Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.
Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.

Cord formation in MB/BacT medium is a reliable criterion for presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in laboratories with high prevalence of M. tuberculosis. (1/135)

We evaluated cord formation in MB/BacT broth as a rapid method for presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Kinyoun acid-fast-stained smears from 370 positive MB/BacT bottles were examined for the presence of serpentine cording. The smears were examined independently by two observers. Observer 1 (the supervisor of the mycobacteriology laboratory) examined all of the smears while observer 2 (a clinical microbiologist not familiar with acid-fast bacillus [AFB] microscopy) examined 148 randomly chosen smears that were read by observer 1 without knowledge of which smear was which. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of cording for the presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis read by observer 1 were 88.2, 97.4, 99.2, and 69.7%, respectively. These values were reported at 90.6, 52.3, 82.8, and 69. 7%, respectively, by observer 2. Our laboratory prevalence of M. tuberculosis among positive cultures was 78% during the time this study was conducted. At the time of positive signal of the MB/BacT bottles, the broth of the bottles had sufficient cell mass to allow for observation of the presence or absence of serpentine cording. The presence of cords in MB/BacT broth is a reliable criterion for rapid, predictive identification of the M. tuberculosis complex for laboratories with a high proportion of the M. tuberculosis complex when the smears are examined by a microbiologist who has experience with AFB staining.  (+info)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (Cord factor) enhances neovascularization through vascular endothelial growth factor production by neutrophils and macrophages. (2/135)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) plays important roles in the development of granulomatous inflammation during infection with Mycobacterium spp., Rhodococcus spp., etc. To reveal the augmenting effect of TDM on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and neovascularization, we investigated murine granulomatous tissue air pouches induced by Rhodococcus sp. strain 4306 TDM dissolved in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), comparing them to pouches treated with FIA alone. Histologically, granulomatous tissue and new vessel formation, which reached a maximum at day 7, was greatly enhanced by treatment with TDM. At day 1, VEGF-positive neutrophils accumulated in the pouch wall with frequency of 95% of total infiltrating cells, adhering to TDM-containing micelles. By day 3, granulomatous tissue and new vessels started to develop, and VEGF-positive macrophages appeared in a small number and gradually increased in number thereafter. The pouch contents of VEGF, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta were significantly elevated in TDM-treated pouches, with peaks at days 1, 0.5, 1, and 3, respectively, compared to those of control pouches, while that of basic fibroblast growth factor showed no significant increase. Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody inhibited TDM-induced granulomatous tissue formation and neovascularization, and administration of recombinant VEGF into pouches treated with FIA alone induced neovascularization comparable to that in the TDM-treated pouches. Incubation of neutrophils and macrophages on TDM-coated plastic dishes increased the VEGF release. The present results indicate that TDM augments VEGF production by neutrophils and macrophages and induces neovascularization in the granulomatous tissue.  (+info)

Assessment of morphology for rapid presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii. (3/135)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis often exhibits serpentine cording when grown in liquid medium, whereas Mycobacterium kansasii can be larger and cross-barred. We assessed the use of these morphologic characteristics as a cost-effective method for rapid presumptive identification of isolates from BACTEC bottles. Without specific training, using the Kinyoun acid-fast stain, definitive cording was found in 237 of 373 specimens positive for M. tuberculosis (64%) and cross-barring was recognized within 63 of 76 (83%) of the specimens positive for M. kansasii, giving sensitivities specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 63.5, 96, 92, and 79%, respectively, for M. tuberculosis and 83, 95, 59, and 98%, respectively, for M. kansasii. With training and experience, these results improved to 74.5, 98, 96, and 84% and 93, 98, 79, and 98%, respectively. The major improvements were in distinguishing the pseudocording, or loose aggregation of Mycobacterium avium complex from M. tuberculosis and the long beaded forms of Mycobacterium gordonae from M. kansasii. Mycobacterium asiaticum and Mycobacterium szulgai, which rarely occur, are genetically related to M. kansasii and morphologically difficult to distinguish. In defined circumstances, serpentine cording and cross-barring can be used for rapid presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii, respectively, and as guides for initial probe selection to reduce costs.  (+info)

In vivo administration of mycobacterial cord factor (Trehalose 6, 6'-dimycolate) can induce lung and liver granulomas and thymic atrophy in rabbits. (4/135)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is a cell surface molecule of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TDM induced a loss of body weight and prominent granulomas in the liver and lungs by the intravenous injection of TDM into rabbits. TDM also induced atrophy of the thymus and spleen due to apoptosis. By contrast, sulfolipid (2,3,6, 6'-tetraacyl trehalose 2'-sulfate) induced neither toxicity, nor granuloma formation, nor atrophy of the thymus and spleen. In rabbits the histopathological changes were more dramatic than in mice. The rabbit model may be more sensitive and may provide more information on the beneficial or pathological effects of TDM.  (+info)

How to establish a lasting relationship with your host: lessons learned from Mycobacterium spp. (5/135)

Mycobacterium spp. enjoy an intracellular lifestyle that is fatal to most microorganisms. Bacilli persist and multiply within mononuclear phagocytes in the face of defences ranging from toxic oxygen and nitrogen radicals, acidic proteases and bactericidal peptides. Uptake of Mycobacterium by phagocytes results in the de novo formation of a phagosome, which is manipulated by the pathogen to accommodate its needs for intracellular survival and replication. The present review describes the intracellular compartment occupied by Mycobacterium spp. and presents current ideas on how mycobacteria may establish this niche, placing special emphasis on the involvement of mycobacterial cell wall lipids.  (+info)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces corneal angiogenesis in rats. (6/135)

Neovascularization or angiogenesis is required for the progression of chronic inflammation. The mechanism of inflammatory neovascularization in tuberculosis remains unknown. Trehalose 6, 6'-dimycolate (TDM) purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was injected into rat corneas. TDM challenge provoked a local granulomatous response in association with neovascularization. Neovascularization was seen within a few days after the challenge, with the extent of neovascularization being dose dependent, although granulomatous lesions developed 14 days after the challenge. Cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were found in lesions at the early stage (within a few days after the challenge) and were detectable until day 21. Neovascularization was inhibited substantially by neutralizing antibodies to VEGF and IL-8 but not IL-1beta. Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies resulted in partial inhibition. TDM possesses pleiotropic activities, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the process of neovascularization.  (+info)

New diagnostic approach for ocular tuberculosis by ELISA using the cord factor as antigen. (7/135)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis is difficult, particularly the retinal vasculitis type, because most cases occur without concurrent active pulmonary tuberculosis. Recently, it has been reported that detection of antibodies against purified cord factor (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, TDM), the best studied, most antigenic, and most abundant cell wall component of tubercule bacilli, is very useful for rapid serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate whether the detection of anticord factor antibody is also useful for diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis and the necessity of antituberculous therapy for tuberculous retinochoroiditis was discussed. METHODS: Cases consisted of 15 patients with uveitis and retinal vasculitis, nine patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis, three patients with sarcoidosis, and three patients with Behcet's disease. IgG antibodies against purified cord factor prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: All cases of clinically presumed ocular tuberculosis were positive, whereas all of the cases of sarcoidosis or Behcet's disease were negative for anticord factor antibodies. When the anticord factor antibody titres were compared on the basis of the presence or absence of previous antituberculosis chemotherapy, the mean anticord factor antibody titre of the untreated group showed a tendency to be higher than in the treated group, but not significantly (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of anticord factor antibody may be useful to support the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis. Additionally, a positive result for anticord factor antibody may indicate that tubercule bacilli are present in some organ(s) of the patient even in the absence of active systemic disease.  (+info)

Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces foreign-body- and hypersensitivity-type granulomas in mice. (8/135)

Granulomatous inflammation is characterized morphologically by a compact organized collection of macrophages and their derivatives. It is classified as either a hypersensitivity type or a foreign-body type. Lipid components of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall participate in the pathogenesis of infection. Strains of M. tuberculosis have cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate [TDM]) on their surface. To clarify host responses to TDM, including immunogenicity and pathogenicity, we have analyzed the footpad reaction, histopathology, and cytokine profiles of experimental granulomatous lesions in immunized and unimmunized mice challenged with TDM. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time that TDM can induce both foreign-body-type (nonimmune) and hypersensitivity-type (immune) granulomas by acting as a nonspecific irritant and T-cell-dependent antigen. Immunized mice challenged with TDM developed more severe lesions than unimmunized mice. At the active lesion, we found monocyte chemotactic, proinflammatory, and immunoregulatory cytokines. The level was enhanced in immunized mice challenged with TDM. This result implies that both nonimmune and immune mechanisms participate in granulomatous inflammation induced by mycobacterial infection. Taken together with a previous report, this study shows that TDM is a pleiotropic molecule against the host and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.  (+info)

The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analog trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent adjuvants for Th1/Th17 vaccination that activate Syk-Card9 signaling in APCs. In this study, we have further investigated the molecular mechanism of innate immune activation by TDM and TDB. The Syk-coupling adapter protein FcRg was essential for macrophage activation and Th17 adjuvanticity. The FcRg-associated C-type lectin receptor Mincle was expressed in macrophages and upregulated by TDM and TDB. Recombinant Mincle-Fc fusion protein specifically bound to the glycolipids. Genetic ablation of Mincle abolished TDM/TDB-induced macrophage activation and induction of T cell immune responses to a tuberculosis subunit vaccine. Macrophages lacking Mincle or FcRg were impaired in the inflammatory response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette- Gue䲩n. These results establish that Mincle is a key receptor for the mycobacterial cord factor and controls the Th1/Th17 ...
Cord factor, or trehalose dimycolate, is a glycolipid molecule found in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and similar species. It is the primary lipid found on the exterior of M. tuberculosis cells. Cord factor influences the arrangement of M. tuberculosis cells into long and slender formations, giving its name. Cord factor is virulent towards mammalian cells and critical for survival of M. tuberculosis in hosts, but not outside of hosts. Cord factor has been observed to influence immune responses, induce the formation of granulomas, and inhibit tumor growth. A cord factor molecule is composed of a trehalose sugar, a disaccharide, that is esterified to two mycolic acid residues. One of the two mycolic acid residues is attached to the sixth carbon of one monosaccharide, while the other mycolic acid residue is attached to the sixth carbon of the other monosaccharide. Therefore, cord factor is also named trehalose-6,6-dimycolate. The carbon chain of the mycolic acid residues vary in ...
Shop Trehalose monomycolate exporter ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Trehalose monomycolate exporter Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The structure of cord factor was studied in several strains of Mycobacterium simiae, including habana TMC 5135, considered as highly immunogenic in experimental tuberculosis and leprosy. The mycolic acids liberated from cord factor were identified in all cases as α′-, α- and keto-mycolates. According to the general NMR and MS data, α′-mycolates were mono-unsaturated and contained from 64 to 68 carbon atoms, whereas α-mycolates mainly presented two 2,3-disubstituted cyclopropane rings and a chain length of 80-91 carbon atoms; keto-mycolates mostly contained one cyclopropane ring and 85-91 carbon atoms. Taking into account the 1H-NMR results, strains varied in the ratio of the different mycolates, and the high levels of keto-mycolates found in the cord factors of TMC 5135 and ATCC 25275T stood out. Notably, MS revealed that the odd carbon number series of α-mycolates (C87-C89) predominated in the cord factor of TMC 5135, in contrast to the remaining studied strains, in which the even (C84-C86)
article{8174192, author = {Tima, Hermann Giresse and Al Dulayymi, Jumaa Raheem and Denis, Olivier and Lehebel, Pauline and Baols, Klarah Sherzad and Mohammed, Mohsin Omar and LHomme, Laurent and Sahb, Mohaned Mohammed and Potemberg, Georges and Legrand, Sylvie and Lang, Roland and Beyaert, Rudi and Piette, Jacques and Baird, Mark Stephen and Huygen, Kris and Romano, Marta}, issn = {1662-811X}, journal = {JOURNAL OF INNATE IMMUNITY}, keyword = {Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Glycolipids,Trehalose dimycolate,Trehalose monomycolate,Glucose monomycolate,Arabinose monomycolate,Inflammasome,Adjuvant,CORD FACTOR,ACIDS,MICE,RECEPTOR,MINCLE,ACTIVATION,CYCLOPROPANATION,RECOGNITION,MACROPHAGES,MONOESTERS}, language = {eng}, number = {2}, pages = {162--180}, title = {Inflammatory properties and adjuvant potential of synthetic glycolipids homologous to mycolate esters of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000450955}, volume = {9}, year = {2017 ...
Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and trehalose monomycolate (TMM), the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs), triacyl glycerol (TAG), pentacyl trehalose (PAT), phenolic glycolipid (PGL), and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG). Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM), diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG), phenylethanolamine (PE) and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs). These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen ...
