Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)TrehaloseSpinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Granuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Mycolic AcidsNontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Ependymoma: Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Receptors, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR. Their MW is believed to be 150 kD. These receptors are found mainly on a subset of myelomonocytic cells.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Health Information Systems: A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.

Cord formation in MB/BacT medium is a reliable criterion for presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in laboratories with high prevalence of M. tuberculosis. (1/135)

We evaluated cord formation in MB/BacT broth as a rapid method for presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Kinyoun acid-fast-stained smears from 370 positive MB/BacT bottles were examined for the presence of serpentine cording. The smears were examined independently by two observers. Observer 1 (the supervisor of the mycobacteriology laboratory) examined all of the smears while observer 2 (a clinical microbiologist not familiar with acid-fast bacillus [AFB] microscopy) examined 148 randomly chosen smears that were read by observer 1 without knowledge of which smear was which. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of cording for the presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis read by observer 1 were 88.2, 97.4, 99.2, and 69.7%, respectively. These values were reported at 90.6, 52.3, 82.8, and 69. 7%, respectively, by observer 2. Our laboratory prevalence of M. tuberculosis among positive cultures was 78% during the time this study was conducted. At the time of positive signal of the MB/BacT bottles, the broth of the bottles had sufficient cell mass to allow for observation of the presence or absence of serpentine cording. The presence of cords in MB/BacT broth is a reliable criterion for rapid, predictive identification of the M. tuberculosis complex for laboratories with a high proportion of the M. tuberculosis complex when the smears are examined by a microbiologist who has experience with AFB staining.  (+info)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (Cord factor) enhances neovascularization through vascular endothelial growth factor production by neutrophils and macrophages. (2/135)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) plays important roles in the development of granulomatous inflammation during infection with Mycobacterium spp., Rhodococcus spp., etc. To reveal the augmenting effect of TDM on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and neovascularization, we investigated murine granulomatous tissue air pouches induced by Rhodococcus sp. strain 4306 TDM dissolved in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), comparing them to pouches treated with FIA alone. Histologically, granulomatous tissue and new vessel formation, which reached a maximum at day 7, was greatly enhanced by treatment with TDM. At day 1, VEGF-positive neutrophils accumulated in the pouch wall with frequency of 95% of total infiltrating cells, adhering to TDM-containing micelles. By day 3, granulomatous tissue and new vessels started to develop, and VEGF-positive macrophages appeared in a small number and gradually increased in number thereafter. The pouch contents of VEGF, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta were significantly elevated in TDM-treated pouches, with peaks at days 1, 0.5, 1, and 3, respectively, compared to those of control pouches, while that of basic fibroblast growth factor showed no significant increase. Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody inhibited TDM-induced granulomatous tissue formation and neovascularization, and administration of recombinant VEGF into pouches treated with FIA alone induced neovascularization comparable to that in the TDM-treated pouches. Incubation of neutrophils and macrophages on TDM-coated plastic dishes increased the VEGF release. The present results indicate that TDM augments VEGF production by neutrophils and macrophages and induces neovascularization in the granulomatous tissue.  (+info)

Assessment of morphology for rapid presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii. (3/135)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis often exhibits serpentine cording when grown in liquid medium, whereas Mycobacterium kansasii can be larger and cross-barred. We assessed the use of these morphologic characteristics as a cost-effective method for rapid presumptive identification of isolates from BACTEC bottles. Without specific training, using the Kinyoun acid-fast stain, definitive cording was found in 237 of 373 specimens positive for M. tuberculosis (64%) and cross-barring was recognized within 63 of 76 (83%) of the specimens positive for M. kansasii, giving sensitivities specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 63.5, 96, 92, and 79%, respectively, for M. tuberculosis and 83, 95, 59, and 98%, respectively, for M. kansasii. With training and experience, these results improved to 74.5, 98, 96, and 84% and 93, 98, 79, and 98%, respectively. The major improvements were in distinguishing the pseudocording, or loose aggregation of Mycobacterium avium complex from M. tuberculosis and the long beaded forms of Mycobacterium gordonae from M. kansasii. Mycobacterium asiaticum and Mycobacterium szulgai, which rarely occur, are genetically related to M. kansasii and morphologically difficult to distinguish. In defined circumstances, serpentine cording and cross-barring can be used for rapid presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii, respectively, and as guides for initial probe selection to reduce costs.  (+info)

In vivo administration of mycobacterial cord factor (Trehalose 6, 6'-dimycolate) can induce lung and liver granulomas and thymic atrophy in rabbits. (4/135)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is a cell surface molecule of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TDM induced a loss of body weight and prominent granulomas in the liver and lungs by the intravenous injection of TDM into rabbits. TDM also induced atrophy of the thymus and spleen due to apoptosis. By contrast, sulfolipid (2,3,6, 6'-tetraacyl trehalose 2'-sulfate) induced neither toxicity, nor granuloma formation, nor atrophy of the thymus and spleen. In rabbits the histopathological changes were more dramatic than in mice. The rabbit model may be more sensitive and may provide more information on the beneficial or pathological effects of TDM.  (+info)

How to establish a lasting relationship with your host: lessons learned from Mycobacterium spp. (5/135)

Mycobacterium spp. enjoy an intracellular lifestyle that is fatal to most microorganisms. Bacilli persist and multiply within mononuclear phagocytes in the face of defences ranging from toxic oxygen and nitrogen radicals, acidic proteases and bactericidal peptides. Uptake of Mycobacterium by phagocytes results in the de novo formation of a phagosome, which is manipulated by the pathogen to accommodate its needs for intracellular survival and replication. The present review describes the intracellular compartment occupied by Mycobacterium spp. and presents current ideas on how mycobacteria may establish this niche, placing special emphasis on the involvement of mycobacterial cell wall lipids.  (+info)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces corneal angiogenesis in rats. (6/135)

Neovascularization or angiogenesis is required for the progression of chronic inflammation. The mechanism of inflammatory neovascularization in tuberculosis remains unknown. Trehalose 6, 6'-dimycolate (TDM) purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was injected into rat corneas. TDM challenge provoked a local granulomatous response in association with neovascularization. Neovascularization was seen within a few days after the challenge, with the extent of neovascularization being dose dependent, although granulomatous lesions developed 14 days after the challenge. Cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were found in lesions at the early stage (within a few days after the challenge) and were detectable until day 21. Neovascularization was inhibited substantially by neutralizing antibodies to VEGF and IL-8 but not IL-1beta. Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies resulted in partial inhibition. TDM possesses pleiotropic activities, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the process of neovascularization.  (+info)

New diagnostic approach for ocular tuberculosis by ELISA using the cord factor as antigen. (7/135)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis is difficult, particularly the retinal vasculitis type, because most cases occur without concurrent active pulmonary tuberculosis. Recently, it has been reported that detection of antibodies against purified cord factor (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, TDM), the best studied, most antigenic, and most abundant cell wall component of tubercule bacilli, is very useful for rapid serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate whether the detection of anticord factor antibody is also useful for diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis and the necessity of antituberculous therapy for tuberculous retinochoroiditis was discussed. METHODS: Cases consisted of 15 patients with uveitis and retinal vasculitis, nine patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis, three patients with sarcoidosis, and three patients with Behcet's disease. IgG antibodies against purified cord factor prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: All cases of clinically presumed ocular tuberculosis were positive, whereas all of the cases of sarcoidosis or Behcet's disease were negative for anticord factor antibodies. When the anticord factor antibody titres were compared on the basis of the presence or absence of previous antituberculosis chemotherapy, the mean anticord factor antibody titre of the untreated group showed a tendency to be higher than in the treated group, but not significantly (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of anticord factor antibody may be useful to support the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis. Additionally, a positive result for anticord factor antibody may indicate that tubercule bacilli are present in some organ(s) of the patient even in the absence of active systemic disease.  (+info)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces foreign-body- and hypersensitivity-type granulomas in mice. (8/135)

Granulomatous inflammation is characterized morphologically by a compact organized collection of macrophages and their derivatives. It is classified as either a hypersensitivity type or a foreign-body type. Lipid components of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall participate in the pathogenesis of infection. Strains of M. tuberculosis have cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate [TDM]) on their surface. To clarify host responses to TDM, including immunogenicity and pathogenicity, we have analyzed the footpad reaction, histopathology, and cytokine profiles of experimental granulomatous lesions in immunized and unimmunized mice challenged with TDM. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time that TDM can induce both foreign-body-type (nonimmune) and hypersensitivity-type (immune) granulomas by acting as a nonspecific irritant and T-cell-dependent antigen. Immunized mice challenged with TDM developed more severe lesions than unimmunized mice. At the active lesion, we found monocyte chemotactic, proinflammatory, and immunoregulatory cytokines. The level was enhanced in immunized mice challenged with TDM. This result implies that both nonimmune and immune mechanisms participate in granulomatous inflammation induced by mycobacterial infection. Taken together with a previous report, this study shows that TDM is a pleiotropic molecule against the host and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.  (+info)

*Cord factor

... protects M. tuberculosis from the defenses of the host. Specifically, cord factor on the surface of M. tuberculosis ... Cord factor influences the arrangement of M. tuberculosis cells into long and slender formations, giving its name. Cord factor ... Cord factor's amphiphilic nature leads to varying structures when many cord factor molecules are in close proximity. On a ... As the monolayer surface area of cord factor increases, so does its toxicity. The length of the carbon chain on cord factor has ...

