. (discovermagazine.com)
- Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion is a similar type procedure to the anterior cervical discectomy. (spine.org)
- The fusion therapeutic procedure is assisted by a biological material or bone graft. (grandviewresearch.com)
- Four patients exhibited persistent spinal instability after an initial procedure. (thejns.org)
- This was caused by erosion of a multistranded cable through the intact arch of C-2 in two cases, by pin site infection necessitating early halo removal in one case, and by slippage in a halo following a Gallie procedure, which was revised with a Brooks fusion in one case. (thejns.org)
- If the MRI shows no injury, then the choice for operative fusion becomes an individual decision, based on the patient's specific instability and anatomy. (ds-health.com)
- Prior to joining Nevada Neurosurgery, Dr. Sekhon was an Associate Professor at the University of Sydney with a clinical appointment in the Department of Neurosurgery and Spinal Injuries Unit (Head of Department) at the Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney, Australia. (healthtap.com)
- And the vast majority of these injuries are the result of a car accident, a fall, or surgical error. (2keller.com)
- This series, the largest yet published, shows that with appropriate surgical management, posterior upper cervical fusion in the pediatric population is highly successful. (thejns.org)
- Using a nasal approach, the surgical team harvested an olfactory mucosa graft that was transplanted to his spinal cord lesion on the next day. (cmaj.ca)
- Our spinal cord injury attorneys have settled full and partial paralysis cases throughout the several states across the country and we continue handling these cases for our clients on a daily basis. (2keller.com)
- Injury to the thoracic spinal cord will cause partial paralysis of deeper trunk muscles such as the cervicis (T1-5), splenius (T3-T6), erector spinae and iliocostalis (T6-12), spinalis (T1-9), semispinalis, transversospinal, and segmental (T1-12) muscles. (rutgers.edu)
- Previous research by Ohio State has shown that spinal cord injuries can cause a "paralysis" of the immune system. (osu.edu)
- Our personal injury law firm has seen enough cases that involve paralysis to know that we need to do all we can to prevent major spinal cord injuries. (seriousaccidents.com)
- With that in mind, our firm's paralysis lawyers would like to introduce and welcome you to our new Web site that focuses exclusively on paralysis and spinal cord injuries . (seriousaccidents.com)
- In addition to information about spinal cord injuries, we also set out to provide readers a rich and helpful resource about other things that someone with paralysis might encounter. (seriousaccidents.com)
- From how spinal cord injuries are caused to the best methods of diagnosis to even how life changes after paralysis, we're very excited about how this new Web site has turned out. (seriousaccidents.com)
- Despite having had posterior spinal fusion and rehabilitation, he had partial paralysis of his arms, and severe paralysis of his legs and trunk. (cmaj.ca)
- To correct a herniated disc and lower back pain, the plaintiff underwent two surgeries by the defendant--a discectomy followed by a lumbar spinal fusion. (bwglaw.com)
- Several studies have been done on qualitative findings such as cord haemorrhage, cord oedema, cord contusion, soft tissue injuries and herniated disc, correlating them with the degree of neurology deficit and neurological recovery in cervical SCI. (scielo.org.za)
- Our lawyers have handled hundreds of herniated disc injury cases. (millerandzois.com)
Acute spinal cord i3
- Acute spinal cord injury is a devastating disease with enormous repercussions, not only for the victims and their families but for society as a whole. (springer.com)
- A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. (springer.com)
- Administration of methylprednisolone for 24 or 48 hours or tirilazad mesylate for 48 hours in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. (springer.com)
- Sixty patients (35 female, 25 male) ranging in age from 40 to 55 years underwent anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior spinal fusion and were randomly assigned to either music therapy plus standard care (medical and nursing care with scheduled pharmacologic pain intervention) or standard care only. (amjorthopedics.com)
- The outcomes of 25 pediatric patients who underwent upper cervical or occipitocervical fusion at the authors' institution since 1983 were reviewed. (thejns.org)
- 1 Fusion hardware was removed and he again underwent rehabilitation. (cmaj.ca)