Ishikawa E, Ishikawa T, Morita YS, Toyonaga K, Yamada H, Takeuchi O, Kinoshita T, Akira S, Yoshikai Y, Yamasaki S. 2009. Direct recognition of the mycobacterial glycolipid, trehalose dimycolate, by C-type lectin Mincle.. J Exp Med. 206(13):2879-88. ...
Werninghaus K, Babiak A, Gross O, Holscher C, Dietrich H, Agger EM, Mages J, Mocsai A, Schoenen H, Finger K, Nimmerjahn F, Brown GD, Kirschning C, Heit A, Andersen P, Wagner H, Ruland J, Lang R. 2009. Adjuvanticity of a synthetic cord factor analogue for subunit Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccination requires FcRgamma-Syk-Card9-dependent innate immune activation. J Exp Med 206: 89- ...
Carlétti D, Fonseca DM da, Gembre AF, Masson AP, Campos LW, Leite LCC, Pires AR, Lannes-Vieira J, Silva CL, Bonato VLD, Horn C. A single dose of a DNA vaccine encoding Apa coencapsulated with 6,6-trehalose dimycolate in microspheres confers long-term protection against Tuberculosis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-primed mice [Internet]. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2013 ; 20( 8): 1162-1169.Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00148- ...
We use the fact that when there is a sufficient relationship between the plasma level of the drug and its clinical effect, it is then useful to measure this level. If such a relationship does not exit, TDM is of little or no value. Based on this fact, the TDM will be of maximal benefit when:. ...
Complete information for TMEM43 gene (Protein Coding), Transmembrane Protein 43, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for TMEM54 gene (Protein Coding), Transmembrane Protein 54, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Expertise Lab. : failure analyses, production, qualification. Warpage measurements of component, PCB, board, full system, during reflow or cycle thermal stress. Deformation, Displacement fields, Dilatation and thermal expansion, CTE.
TDM - IPFA 2010 Proceedings Topography and Deformation Measurement and FE Modeling applied to substrate-mounted large area wafer-level packages (including stacked dice and TSVs) ...
Published studies indicate that mycobacterial lipid antigens may stimulate CD1-restricted T cells. However, the pool of studied mycobacterial antigenic lipids is small compared with the diversity of the lipid components of the M. tuberculosis envelope. So far, only three classes of molecules were shown to stimulate CD1b-restricted T cells: free mycolic acids (13), mycoloyl glycolipids such as glucose monomycolate (17), and phosphoglycolipids represented by lipoarabinomannan (19), lipomannan (19), and PIM (20). These molecules are commonly present in the envelope of both virulent and nonvirulent mycobacteria. Their immunogenicity during infection with virulent or avirulent strains has not been compared.. In these studies we have characterized the structure of a novel mycobacterial glycolipid, a diacylated sulfoglycolipid (Ac2SGL), presented by CD1b on the cell surface of M. tuberculosis-infected APCs. This antigen stimulates bactericidal CD8+ T cells and evokes strong responses in healthy PPD+ ...
The purpose of this study was to establish optimal molar glycerol to glucose ratio for enhanced biosurfactant synthesis by the cultivation of Nocardia vacсinii ІMV В-7405 on a mixture of energetically nonequivalent substrates (glucose and glycerol). Based on theoretical calculations of the energy requirements for biomass production and the synthesis of surface-active trehalose monomycolates on the energy-deficient substrate (glycerol), the concentration of the energy-excessive substrate (glucose), which increased the efficiency of the substrate carbon conversion to biosurfactant, was determined. It was found that the synthesis of extracellular biosurfactant on a mixture of glucose and glycerol at molar ratio of 1.0:2.5 increased 2.0-2.3-fold compared to that on corresponding monosubstrates. The increased level of biosurfactant on the mixed substrate is determined by intensification of surface-active trehalose monomycolate synthesis, confirmed by 1.2-5.7-fold increase in activity of the ...
0146]Further exemplary adjuvants to enhance effectiveness of the composition include, but are not limited to: (1) oil-in-water emulsion formulations (with or without other specific immunostimulating agents such as muramyl peptides (see below) or bacterial cell wall components), such as for example (a) MF59® (W090/14837; Chapter 10 in Vaccine design: the subunit and adjuvant approach, eds. Powell & Newman, Plenum Press 1995), containing 5% Squalene, 0.5% Tween 80, and 0.5% Span 85 (optionally containing MTP-PE) formulated into submicron particles using a microfluidizer, (b) SAF, containing 10% Squalane, 0.4% Tween 80, 5% pluronic-blocked polymer L121, and thr-MDP either microfluidized into a submicron emulsion or vortexed to generate a larger particle size emulsion, and (c) RIBI® adjuvant system (RAS), (Ribi Immunochem, Hamilton, Mont.) containing 2% Squalene, 0.2% Tween 80, and one or more bacterial cell wall components such as monophosphorylipid A (MPL), trehalose dimycolate (TDM), and cell ...
Immunostimulant activity of dry fruits and plant materials used in indian traditional medical system for mothers after child birth and invalids.
0110] 78 dairy replacement calves (initial age=18±6.3 days and body weight=43±6.1 kg) were fed with 2 L of milk replacer (MR) twice daily via a bottle at 07.30 h and 16.30 h until 45 days of life, and then a daily dose of 2 L of MR at 07.30 h for an additional week. At 37 day of age half of the calves received a daily dose of 3 g of the combination of Nucleoforce® (Bioiberica, Spain) and AHCC (AminoUp, Japan) supplemented through the morning feeding of MR until weaning time (52 days). After weaning, calves were moved from individual hutches into pens holding 8 animals until reaching 111±2.1 days (when the study was completed). Animal performance was monitored from 52 until 111 days of life. Respiratory afflictions were monitored daily from 37 to 111 days of life. Blood samples from half of the animals randomly chosen from each treatment group were obtained by venipuncture of the jugular vein at the age of 37 days and 52 days. Incidence of respiratory afflictions was analyzed using ...
Iomai Corporation (Nasdaq: IOMI) today announced that it has signed an agreement with Merck & Co., Inc. to conduct proof-of-principle preclinical studies evaluating the use of the
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[247 Pages Report] Check for Discount on UK Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Market: Future Horizons and Growth Strategies--Supplier Shares, Country Segment Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence, Emerging Opportunities report by Venture Planning Group. This new 247-page report from VPGMarketResearch.com provides a...
2014 Strategies for the Spanish Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Market Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com [Report Price $1500]
The loadouts dont bother me. Not even a little. Starting with (some) weapons narrows the item control game down to the big powerups and eliminates weapon starvation in TDM. It makes it easier to control a map, maybe, but thats really not something casual players (read: practically everyone) should be complaining about. Furthermore, the default TDM mode (which is all the beta is, plus Warpath) is basically just Clan Arena, only not round-based. CA is the ultimate casual arena FPS multiplayer experience, so I think they more or less captured a similar feel for the masses of casual players. I think its fun as fuck, and Ive historically been kind of a purist when it comes to DOOM deathmatch. Im assuming theres a duel mode where loadouts arent a thing, and even if theres not, it can be made (and instantly will be) in SnapMap. I saw a comment in the reddit thread about this where a guy linked a screenshot of the matchmaking lobby and was like See? Its just a CoD ripoff. Seriously. Yeah ...
halo1_HangEmHigh_V2 . WIP - Some Bugs Present. tdm/gungame/dm. V2 with more Dynamic Lighting & Other Improvements, V1_Beta is still up if you prefer that version.
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- Protects and strengthens the intestinal mucosa - Stimulates the immune system, reducing the risk of diseases - Improves digestion - Optimizes the absorption of nutrients - It has an anti-stress effect, especially in situations such as transport, exp
Biologic therapy has revolutionized the treatment of immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID), cancer and infectious diseases. However, there is a considerable variation in clinical response to biologic therapy. Primary non-response and loss of therapeutic response to biologics have been attributed to pharmacokinetics (e.g. inadequate trough concentrations) and inflammatory processes (mechanistic failure). In addition, this lack or loss of response may originate from several little-known epigenetic mechanisms. Factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of a biologic should be taken into account (antidrug antibodies, serum albumin, serum levels of C-reactive protein, disease mediated clearance, body weight, and gender among others). Hence, to optimize the efficacy of biologic treatment, there is a need to implement personalized medicine in IMID and oncology. This can be guided by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).. The TDM of Biologics Scientific Committee was officially installed in the ...
The winner of the TDM/Toxicology Division Best Abstract Award will receive a $500 grant and recognition at the TDM/Toxicology Division meeting during the AACC Annual Scientific Meeting.
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[247 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Japan Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Market: Future Horizons and Growth Strategies--Supplier Shares, Country Segment Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence, Emerging Opportunities report by Venture Planning Group. This new 247-page report from VPGMarketResearch.com provides a...
23-c-di-AMP, a synthetic STING agonist, is a more potent immunostimulant in mammals than the natural bacterial cyclic dinucleotide 33-c-di-AMP. At low concentrations, the synthetic analog induces higher levels of type I IFNs than does c-di-AMP.
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This new 247-page report provides a comprehensive analysis of the French therapeutic drug monitoring market, including emerging tests, technologies, instrumentation, ...
Clayoo 2.6, the new free-form software from TDM Solutions, is an advanced modeling application with the ability to effortlessly create any form efficiently and accurately, however complex. It is like modeling by hand: this is the concept of Clayoo 2.6, it doesn
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The human MHC class I-like molecule CD1b is distinctive among CD1 alleles in that it is capable of presenting a set of glycolipid species that show a very broad range of variation in the lengths of their acyl chains. A structure of CD1b complexed with relatively short acyl chain glycolipids plus detergent suggested how an interlinked network of channels within the Ag-binding groove could accommodate acyl chain lengths of up to 80 carbons. The structure of CD1b complexed with glucose monomycolate, reported in this study, confirms this hypothesis and illustrates how the distinctive substituents of intracellular bacterial glycolipids can be accommodated. The Ag-binding groove of CD1b is, uniquely among CD1 alleles, partitioned into channels suitable for the compact accommodation of lengthy acyl chains. The current crystal structure illustrates for the first time the binding of a natural bacterial lipid Ag to CD1b and shows how its novel structural features fit this molecule for its role in the immune
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been a common practice to optimize efficacy and safety of vancomycin. While vancomycin trough-only TDM has widely been integrated into pediatric clinical practice since 2009, recently updated vancomycin TDM guidelines published in March 2020 recommend area under the curve (AUC) based TDM for vancomycin instead of trough-only TDM. In this review, we discuss the rationale behind the change in TDM recommendations, describe two approaches for calculating vancomycin AUC in clinical practice, and address considerations for integrating vancomycin AUC TDM into pediatric clinical practice. Our primary goal is to provide pediatric clinicians with a resource for implementing vancomycin AUC monitoring into clinical care.
Genes at the Rp1 rust resistance locus of maize confer race-specific resistance to the common rust fungus Puccinia sorghi. Three variant genes with nonspecific effects (HRp1 -Kr1N, -D*21 and -MD*19) were found to be generated by intragenic crossing over within the LRR region. The LRR region of most …
A switch switches time division multiplexed (TDM) data and packet data from input ports to output ports. The swich comprises: a plurality of input ports receiving data, wherein each data comprises either TDM data or packet data; a plurality of output ports transmitting switched data; and a shared memory coupling the input ports to the output ports. The shared memory sequentially receives the data from the input ports, and switches a sequentially received data from a respective input port to a respective output port. Switching of packet data by the shared memory has no latency or jitter effect on switching of TDM data by the shared memory.
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For most oral anticancer drugs, blood samples will be taken at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after start of treatment to measure the concentration of the drug in the blood of the patient. Based on this concentration and patient characteristics an advise on the dosing of the treatment will be given to the treating physician. Together with the patient the treating physician will discuss the recommendation and possibly implement it. After 4 weeks the intervention will be evaluated and if necessary further improved. After 12 weeks the aim is to reach the most optimal dose for the individual patient. Every 12 weeks there after the dose will be monitored and if necessary improved ...
On Monday, all PRP had to sit for Forensic Exam as one of the requirement to be an FRP next year. And me must pass with at least 50% marks. For me, this exam is quite tough although its an open book exam. We only be allowed to bring in two law books and code of conduct. The SAQ is kinda straightforward, the only problem was that I felt like wanna write everything into the answer sheets. But when I reached the later questions, my answers all became short. Hahaha.. For MCQ, this was very tough. Flipping the books made the exam more time consuming. I didnt manage to complete all 50 questions, I think I missed around 3-5 questions. Same for SAQ, I had no time to the the final 6 marks question. Lets hope we all pass without needing to re-sit for another paper. Malasnyaaaaaa ...