*Factor (chord)

The chord factor called the "fifth" (pitch name "G") is represented in voice 2 (shown in red). The chord factor that is in the ... In music, a factor or chord factor is a member or component of a chord. These are named root, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, ... Chord factors are taken into consideration in voicing and voice leading. A chord contains exactly as many factors as it ... The illustration shows the theoretical construction of a C13 chord having seven chord factors, with the "extended" chord ...

*Mincle receptor

Upon activation by cord factor, Mincle binds the Fc receptor FcRγ and Syk. Cord factor also binds and activates the related C- ... It is a pattern recognition receptor that can recognize glycolipids including mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'- ... "C-type lectin MCL is an FcRγ-coupled receptor that mediates the adjuvanticity of mycobacterial cord factor". Immunity. 38: 1050 ... "Mincle is a long sought receptor for mycobacterial cord factor". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 206: 2879-88. doi:10.1084/ ...

*Trehalose dimycolate

http://aac.asm.org/cgi/doi/10.1128/AAC.05708-11 cord factor. ...

*Nocardia

Majority of strains possess the cord factor (trehalose 6-6' dimycolate), an important virulence factor. They are catalase ... "cord factor" (which interferes with phagocytosis by macrophages by preventing the fusion of the phagosome with the lysosome). ... May 2007). "Risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of Nocardia infection in organ transplant recipients: a matched ... Nocardial virulence factors are the enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (which inactivate reactive oxygen species that ...

*Consonance and dissonance

... in their fabrics of 4-note chords (Tymoczko 2011, p. 106). Chord factor Dissonant counterpoint Limit (music) Phonaesthetics ... with the G7 chord changing to a C Major chord. Consonances may include: Perfect consonances: unisons and octaves perfect ... its tension demands an onward motion to a stable chord. Thus dissonant chords are "active"; traditionally they have been ... For example, in the key of C Major, if F is produced as part of the dominant seventh chord (G7, which consists of the pitches G ...

*Cording (mycobacterium)

This growth pattern is due to cord factor, a glycolipid, and contributes to the virulence of the organism. 1. "Diagnostic ... giving them a rope or cord-like appearance when viewed on a stained slide through a microscope. ...

*Synergetics (Fuller)

He exhaustively cataloged the central and surface angles of these spherical triangles and their related chord factors. Fuller ... Omnirationality: the identification of triangling and tetrahedroning with second- and third-powering factors. Omni-60-degree ...

*Degree (music)

Factor (chord) Music education Tonality Jonas, Oswald (1982). Introduction to the Theory of Heinrich Schenker (1934: Das Wesen ... Degrees are useful for indicating the size of intervals and chords, and whether they are major or minor. In the most general ...

*Flat five

... the lowered fifth scale degree or chord factor fifth, may refer to: Tritone Locrian mode Dominant seventh flat five chord ...

*Chordioid

... including 11th and 13th chords) likewise. Factor (chord) Rawlins, Robert, et al. (2005) Jazzology: The Encyclopedia of Jazz ... The chord buttons of the Accordion usually play master chords, allowing the bass buttons (or a second chord button) to supply ... Nicolas Slonimsky named "master chord" that chordioid described in jazz chord theory as 7no5, e.g.: { C D F♯ }. The sonority of ... It is the case, also, that "legitimate chords" can be used as chordioids to create resultant chords by the same process. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... cord factors MeSH D23.946.123.305 --- diphtheria toxin MeSH D23.946.123.353 --- exfoliatins MeSH D23.946.123.545 --- ... factor va MeSH D23.119.325.300 --- factor viia MeSH D23.119.350.300 --- factor viiia MeSH D23.119.375.310 --- factor ixa MeSH ... factor xia MeSH D23.119.450.324 --- factor xiia MeSH D23.119.475.500 --- factor xiiia MeSH D23.119.490.265 --- fibrinogens, ... tumor necrosis factor, type i MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.912 --- receptors, tumor necrosis factor, type ii MeSH D23.050.301.264. ...

*Suspended chord

Chord factors include 1-♭7-9-11 or 1-4-♭7-9, not 1-4-5 (a sus4 chord with no third). Although the suspended fourth is not ... A suspended chord (or sus chord) is a musical chord in which the (major or minor) third is omitted, replaced usually with ... If you play power chords most of the time, tune to a fifth chord by repeating the two notes in the chord. For example, the C5 ... A jazz sus chord or dominant 9sus4 chord is a seventh chord on the fifth scale degree of the key with a suspended fourth and an ...

*Nonchord tone

Similarly, a chord tone is a note that is a part of the functional chord (see: factor (chord)). Nonchord tones are most often ... in a chord: "The pitches which make up a chord are called chord-tones: any other pitches are called non-chord-tones." They are ... note with a C7 chord, became to be viewed as chord tones (in this example, the F♯ would be analyzed as a sharp eleventh chord, ... which is either part of the same chord or of the next chord in the harmonic progression). Where two non-chord notes are before ...

*Palmitoylethanolamide

"Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on release of mast cell peptidases and neurotrophic factors after spinal cord injury". Brain, ... PEA also seems to be one of the factors responsible for the decrease in pain sensitivity during and after sport, comparable to ... Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide, belonging to the class of nuclear factor agonists. PEA has been ... They stated: " We have succeeded in isolating a crystalline anti-inflammatory factor from soybean lecithin and identifying it ...

*Childbirth

"Fetal distress increases interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 and decreases tumour necrosis factor-alpha cord blood levels in ... These factors form the Bishop score. The Bishop score can also be used as a means to predict the success of an induction of ... Risk factors for significant vaginal birth injury include: A baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4.1 kg). The use of forceps or ... Risk factors for GBS infection include: prematurity (birth before 37 weeks gestation) a sibling who has had a GBS infection ...

*CORO1B

In vivo and in vitro characterization of novel neuronal plasticity factors identified following spinal cord injury. Isolation, ... "In vivo and in vitro characterization of novel neuronal plasticity factors identified following spinal cord injury". J. Biol. ...

*FGF9

"Motor neurons in human and rat spinal cord synthesize fibroblast growth factor-9". Neuroscience Letters. 221 (2-3): 181-4. doi: ... Tsai SJ, Wu MH, Chen HM, Chuang PC, Wing LY (July 2002). "Fibroblast growth factor-9 is an endometrial stromal growth factor". ... "Entrez Gene: FGF9 fibroblast growth factor 9 (glia-activating factor)". Sánchez L, Chaouiya C (May 2016). "Primary sex ... "Novel secretory heparin-binding factors from human glioma cells (glia-activating factors) involved in glial cell growth. ...

*Glial scar

1996). "Increased basic fibroblast growth factor expression following contusive spinal cord injury." Experimental Neurology 141 ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a cytosolic protein that is not secreted. CNTF has been shown to promote the survival of ... Mid-thoracic spinal cord lesions, optic nerve lesions, but not lesions to the sciatic nerve, have shown marked increases in ... Particularly, the response of the astrocytes to the injury varies depending on factors such as the nature of the injury and the ...