- All fusion surgeries include the use of a graft that is made of bone material. (denverhealth.org)
- Its called Spinal Cord Injuries, Surgeries & Diseases Support Group. (experienceproject.com)
- In 2012 I had two minimal invasive spinal surgeries in. (experienceproject.com)
- In 2011, while deployed in Afghanistan, she suffered a spinal cord injury, which resulted in two back surgeries, including a spinal fusion. (seattlemet.com)
- Third, the tubular instruments do not cut through any back muscles like other fusion surgeries. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- Occurrence of infection in anterior cervical fusion for spinal cord injury after tracheostomy. (semanticscholar.org)
- Cord injury lowers the efficiency of the immune system and leaves the patient open to attack from infection and disease. (cure-back-pain.org)
- Those injuries often lead to additional health problems, including high blood pressure, incontinence, increased risk for infection, obesity and diabetes. (osu.edu)
- Patients with injured spinal cords are 37 times more likely to die of an infection than someone without a spinal cord injury. (osu.edu)
- Infections involving the brain and spinal cord, the fluid surrounding these structures or the spinal vertebra and disks. (sanfordhealth.org)
Cervical spinal cord inj3
- To evaluate whether quantitative and qualitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries (SCI) correlate with the patient's neurological status and if they are predictive of outcome at long-term follow-up. (scielo.org.za)
- Eighty-eight patients (77 male, 11 female) with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries who were admitted to the spinal unit, were evaluated over a period of five years (Jan 2004-Dec 2008). (scielo.org.za)
- Exclusion criterion - 1) Patients who had acute cervical spinal cord injuries during this period but who did not have an MRI done. (scielo.org.za)
- Injury to the thoracic spinal cord causes paraplegia, or loss of motor and sensory function in the lower half of the body. (rutgers.edu)
- In most cases, the fusion is augmented by a process called fixation, meaning the placement of metallic screws (pedicle screws often made from titanium), rods or plates, or cages to stabilize the vertebra to facilitate bone fusion. (bumrungrad.com)
- Three quantitative imaging parameters (maximum spinal cord compression [MSCC], maximum canal compromise [MCC], and length of lesion) as well as five qualitative parameters (intramedullary haemorrhage, cord oedema, cord swelling, disc herniation and soft tissue injury) were evaluated and correlated to the patients' neurological outcome. (scielo.org.za)
- 8,20 Fehlings et al 21 developed a reliable quantitative radiological method for assessing spinal cord compression and spinal canal compromise. (scielo.org.za)
- The thoracic spinal cord is situated in the T1-T9 thoracic spinal canal. (rutgers.edu)
- of spinal canal. (slideserve.com)
- It sounds like they are going to use the Vertex system of titanium rods and screws to fuse you from the back in combination with laminectomies to open the spinal canal. (healthboards.com)
- The risk is mainly dependent on the size of the patient, the location of the fusion and the experience of the surgeon. (spine-health.com)
- Part of the spinal bone covering the spinal column, called the lamina, may be removed so the surgeon can access the area between the vertebra. (denverhealth.org)
- The surgeon said then that I would need a spinal fusion at some point but we managed to hold off doing it for 5yrs. (experienceproject.com)
- If you are a candidate for spinal fusion, the surgeon will explain your options. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- The surgeon may discuss alternative approaches to spinal fusion such as weight loss and use of medication to relieve pain. (bumrungrad.com)
Anterior cervical fusion2
Thoracic spinal cord2
- Many people have been asking for an article about diagnosis and treatment of thoracic spinal cord injury. (rutgers.edu)
- The following is a short description of upper and mid-thoracic spinal cord injury, emphasizing the anatomy, the neurology, treatment, recovery, and long-term changes, and hope for recovery and therapies. (rutgers.edu)
American Spinal Injury Association1
- According to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) ( https://asia-spinalinjury.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/ASIA-ISCOS-IntlWorksheet_2019.pdf ), which grades impairment after spinal cord injury from A (complete motor and sensory deficits) to E (neurologically intact), he had sustained an ASIA D injury (i.e., motor incomplete). (cmaj.ca)