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Traditionally immunostimulants have been believed to worsen autoimmune disease, to the point that some immunostimulants have originally been classified as immunosuppressants because they were found to improve autoimmune disease. But in practice it does not seem to work like that.. If the theory that autoimmune disease is in fact a type of an immune deficiency - or that there are components of immune deficiency, as the immune system is highly complex and not necessarily easy to define as overactive or underactive - is correct, immunostimulants would be the rational choice of treatment.. Immunostimulants are not completely without risks or side effects, but some of them can get quite close. They do not increase the risk of infections and cancer - and may even reduce the risk.. The most conventionally accepted immunostimulant therapy for autoimmune diseases is intravenous immunoglobulin (also known as IVIG and gammaglobulin), a blood product that contains antibodies from thousands of donors. It ...
PREVENTAVIR - antiviral immunostimulant is based on lactobacillus helveticus - it may help to increase the immune response to the RNA viral load (invasion). Buy online PREVENTAVIR. Worldwide shipping.
Vaccination is a highly effective method of preventing infectious diseases. However, adjuvants are needed to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens. For many years, the development of adjuvants has been an empirical process. Scientists from the team Immunomodulation by Mycobacterial Lipids and Glycoconjugates at the Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology show that new generation adjuvants can be designed on a rational basis. This study is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, on 21 Feb 2017.. Vaccines are mainly used to fight infectious diseases but they can also help to treat cancer. Historically, vaccines have been made with live attenuated or dead pathogens. For many pathogens, however, such vaccines have not been successfully developed. Moreover, they can be associated to side effects. Current efforts aim at the development of subunit vaccines that induce a well-defined immune response against specific antigens, from pathogens ...
Dr. Anthony Melvin Crasto, graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991, Mumbai, India, in the field of Organic Chemistry, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as a Principal Scientist, in Process Research at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India, for the last 10 years, His total Industry experience is 30 +yrs with major Multinationals companies.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable Scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri , Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did Custom Synthesis for various multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, Pfizer etc., He has worked in Drug Discovery, Natural products, Bulk Drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, Pharma Plant, API plant etc, he is now helping millions, His friends ...
Purpose of Research:. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a fungal infection which left untreated, can cause dangerous complications and death. Transplant patients who have weakened immune systems are at higher risk of getting IA. Voriconazole is a medication that is prescribed for IA. In order for voriconazole to work, it is important to maintain the right amount of drug in the blood. The investigators check for the right amount of voriconazole in the blood by collecting blood samples. This process is called therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and usually done for transplant patients with weakened immune systems. However, maintaining the right amount of drug in the blood is still difficult since voriconazole is absorbed and excreted by the body differently for each person, depending on their genetic make-up. This study will try to understand if genetic testing early on in addition with TDM will be able to provide us with doses tailored to each individual.. Study Design:. Patients who consent to ...
Adjuvant activity of monophosphoryl lipid A for nasal and oral immunization with soluble or liposome-associated antigen.: The effectiveness of monophosphoryl li
Despite its potential utility for predicting cows milk yield responses to once-daily milking (ODM), the genetic basis of cow milk trait responses to ODM has been scarcely if ever described in the literature, especially for short ODM periods. This study set out to (1) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield and composition during a 3-wk ODM period, (2) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield responses (i.e., milk yield loss upon switching cows to ODM and milk yield recovery upon switching them back to twice-daily milking; TDM), and (3) seek predictors of milk yield responses to ODM, in particular using the first day of ODM ...
The body is programmed to perform tasks at times. This article is going to explain exactly what creatine is, how it works, and well discuss some of the the theories about once the best time for take is certainly. Because start to warm the blood temperature will raise as it travels through your muscles, considering that happens the sum of oxygen it would hold is reduced. Manganese acts being an immunostimulant activating the inflammatory response and zinc assists in fighting.. One ounce of peanuts contains about 9% for this fiber need to have each day of the week. Click here to know more about Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome from residential wind turbines. Plus, staying hydrated helps to induce thoughts of satiety so percent to overeat less traditionally. With detraining, the volume of mitochondria is reduced.. A good balance of supplements and nutrients can assist you cure the initial uneasy feeling and support your natural body ...
An array transducer ultrasound beamformer includes a plurality of processing channels, one for each active element of the transducer array. Each channel includes a digitizing unit for converting the received signal to digital samples and a time multiplexed delay unit for producing a primary stream of delayed TDM samples corresponding to one or more beams. Within each channel, the primary stream of delayed TDM samples is demultiplexed in order to separate the stream in a plurality of secondary streams of delayed TDM samples, wherein each of the secondary streams corresponds to a portion of a beam or a single beam.
RapidShapes computes a thermodynamic matcher (TDM), using a runtime heuristic for probabilistic shape analysis.. It uses a pipeline to calculate the exact shape probabilities.. This pipeline contains the following three steps:. 1. Creates a set of the most likely shapes.. 2. Translates the Shape-Strings into ADP-grammars.. 3. Each ADP-grammar is then translated into a TDM in form of a C++ program.. The gain in runtime grows with the sequence length using the RapidShape heuristic. Thus, we are the first time able to analyse sequences with more then 400 nucleotides or more. Depending on the alpha-threshold, RapidShapes clearly speeds up shape analysis compared with the previous methods. Thus, probabilistic shape analysis has become feasible in medium-scale applications, such as the screening of RNA transcripts in a bacterial genome.. ...
RapidShapes computes a thermodynamic matcher (TDM), using a runtime heuristic for probabilistic shape analysis.. It uses a pipeline to calculate the exact shape probabilities.. This pipeline contains the following three steps:. 1. Creates a set of the most likely shapes.. 2. Translates the Shape-Strings into ADP-grammars.. 3. Each ADP-grammar is then translated into a TDM in form of a C++ program.. The gain in runtime grows with the sequence length using the RapidShape heuristic. Thus, we are the first time able to analyse sequences with more then 400 nucleotides or more. Depending on the alpha-threshold, RapidShapes clearly speeds up shape analysis compared with the previous methods. Thus, probabilistic shape analysis has become feasible in medium-scale applications, such as the screening of RNA transcripts in a bacterial genome.. ...
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Apart from the fact that Softswitch offers scope for greater adaptability, it also enables less prominent vendors with greater potential to concentrate on the application of their choice. However, as a result of reservations about the reliability and financial implications of deploying this technology, migration has taken place in stages. Since the majority of recognized carriers have made a substantial investment in TDM or time division multiplexing technology, they are hesitant about replacing it with Softswitch unless it proves to be more economical ...
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... (vascular disease of the spinal cord) refers to an abnormality of the spinal cord in regard to its blood ... Other factors such as thrombosis or arachnoiditis can be involved. A bruit (unusual blood sounds) may be heard overlying the ... Sensory loss to pain and temperature also occurs up to the level of damage on the spinal cord, as damage to different areas ... Myelography is used to confirm the diagnosis of AVMs and it shows 'snake-like' vessels on the cord's surface. If the myelogram ...
B) Neural tube forms (C) Gives rise to the brain and spinal cord. (D) Neural crest cells will migrate to different regions ... "Widespread disruption of repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor occupancy at its ... The best example of this is the Neuronal-Restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF) that is produced by the REST gene. The REST gene ... In genetics, a silencer is a DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors, called repressors. DNA contains ...
Floor plate cells at the ventral midline of the spinal cord secrete a diffusible factor or factors that promotes the outgrowth ... UNC-129 is a ligand in the transforming growth factor family in C. elegans which encodes transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). ... Thus, netrin-1 may not only be a chemotropic factor for neurons but also a survival factor. This discovery shows that netrin-1 ... "Netrins are diffusible chemotropic factors for commissural axons in the embryonic spinal cord". Cell. 78 (3): 425-35. doi: ...
"Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors". www.cancer.org. Retrieved 2019-06-28. "Signs and Symptoms of Adult Brain and ... A central nervous system tumor (CNS tumor) is an abnormal growth of cells from the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. CNS ... A few risk factors are known, including radiation exposure, genetic disorder, a family history of CNS tumors, immunodeficiency ... Tumors located in the spinal cord usually have symptoms that start with back pain that spreads towards the arms or legs. These ...
"On Top of the World Chords". ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 3 April 2013. "- Watch The X-Factor Clips - Official site". "'On ... The song incorporates the chord progression of C-F-C-Dm in the verses, and F-C-G-Dm in the chorus and bridge, with the pre- ... Imagine Dragons performed the song live on the Australian version of The X Factor in 2013. "On Top of the World" was licensed ...
Denne komponenten kalles på engelsk for cord factor. Det er vanskelig å dyrke frem bakterien, de typiske vekstkulturer er ...
Upon activation by cord factor, Mincle binds the Fc receptor FcRγ and Syk. Cord factor also binds and activates the related C- ... It is a pattern recognition receptor that can recognize glycolipids including mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'- ... "C-type lectin MCL is an FcRγ-coupled receptor that mediates the adjuvanticity of mycobacterial cord factor". Immunity. 38 (5): ... "Mincle is a long sought receptor for mycobacterial cord factor". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 206 (13): 2879-88. doi: ...
Prolapsed cord can only happen after the membranes have ruptured. The umbilical cord delivers before the presenting part of the ... Some unknown factors cause vascular damage in the endothelium, causing hypertension. If severe, it progresses to eclampsia, ... If the foetus is not delivered within minutes, or the pressure taken off the cord, the foetus dies. Obstetrical hemorrhage may ... Specialised ultrasound equipment can also evaluate the blood flow velocity in the umbilical cord, looking to detect a decrease/ ...
Each technique varies depending on the level of the spine and the location of the compressed spinal cord/nerves.[3] After the ... Risk factors include tobacco use, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, osteoporosis, revision procedures, decreased immune ... The most common cause of pressure on the spinal cord/nerves is degenerative disc disease.[5] Other common causes include disc ... Spinal fusion is most commonly performed to relieve the pain and pressure on the spinal cord that results when a disc ( ...
This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become ... are caused by other factors.[12] [13] ... In extreme cases, this can cause spinal cord function inferior ... Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other major causes are stroke, ... Most paralyses caused by nervous-system damage (e.g., spinal cord injuries) are constant in nature; however, some forms of ...
Rates of spinal cord injury vary from 0% up to 40%. Predictive factors include extent of coverage, hypogastric artery occlusion ... Spinal cord injury is a devastating complication after aortic surgery, specifically for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair ... As such, major branch arteries to the head, arms, spinal cord, intestines and kidneys may originate from the aneurysm. An ... These techniques may be suitable in certain patients with qualifying factors, e.g., configuration of renal arteries, renal ...
The fact that the staff was used more as a defensive weapon was a determining factor in the tests, and the taiaha was given the ... The bat broke a pig's spine with a single swing, which was clocked at over 100 mph, breaking five segments of the spinal cord. ... A second strike broke the spinal cord and a third completely shattered the skull, removing all brain matter from the brainpan. ... The iklwa pierced a lung and severed the carcase's spinal cord. The weapon also penetrated a sample of unriveted chainmail and ...
1955-56 spinal cord injury information network - info sheet 12 Simonsen, L.L., Sonne-Holm, S., Krasheninnikoff, M., Engberg, A. ... Incidence and risk factors". Injury, Int. J. Care Injured 38: 1146-1150. Cipriano, C.A., Pill, S.G., Keenan, M.A. (2009). " ... uptake around the knees or the ankles in a patient with a very recent spinal cord injury. It is not clear exactly what this ... jaw or in patients after spinal cord trauma. Single dose radiation therapy is well tolerated and is cost effective, without an ...
1996). "Increased basic fibroblast growth factor expression following contusive spinal cord injury." Experimental Neurology 141 ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a cytosolic protein that is not secreted. CNTF has been shown to promote the survival of ... Mid-thoracic spinal cord lesions, optic nerve lesions, but not lesions to the sciatic nerve, have shown marked increases in ... Particularly, the response of the astrocytes to the injury varies depending on factors such as the nature of the injury and the ...
Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after ... "Regeneration of the radial nerve cord in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima". BMC Developmental Biology. 9: 3. doi:10.1186 ... This process is driven by growth factor and cytokine regulated pathways.[89] The normal sequence of inflammation and ... "Growth factors, heat-shock proteins and regeneration in echinoderms". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 204 (Pt 5): 843-8. ...
Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Secretion of growth factors. Criticisms[edit]. In 2013, studies of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function ... Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[21][22][23] ... Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[86] Spinal injuries occur in two ...
... "upper chord" to refer to the chord at the bottom of the bridge. Sources often use the term "upper chord" to refer to the chord ... MacDonald blamed three factors for the bridge's failure:[123] *Improper inspection by railroad officials. He noted, however, ... Nothing in the design prevented the lateral buckling of the braces or the upper chord.[ak] Only a part of the upper chord was ... Most of the bridge's upper chord (the bottom of the bridge) crashed to the ground north of the bridge.[78] The lower chord (at ...
... incompletely differentiated Sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor - mixed types Mixed germ cell and sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors ... Risk factors include an undescended testis, family history of the disease, and previous history of testicular cancer. The most ... Other risk factors include inguinal hernias, Klinefelter syndrome, and mumps orchitis. Physical activity is associated with ... Other types include sex-cord stromal tumors and lymphomas. Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam, ultrasound, and ...