*Sixth chord

In music, the sixth factor of a chord is the note or pitch six scale degrees above the root or tonal center (see sixth chord). ... In modern popular music, a sixth chord is any triad with an added sixth above the root as a chord factor. This was ... one would have an added sixth chord (C-E-G-B♭-D′-F′-A′ minus B♭-D′-F′ = C-E-G-A). 6/9 chord thirteenth chord Music: The ... These are the same notes as those of an A minor seventh chord - whether such a chord should be regarded as an added sixth chord ...

*Pirelli Cinturato

The inextensible belt and the radial casing cords were the combined factors which gave the Cinturato tyre its special ... The tread and belt are in effect the rim; the 90-degree or radial cord plies are the spokes; and the bead is the hub. ... the tyre was composed of two or three carcass plies of cords laid at an angle of 90 degrees to the beads, and a belt of several ...

*Tupolev ANT-25

The proportion of the wingspan to the chord was more than a factor of 13. Fuel was 52% of the takeoff weight, the tanks had ...

*Third (chord)

In music, the third factor of a chord is the note or pitch two scale degrees above the root or tonal center. When the third is ... In jazz chords and theory, the third is required due to it determining chord quality. The third in both major and augmented ... chords is major (E♮ in C) and the third in both minor and diminished chords is minor (E♭ in C). In music and music theory, a ... tenth is the note ten scale degrees from the root of a chord and also the interval between the root and the tenth. Since there ...

*Seventh (chord)

In music, the seventh factor of a chord is the note or pitch seven scale degrees above the root or tonal center. When the ... In jazz chords and theory, and classical music theory, the seventh is what defines a chord as a "seventh chord". Moreover, most ... if there is a G chord, the chord-playing performer will usually "voice" this chord as G7. While in a strict classical music ... and ninth of the chord. Jazz chord-playing musicians may also add altered chord tones (e.g., b9, #9, #11, b13) and added tones ...

*Reinke's edema

Other identified risk factors include overuse of the vocal cords, gastroesophageal reflux, and hypothyroidism. The disease is ... the Reinke's space is a gelatinous layer of the vocal cord located underneath the outer cells of the vocal cord. When a person ... Reinke's edema is characterized by the "sac-like" appearance of the fluid-filled vocal cords. The swelling of the vocal folds ... The edema is a white translucent fluid that causes a bulging (distension) of the vocal cord. The most common clinical symptom ...