- It is our opinion that early recognition of spinal cord injury and careful management in an intensive care setting can prevent many of the medical complications that are the major source of morbidity and mortality in these patients. (springer.com)
- If you are planning to have a spinal fusion, your doctor will review a list of possible complications. (uvahealth.com)
- The Belford Center will focus on the treatment of spinal cord injuries as a systemic disease to reduce the onset or impact of complications. (osu.edu)
Minimally invasive spinal fusion1
- AxiaLIF is a minimally invasive spinal fusion to treat disc problems in the low back. (mayfieldclinic.com)
- 1. Cervical myelopathy traumatic due to cervical disc compression and fusion for injury to spinal cord in 2014. (aapc.com)
Getting a spinal stimulator1
- have you considered getting a spinal stimulator? (experienceproject.com)
People with spinal cord inj3
- Through their charitable fund, the Belford family is making this gift to advance scientific research that will improve the quality of life for people with spinal cord injuries. (osu.edu)
- Largely because of these secondary issues, the mortality rate for people with spinal cord injuries has not changed in more than 20 years. (osu.edu)
- Ohio State's team already is leading the world in spinal cord injury treatment and research, and we look forward to their future innovations and discoveries - discoveries that we hope will make for longer, healthier lives for people with spinal cord injuries. (osu.edu)
- We discuss the diagnosis and management of these injuries as well as novel therapies on the horizon. (springer.com)
- The author states that the presence of the bony abnormality "os odontoideum" (a defect in the second cervical vertebra) automatically makes a diagnosis of AAI and requires fusion. (ds-health.com)
- Diagnosis of spinal cord injury usually is based on sensory examination. (rutgers.edu)
- Traumatic Arterial Injuries: Diagnosis and Management 21. (whsmith.co.uk)
Fractures of the spinal1
- Immediate and obvious symptom of spinal cord injury parallel those of fractures of the spinal column. (chiro.org)
Bone covering the spin1
- It also does not require removal of any bone covering the spinal column. (portsmouthhospital.com)
- The C1 roots exit the spinal column just above the C1 vertebral body, that there is a C8 spinal segment but no C8 vertebral segment. (rutgers.edu)
- Devices used in spinal vertebral body augmentation include polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based bone cements, classified under 21 CFR 888.3027 , class II (special controls). (fda.gov)
- It is likely in the future that different materials such as resorbable and permanent polymers, and other types of materials may be injected into the vertebral body for the purpose of stabilizing the fractured spinal vertebral body in spinal augmentation procedures. (fda.gov)
Compression of the spinal cord2
Lumbar spinal fusion1
- Costs and effects in lumbar spinal fusion. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
Posterior spinal fusion2
- Nevertheless, symptoms are related with progressive and irregular deterioration of the discs, facet joints, and the other spinal components possibly leading to neural component compression. (grandviewresearch.com)
- This symposium aims at summarizing some of the scientific bases for current or planned clinical trials in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). (jneurosci.org)
- A postoperative MRI demonstrated a large area of high signal changes on T2-weighted MRI intrinsic to the cord "white cord syndrome" but no residual compression. (hindawi.com)
- Upper motor neuron syndrome refers to a combination of resulting symptoms such as muscle weakness, decreased muscle control, easy fatigability, altered muscle tone and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes (also known as spasticity ), all of which can occur after a brain or spinal cord injury. (mayoclinic.org)
- She was subsequently diagnosed with Failed Back Syndrome, for which she received a spinal cord stimulator. (financialcontent.com)
- Buchanan C.C., Lu D.C. , Buchanan C., Tran T.T. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma and spinal cord infarction following orthotopic liver transplantation: Case report and review of the literature. (uclahealth.org)
Brain or spinal cord1
- His main interest is pain, specifically central pain syndromes , in which damage to the brain or spinal cord leads to chronic, often difficult-to-treat pain. (discovermagazine.com)