During injury, a factor entitled Akhirin is secreted in the FP region. During spinal cord development, Akhirin is expressed ... The spinal cord ependymal cells also reside in the FP region of the spinal cord. These cells are a neural stem cell population ... Netrins Are Diffusible Chemotropic Factors for Commissural Axons in the Embryonic Spinal Cord. Cell, Vol. 79, 425-435, August ... Zou, Yimin (2015). "Wnt Signaling in Spinal Cord Injury". Wnt Signaling in Spinal Cord Injury - Neural Regeneration - Chapter ...
"Netrins are diffusible chemotropic factors for commissural axons in the embryonic spinal cord". Cell. 78 (3): 425-35. doi: ... "Adult spinal cord progenitor cells are repelled by netrin-1 in the embryonic and injured adult spinal cord". Proceedings of the ... DCC, which is implicated in attraction, can also serve as a co-factor in repulsion signaling when far away from the source of ... Mice with mutations in the netrin-1 gene were observed to be lacking in forebrain and spinal cord commissural axons. Netrin-1 ...
"Netrins are diffusible chemotropic factors for commissural axons in the embryonic spinal cord". Cell. 78 (3): 425-35. doi: ... This subsequently lead to extensive research and the discovery of two repulsive factors, Ephrin-A5 and Ephrin-A2, by observing ... The migration of the growth cone is mediated through the interaction of numerous trophic and tropic factors; netrins, slits, ... In the tectum, the transcription factor Engrailed creates an Ephrin-A concentration gradient along the anterior-posterior axis ...
... was an important factor in the study of vocal cord paralysis. It effects different functions of the vocal cords ... The vocal cords of a person who speaks for an extended time suffer from tiring-that is, the process of speaking exerts a load ... Less invasive imaging methods such as x-rays or ultrasounds do not work because the vocal cords are surrounded by cartilage, ... Voice experts were an important to tie the physical examination of the vocal cords to the neurological examination to ensure ...
PMF 5013 - PMF 5014 - PMF 5015 (1946) - Convalescent Care and Rehabilitation of Patients with Injury to Spinal Cord (Surgery ... factors essential to evaluation of each type; methods of approach (22 min; color). PMF 5009 (1947) - Operation for Varicocele, ... Attaching cords to selected muscle and then to prosthetic appliance so that patient can operate appliance by contracting ... Methods and factors in maintaining a disease free colony; techniques and equipment used in breeding; procedures in transporting ...
by their name according to the movable do solfège system: do, re, mi, fa, so(l), la, and si (or ti). Factor (chord) Ear ... Degrees are useful for indicating the size of intervals and chords and whether they are major or minor. In the most general ... In Schenkerian analysis, "scale degree" (or "scale step") translates Schenker's German Stufe, denoting "a chord having gained ...
Neurotrophic factors[edit]. The survival of neurons is regulated by survival factors, called trophic factors. The neurotrophic ... which act in the hindbrain and spinal cord.[14] The hindbrain, for example, is patterned by Hox genes, which are expressed in ... Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen purified the first trophic factor, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF ... CNTF: Ciliary neurotrophic factor is another protein that acts as a survival factor for motor neurons. CNTF acts via a receptor ...
"The function of growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) in rostrocaudal patterning of the developing spinal cord" ... transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ... Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... "Growth differentiation factor 11 is a circulating factor that reverses age-related cardiac hypertrophy". Cell. 153 (4): 828-39 ...
Equivalent activity limitation to person with complete cord injury at cord level C7-8" The International Paralympic Committee ... Sportspeople with muscular dystrophy in this class have a number of factors that can make sports participation difficult. This ... People with spinal cord injuries compete in this class, including F2 sportspeople. This is wheelchair sport classification that ... The Australian Paralympic Committee defines this classification as being for people with "Damage to spinal cord in the higher ...
Mendell discovered the property of windup pain in the spinal cord. Windup is the property of C-fibres in the peripheral nerves ... Within this, there was also a focus in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and their sensitizing effect on specific ... Mendell has been a part of the search for novel treatments for spinal cord injuries and continues to study neurotrophins to ... In more recent times, Mendell's research has been focused partly on spinal cord injury and the use of neurotophins as a ...
Factors[edit]. The size of the neuron can also affect the inhibitory postsynaptic potential. Simple temporal summation of ... This was studied through complete spinal cord transections at birth of rats and recording IPSPs from lumbar motoneurons at the ... Glycine molecules and receptors work much in the same way in the spinal cord, brain, and retina. ... Llinas R, Terzuolo CA (March 1965). "Mechanisms of Supraspinal Actions Upon Spinal Cord Activities. Reticular Inhibitory ...
"Cytokine and Growth Factor Activation In Vivo and In Vitro after Spinal Cord Injury". Mediators of Inflammation. 2016: 9476020 ... Factors such as myelin debris, which is formed by the injury at the damage site, has been shown to induce the phenotype shift ... Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) can be divided into three separate phases. The primary or acute phase occurs from seconds to minutes ... The M2 phenotype is associated with anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 and contributes to wound healing ...
... from growth factors to hormones that modulate and influence the growth and development of functional connections between ...
These last two are both important factors influencing bone development.[27]. Environmental factorsEdit. Environmental factors ... A compensatory mechanism involves the movement of cerebrospinal fluid from the cranial vault towards the spinal cord.[21] The ... Biomechanical factorsEdit. Biomechanical factors include fetal head constraint during pregnancy.[27] It has been found by Jacob ... Fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors regulate fetal bone growth and are expressed in cranial sutures ...
"Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF).. *^ "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved ... Pneumococcal meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include stiff neck, fever, ... They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... and immunogenic cell wall components are all major virulence factors. After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, ...
One of the factors most responsible for the acceptance of positron imaging was the development of radiopharmaceuticals. In ... it is possible to localize the event to a segment of a chord, whose length is determined by the detector timing resolution. As ... by the Brookhaven group under the direction of Al Wolf and Joanna Fowler was a major factor in expanding the scope of PET ...
As a causal factor in pathologyEdit. Sensitization has been implied as a causal or maintaining mechanism in a wide range of ... In "central sensitization," nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue ... a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ... De Swert LF (1999). "Risk factors for allergy". Eur. J. Pediatr. 158 (2): 89-94. doi:10.1007/s004310051024. PMID 10048601. ...
International Wildfowl Inquiry Volume i Factors Affecting the General Status of Wild Geese and Wild Duck. Cambridge University ... the wing chord is 25.7 to 30.6 cm (10.1 to 12.0 in), the bill is 4.4 to 6.1 cm (1.7 to 2.4 in), and the tarsus is 4.1 to 4.8 cm ... Sandilands, Al (2011). Birds of Ontario: Habitat Requirements, Limiting Factors, and Status: Volume 1-Nonpasserines: Loons ... The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors, including ...
Maternal factors and. complications of pregnancy,. labour and delivery. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ...
In 1983, NKA (previously known as substance K or neuromedin L) was isolated from porcine spinal cord and was also found to ... Koon HW, Zhao D, Na X, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C (Oct 2004). "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate ... It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is associated with inflammatory processes and pain. ... the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substance P". The British Journal of Dermatology. 157 (5): 922-5. doi:10.1111 ...
Umbilical cord blood[edit]. Umbilical cord blood is obtained when a mother donates her infant's umbilical cord and placenta ... The peripheral stem cell yield is boosted with daily subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, serving ... Allogeneic cord blood is stored frozen at a cord blood bank because it is only obtainable at the time of childbirth. To ... Cord blood can be harvested from the umbilical cord of a child being born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for ...
Variable Decelerations are generally a result of umbilical cord compression, and contractions may further compress a cord when ... There are several factors used in assessing uterine activity. Frequency- the amount of time between the start of one ... provides a more accurate and consistent transmission of the fetal heart rate than external monitoring because factors such as ...
... a k-factor is a factor that is k-regular. In particular, a 1-factor is the same thing as a perfect matching. A factor-critical ... chord. chordal. 1. A chord of a cycle is an edge that does not belong to the cycle, for which both endpoints belong to the ... 5. A chord of a circle is a line segment connecting two points on the circle; the intersection graph of a collection of chords ... factor. A factor of a graph is a spanning subgraph: a subgraph that includes all of the vertices of the graph. The term is ...
... is induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) which comes about in an inflammatory or an allergic response. This ... Amplification in the spinal cord may be another way of producing hyperalgesia. ... "Regulation of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression by nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the spinal cord and the cultured ... nociceptive fibers in a pattern consistent with that from inflammation switches on a form of amplification in the spinal cord, ...
A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical ... The father of modern medicine: the first research of the physical factor of tetanus Archived 18 November 2011 at the Wayback ... Transparency of information is another factor defining a delivery system. Access to information on conditions, treatments, ... Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ...
Urbanization and other anthropogenic factors can be implicated in the spread of Lyme disease to humans. In many areas, ... early neuroborreliosis may involve inflammation of the brain or spinal cord, with symptoms such as confusion, abnormal gait, ... The authors argued that the factors influencing tick density and human risk between sites are still poorly understood, and that ... which may interfere with the function of immune factors.[89][90] ...
There is a morphism which projects Ψ onto its final factor of P3. The fiber over C is ZC3. This has dimension 6, so Ψ has ... Intersecting chords theorem. *Intersecting secants theorem. *Inverse Pythagorean theorem. *Law of cosines ... Because (P3)3 also has dimension 9, the generic fiber of the projection from Ψ to the first three factors cannot have positive ... and that equation is unique up to an overall scaling factor (because rescaling an equation does not change its vanishing locus ...
In males, the sex cords fully invade the developing gonads.. Androgen production[edit]. The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells ... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the ... During puberty, androgen, LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) production increase and the sex cords hollow out, forming ...
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Fishing line is generally as durable as and comparable to a string. ... Important parameters of a fishing line are its length, material, and weight (thicker lines are more visible to fish). Factors ...
The spinal cord is made up of bundles of these axons. Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord ... Risk factors. Neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, ionizing radiation[1][2][3]. ... Spinal cord and other tissuesEdit. The pons in the brainstem is a specific region that consists of myelinated axons much like ... The cause of most brain tumors is unknown.[2] Uncommon risk factors include inherited neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl ...
2007). "A Genetic Risk Factor for Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep". New England Journal of Medicine 357 (7): 639-47. doi: ... Clemens, S.; Rye, D; Hochman, S (2006). "Restless legs syndrome: Revisiting the dopamine hypothesis from the spinal cord ...
The use of musical interaction has been proven as a key factor in many countries for the improvement of older adults overall ... "Swedish music therapy method for aged strikes chord in nursing homes". The Japan Times. Retrieved August 16, 2018 ... are central factors in Orff music therapy. The strong emphasis on social integration and the involvement of parents in the ... and the predictive power of prognostic factors" (Cochrane, 1972). ...
... hyperlaxity and greater tuberosity fractures being the key risk factors.[24] ... "Risk factors which predispose first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations to recurrent instability in adults: a ...
Many Southern Pacific road switchers had a Nathan-AirChime model P3 or P5 air horn with chords distinct to Southern Pacific ... It would later be a factor in the decision by Congress in 1964 to terminate the bracero program, despite its strong support ...
Bizarro's lyrical themes were largely the same as before and the songs featured the same three-chord structures, but its ... the only other stable factor in the shifting line-ups. The band planned on releasing eight cuts from the Ukrainian sessions on ...
紅髓 (脾索(英語:Cords of Billroth)、脾邊緣區(英語:Marginal zone)) ... 株落刺激(英語:Template:Colony-stimulating factors). *血基質和卟啉
to diagnose the vocal cord dysfunction.. Contraindications[edit]. Forced expiratory maneuvers may aggravate some medical ... and so a correction factor is needed to adjust for standard pressure. Online calculators are available to correct for ...
Khristenko, D. S., & Kotovska, G. O. (2017). Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factors of Freshwater Bream Abramis brama ... However, the white-tailed has a significantly larger wing chord and average wingspan. On the other hand, the bald eagle usually ... The white-tailed eagle elsewhere usually prefers fish and water birds.[154][44] Another factor is the reintroduction of white- ... While other ecological factors have been considered in this decline, stringent research has shown the extirpation here was ...
The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element ... spinal cord and brain. It plays a central role in many biochemical processes, such as the building of cell membranes and the ... prospective follow-up in 149650 women and men of cholesterol and other risk factors related to cardiovascular and all-cause ... or other risk factors for heart disease and stroke. ... food choices and other factors.[19]. Conditions with elevated ...
TIA is now defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, ... Jan 2002). "Prevalence and risk factors of silent brain infarcts in the population-based Rotterdam Scan Study". Stroke. 33 (1 ... Problems during labor and delivery can include umbilical cord occlusion, torsion or prolapse, rupture of the placenta or uterus ... Having a TIA is a risk factor for eventually having a stroke.[10][11] ...