*Spectrum SportsNet LA

Another factor, one specific to Los Angeles, is the large number of regional sports channels in the area, which has resulted in ... Convergence Consulting Group predicted that by the end of 2016, some 27 million U.S. subscribers will have cut the cord on pay ... Lazarus, David (April 8, 2016). "Why cutting the pay-TV cord turned out to be a good move". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016- ...
The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analog trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent adjuvants for Th1/Th17 vaccination that activate Syk-Card9 signaling in APCs. In this study, we have further investigated the molecular mechanism of innate immune activation by TDM and TDB. The Syk-coupling adapter protein FcRg was essential for macrophage activation and Th17 adjuvanticity. The FcRg-associated C-type lectin receptor Mincle was expressed in macrophages and upregulated by TDM and TDB. Recombinant Mincle-Fc fusion protein specifically bound to the glycolipids. Genetic ablation of Mincle abolished TDM/TDB-induced macrophage activation and induction of T cell immune responses to a tuberculosis subunit vaccine. Macrophages lacking Mincle or FcRg were impaired in the inflammatory response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette- Gue䲩n. These results establish that Mincle is a key receptor for the mycobacterial cord factor and controls the Th1/Th17 ...
Cord factor, or trehalose dimycolate, is a glycolipid molecule found in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and similar species. It is the primary lipid found on the exterior of M. tuberculosis cells. Cord factor influences the arrangement of M. tuberculosis cells into long and slender formations, giving its name. Cord factor is virulent towards mammalian cells and critical for survival of M. tuberculosis in hosts, but not outside of hosts. Cord factor has been observed to influence immune responses, induce the formation of granulomas, and inhibit tumor growth. A cord factor molecule is composed of a trehalose sugar, a disaccharide, that is esterified to two mycolic acid residues. One of the two mycolic acid residues is attached to the sixth carbon of one monosaccharide, while the other mycolic acid residue is attached to the sixth carbon of the other monosaccharide. Therefore, cord factor is also named trehalose-6,6-dimycolate. The carbon chain of the mycolic acid residues vary in ...
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article{8174192, author = {Tima, Hermann Giresse and Al Dulayymi, Jumaa Raheem and Denis, Olivier and Lehebel, Pauline and Baols, Klarah Sherzad and Mohammed, Mohsin Omar and LHomme, Laurent and Sahb, Mohaned Mohammed and Potemberg, Georges and Legrand, Sylvie and Lang, Roland and Beyaert, Rudi and Piette, Jacques and Baird, Mark Stephen and Huygen, Kris and Romano, Marta}, issn = {1662-811X}, journal = {JOURNAL OF INNATE IMMUNITY}, keyword = {Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Glycolipids,Trehalose dimycolate,Trehalose monomycolate,Glucose monomycolate,Arabinose monomycolate,Inflammasome,Adjuvant,CORD FACTOR,ACIDS,MICE,RECEPTOR,MINCLE,ACTIVATION,CYCLOPROPANATION,RECOGNITION,MACROPHAGES,MONOESTERS}, language = {eng}, number = {2}, pages = {162--180}, title = {Inflammatory properties and adjuvant potential of synthetic glycolipids homologous to mycolate esters of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000450955}, volume = {9}, year = {2017 ...
Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and trehalose monomycolate (TMM), the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs), triacyl glycerol (TAG), pentacyl trehalose (PAT), phenolic glycolipid (PGL), and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG). Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM), diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG), phenylethanolamine (PE) and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs). These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen ...
Werninghaus K, Babiak A, Gross O, Holscher C, Dietrich H, Agger EM, Mages J, Mocsai A, Schoenen H, Finger K, Nimmerjahn F, Brown GD, Kirschning C, Heit A, Andersen P, Wagner H, Ruland J, Lang R. 2009. Adjuvanticity of a synthetic cord factor analogue for subunit Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccination requires FcRgamma-Syk-Card9-dependent innate immune activation. J Exp Med 206: 89- ...
Carlétti D, Fonseca DM da, Gembre AF, Masson AP, Campos LW, Leite LCC, Pires AR, Lannes-Vieira J, Silva CL, Bonato VLD, Horn C. A single dose of a DNA vaccine encoding Apa coencapsulated with 6,6-trehalose dimycolate in microspheres confers long-term protection against Tuberculosis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-primed mice [Internet]. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2013 ; 20( 8): 1162-1169.Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00148- ...
We use the fact that when there is a sufficient relationship between the plasma level of the drug and its clinical effect, it is then useful to measure this level. If such a relationship does not exit, TDM is of little or no value. Based on this fact, the TDM will be of maximal benefit when:. ...
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TDM - IPFA 2010 Proceedings Topography and Deformation Measurement and FE Modeling applied to substrate-mounted large area wafer-level packages (including stacked dice and TSVs) ...
Published studies indicate that mycobacterial lipid antigens may stimulate CD1-restricted T cells. However, the pool of studied mycobacterial antigenic lipids is small compared with the diversity of the lipid components of the M. tuberculosis envelope. So far, only three classes of molecules were shown to stimulate CD1b-restricted T cells: free mycolic acids (13), mycoloyl glycolipids such as glucose monomycolate (17), and phosphoglycolipids represented by lipoarabinomannan (19), lipomannan (19), and PIM (20). These molecules are commonly present in the envelope of both virulent and nonvirulent mycobacteria. Their immunogenicity during infection with virulent or avirulent strains has not been compared.. In these studies we have characterized the structure of a novel mycobacterial glycolipid, a diacylated sulfoglycolipid (Ac2SGL), presented by CD1b on the cell surface of M. tuberculosis-infected APCs. This antigen stimulates bactericidal CD8+ T cells and evokes strong responses in healthy PPD+ ...
The purpose of this study was to establish optimal molar glycerol to glucose ratio for enhanced biosurfactant synthesis by the cultivation of Nocardia vacсinii ІMV В-7405 on a mixture of energetically nonequivalent substrates (glucose and glycerol). Based on theoretical calculations of the energy requirements for biomass production and the synthesis of surface-active trehalose monomycolates on the energy-deficient substrate (glycerol), the concentration of the energy-excessive substrate (glucose), which increased the efficiency of the substrate carbon conversion to biosurfactant, was determined. It was found that the synthesis of extracellular biosurfactant on a mixture of glucose and glycerol at molar ratio of 1.0:2.5 increased 2.0-2.3-fold compared to that on corresponding monosubstrates. The increased level of biosurfactant on the mixed substrate is determined by intensification of surface-active trehalose monomycolate synthesis, confirmed by 1.2-5.7-fold increase in activity of the ...
0146]Further exemplary adjuvants to enhance effectiveness of the composition include, but are not limited to: (1) oil-in-water emulsion formulations (with or without other specific immunostimulating agents such as muramyl peptides (see below) or bacterial cell wall components), such as for example (a) MF59® (W090/14837; Chapter 10 in Vaccine design: the subunit and adjuvant approach, eds. Powell & Newman, Plenum Press 1995), containing 5% Squalene, 0.5% Tween 80, and 0.5% Span 85 (optionally containing MTP-PE) formulated into submicron particles using a microfluidizer, (b) SAF, containing 10% Squalane, 0.4% Tween 80, 5% pluronic-blocked polymer L121, and thr-MDP either microfluidized into a submicron emulsion or vortexed to generate a larger particle size emulsion, and (c) RIBI® adjuvant system (RAS), (Ribi Immunochem, Hamilton, Mont.) containing 2% Squalene, 0.2% Tween 80, and one or more bacterial cell wall components such as monophosphorylipid A (MPL), trehalose dimycolate (TDM), and cell ...
0110] 78 dairy replacement calves (initial age=18±6.3 days and body weight=43±6.1 kg) were fed with 2 L of milk replacer (MR) twice daily via a bottle at 07.30 h and 16.30 h until 45 days of life, and then a daily dose of 2 L of MR at 07.30 h for an additional week. At 37 day of age half of the calves received a daily dose of 3 g of the combination of Nucleoforce® (Bioiberica, Spain) and AHCC (AminoUp, Japan) supplemented through the morning feeding of MR until weaning time (52 days). After weaning, calves were moved from individual hutches into pens holding 8 animals until reaching 111±2.1 days (when the study was completed). Animal performance was monitored from 52 until 111 days of life. Respiratory afflictions were monitored daily from 37 to 111 days of life. Blood samples from half of the animals randomly chosen from each treatment group were obtained by venipuncture of the jugular vein at the age of 37 days and 52 days. Incidence of respiratory afflictions was analyzed using ...
Iomai Corporation (Nasdaq: IOMI) today announced that it has signed an agreement with Merck & Co., Inc. to conduct proof-of-principle preclinical studies evaluating the use of the
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[247 Pages Report] Check for Discount on UK Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Market: Future Horizons and Growth Strategies--Supplier Shares, Country Segment Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence, Emerging Opportunities report by Venture Planning Group. This new 247-page report from VPGMarketResearch.com provides a...
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[247 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Japan Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Market: Future Horizons and Growth Strategies--Supplier Shares, Country Segment Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence, Emerging Opportunities report by Venture Planning Group. This new 247-page report from VPGMarketResearch.com provides a...
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This new 247-page report provides a comprehensive analysis of the French therapeutic drug monitoring market, including emerging tests, technologies, instrumentation, ...
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A switch switches time division multiplexed (TDM) data and packet data from input ports to output ports. The swich comprises: a plurality of input ports receiving data, wherein each data comprises either TDM data or packet data; a plurality of output ports transmitting switched data; and a shared memory coupling the input ports to the output ports. The shared memory sequentially receives the data from the input ports, and switches a sequentially received data from a respective input port to a respective output port. Switching of packet data by the shared memory has no latency or jitter effect on switching of TDM data by the shared memory.
On Monday, all PRP had to sit for Forensic Exam as one of the requirement to be an FRP next year. And me must pass with at least 50% marks. For me, this exam is quite tough although its an open book exam. We only be allowed to bring in two law books and code of conduct. The SAQ is kinda straightforward, the only problem was that I felt like wanna write everything into the answer sheets. But when I reached the later questions, my answers all became short. Hahaha.. For MCQ, this was very tough. Flipping the books made the exam more time consuming. I didnt manage to complete all 50 questions, I think I missed around 3-5 questions. Same for SAQ, I had no time to the the final 6 marks question. Lets hope we all pass without needing to re-sit for another paper. Malasnyaaaaaa ...
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Traditionally immunostimulants have been believed to worsen autoimmune disease, to the point that some immunostimulants have originally been classified as immunosuppressants because they were found to improve autoimmune disease. But in practice it does not seem to work like that.. If the theory that autoimmune disease is in fact a type of an immune deficiency - or that there are components of immune deficiency, as the immune system is highly complex and not necessarily easy to define as "overactive" or "underactive" - is correct, immunostimulants would be the rational choice of treatment.. Immunostimulants are not completely without risks or side effects, but some of them can get quite close. They do not increase the risk of infections and cancer - and may even reduce the risk.. The most conventionally accepted immunostimulant therapy for autoimmune diseases is intravenous immunoglobulin (also known as IVIG and gammaglobulin), a blood product that contains antibodies from thousands of donors. It ...