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Fishing lines generally resemble a long, thin string, and vary in material. ... Other factors relevant to certain fishing environments include breaking strength, knot strength, UV resistance, castability, ...
vocal cords. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Vocal fold nodule. Vocal fold paresis. Vocal cord dysfunction. epiglottis. ... The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking.[9] Of those who smoke, about 20% will get COPD,[44] and of those ... The most common cause of COPD is tobacco smoking, with a smaller number of cases due to factors such as air pollution and ... Definition, epidemiology, and risk factors". BMJ. 332 (7550): 1142-4. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7550.1142. PMC 1459603. PMID 16690673 ...
This guide will help you learn about possible causes of brain and spinal cord tumors. ... Many risk factors may increase your chance of developing brain and spinal cord tumors. ... Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors. A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease such ... Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention * Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors ...
Spinal cord injuries can result in a person needing to remain in bed for a long time. Learn more about some mattress and bed ... Factors to consider. An important first step in finding a suitable mattress or bed for a person with a spinal cord injury is ... A spinal cord injury can cause long-term complications, including limited mobility. Different types of spinal cord injuries ... The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerves and cells that carries signals between the brain and body. This article looks at the ...
Learn about brain and spinal cord cancer risk. ... Risk factors for brain and spinal cord cancer include radiation ... Risk factors for brain and spinal cord tumours. A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. It ... Possible risk factors. Using cellphones is a possible risk factor for brain and spinal cord tumours. This means that it has ... The following are risk factors for brain and spinal cord tumours. All of the risk factors are not modifiable. This means that ...
... Anna D. Petropoulou1 and Vanderson ... Examples include injecting cord blood cells directly into the bone marrow [9], in vivo or ex vivo amplification of cord blood ... One cord blood unit predominated engraftment and none of the following factors were predictive of which unit eventually ... E. Gluckman, V. Rocha, I. Ionescu et al., "Results of unrelated cord blood transplant in fanconi anemia patients: risk factor ...
Learn about childhood brain and spinal cord cancer risk. ... Risk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord cancer are ... Risk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours. A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing ... Possible risk factors. Having a birth defect is a possible risk factor for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours. This means ... The following are risk factors for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours. Most of the risk factors are not modifiable. This ...
Patients who waited less than 2 years for a spinal cord stimulator implant experienced success rates of 75% compared with a ... Fewer than 50% of all patients report long-term success with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of chronic pain, they ... Fewer than 50% of all patients report long-term success with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of chronic pain, they ... Patients who waited less than 2 years for a spinal cord stimulator implant experienced success rates of 75% compared with a ...
... the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons. ... Nerve growth factor can be delivered to the brain by intranasal administration without risk for treatment of brain diseases. Dr ... Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. Neural ... Article: "Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury ...
Cord factor protects M. tuberculosis from the defenses of the host. Specifically, cord factor on the surface of M. tuberculosis ... Cord factor influences the arrangement of M. tuberculosis cells into long and slender formations, giving its name. Cord factor ... Cord factors amphiphilic nature leads to varying structures when many cord factor molecules are in close proximity. On a ... As the monolayer surface area of cord factor increases, so does its toxicity. The length of the carbon chain on cord factor has ...
The chord factor called the "fifth" (pitch name "G") is represented in voice 2 (shown in red). The chord factor that is in the ... In music, a factor or chord factor is a member or component of a chord. These are named root, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, ... Chord factors are taken into consideration in voicing and voice leading. A chord contains exactly as many factors as it ... The illustration shows the theoretical construction of a C13 chord having seven chord factors, with the "extended" chord ...
... risk factors and management of spinal cord injury. Topics include pain management following spinal cord injury; exercise ... Home / Shop / Imprints / Nova Medicine and Health / Spinal Cord Injuries: Causes, Risk Factors and Management. ... Spinal cord injury (SCI) results from damage to the spinal cord due to trauma or disease and leads to partial or complete ... Chapter 3 - The Management of Acute Spinal Cord Injury: What the Future Holds (pp. 89-121). Authors / Editors: (R.A. Watson, M. ...
... McCall J, Weidner N, Blesch A ... Thus, growth-stimulating factors will likely have to be combined with other treatment approaches to tap into the full potential ... of regeneration limit the efficacy of neurotrophic factor delivery for anatomical and functional recovery after spinal cord ... In addition, the temporal and spatial distribution of growth factors have to be tightly controlled to achieve biologically ...
Inhibitory and excitatory factors influencing the receptive fields of lamina 5 spinal cord cells.. Hillman P, Wall PD. ...
... and obstetric factors influence cord androgen levels differentially. Caution should be exercised when interpreting previously- ... This is the first study to report umbilical cord androgen levels in a large unselected population of neonates using LC-MS/MS. ... We performed a prospective cohort study of androgen concentrations in mixed arterial and venous umbilical cord serum from 803 ... Our findings suggest that previous studies have over-estimated cord androgen levels, and that fetal, maternal, ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, ... Factor (chord). In music, a factor or chord factor is a member or component of a chord. These are named root, third, fifth, ... Chord factors are taken into consideration in voicing and voice leading. A chord contains exactly as many factors as it ... chord factor (pitch name "C"), is represented twice in the voicing by voices 1 and 4 in different octaves. The chord factor ...
1995) Transcriptional roles of nuclear factor-κB and nuclear factor-interleukin-6 in the tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent ... Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation. John R. Bethea, Marcia Castro, Robert W. Keane, Thomas T. ... Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation. John R. Bethea, Marcia Castro, Robert W. Keane, Thomas T. ... Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Induces Nuclear Factor-κB Activation. John R. Bethea, Marcia Castro, Robert W. Keane, Thomas T. ...
Participants were 490 people who took part in the health services module of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI) ... Prevalence of and factors associated with expressed and unmet service needs reported by persons with spinal cord injury living ... Spinal cord injury community survey: understanding the needs of Canadians with SCI. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2014;20:265-76 ... Spinal cord injury community survey: a national, comprehensive study to portray the lives of Canadians with spinal cord injury ...
Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance ... Granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in cord and maternal serum at delivery Pediatr Res. 1994 Feb; ... Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance ... We have used an ELISA to measure maternal and cord serum G-CSF and GM-CSF at the time of delivery, with gestational age between ...
Relation of cord serum levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, ... Fetal growth process is governed by multiple factors. We investigated the relation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF ... Birth weight (BW), birth length (BL), ponderal index, head circumference (HC), and cord serum levels of albumin, prealbumin, ... Anthropometric measures were recorded and umbilical cord blood samples were collected at birth. ...
Tuszynski MHGrowth factors influence the topography of axonal projections during nervous system development and facilitate ... Transient growth factor delivery sustains regenerated axons after spinal cord injury. Blesch A, Tuszynski MH. Growth factors ... that transient growth factor delivery is sufficient to sustain regenerated axons for prolonged time periods within spinal cord ... Thus, the adult CNS appears capable of sustaining axons that have extended after transient growth factor delivery, an effect ...
... John D. ... Aspiration lesions created a 3 mm long cavity in the upper lumbar spinal cord of adult rats. Five weeks after injury two strips ... bound nerve growth factor has the capacity to enhance the regrowth of ascending sensory axons across a traumatic spinal cord ... Fetal spinal cord tissue was transplanted alongsideand between these strips. Six weeks post transplantation, animals were ...
Background This study aimed to identify independent prognostic factors and to create a survival score for patients with ... metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) from colorectal cancer (CRC). ... Metastatic spinal cord compression Colorectal cancer Radiotherapy Prognostic factors Survival score Prognosefaktoren und ein ... Prognostic factors and a survival score for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression from colorectal cancer. ...
Taylors MMPI correction factor for spinal cord injury: Empirical endorsement. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 46( ... Correction factor. item endorsement. items. Language. Mean. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. MMPI. MMPI item ... Taylors MMPI correction factor for spinal cord injury: Empirical endorsement https://www.upress.umn.edu/test-division/ ...
Relationship between 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels in placental/umbilical cord blood and maternal/neonatal obstetric factors ... The placental/umbilical cord blood (CB) is the peripheral blood of the fetus; in addition, various hormones and molecules of ... Subjects and cord blood sample collection Between November 2010 and April 2011, CB units were collected at a single Hospital ( ... De Jongh RF,Puylaert M,Bosmans E,Ombelet W,Maes M,Heylen R. The fetomaternal dependency of cord blood interleukin-6Am J ...
... are useful for predicting the need for tracheostomy in the management of patients with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) in ... Risk Factors for Tracheostomy in Spinal Cord Injury Identified. This article originally appeared here. ... Using a multiple regression model, factors identified as associated with the need for tracheostomy included high age (69 years ... "Early tracheostomy should therefore be considered in patients with these risk factors because it may facilitate pulmonary care ...
Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular (CVD) Risk in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Factors In Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord ... Spinal Cord Injuries. Wounds and Injuries. Spinal Cord Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. ... Dietary Patterns & There Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors In Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury. ... Male or female, black or white with SCI due to a nonvascular insult that caused an acute spinal cord injury (i.e. traumatic ...
Use of automated fetal heart rate analysis to identify risk factors for umbilical cord acidosis at birth ... Table 8: Factor analysis of cost parameters in e-Commerce Investments from an SME perspective: Costs, Benefits and Processes ... Table 2 Risk factors identified by literature review in Abstract A model for inbound supply risk analysis ... Several factors that could be identified preoperative- ly were associated with a twofold or greater relative risk of ...
Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular (CVD) Risk in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Factors In Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord ... Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular (CVD) Risk in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Factors In Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord ... Dietary Patterns & There Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors In Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury ... Male or female, black or white with SCI due to a nonvascular insult that caused an acute spinal cord injury (i.e. traumatic ...
To investigate the mortality rate following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) injury and analyze the associated risk factors. ... The risk factors associated with mortality were age, tracheostomy, and an ASIA impairment scale of A, the latter had the ... When analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model, an ASIA impairment scale of A was a significant risk factor for ...
Purpose Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in severe neurological deficit. However, the functional recovery following SCI is very ... Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor attenuates neuronal death and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in ... hematopoietic stimulating factors therapy following spinal cord injury. Ann Biomed Eng 35:1647-1656. doi: 10.1007/s10439-007- ... Chopp M, Zhang XH, Li Y, Wang L, Chen J, Lu D, Lu M, Rosenblum M (2000) Spinal cord injury in rat: treatment with bone marrow ...
The factor circulates in the blood of newborns for about two weeks after birth and is not found in older babies or adults, ... When given to mice, the newly discovered factor countered signs of inflammation and sepsis, such as fever, fluctuations in ... A factor found in umbilical cord blood could become the basis for developing a new therapy to fight harmful inflammation, ... Yost and colleagues isolated a cord blood factor, called neonatal NET inhibitory factor (nNIF), based on its ability to inhibit ...
  • These results indicate that substrate bound nerve growth factor has the capacity to enhance the regrowth of ascending sensory axons across a traumatic spinal cord injury site. (hindawi.com)
  • Shoulder pain in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is common and frequently results in chronic debilitating pain recalcitrant to treatment. (ovid.com)
  • Following an initial mechanical insult, traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a secondary wave of injury, resulting in a toxic lesion environment inhibitory to axonal regeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • This is an open, randomized, rehabilitation-controlled study in subjects with complete Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury, where the active treatment consists of a surgical implantation of SC0806 (a biodegradable device with heparin-activated FGF1 and nerve implants). (centerwatch.com)
  • The study is a single dose study in up to 3 sequences in subjects with complete Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. (centerwatch.com)
  • Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Traumatic spinal cord injury includes a complex pattern of pathophysiological processes out of which mitochondrial activity in cell survival and death holds a greater impact [5]. (termedia.pl)
  • However, the effect of minocycline on mitochondrial activity and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulation following traumatic spinal cord injury has not been studied. (termedia.pl)
  • Neural stem cell (NSC)-derived exosomes can attenuate apoptosis and neuroinflammation after traumatic spinal cord injury, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. (aging-us.com)
  • It is our hope that we can learn how the programs and signaling pathways in these existing immature cells are controlled so that we can use them to make bridges for regeneration in patients with spinal cord injury," Jakeman adds. (healthcanal.com)
  • METHODS: The www.ClinicalTrials.gov was queried for all trials on patients with spinal cord injury, and these trials were assessed for status, type of intervention, source of funding, and region. (iospress.com)
  • RESULTS: There were 626 studies identified concerning the treatment of patients with spinal cord injury, of which 250 (39.9%) were completed. (iospress.com)
  • Does religious coping and spirituality have a moderating role on depression and anxiety in patients with spinal cord injury? (nature.com)
  • We evaluate the level of anxiety and depression among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) in relation with their religious coping and spiritual health. (nature.com)
  • We aimed to understand the perspectives of hospital administrators on the challenges experienced when implementing fall prevention policies/procedures for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) in tertiary rehabilitation hospitals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a complication in 16% to 53% of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. (northwestern.edu)
  • The following are some of the different kinds of mattress available for people with spinal cord injuries. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Kennedy P, Sherlock O, McClelland M, Short D, Royle J, Wilson C. A multi-centre study of the community needs of people with spinal cord injuries: the first 18 months. (nature.com)
  • In the meantime, treatments and rehabilitation allow many people with spinal cord injuries to lead productive, independent lives. (mayoclinic.org)
  • People with spinal cord injuries who use indwelling catheters have higher rates of developing this type of cancer (Consortium of Spinal Cord Injury, 2006). (craighospital.org)
  • Most brain tumors are not linked with any known risk factors and have no obvious cause. (cancer.org)
  • But there are a few factors that can raise the risk of brain tumors. (cancer.org)
  • The best known environmental risk factor for brain tumors is radiation exposure , most often from radiation therapy to treat some other condition. (cancer.org)
  • Since no tumor is exactly alike, treatment for spinal cord and brain tumors often differs from patient to patient. (everydayhealth.com)
  • There are many different types of spinal cord and brain tumors , some highly curable by surgery and others very hard to cure. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Most spinal cord and brain tumors are treated surgically. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Radiation therapy is often used along with surgery to treat spinal cord and brain tumors, usually to help kill any remaining tumor cells after surgery. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Although not usually used to treat spinal cord tumors, chemotherapy can be beneficial in treating certain types of malignant (cancerous) brain tumors. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Imaging studies, blood tests, and spinal fluid tests are just a few of the tools used to diagnose spinal cord and brain tumors. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Inflammatory responses are a major component of secondary injury and play a central role in mediating the pathogenesis of acute and chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). (jneurosci.org)
  • Lieberman J, Goff D Jr, Hammond F, Schreiner P, Norton HJ, Dulin M, Zhou X, Steffen L. Dietary intake and adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans among individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: a pilot study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The paradox of chronic neuroinflammation, systemic immune suppression, autoimmunity after traumatic chronic spinal cord injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Association between sclerostin and bone density in chronic spinal cord injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Robust and large-scale expansion of umbilical cord blood stem cells in vitro is necessary for widening the usage of transplantation therapies for the treatment of hematological and immune diseases. (epfl.ch)
  • Use of umbilical unrelated cord-blood (UCB) cells as an alternative source of hematopoietic cell transplantation has been widely used mainly for patients lacking an HLA-matched donor. (hindawi.com)
  • The identification of prognostic factors associated with engraftment that can be easily modified (e.g., strategies for donor choice) and the development of new approaches including use of multiple donors, intrabone injection of UCB, ex vivo expansion, and cotransplantation with accessory cells are of crucial importance in order to circumvent the problem of delayed engraftment after UCB transplantation. (hindawi.com)
  • Many prognostic studies for improving engraftment after UCB transplantation have been performed, analyzing factors related to patients, disease, donor, and transplantation [ 5 , 19 - 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper will focus on risk factors affecting engraftment after UCB transplantation and on procedures aiming to guide clinicians to avoid graft failure following UCB transplantation. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability of a substrate bound neurotrophic factor to promote growth of ascending sensory axons across a complete transection lesion of the rat spinal cord was examined in a transplantation model. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, we aimed to evaluate the combined effect of BMSC transplantation and G-CSF administration on rats with traverse spinal cord injury. (springer.com)
  • Rabchevsky had explored microglial transplantation into spinal cord tissue after injury and Samir Patel, a research assistant professor and a member of Rabchevsky's lab, had vast experience in mitochondrial function. (uky.edu)
  • Cord blood transplantation (CBT) from an unrelated donor has been increasingly used as an alternative transplant method for adult patients without human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-compatible related or unrelated donors. (haematologica.org)
  • Cord blood is considered to be a superior source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for transplantation, but clinical use is limited primarily because of the low numbers of cells harvested. (edu.au)
  • The Adult Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Working Group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation 2015, ' Effect of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Combined Conditioning in Cord Blood Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Retrospective Study in Japan ', Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation , 巻. (elsevier.com)
  • 2010. Cutting edge: Mincle is essential for recognition and adjuvanticity of the mycobacterial cord factor and its synthetic analog trehalose-dibehenate. (invivogen.com)
  • 2004. Combination of the cationic surfactant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide and synthetic mycobacterial cord factor as an efficient adjuvant for tuberculosis subunit vaccines. (invivogen.com)
  • 2008. Cationic liposomes formulated with synthetic mycobacterial cord factor (CAF01): a versatile adjuvant for vaccines with different immunological requirements. (invivogen.com)
  • HealthDay News) - Patient age, severe neurological impairment, and forced vital capacity (FVC) are useful for predicting the need for tracheostomy in the management of patients with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) in the acute care setting, according to research published online Sept 19 in Spine . (empr.com)
  • To investigate the mortality rate following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) injury and analyze the associated risk factors. (ovid.com)
  • Characterization of the Antibody Response after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study aimed to identify independent prognostic factors and to create a survival score for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) from colorectal cancer (CRC). (springer.com)
  • These four prognostic factors were included in a survival score. (springer.com)
  • This study identified several independent prognostic factors for treatment outcomes in patients irradiated for MSCC from CRC. (springer.com)
  • This is the first study to report umbilical cord androgen levels in a large unselected population of neonates using LC-MS/MS. Our findings suggest that previous studies have over-estimated cord androgen levels, and that fetal, maternal, and obstetric factors influence cord androgen levels differentially. (plos.org)
  • Fetal growth process is governed by multiple factors. (nih.gov)
  • Fetal spinal cord tissue was transplanted alongsideand between these strips. (hindawi.com)
  • Both cortexcerebri and spinal cord were able to establish functional excitatory inputs to themature spinal cord graft, suggesting that fetal cerebral cortex or spinal cord tis-sue grafted to the adult injured spinal cord might establish similar connections.Graft growth was not influenced in these double-graft situations, suggestingthat the spinal cord did not exert any major trophic effects on itself or on cortexcerebri. (avhandlingar.se)
  • When instead fetal spinal cord and fetal skeletal muscle were combinedin the eye chamber, the two tissues exerted reciprocal trophic effects upon eachother, and stimulation of the spinal cord graft elicited specific muscle contrac-tions. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Spinal cord grafts were also able to exert a trophic, neuron-rescuing effecton fetal cografts of dorsal root ganglia.To elucidate trophic effects exerted by skeletal muscle on spinal cord grafts,single spinal cord grafts to the eye chamber were treated with two trophic fac-tors abundantly present in skeletal muscle, namely GDNF and NT4. (avhandlingar.se)
  • We investigated the role of the fetal immune system in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia by assessing umbilical cord plasma levels of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). (northwestern.edu)
  • We performed a prospective cohort study of androgen concentrations in mixed arterial and venous umbilical cord serum from 803 unselected singleton pregnancies from a general obstetric population in Western Australia. (plos.org)
  • Relationship between 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels in placental/umbilical cord blood and maternal/neonatal obstetric factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, a significant clinical problem is delayed engraftment that is directly correlated with the number of hematopoietic stem cells in a cord-blood unit. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can mobilize hematopoietic stem cells and inhibit neural cell apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • But, today, we know that cord blood is one of the richest sources of stem cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells. (healthcord.com)
  • The development of a mathematical model of in vitro hematopoiesis coupled with gene expression profiling led to predictions about the secreted factors that play a crucial role in regulating hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal in culture. (epfl.ch)
  • Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, CD133+hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood and cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. (sid.ir)
  • Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is rich in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and is an attractive alternative to harvesting HSCs from bone marrow or when mobilized into peripheral blood. (up.ac.za)
  • This is the first study to characterize systematically the effect of growth factor combinations across multiple oxygen levels on the ex vivo expansion of cord blood CD34 hematopoietic cells utilizing clinically approvable reagents and methodologies throughout. (edu.au)
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases the susceptibility of dormant malignant or nonmalignant hematopoietic cells to cytarabine arabinoside (Ara-C) through the induction of cell cycle entry. (elsevier.com)
  • In this book, the authors present current research on the causes, risk factors and management of spinal cord injury. (novapublishers.com)
  • Kato, S , Nori, S & Fehlings, MG 2018, Factors affecting surgical decision making in the management of spinal cord injury . (elsevier.com)
  • Care needs of persons with long-term spinal cord injury living at home in the Netherlands. (nature.com)
  • Objectives: To describe the association between cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in older adults with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI). (lu.se)
  • Guidance on the support needs for adults with spinal cord injury. (nature.com)
  • Objective: To evaluate the odds ratio of risk factors of sociodemographic and functional capacity of adults with spinal cord injury. (scirp.org)
  • Neurotrophic factors in combinatorial approaches for spinal cord regeneration. (wingsforlife.com)
  • While neurotrophic factors have been shown to stimulate axonal growth in numerous animal models of nervous system injury, a lack of suitable growth substrates, an insufficient activation of neuron-intrinsic regenerative programs, and extracellular inhibitors of regeneration limit the efficacy of neurotrophic factor delivery for anatomical and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. (wingsforlife.com)
  • In addition, the temporal and spatial distribution of growth factors have to be tightly controlled to achieve biologically active concentrations, to allow for the chemotropic guidance of axons, and to prevent adverse effects related to the widespread distribution of neurotrophic factors. (wingsforlife.com)
  • The potential to reestablish functional contacts across such a lesion may be heightened by the ability of neurotrophic factors to promote more extensive axonal regrowth. (hindawi.com)
  • The present workstudies possibilities to obtain better conditions for regeneration of the transectedspinal cord in rats, conditions under which spinal cord grafts are able toestablish structural and functional connections with "natural" targets, andeffects of a series of neurotrophic factors on spinal cord graft survival andgrowth. (avhandlingar.se)
  • It is predicted that treatments with neuro-trophic factors or, particularly combinations of neurotrophic factors such asGDNF and NT4, should also enhance survival of immature spinal cord tissuegrafted to the adult injured spinal cord. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Sustaining damage to the spinal cord can affect a person's ability to feel or move parts of the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) results from damage to the spinal cord due to trauma or disease and leads to partial or complete paralysis. (novapublishers.com)
  • Autoimmunity is thought to contribute to poor neurological outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Introduction Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are a growing concern for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). (bmj.com)
  • The frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise intervention follows recently published exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury. (bmj.com)
  • Results: It was found that males (OR = 4.804, p = 0.041), the education less than ten years (OR = 3.000, p = 0.036), the hospital care (OR = 5.250, p = 0.002) and injury time less than six months (OR = 5.250, p = 0.002) are sociodemographic factors that are associated with the functional capacity of individuals with spinal cord injury. (scirp.org)
  • Aspiration lesions created a 3 mm long cavity in the upper lumbar spinal cord of adult rats. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared with the control, BMSC, and G-CSF groups, less expression of apoptosis cells and more neural-cell markers around the spinal cord injury were found in rats treated with G-CSF + BMSCs. (springer.com)
  • Ankeny DP, McTigue DM, Jakeman LB (2004) Bone marrow transplants provide tissue protection and directional guidance for axons after contusive spinal cord injury in rats. (springer.com)
  • In vivo, longitudinal MR studies were performed on a cohort of rats receiving treatments to modulate angiogenesis following spinal cord injury (SCI). (ismrm.org)
  • We've invested more than $4.9 billion in cancer research since 1946, all to find more - and better - treatments, uncover factors that may cause cancer, and improve cancer patients' quality of life. (cancer.org)
  • However, it is also likely that many trials on spinal cord injury yield negative results, as treatments are often ineffective. (iospress.com)
  • Your doctor may prescribe other treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, to shrink a tumor that's causing cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • Some types of spinal cord or brain tumor treatments are only recommended for people who have good overall health. (everydayhealth.com)
  • From basic information about cancer and its causes to in-depth information on specific cancer types - including risk factors, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment options - you'll find it here. (cancer.org)