Vaccination is a highly effective method of preventing infectious diseases. However, adjuvants are needed to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens. For many years, the development of adjuvants has been an empirical process. Scientists from the team "Immunomodulation by Mycobacterial Lipids and Glycoconjugates" at the Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology show that new generation adjuvants can be designed on a rational basis. This study is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, on 21 Feb 2017.. Vaccines are mainly used to fight infectious diseases but they can also help to treat cancer. Historically, vaccines have been made with live attenuated or dead pathogens. For many pathogens, however, such vaccines have not been successfully developed. Moreover, they can be associated to side effects. Current efforts aim at the development of subunit vaccines that induce a well-defined immune response against specific antigens, from pathogens ...
Dr. Anthony Melvin Crasto, graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991, Mumbai, India, in the field of Organic Chemistry, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as a Principal Scientist, in Process Research at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India, for the last 10 years, His total Industry experience is 30 +yrs with major Multinationals companies.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable Scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri , Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did Custom Synthesis for various multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, Pfizer etc., He has worked in Drug Discovery, Natural products, Bulk Drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, Pharma Plant, API plant etc, he is now helping millions, His friends ...
Purpose of Research:. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a fungal infection which left untreated, can cause dangerous complications and death. Transplant patients who have weakened immune systems are at higher risk of getting IA. Voriconazole is a medication that is prescribed for IA. In order for voriconazole to work, it is important to maintain the right amount of drug in the blood. The investigators check for the right amount of voriconazole in the blood by collecting blood samples. This process is called therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and usually done for transplant patients with weakened immune systems. However, maintaining the right amount of drug in the blood is still difficult since voriconazole is absorbed and excreted by the body differently for each person, depending on their genetic make-up. This study will try to understand if genetic testing early on in addition with TDM will be able to provide us with doses tailored to each individual.. Study Design:. Patients who consent to ...
Adjuvant activity of monophosphoryl lipid A for nasal and oral immunization with soluble or liposome-associated antigen.: The effectiveness of monophosphoryl li
Despite its potential utility for predicting cows milk yield responses to once-daily milking (ODM), the genetic basis of cow milk trait responses to ODM has been scarcely if ever described in the literature, especially for short ODM periods. This study set out to (1) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield and composition during a 3-wk ODM period, (2) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield responses (i.e., milk yield loss upon switching cows to ODM and milk yield recovery upon switching them back to twice-daily milking; TDM), and (3) seek predictors of milk yield responses to ODM, in particular using the first day of ODM ...
The body is programmed to perform tasks at times. This article is going to explain exactly what creatine is, how it works, and well discuss some of the the theories about once the best time for take is certainly. Because start to warm the blood temperature will raise as it travels through your muscles, considering that happens the sum of oxygen it would hold is reduced. Manganese acts being an immunostimulant activating the inflammatory response and zinc assists in fighting.. One ounce of peanuts contains about 9% for this fiber need to have each day of the week. Click here to know more about Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome from residential wind turbines. Plus, staying hydrated helps to induce thoughts of satiety so percent to overeat less traditionally. With detraining, the volume of mitochondria is reduced.. A good balance of supplements and nutrients can assist you cure the initial uneasy feeling and support your natural body ...
An array transducer ultrasound beamformer includes a plurality of processing channels, one for each active element of the transducer array. Each channel includes a digitizing unit for converting the received signal to digital samples and a time multiplexed delay unit for producing a primary stream of delayed TDM samples corresponding to one or more beams. Within each channel, the primary stream of delayed TDM samples is demultiplexed in order to separate the stream in a plurality of secondary streams of delayed TDM samples, wherein each of the secondary streams corresponds to a portion of a beam or a single beam.
RapidShapes computes a thermodynamic matcher (TDM), using a runtime heuristic for probabilistic shape analysis.. It uses a pipeline to calculate the exact shape probabilities.. This pipeline contains the following three steps:. 1. Creates a set of the most likely shapes.. 2. Translates the Shape-Strings into ADP-grammars.. 3. Each ADP-grammar is then translated into a TDM in form of a C++ program.. The gain in runtime grows with the sequence length using the RapidShape heuristic. Thus, we are the first time able to analyse sequences with more then 400 nucleotides or more. Depending on the alpha-threshold, RapidShapes clearly speeds up shape analysis compared with the previous methods. Thus, probabilistic shape analysis has become feasible in medium-scale applications, such as the screening of RNA transcripts in a bacterial genome.. ...
RapidShapes computes a thermodynamic matcher (TDM), using a runtime heuristic for probabilistic shape analysis.. It uses a pipeline to calculate the exact shape probabilities.. This pipeline contains the following three steps:. 1. Creates a set of the most likely shapes.. 2. Translates the Shape-Strings into ADP-grammars.. 3. Each ADP-grammar is then translated into a TDM in form of a C++ program.. The gain in runtime grows with the sequence length using the RapidShape heuristic. Thus, we are the first time able to analyse sequences with more then 400 nucleotides or more. Depending on the alpha-threshold, RapidShapes clearly speeds up shape analysis compared with the previous methods. Thus, probabilistic shape analysis has become feasible in medium-scale applications, such as the screening of RNA transcripts in a bacterial genome.. ...
Apart from the fact that Softswitch offers scope for greater adaptability, it also enables less prominent vendors with greater potential to concentrate on the application of their choice. However, as a result of reservations about the reliability and financial implications of deploying this technology, migration has taken place in stages. Since the majority of recognized carriers have made a substantial investment in TDM or time division multiplexing technology, they are hesitant about replacing it with Softswitch unless it proves to be more economical ...
Prostovoljci in zaposleni pri Greenpeaceu smo v središče Ljubljane, na Kongresni trg, pripeljal 25-metrsko napihljivo ribiško ladjo, s pomočjo katere smo osveščali prebivalce o pomenu varovanja morij in oceanov pred prekomernim ribolovom.
An important aspect of the TMM program is introducing students to biomedical research, allowing them to be better prepared to independently carry out and successfully complete their fourth year honours projects. With this in mind, students take TMM3009, a nine-unit (credit) course that runs throughout third year. The course enables students to learn basic concepts in cellular and molecular biology that most Faculty of Medicine researchers use in their labs.. The two rotation projects that students take part in, in February and March, are an integral part of TMM3009. Every year, we solicit submissions for projects in your labs.Each project must be well-defined and both introduce students to new techniques and present innovative questions that can be answered during the allotted time. Students are paired with supervisors for each rotation. If a lab is very popular, it is possible that a supervisor may be asked to accept more than one student.. Students must be in your lab during the two regular ...
Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a system to test the hypothesis that since antibody binding to native cover glycoprotein (Env) trimers ends up in HIV-1 neutralization that local Env trimers presented in membranes can be useful for causing neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) within a vaccine placing. models. The latest immunogenicity research in rabbits appear to have out all of the 3 for these leads. plus the Animal Wellbeing Act. Macaques were encased indoors in stainless steel galetas had a 12h/12h daily lumination cycle had been fed 2 times daily given water R595 cell wall membrane skeleton out of and man made trehalose dicorynomycolate. Adjuplex is made up of detergent-free carbomer and lecithin homopolymer. AS01B consists of liposomes containing deacylated QS21 and MPL. Normally immunogens and adjuvants had been co-formulated. In buy 1207456-01-6 some cases had been administered independently (Fig. 2). iv) Medication dosage Gp120 and gp41 had been administered in 100μg amounts. Doses ...
Methods Expression levels of Mincle mRNA was determined in inflamed paws from hTNFtg and IL1-/-IL6-/-hTNFtg mice by qPCR. To study the role of mincle deficiency in experimental arthritis, we generated mincle-/-hTNFtg mice as well as their hTNFtg littermates. Mice were weekly assessed for clinical signs of arthritis from week 4 to 11 after birth. We quantitatively analysed inflammatory joint destruction in H&E, TRAP and TB stained sections from hind paws. The effect of mincledeficiency was also evaluated in the K/BxN serum transfer model. Therefore, mincle-/- and mincle+/+ mice received i.v. injections of K/BxN serum on day 1 and day 3. Animals were assessed from day1 to 12 for clinical signs of arthritis. Quantitative histopathological analysis were performed as above mentioned in hind paws.. ...
During infection of the lung epithelium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must infect and survive within macrophages long enough to be transported into deeper lung tissues. Cambier et al. (2013) show that pathogenic mycobacteria use the coordinated action of two cell wall glycolipids to regulate macrophage recruitment to initial infection sites.. ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF-α) is a cytokine, substances secreted by certain cells of the immune system that have an effect on other cells. This is indeed helpful in fighting abnormal turmor cells in body. Research done on ripening bananas has proved that the levels of TNF-α induction increased markedly with dark spots on skin before the entire banana peel turned brown. The research concluded that the activity of banana was comparable to that of Lentinan, a chemical immunostimulant that is intravenously administered as an anti-cancer agent. So, ripe banana can act as an anti-cancer agent by stimulating the production of white blood cells in the human cell line ...
Used in adults and children as an immunostimulant and biostimulator in the complex therapy of diseases accompanied by a decrease in cellular immunity, including acute and chronic purulent processes and inflammatory diseases, in case of burn disease, trophic ulcers, etc., as well as in suppression of immunity and hematopoietic functions after radiation or chemotherapy in cancer patients and other pathological processes ...
In contrast to nonspecific resistance, immunity (i-mu- ni-te), or specific resistance, is directed at specific antigens. An immune response involves the production of specific cells and substances to attack a specific antigen. Immunity has "memory," that is, if the same pathogen should reenter the body at a ...
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Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was ...
There are three requirements for rheumatologists to implement TDM in clinical practice (table 1). First, we need a reliable method to quantify the drug and anti-drug antibodies (ADA).11 Second, we need to establish guidelines or algorithms, supported by the best clinical evidence possible, to define therapeutic options in different clinical situations, such as prediction of response, biological failure or tapering,12 and finally, we need to follow personalised medicine, to define for each patient the optimal dosing schedule by using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling, either what it is called proactive TDM, the dosing schedule at initiation is based on the patients characteristics (disease activity in particular) and the reactive TDM in which the dosing schedule is adjusted upon clinical response and drug concentration.13. Because TDM of a TNFi is based on serum trough concentrations, we need to understand the PK of biopharmaceuticals. Biopharmaceuticals are large proteins that ...