  • A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease such as a brain or spinal cord tumor. (cancer.org)
  • Different types of cancer have different risk factors. (cancer.org)
  • Some risk factors, like smoking, you can change. (cancer.org)
  • But having a risk factor, or even several, does not always mean that a person will get the disease, and many people get brain or spinal cord tumors without having any known risk factors. (cancer.org)
  • Many different types of tumors can start in the brain or spinal cord, and while they might have some things in common, these different tumors might not all have the same risk factors. (cancer.org)
  • A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • Most cancers are the result of many risk factors. (cancer.ca)
  • But sometimes brain and spinal cord tumours develop in people who don't have any of the risk factors described below. (cancer.ca)
  • Some people with certain genetic conditions have a higher than average risk for brain and spinal cord tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • If you have a genetic condition that increases the risk of brain and spinal cord tumours, you may need to visit your doctor more often to check for brain and spinal cord tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • All of the risk factors are not modifiable. (cancer.ca)
  • Until we learn more about these risk factors, there are no specific ways you can reduce your risk. (cancer.ca)
  • Risk factors are generally listed in order from most to least important. (cancer.ca)
  • There is convincing evidence that the following factors increase your risk for brain and spinal cord tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Both neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease, or NF1) and neurofibromatosis type 2 (acoustic neuroma, or NF2) increase the risk for brain and spinal cord cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • It causes problems with several organs and increases the risk of developing different types of tumours, including brain and spinal cord tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Sometimes it is not clear if the family's pattern of brain tumours is due to chance, shared lifestyle factors, an inherited risk factor that has been passed from parents to children through genes or a combination of these factors. (cancer.ca)
  • Using cellphones is a possible risk factor for brain and spinal cord tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • This means that it has been linked with brain and spinal cord tumours, but there is not enough evidence to show that it is a risk factor. (cancer.ca)
  • Most of the risk factors are not modifiable. (cancer.ca)
  • Ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • Nerve growth factor can be delivered to the brain by intranasal administration without risk for treatment of brain diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Itaru Yugué, MD, PhD, of the Spinal Injuries Center in Iizuka, Japan, and colleagues conducted a retrospective, consecutive case study involving 319 patients with CSCI to determine risk factors associated with the need for tracheostomy in the acute care setting. (empr.com)
  • In conclusion, a high age, severe American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale, and low FVC (percent VC) were all considered to be independent risk factors for the need of tracheostomy in patients with CSCI," the authors write. (empr.com)
  • Early tracheostomy should therefore be considered in patients with these risk factors because it may facilitate pulmonary care. (empr.com)
  • This study will look at dietary patterns in individuals with chronic spinal cord injuries and the relationship between these dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease risk factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Using logistic regres- sion, the relative risks shown in Table 3 were adjusted by simultaneously controlling for intended method of tubal occlusion in addition to each of the other listed risk factors except diabetes mellitus. (psu.edu)
  • reased to 4.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 18.4), whereas the adjusted relative risks for the other risk factors in Table3 varied by less than 10% from the unadjusted level. (psu.edu)
  • When analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model, an ASIA impairment scale of A was a significant risk factor for mortality. (ovid.com)
  • The risk factors associated with mortality were age, tracheostomy, and an ASIA impairment scale of A, the latter had the highest risk. (ovid.com)
  • Our objectives were to identify the risk factors associated with shoulder pain in the TSCI population. (ovid.com)
  • Home / Test Division / Reference Database / 2010 to 2017 / 2013 / Psychological risk factors for poor outcome of spine surgery and spinal cord stimulator. (umn.edu)
  • However, previous studies have shown mixed results regarding the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with SCI. (bmj.com)
  • However, to date, no studies have implemented an exercise intervention matching the new recommendations to examine the effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of 12 weeks of wheelchair user-modified upper-body rowing exercise on both traditional (constituents of the metabolic syndrome) and novel (eg, vascular structure and function) cardiometabolic risk factors in manual wheelchair users with SCI. (bmj.com)
  • This study uses a randomised controlled design to examine the effects of a novel exercise modality on both traditional and novel cardiometabolic risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • The second level is represented by the subpopulations with different risk factors linked to behaviors and lifestyles (social determi- nants of health proximal). (scirp.org)
  • Information about factors that influence fall risk would guide the development of effective fall prevention strategies. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives To gain a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influenced the risk of falling as perceived by wheelchair users with SCI. (bmj.com)
  • Semistructured photo-elicitation interviews were conducted to discuss the content of the photographs and explore perceptions of fall risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Each wheelchair user encountered numerous fall risk factors in their everyday lives. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed hyperglycemia at admission to be a powerful independent risk factor for a poor motor outcome. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Seventeen reports described risk factors for mortality and eleven of these studies used a multiple regression models to adjust for confounders. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Who is at risk for spinal cord compression? (healthline.com)
  • A few factors may increase your risk. (healthline.com)
  • Use of poor lifting techniques may increase your risk of a neck or back injury, which can cause spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • People who have osteoarthritis may also be at an increased risk for developing spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • It is important to determine risk factors associated with depression and anxiety in order to provide interventions to reduce negative outcomes in patients with SCI. (nature.com)
  • A review of the literature did not reveal specific risk factors for HO with SCI. (northwestern.edu)
  • The risk factors appear to be additive. (northwestern.edu)
  • Before the findings are applied clinically, it is suggested that a prospective study be conducted to confirm the risk predictive value of these factors in HO. (northwestern.edu)
  • No other significant associations between the cardiovascular risk factors and total LTPA were found. (lu.se)
  • Is the risk of bladder cancer higher in spinal cord injury survivors? (craighospital.org)
  • Second, there are risk factors. (craighospital.org)
  • This type of cancer has known risk factors unrelated to SCI (see Risk Factors below). (craighospital.org)
  • Most of the factors increasing this risk for bladder cancer relate to one thing: irritation of the bladder- both chronic and repeated. (craighospital.org)
  • As a continuing part of a long-term research aimed to identify the biomechanical and physiological processes and corresponding risk factors leading to such cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), we ventured to assess the effect of rest and the work-to-rest duration ratios that may prevent CTD. (cdc.gov)
  • However, response to psychosocial risk factors may be dependent on the individual's personality type that, in turn, can affect muscle recruitment and spine loading. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoiding risk factors before conception, during pregnancy or during the birth process will help prevent a child from developing Cerebral Palsy. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Any exposure to risk factors prior to conception and during pregnancy should be immediately discussed with a doctor in order to treat and minimize risk. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • The Cerebral Palsy Risk Factor Checklist helps parents determine if they may have been exposed to risk factors for Cerebral Palsy. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Reproductive health status provides the couple with a medical professional's opinion on whether any known risk factors exist. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Couples and health care providers work together to identify and manage risk factors. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Becoming aware of risk factors can help prevent birth defects, Cerebral Palsy, or children being born with some form of special needs. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Following are some commonly known risk factors that can lead to the development of Cerebral Palsy. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • The presence of one or more of these risk factors does not ensure a child will develop Cerebral Palsy, nor does the absence of risk factors ensure a child will not have Cerebral Palsy. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Risk factors merely identify cause for concern. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • other risk factors may contribute to the development of Cerebral Palsy, as well. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • For more information on Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors, visit Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors . (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • What is a risk factor? (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • How does that differ from a risk factor causal pathway? (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • The authors concluded that the experience of pain was associated with psychosocial factors. (scireproject.com)
  • Poritz, JMP & Warren, AM 2018, Psychosocial factors in spinal cord injury . (utmb.edu)
  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in severe neurological deficit. (springer.com)
  • Minimum of 4 months and maximum 10 years post injury with no evidence of neurological improvement prior to implantation surgery unless there is a complete anatomical cut-off of the spinal cord. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Spinal Cord Injury is a disabling neurological syndrome, considered as a chronic health condition, as it pre- disposes the individual to a functional disability condition, which causes several degrees of dependency due to physical and functional limitations. (scirp.org)
  • The anti-inflammatory drug minocycline is broadly known for its function in alleviating neurological disorders including spinal cord injury [1-4]. (termedia.pl)
  • The lowest normal part of your spinal cord is referred to as the neurological level of your injury. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If your doctor suspects that you have a brain or spinal cord tumor after conducting a thorough medical and neurological exam, you will be referred to specialists who can perform imaging tests, such as X-rays and MRI scans, and laboratory tests. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Thus, growth-stimulating factors will likely have to be combined with other treatment approaches to tap into the full potential of growth factor therapy for axonal regeneration. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Growth factors influence the topography of axonal projections during nervous system development and facilitate axonal sprouting and regeneration after injury in the adult. (wingsforlife.com)
  • While complicated by the need for better vertebralcolumn stabilization measures, and while regeneration of descending 5HT fiberswas not improved in comparison to spinal cord transection alone, animals inwhich the spinal cord transection was combined with vertebral shorteningshowed modest, but significantly improved, hindlimb motor function comparedto spinal cord transection only. (avhandlingar.se)
  • PTEN ), alone or in combination, can impact axon regeneration and sprouting and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We recently demonstrated an age-dependent decline in CNS axon regeneration accompanied by changes of neuron-extrinsic factors at the injury site, implicating an increasing level of inhibitory influences at increasing ages. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, I propose an alternative strategy to encourage host tissue regeneration through the delivery of synthetic "cells" that have been bioengineered to withstand injection forces that can cause cell death, as well as release important growth factors necessary for regeneration in a controlled manner. (stanford.edu)
  • Finally, in aim 3, I will determine the optimal growth factor release profiles from delivered synthetic "cells" for native tissue regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of cervical, contusion SCI. (stanford.edu)
  • Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of exosomes formed in the presence of insulin growth factor-1 (IFG-1, IGF-Exo), which promotes neural proliferation and regeneration, as well as normal exosomes (Nor-Exo) and compared control and H 2 O 2 -treated groups both in vitro and in vivo . (aging-us.com)
  • Two key mechanisms play roles in the pathology of SCI: a) primary injury resulting from bruising and compressive lesions, and b) secondary injuries, including inflammation, formation of glial scars, microvascular bleeding, and upregulation of apoptotic factors, all of which inhibit axonal regeneration [ 2 , 3 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • More than 100 platelet growth factors are known to provide specific functions that promote tissue regeneration. (stemcellstransplantinstitute.com)
  • Cord factor, or trehalose dimycolate, is a glycolipid molecule found in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and similar species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cord factor molecule is composed of a sugar molecule, trehalose (a disaccharide), composed of two glucose molecules linked together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, cord factor is also named trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) is a non-toxic synthetic analogue of trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM, also known as cord factor), which is the most studied immunostimulatory component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (invivogen.com)
  • Bekierkunst, A.: Immunotherapy and vaccination against cancer with non-living BCG and cord factor (trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate). (springer.com)
  • Bekierkunst, A.: Immunotherapy of cancer with non-living Mycobacteria and cord factor (trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate) in aqueous medium. (springer.com)
  • Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) is a non-toxic synthetic analogue of the mycobacterial cell wall component trehalose 6,6' dimycolate (TDM, also known as cord factor). (invivogen.com)
  • 2005. Characterization of cationic liposomes based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium and synthetic cord factor from M. tuberculosis (trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate)-a novel adjuvant inducing both strong CMI and antibody responses. (invivogen.com)
  • Notably, we find that transient growth factor delivery is sufficient to sustain regenerated axons for prolonged time periods within spinal cord lesion sites. (wingsforlife.com)
  • A single spinal cord lesion injury at the neurologic level between T2-T11. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a severe complication in patients with cancer, and its incidence rate is difficult to accurately estimate. (revclinesp.es)
  • This study aimed to identify a potential association of the number of involved extraspinal organs with the survival of patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) from renal cell carcinoma. (elsevier.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 4q32 that encodes platelet-derived growth factor C, a growth factor which plays a key role in regulating embryonic development and in cell proliferation, migration, survival and chemotaxis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance granulocyte and macrophage number and function, their use in the management of neonatal sepsis may be beneficial. (nih.gov)
  • Synthes Award for Resident Research on Spinal Cord and Spinal Column Injury: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) prevents apoptosis and improves functional outcome in experimental spinal cord contusion injury. (harvard.edu)
  • Cord factor has been observed to influence immune responses, induce the formation of granulomas, and inhibit tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling by the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily in B-cell biology and disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Involvement of peripheral and spinal Tumor-Necrosis-Factor α (TNFα) in spinal cord hyperexcitability during knee joint inflammation in rat. (painresearchforum.org)
  • The tumor can put pressure on the cord if this occurs, causing compression. (healthline.com)
  • What's New in Adult Brain and Spinal Cord Tumor Research? (cancer.org)
  • In this approach, specially processed information from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, described in Tests for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults ) is used to make a map of important chemicals involved in tumor metabolism. (cancer.org)
  • Treatment depends on many factors, including the tumor type, its speed of growth, its location, and the patient's overall health. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The spinal cord and brain are very complex, and the location of your tumor often dictates whether a neurosurgeon will be able to remove it without causing severe damage. (everydayhealth.com)
  • There are many ways to treat a spinal cord or brain tumor. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Factors such as the patient's age, the rate at which the tumor grow. (everydayhealth.com)