Two plant cysteine proteases have been shown to have immunosuppressive and immunostimulant effects, respectively in mammalian systems. These molecules therefore have therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases, but their mechanism of action is presently not characterised. We will characterise the molecular mechanism by which these proteases interact with their substrate molecules and then apply the information learned to discerning their substrates on a vital component of the immune system, the T-cell. The information will therefore significantly advance the development of these molecules as therapeutic agents by uncovering their mechanism of action ...
Mit dem hochwertigen Produkt-Portfolio von ARK Diagnostics kann Specialty Diagnostix erstklassige Immunoassays für das Therapeutische Drug Monitoring der neuesten Anti-Epileptika anbieten. Ein weiteres Highlight unserer Produktpalette ist der hochspezifische Methotrexat-Assay zur quantitativen Bestimmung in menschlichem Serum oder Plasma.. Alle von ARK Diagnostics hergestellten homogenen Enzym-Immunoassays sind in der Lage, die Wirkstoffspiegel der entsprechenden Medikamente präzise zu messen. Damit tragen sie maßgeblich dazu bei, die richtige Entscheidung bei der Dosierung dieser Medikamente zu treffen, Wirkstoffspiegel zu optimieren und eine sichere, effektive und individuelle Therapie zu unterstützen. Die Tests, Kalibratoren und Kontrollen sind einfach zu handhaben, stabil und gebrauchsfertig, mit exzellenten Kalibrationsbereichen. Applikationen sind für die meisten klinisch-chemischen Analysensysteme verfügbar.. Specialty Diagnostix und ARK Diagnostics setzen sich mit diesen Assays ...
A measuring range of analytes with sensitivity as low as 0.15ng/mL for Digoxin and extended linearity in the 25ng/mL to 2000ng/mL range for analytes like Cyclosporine. TDM assays, calibrators and controls backed by a proven track record of reliable and trouble-free performance when used with a wide range of analysers ...More. ...
A measuring range of analytes with sensitivity as low as 0.15ng/mL for Digoxin and extended linearity in the 25ng/mL to 2000ng/mL range for analytes like Cyclosporine. TDM assays, calibrators and controls backed by a proven track record of reliable and trouble-free performance when used with a wide range of analysers ...More. ...
Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. One notable example is the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. There are two main categories of immunostimulants: Specific immunostimulants provide antigenic specificity in immune response, such as vaccines or any antigen. Non-specific immunostimulants act irrespective of antigenic specificity to augment immune response of other antigen or stimulate components of the immune system without antigenic specificity, such as adjuvants and non-specific immunostimulators. Many endogenous substances are non-specific immunostimulators. For example, female sex hormones are known to stimulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus strike women preferentially, and their onset often coincides with puberty. Other hormones appear to regulate the immune ...
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Aevitum - a comprehensive preparation which has immunostimulant and antioxidant action, which is carried out due to the high content of saturated bonds in the molecules of the drug.It belongs to the category of the combined drugs, the effect of which depends on the fat-soluble vitamins A and E, which are included in its composition.In order to know how to properly take Aevitum, try to understand the principles of its impact on the human body.. antioxidant effect of the drug due to its Aevitum ability to slow down the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.Included in the formulation of vitamin E is a potent antioxidant, it inhibits the development of free radicals in the body, and also reduces the risk of peroxides in the body, which damage the cellular and subcellular membranes.In tandem with selenium, vitamin E inhibits the oxidation of certain components and prevents hemolysis.In addition, vitamin E has still a number of advantages that help restore blood circulation, improve the bodys ...
Trehalose (mycose, tremalose) sugar molecule. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour coded: hydrogen (white), carbon (black), oxygen (red). Illustration. - Stock Image F012/9385
Duloxetine En Ligne Pas Cher Générique Cymbalta Combien Ca Coute Moins Cher Cymbalta 60 mg. Cymbalta générique (duloxetine HCI) est un médicament antidépresseur utilisé principalement pour le traitement de trouble dépressif majeur (TDM), trouble.... ...
We are presenting a novel, non-biologic model of the healthy human annulus. This lumbar Total Disc Model (TDM) ideally would be both biofidelic and sufficiently robust to withstand long-term fatigue testing without breaking down or tearing apart. Mechanical validation testing was performed to confirm that the compressive and torsional properties were similar to literature values of denucleated human lumbar discs in two-body constructs. Long-term fatigue tests were performed to establish the durability of the model. We have reported data for both our empty TDM and the TDM filled with a representative nucleus replacement device (NRD). The silicone model is geometrically equivalent to the healthy human lumbar disc, including the discoid cavity present following a total nuclectomy, the annulus fibrosis with micro-annulotomy, and the cartilaginous endplates. The pressure transmitted through the center of the disc went from negligible when the TDM was empty to over 40% when the TDM was filled. The ...
Glucan was extracted from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and subjected to chemical analy- ses. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that glucan is primarily composed of glucose units and contains 97.2% glucose. Infrared spectrum showed a major band at 883/cm, suggest- ing that glucan is linked to β-glycosidic. Intraperitoneal administration of different doses of glu- can enhanced the survival rate of carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. When a concentration above 500 μg glucan per fish was administered, survival relative to the uninfected control was 100%. The total leukocyte count and neutrophil and monocyte popula- tions increased after administration of the glucan. The maximum effect occurred on day 6 after injection. Macrophages of compound-administrated test animals significantly increased produc- tion of superoxide anions, efficiently killing the bacterial pathogen. This study showed that glu- can can be effective in inducing non-specific cellular defense ...
Dietary EEP supplementation regardless of inclusion level significantly improved the specific growth rate of fish. Similarly, supplemental EEP generally improved the feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio, but no significant differences were observed between the 1 g kg(-1) EEP group and the control group. In addition, dietary EEP supplementation generally increased the plasma superoxide dismutase, lysozyme, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities, but decreased the plasma malondialdehyde level. The plasma triglycerides level was significantly lower in the 1 or 4 g kg(-1) EEP group as compared with the control group ...
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are crucial for responses to infections and tissue damage; however, their role in autoimmunity is less clear. Herein we demonstrate that 2 C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) Mcl and Mincle play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Congenic rats expressing lower levels of Mcl and Mincle on myeloid cells exhibited a drastic reduction in EAE incidence. In vivo silencing of Mcl and Mincle or blockade of their endogenous ligand SAP130 revealed that these receptors expression in the central nervous system is crucial for T cell recruitment and reactivation into a pathogenic Th17/GM-CSF phenotype. Consistent with this, we uncovered MCL- and MINCLE-expressing cells in brain lesions of MS patients and we further found an upregulation of the MCL/MINCLE signaling pathway and an increased response following MCL/MINCLE stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MS ...
Background: To understand the mechanism by which a protein transmits a signal through the cell membrane, an understanding of the flexibility of its transmembrane (TM) region is essential. Normal Mode Analysis (NMA) has become the method of choice to investigate the slowest motions in macromolecular systems. It has been widely used to study transmembrane channels and pumps. It relies on the hypothesis that the vibrational normal modes having the lowest frequencies (also named soft modes) describe the largest movements in a protein and are the ones that are functionally relevant. In particular NMA can be used to study dynamics of TM regions, but no tool making this approach available for non-experts, has been available so far.. Results: We developed the web-application [email protected] (TransMembrane α-helical Mobility analyzer). It uses NMA to characterize the propensity of transmembrane α-helices to be displaced. Starting from a structure file at the PDB format, the server computes the normal modes of the ...
A video conferencing method is provided in a system for managing voice and data communications to a plurality of users. Computer data is communicated between the system and one of a plurality of computers coupled to the system over one or more packet buses. Voice data is communicated between the system and one of a plurality of telephone devices coupled to the system. The voice data is coupled to a TDM bus in the system, and the voice data and/or the computer data are coupled from the TDM bus to a digital transmission link. Video and audio data are coupled between the system and a video conferencing unit and coupled to the TDM bus. The video and audio data are coupled from the TDM bus to a digital transmission link of the telecommunications network. A video conference participant participates in a video conference with the video conferencing unit over the digital transmission link, while concurrently a user participates in a telephone call with one of the telephone devices over the digital transmission
A method and apparatus for transferring data associated with synchronous transfer mode (STM) calls through an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network are described. The apparatus includes a voice interface control unit, a signaling interface and a TDM peripheral device associated with each edge node in the ATM network. The voice interface control unit controls the ingress and egress of STM calls to the network. The signaling interface sends and receives common channel signaling messages associated with calls originating in the STM network and passes message content to the voice interface control unit. The TDM peripheral device converts STM network and passes message content to the voice interface control unit. The TDM peripheral device converts STM calls to ATM cells, and vice versa. The method disclosed involves enabling the network interface controls at edge nodes in the ATM network with a capacity to receive, interpret and send common channel signaling messages associated with STM cells, while using
1UQT: The Donor Subsite of Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase: Binary Complexes with Udp-Glucose and Udp-2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-Glucose at 2 A Resolution
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) - Übersicht der bestimmbaren Arzneistoffe In dieser Übersicht sind in alphabetischer Reihenfolge alle Arzneistoffe aufgeführt, die zurzeit bei uns im Labor bestimmt werden. Die Liste umfasst 260 Medikamente und wird ständig erweitert. Zum größten Teil sind auch die jeweiligen Medikamentennamen aufgeführt. Wir informieren Sie ferner über das erforderliche Untersuchungsmaterial, den Referenzbereich und die angewandte Untersuchungsmethode. Alle Analysen werden im Wochenablauf täglich angesetzt, die meisten sogar am Samstag. Wir erreichen damit eine sehr schnelle Befundung. Hier weitere Einzelheiten: ...
... Friday is nearly always a casual dining day and last Friday was no different Broadvox, CLEC, Cypress Communications, FCC, ILEC, IP Communications, IP Community, ITSP, SIP Trunking, TDM, Turkey, Unified Communications, Voice over IP, VoIP
α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase [UDP-forming] (EC 2.4.1.15); Glucosylglycerol-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.213); trehalose-6-P phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.12); [retaining] GDP-valeniol: validamine 7-phosphate valeniolyltransferase (EC 2.-.-.- ...
α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase [UDP-forming] (EC 2.4.1.15); Glucosylglycerol-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.213); trehalose-6-P phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.12); [retaining] GDP-valeniol: validamine 7-phosphate valeniolyltransferase (EC 2.-.-.- ...

Cord factor - WikipediaCord factor - Wikipedia

Cord factor protects M. tuberculosis from the defenses of the host. Specifically, cord factor on the surface of M. tuberculosis ... Cord factor influences the arrangement of M. tuberculosis cells into long and slender formations, giving its name. Cord factor ... Cord factors amphiphilic nature leads to varying structures when many cord factor molecules are in close proximity. On a ... As the monolayer surface area of cord factor increases, so does its toxicity. The length of the carbon chain on cord factor has ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cord_factor

Cutting Edge: Mincle is essential for recognition and adjuvanticity of the mycobacterial cord factor and its synthetic analog...Cutting Edge: Mincle is essential for recognition and adjuvanticity of the mycobacterial cord factor and its synthetic analog...

The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analog trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent ... Cutting Edge: Mincle is essential for recognition and adjuvanticity of the mycobacterial cord factor and its synthetic analog ... These results establish that Mincle is a key receptor for the mycobacterial cord factor and controls the Th1/Th17 adjuvanticity ...
more infohttps://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/handle/10072/36851

Conversion of equine umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells to the trophectoderm lineage using the Yamanaka reprogramming...Conversion of equine umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells to the trophectoderm lineage using the Yamanaka reprogramming...

... of equine umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells to the trophectoderm lineage using the Yamanaka reprogramming factors. ... Umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were transduced with the non-integrating Sendai virus encoding for the ... The generation of iTr cells by transduction of the Yamanaka reprogramming factors is not unique to equine cells. However, this ... cell-like properties are generated through the use of the Yamanaka transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC (OSKM). ...
more infohttps://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/74270

Spinal cord injury, Australia 2004-05, Table of contents
    
 - Australian Institute of Health and WelfareSpinal cord injury, Australia 2004-05, Table of contents - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Factors associated with the SCI event * Mechanism of injury. * Type of activity at time of injury ... Severe spinal cord injury is a very debilitating injury. This report presents information from the Australian Spinal Cord ... Falling was the most common type of event leading to traumatic spinal cord injury at older ages. The Australian Spinal Cord ... During the year, 280 new cases of spinal cord injury from traumatic causes were registered in Australia, an age-adjusted ...
more infohttps://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/injury/spinal-cord-injury-australia-2004-05/contents/table-of-contents

Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: strategies, challenges, and potential for cutaneous regenerationUmbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: strategies, challenges, and potential for cutaneous regeneration

Regulatory factors of mesenchymal stem cell migration into injured tissues and their signal transduction mechanisms[J]. Front ... Fig.1 Compartments within the umbilical cord. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from (1) the umbilical cord blood ... Keywords umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cutaneous regeneration Corresponding Authors: Fu Xiaobing,Email:[email protected] ... Umbilical cord blood. Mesoblast. CD73, CD44. CD105, CD90. CD45,CD34. No. High. Safe. Low. Lower. Easy to obtain. No harm to the ...
more infohttp://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-012-0175-9

Medication before and after a spinal cord lesion - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske ForskningsdatabaseMedication before and after a spinal cord lesion - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske Forskningsdatabase

Spinal Cord, 2014, Vol 52, Issue 5, p. 358-363 Keywords: Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Denmark; ... OBJECTIVE: To map the impact of spinal cord lesion (SCL) on medication. STUDY DESIGN: Registration of medication for 72 ... SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. METHODS: The changes in medication for each Anatomical Therapeutic ... who were discharged from Department for Spinal Cord Injuries during 2010. The changes in medication per se were calculated for ...
more infohttp://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/263033313

The clinical features and surgical outcomes of pediatric patients with primary spinal cord tumor<...The clinical features and surgical outcomes of pediatric patients with primary spinal cord tumor<...

... and prognostic factors. Methods Between March 1999 and March 2010, a total of 27 pediatric patients with PSCT were surgically ... Background: Primary spinal cord tumors (PSCTs) in pediatric patients are rare, with a reported overall incidence rate of 1-2.6 ... The clinical features and surgical outcomes of pediatric patients with primary spinal cord tumor. In: Childs Nervous System. ... The clinical features and surgical outcomes of pediatric patients with primary spinal cord tumor. / Choi, Gwi Hyun; Oh, Jae ...
more infohttps://yonsei.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-clinical-features-and-surgical-outcomes-of-pediatric-patients

TDB-HS15 : Mincle Agonist - Synthetic cord factor analog | InvivoGenTDB-HS15 : Mincle Agonist - Synthetic cord factor analog | InvivoGen

... also known as cord factor), which is the most studied immunostimulatory component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TDB is an ... Mincle Agonist - Synthetic analog of the cord factor TDB VacciGrade™ Mincle agonist - Synthetic analog of the cord factor. Th1 ... Synthetic cord factor analog. Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate formulated with Kolliphor® HS 15. Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) is a ... Cutting edge: Mincle is essential for recognition and adjuvanticity of the mycobacterial cord factor and its synthetic analog ...
more infohttps://www.invivogen.com/tdb-hs15

Cord Factor and Related Synthetic Trehalose Diesters | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCord Factor and Related Synthetic Trehalose Diesters | Springer for Research & Development

... cord factor designates glycolipids produced by Mycobacteria, Nocardiae, Corynebacteriae, and strains of Arthrobacter and ... Etude du cord factor et de ses analogues. Partie III. Synthèse du cord factor (6,6′-di-Oemycoloyl-α, α-trehalose). Carbohydr. ... Lederer, E.: Cord factor and related trehalose esters. Chem. Phys. Lipids 16, 91 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Saito, R., Tanaka, A., Sugiyama, K., Kato, M.: Cord factor not toxic in rat. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 112, 578 (1975)PubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-67809-7_7

Factor (chord) - WikipediaFactor (chord) - Wikipedia

The chord factor called the "fifth" (pitch name "G") is represented in voice 2 (shown in red). The chord factor that is in the ... In music, a factor or chord factor is a member or component of a chord. These are named root, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, ... Chord factors are taken into consideration in voicing and voice leading. A chord contains exactly as many factors as it ... The illustration shows the theoretical construction of a C13 chord having seven chord factors, with the "extended" chord ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Factor_(chord)

Trehalose 6,6-dimycolate [Cord Factor] Endotoxin-free (sterile) - Order from AdipoGenTrehalose 6,6'-dimycolate [Cord Factor] Endotoxin-free (sterile) - Order from AdipoGen

Cord Factor] Endotoxin-free (sterile) (TDM), endotoxin-free, highly active substance. Used for Innate Immunity, Adjuvant, ... Control wells were layered with solvent without Cord Factor and also incubated at 37°C. To this layer of Cord Factor, bone ... In vivo pulmonary granuloma formation in mice can be induced by 10μg Cord Factor per mouse applied i.v. in a water/oil/water ... To stimulate mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, Cord Factor was suspended at a concentration of 0.2mg/ml in hexane. Of the ...
more infohttps://adipogen.com/iax-200-101-trehalose-6-6-dimycolate-cord-factor-endotoxin-free-sterile.html

Influence of In Utero Maternal and Neonate Factors on Cord Blood Leukocyte Telomere Length: Clues to the Racial Disparity in...Influence of In Utero Maternal and Neonate Factors on Cord Blood Leukocyte Telomere Length: Clues to the Racial Disparity in...