  • If you recieve a spinal cord tumor or brain tumor diagnosis , these same tests may be used throughout your treatment and follow-up care to monitor your progress. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A childhood brain or spinal cord tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. (oncolink.org)
  • However, it is likely that the mycolic acids of cord factor must undergo a cyclopropyl modification to lead to a response from the host's immune system for initial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mycolic acids liberated from cord factor were identified in all cases as α ′-, α - and keto-mycolates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, they say, strategies directed toward modification of the astrocyte response soon after a spinal cord injury represents a first step in the right direction for damaged tissue repair after SCI. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, neither the expression of the neurogenic bHLH factors including Ngn2, Mash1, and NeuroD1 nor subsequent generation of new neurons could be detected in injured tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • To further elucidate establishment of spinal cordconnectivity, grafts of spinal cord tissue to the anterior chamber of the eye werecombined with either cortex cerebri or another spinal cord graft. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The use of neurotrophicfactors extends the time window within which spinal cord tissue can be graftedwell into the second postnatal week. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The project explores the therapeutic possibilities of transplanting healthy mitochondria into injured spinal cord tissue. (uky.edu)
  • The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the brain stem down the center of the back. (oncolink.org)
  • The undifferentiated stem cells reach the site of injury where they stimulate self-repair mechanisms, revitalize tissue and preserve healthy tissue, by releasing platelet growth factors. (stemcellstransplantinstitute.com)
  • Approximately 30 million human mesenchymal stem cells are obtained for every 1cc of processed umbilical cord blood tissue. (stemcellstransplantinstitute.com)
  • The biological sample of the donor (adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord, etc.) is subjected to a washing and filtering phase in the laboratory, in order to eliminate undesirable tissue and cell remains, before passing to the extraction, concentration and quantification process. (stemcellstransplantinstitute.com)
  • The factor circulates in the blood of newborns for about two weeks after birth and is not found in older babies or adults, according to the study published online Sept. 6, 2016, in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and published as "Neonatal NET-inhibitory factor and related peptides inhibit neutrophil extracellular trap formation" in The Journal of Clinical Investigation online on Sept. 6, 2016. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Moreno A, Zidarov D, Raju C, Boruff J, Ahmed S. Integrating the perspectives of individuals with spinal cord injuries, their family caregivers and healthcare professionals from the time of rehabilitation admission to community reintegration: protocol for a scoping study on SCI needs. (nature.com)
  • A Rehabilomics framework for personalized and translational rehabilitation research and care for individuals with disabilities: Perspectives and considerations for spinal cord injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A questionnaire was administered randomly and anonymously to SCI patients who visited the Korea Spinal Cord Injury Association and several rehabilitation hospitals in the Republic of Korea in 2013. (einj.org)
  • You may have heard it from physicians, from family members who have been doing their reading, or from spinal cord injury survivors who go to other doctors or who were treated at different hospitals or rehabilitation centers: "You're going to develop cancer of the bladder if you keep that catheter in. (craighospital.org)
  • If you have a spinal cord injury, please be aware that these substances can greatly interfere with your rehabilitation, and seriously damage your health. (craighospital.org)
  • Thus, the adult CNS appears capable of sustaining axons that have extended after transient growth factor delivery, an effect potentially attributable to the persistence of Schwann cells in lesion/graft sites. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Labeled axons were evident along the entire length of the nitrocellulose and appeared to aggregate at the rostral tip of the implant, with many fibers extending into the host spinal cord rostral to the lesion/transplant site. (hindawi.com)
  • Factors associated with less pain intensity included more internal pain control and coping, less catastrophizing, a higher level of lesion and a non-traumatic SCI cause. (scireproject.com)
  • Recognizing that the spinal cord is normally under tension, leading toseparation of the stumps after transection, stump approximation through verte-bral shortening was studied. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Many approaches have been investigated to enhance collection of HSC and HPC in cord blood units. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Luigi Aloe, Cellular Biology and Neurobiology Institute, National Research Council, Italy and his team performed a study to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • These findings indicate that intranasal nerve growth factor can bypass blood-brain barrier and affect spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aloe L, Bianchi P, De Bellis A, Soligo M, Rocco ML. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • Labor was associated with a significant (∼15-26%) decrease in median cord blood TT and FT levels (both sexes combined), but a modest (∼16-31%) increase in SHBG, Δ4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations. (plos.org)
  • However, while androgen assays are sometimes tested and validated for use in female or pediatric samples, their suitability for umbilical cord blood analysis is usually unverified. (plos.org)
  • Anthropometric measures were recorded and umbilical cord blood samples were collected at birth. (nih.gov)
  • At present, few studies have investigated the precise correlations between 8-OHdG levels in cord blood (CB) and the physical conditions of the mother and neonate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A factor found in umbilical cord blood could become the basis for developing a new therapy to fight harmful inflammation, University of Utah School of Medicine researchers report. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Yost and colleagues isolated a cord blood factor, called neonatal NET inhibitory factor (nNIF), based on its ability to inhibit production of a specific component of the inflammatory response, called NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • To test whether the cord blood factor could control sepsis, the scientists treated groups of mice in which the condition had been induced in different ways. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • nNIF circulates in cord blood, persists in the baby's own bloodstream for up to two weeks after birth, and then disappears. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Infection fighting cells from umbilical cord blood (left) and circulating blood three days after birth (right) from the same prematurely born baby. (healthcanal.com)
  • Umbilical cord blood has high levels of a factor, called neonatal NET inhibitory factor (nNIF), which inhibits a specific inflammatory response called NETs. (healthcanal.com)
  • This study looks at factors that can influence the usability of cord blood to increase the probability of banking. (healthcord.com)
  • For centuries, the umbilical cord and the blood left in it (cord blood) were discarded as medical waste. (healthcord.com)
  • Not only that, but studies also show that cord blood can be used to detect a babies' illness early, and cord blood stem cells are being explored as a potential therapeutic over 80 other genetic and blood-related diseases. (healthcord.com)
  • Knowing the benefits, deciding to preserve your baby's cord blood is easy. (healthcord.com)
  • And if you do, your doctor will collect the cord blood after the baby is born. (healthcord.com)
  • All of the steps involved in collecting, processing, and preserving cord blood are standardized. (healthcord.com)
  • But this does not mean that there won't be variation between baby-to-baby on the amount of cord blood collected, and the number of stem cells in the cord blood sample. (healthcord.com)
  • Studies also show that factors like the birth weight of the baby, size of the placenta, the volume of cord blood collected, and the delivery methods (cesarean vs. vaginal delivery, for example) can impact the total number of cells in cord blood samples. (healthcord.com)
  • In this paper, scientists refer to this as 'bankability' or the probability of banking, which takes into account how useful a cord blood sample will be for future use in terms of a transplant or research use. (healthcord.com)
  • The study aimed to look at all possible factors that could affect the bankability of a cord blood sample, particularly ones that can be adjusted to increase the likelihood of samples being banked. (healthcord.com)
  • The researchers looked at 869 cord blood samples banked over 15 years, from 1999 to 2015. (healthcord.com)
  • The researchers were also able to generate a chart (called a nomogram), which can now be used to predict the bankability of a cord blood sample. (healthcord.com)
  • Small molecule-mediated inhibition of the downstream signaling pathways activated by VEGF, PDGF, and EGF led to a decreased expansion of primitive cell compartments, confirming the endogenous activity of these growth factors for the stimulation of blood stem and progenitor cells. (epfl.ch)
  • This study also attempted to show the molecular mechanism of RANK and RANKL on differentiation capability of human cord blood HSC to osteoclast, as well as expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) on cord blood HSC surface. (sid.ir)
  • Nineteen nulliparous patients with severe preeclampsia composed the study group (group A). A comparison group was comprised of 19 healthy nulliparous patients with uneventful pregnancies (group B). Mixed umbilical cord blood was collected immediately after delivery. (northwestern.edu)
  • It will take several weeks or months to recover from brain or spinal cord surgery, and risks of surgery include infection, bleeding, blood clots, unstable blood pressure, cognitive damage, coma, and death. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A, Under myelin‐associated inhibition, protein kinase C‐, Src‐Pyk2‐induced epidermal growth factor receptor‐extracellular‐regulated kinase signaling pathway was activated, resulting in TRIM32 inhibition and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells inhibition. (medworm.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor‐extracellular‐regulated kinase blockade can promote TRIM32 expression and antagonize myelin inhibition on neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells. (medworm.com)
  • Response of spinal cord ependymal stem cells to spinal cord injury. (medworm.com)
  • These results provide experimental evidence for intranasal nerve growth factor for repair of spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many scientists are optimistic that advances in research will someday make the repair of spinal cord injuries possible. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Demetri GD, Griffin JD (1991) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its receptor. (springer.com)
  • The study, published yesterday (10/18) in the Journal of Neuroscience, shows that treating an injured adult spinal cord, by genetic delivery of a high-level growth factor found in the developing brain, can change the behavior of glial scar cells called astrocytes. (healthcanal.com)
  • VanRooyen would be looking into whether transplanting mitochondria into the injured spinal cord could reduce or repair damage, promoting long-term functional recovery. (uky.edu)
  • Using tetracycline-inducible expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by genetically modified fibroblasts, we were able to extensively and significantly turn growth factor expression 'on' or 'off' in vitro and in vivo within sites of SCI. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Cells expressing the homeodomain factors Pax6, Pax7, and Nkx2.2 also emerged in vivo in response to injury and were distributed in unique patterns in the lesioned spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)
  • Under hyperglycemic conditions, both in vivo and in vitro, inflammation was enhanced through promotion of the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factor in microglial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Colocalization of activated NF-κB with the NF-κB-dependent gene product, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), suggests functional implications for this transcription factor in the pathogenesis of acute spinal cord injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that glycemic control may be needed to improve recovery after acute spinal cord injury in human patients. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Acute hyperglycemia impairs functional improvement after spinal cord injury in mice and humans. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Your spinal cord has nerves that send signals or messages back and forth between your brain and the rest of your body. (healthline.com)
  • A spinal cord injury - damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal (cauda equina) - often causes permanent changes in strength, sensation and other body functions below the site of the injury. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The spinal cord connects the brain with nerves in most parts of the body. (oncolink.org)
  • Spinal cord nerves carry messages between the brain and the rest of the body, such as a message from the brain to cause muscles to move or a message from the skin to the brain to feel touch. (oncolink.org)
  • Using double-staining protocols, we detected activated NF-κB in macrophages/microglia, endothelial cells, and neurons within the injured spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurons of the dorsal horn integrate and relay sensory information and arise during development in the dorsal spinal cord, the alar plate. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We show here that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene Olig3 is expressed in progenitor cells that generate class A (dI1-dI3) neurons and that Olig3 is an important factor in the development of these neuronal cell types. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Conversely, Olig3 represses the emergence of class B neurons in the chick spinal cord. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We conclude that Olig3 expression distinguishes the two major classes of progenitors in the dorsal spinal cord and determines the distinct specification program of class A neurons. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Our data show the histological localization of PAF synthases and its receptor in the spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury, and suggest that PAF/PAFr signaling in the spinal cord acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner among the activated microglia and neurons, thus contributing to development of neuropathic pain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results suggest that both the intrinsic properties of adult progenitors and local environmental signals, including Notch signaling, account for the limited regenerative potential of the adult spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)
  • This article will look at the factors a person may need to consider when purchasing a mattress or bed for someone who has experienced a spinal cord injury. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If you've recently experienced a spinal cord injury, it might seem like every aspect of your life has been affected. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Results showed that at 3 weeks after intranasal administration of nerve growth factor, the contents of nerve growth factor and its receptor in the spinal cord were increased, and the deficits in locomotor behaviors were improved. (eurekalert.org)
  • Relation of cord serum levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, leptin, and interleukin-6 with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference in term and preterm neonates. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated an absence of neuronal targets or synapses within transient growth factor expressing grafts but the persistent presence of Schwann cells. (wingsforlife.com)
  • The authors demonstrate that, in a rat model, a combination of bone marrow stromal cells and growth factor can improve the functional and histological outcome after spinal cord injury. (springer.com)
  • Proposed model depicting the epidermal growth factor receptor ‐extracellular‐regulated kinase‐TRIM32 signaling axis in the regulation of neuronal differentiation. (medworm.com)
  • B, Cetuximab and gefitinib can directly block epidermal growth factor receptor. (medworm.com)
  • Go6976 and PP2 were used to inhibit PKC and Src‐Pyk2, respectively, which resulted in epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation inhibition indirectly. (medworm.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose-6-phosphate (IGF-II/M6P) receptor is a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein, which interacts with a number of molecules, including IGF-II and M6P-containing lysosomal enzymes. (open.ac.uk)
  • The first aim of this proposal will be to synthesize and characterize the designed synthetic "cells" to be used for growth factor release. (stanford.edu)
  • The second aim is to both determine the release profile of loaded growth factors from the synthetic "cells", as well as use an in vitro screening assay to determine the optimal growth factor combination to promote enhanced neurite growth. (stanford.edu)
  • Astrocytes are cells found throughout the brain and spinal cord that normally support the nerve cells and keep them healthy. (healthcanal.com)
  • Up-regulation of platelet-activating factor synthases and its receptor in spinal cord contribute to development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, the expression of PAF synthases and its receptor in the spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury is unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using the rat spared nerve injury (SNI) model, we investigated the expression of PAF synthases (LPCAT1 and 2) and PAF receptor (PAFr) mRNAs in the spinal cord. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RT-PCR showed that PAFr mRNA was dramatically increased in the ipsilateral spinal cord after nerve injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Evidence for a novel chemotactic C1q domain-containing factor in the leech nerve cord. (semanticscholar.org)