Influence of In Utero Maternal and Neonate Factors on Cord Blood Leukocyte Telomere Length: Clues to the Racial Disparity in ... Kari A. Weber, Christopher M. Heaphy, Sabine Rohrmann, et al., "Influence of In Utero Maternal and Neonate Factors on Cord ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2016/3691650/cta/

Bridging a Complete Transection Lesion of Adult Rat Spinal Cord with Growth Factor-Treated Nitrocellulose ImplantsBridging a Complete Transection Lesion of Adult Rat Spinal Cord with Growth Factor-Treated Nitrocellulose Implants

... John D. ... Aspiration lesions created a 3 mm long cavity in the upper lumbar spinal cord of adult rats. Five weeks after injury two strips ... bound nerve growth factor has the capacity to enhance the regrowth of ascending sensory axons across a traumatic spinal cord ... Fetal spinal cord tissue was transplanted alongsideand between these strips. Six weeks post transplantation, animals were ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/1994/925045/abs/

Psychological Factors |  Spinal Cord Injury Research EvidencePsychological Factors | Spinal Cord Injury Research Evidence

Psychological Factors. Download as a PDF. Most studies of chronic SCI pain have focused on the medical causes and clinical ... Factors related to greater well-being included less helplessness and catastrophizing, greater SCI acceptance and lower anger ... The authors noted that chronic SCI pain and quality of life were both largely associated with several psychological factors of ... The authors concluded that the experience of pain was associated with psychosocial factors. Hence treatment of post-SCI pain ...
more infohttps://scireproject.com/evidence/rehabilitation-evidence/pain-management/psychological-factors/

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation | Journal of NeuroscienceTraumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation | Journal of Neuroscience

1995) Transcriptional roles of nuclear factor-κB and nuclear factor-interleukin-6 in the tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent ... Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation. John R. Bethea, Marcia Castro, Robert W. Keane, Thomas T. ... Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation. John R. Bethea, Marcia Castro, Robert W. Keane, Thomas T. ... Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation. John R. Bethea, Marcia Castro, Robert W. Keane, Thomas T. ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/9/3251?ijkey=1b2026a3cb99b041fd86638ced3a10c5f8f8b4e6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor | definition of Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor by Medical dictionarySpinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor | definition of Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor by Medical dictionary

What is Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor? Meaning of Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor medical term. What does Spinal Cord- ... Looking for online definition of Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor in the Medical Dictionary? Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor ... Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor , definition of Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor by Medical dictionary https://medical- ... redirected from Spinal Cord-Derived Growth Factor). Also found in: Acronyms. PDGFC. A gene on chromosome 4q32 that encodes ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Spinal+Cord-Derived+Growth+Factor

Intranasal nerve growth factor repairs injured spinal cord neurons | EurekAlert! Science NewsIntranasal nerve growth factor repairs injured spinal cord neurons | EurekAlert! Science News

... the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons. ... Nerve growth factor can be delivered to the brain by intranasal administration without risk for treatment of brain diseases. Dr ... Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. Neural ... Article: "Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-07/nrr-ing071714.php

Spinal cord stimulator success depends on time factorsSpinal cord stimulator success depends on time factors

Patients who waited less than 2 years for a spinal cord stimulator implant experienced success rates of 75% compared with a ... Fewer than 50% of all patients report long-term success with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of chronic pain, they ... Fewer than 50% of all patients report long-term success with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of chronic pain, they ... Patients who waited less than 2 years for a spinal cord stimulator implant experienced success rates of 75% compared with a ...
more infohttps://www.healio.com/spine-surgery/spinal-cord-and-nerves/news/online/%7Baa70c4d2-92f6-46c0-8e55-a61abd7d02ae%7D/spinal-cord-stimulator-success-depends-on-time-factors

CiteSeerX - Table search results - Use of automated fetal heart rate analysis to identify risk factors for umbilical cord...CiteSeerX - Table search results - Use of automated fetal heart rate analysis to identify risk factors for umbilical cord...

Use of automated fetal heart rate analysis to identify risk factors for umbilical cord acidosis at birth ... Table 8: Factor analysis of cost parameters in e-Commerce Investments from an SME perspective: Costs, Benefits and Processes ... Table 2 Risk factors identified by literature review in Abstract A model for inbound supply risk analysis ... Several factors that could be identified preoperative- ly were associated with a twofold or greater relative risk of ...
more infohttps://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/search?q=Use%20of%20automated%20fetal%20heart%20rate%20analysis%20to%20identify%20risk%20factors%20for%20umbilical%20cord%20acidosis%20at%20birth&t=table&sort=rlv

Neurotrophic factors in combinatorial approaches for spinal cord regeneration.Neurotrophic factors in combinatorial approaches for spinal cord regeneration.

... McCall J, Weidner N, Blesch A ... Thus, growth-stimulating factors will likely have to be combined with other treatment approaches to tap into the full potential ... of regeneration limit the efficacy of neurotrophic factor delivery for anatomical and functional recovery after spinal cord ... In addition, the temporal and spatial distribution of growth factors have to be tightly controlled to achieve biologically ...
more infohttps://www.wingsforlife.com/de/aktuelles/neurotrophic-factors-in-combinatorial-approaches-for-spinal-cord-regeneration-2774/

Risk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours - Canadian Cancer SocietyRisk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours - Canadian Cancer Society

Learn about childhood brain and spinal cord cancer risk. ... Risk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord cancer are ... Risk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours. A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing ... Possible risk factors. Having a birth defect is a possible risk factor for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours. This means ... The following are risk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours. Most of the risk factors are not modifiable. This ...
more infohttp://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/brain-spinal-childhood/risks/?region=bc

Risk Factors for Tracheostomy in Spinal Cord Injury Identified - MPRRisk Factors for Tracheostomy in Spinal Cord Injury Identified - MPR

... are useful for predicting the need for tracheostomy in the management of patients with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) in ... Risk Factors for Tracheostomy in Spinal Cord Injury Identified. This article originally appeared here. ... Using a multiple regression model, factors identified as associated with the need for tracheostomy included high age (69 years ... "Early tracheostomy should therefore be considered in patients with these risk factors because it may facilitate pulmonary care ...
more infohttp://www.empr.com/medical-news/risk-factors-for-tracheostomy-in-spinal-cord-injury-identified/article/262218/

Factor Isolated from Babies Cord Blood Could Treat Harmful Inflammation, Sepsis - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comFactor Isolated from Babies' Cord Blood Could Treat Harmful Inflammation, Sepsis - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

Umbilical cord blood has high levels of a factor, called neonatal NET inhibitory factor (nNIF), which inhibits a specific ... Yost and colleagues isolated a cord blood factor, called neonatal NET inhibitory factor (nNIF), based on its ability to inhibit ... A factor found in umbilical cord blood could become the basis for developing a new therapy to fight harmful inflammation, ... To test whether the cord blood factor could control sepsis, the scientists treated groups of mice in which the condition had ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/blood-heart-circulation/74591-factor-isolated-from-babies-cord-blood-could-treat-harmful-inflammation-sepsis.html

Upper cervical cord area in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Cross-sectional study of factors influencing cord...Upper cervical cord area in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Cross-sectional study of factors influencing cord...

Upper cervical cord area in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Cross-sectional study of factors influencing cord ... Upper cervical cord area in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Cross-sectional study of factors influencing cord ... PURPOSE: To determine whether the upper cervical cord area (UCCA) is influenced by disease effect in early relapsing-remitting ... Clinical correlations, in particular those thought likely to be related to cord pathology, were also investigated. RESULTS: No ...
more infohttp://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/12072/
  • The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analog trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent adjuvants for Th1/Th17 vaccination that activate Syk-Card9 signaling in APCs. (edu.au)
  • These results establish that Mincle is a key receptor for the mycobacterial cord factor and controls the Th1/Th17 adjuvanticity of TDM and TDB. (edu.au)
  • When cord factor is added back to those cells, M. tuberculosis survives at a rate similar to that of its original state. (wikipedia.org)
  • heat-killed cells with cord factor are unable to prevent being digested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous responses that vary in effect result from cord factor's presence in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that possess embryonic stem (ES) cell-like properties are generated through the use of the Yamanaka transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC (OSKM). (vt.edu)
  • Umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were transduced with the non-integrating Sendai virus encoding for the OSKM transcription factors. (vt.edu)
  • The generation of iTr cells by transduction of the Yamanaka reprogramming factors is not unique to equine cells. (vt.edu)
  • The function of cord factor is highly dependent on what environment it is located, and therefore its conformation. (wikipedia.org)
more