Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
An organophosphate insecticide that inhibits monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase. It has been shown to be genotoxic.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A multisystemic disorder characterized by a sensorimotor polyneuropathy (POLYNEUROPATHIES), organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and pigmentary skin changes. Other clinical features which may be present include EDEMA; CACHEXIA; microangiopathic glomerulopathy; pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY); cutaneous necrosis; THROMBOCYTOSIS; and POLYCYTHEMIA. This disorder is frequently associated with osteosclerotic myeloma. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1335; Rev Med Interne 1997;18(7):553-62)
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.

Intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood reduces behavioral deficits after stroke in rats. (1/440)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC) are rich in stem and progenitor cells. In this study we tested whether intravenously infused HUCBC enter brain, survive, differentiate, and improve neurological functional recovery after stroke in rats. In addition, we tested whether ischemic brain tissue extract selectively induces chemotaxis of HUCBC in vitro. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to transient (2-hour) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Experimental groups were as follows: group 1, MCAO alone (n=5); group 2, 3x10(6) HUCBC injected into tail vein at 24 hours after MCAO (n=6) (animals of groups 1 and 2 were killed at 14 days after MCAO); group 3, MCAO alone (n=5); group 4, MCAO injected with PBS at 1 day after stroke (n=8); and group 5, 3x10(6) HUCBC injected into tail vein at 7 days after MCAO (n=5). Rats of groups 3, 4, and 5 were killed at 35 days after MCAO. Behavioral tests (rotarod and Modified Neurological Severity Score [mNSS]) were performed. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify cells derived from HUCBC. Chemotactic activity of ischemia brain tissue extracts toward HUCBC at different time points was evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: Treatment at 24 hours after MCAO with HUCBC significantly improved functional recovery, as evidenced by the rotarod test and mNSS (P<0.05). Treatment at 7 days after MCAO with HUCBC significantly improved function only on the mNSS (P<0.05). Some HUCBC were reactive for the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and the neuronal markers NeuN and microtubule-associated protein 2. In vitro, significant HUCBC migration activity was present at 24 hours after MCAO (P<0.01) compared with normal brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenously administered HUCBC enter brain, survive, migrate, and improve functional recovery after stroke. HUCBC transplantation may provide a cell source to treat stroke.  (+info)

Listeriosis in recipients of allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation: thirteen year review of disease characteristics, treatment outcomes and a new association with human cytomegalovirus infection. (2/440)

Listeriosis is uncommon in recipients of allogeneic blood, marrow and organ transplantation. Six patients with systemic Listeria monocytogenes infection during 1985-1997 at Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center are described. In two male and four female patients, the median duration from transplantation to isolation of L. monocytogenes was 62.5 (range 29 to 821) days. Among five allogeneic marrow transplant recipients, four (80%) received HLA antigen matched, T cell-depleted grafts from three unrelated and a single related donor. One patient underwent mismatched-related marrow graft transplant. Cord stem cell transplantation was performed in a single patient. Two required therapy for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The 13 year incidence of systemic Listeria infections was 0.47 percent. All six presented with fever (>39 degrees C), and L. monocytogenes bloodstream invasion. Mental status changes and meningioencephalitis were observed in two (33.3%). A concurrent primary opportunistic infection was present in five individuals (83.3%), and four (80%) were being treated for acute human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) viremia. Sixty-six percent responded to therapy and two died from unrelated, non-listeric causes. Systemic listeriosis was uncommon in our high-risk allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation population, and response to therapy with parenteral ampicillin and gentamicin was excellent. The association between primary HCMV reactivation and subsequent listeric infection emphasizes the significance of HCMV-related dysfunction in hosts' cellular immune responses, especially in the setting of allogeneic transplantation.  (+info)

Human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant in children. (3/440)

Three children developed human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), variant B encephalitis after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant, in a single center. They developed clinical manifestations of encephalitis around day 17 post transplant. Impairment of consciousness, incoherent speech, episodic focal pruritus, motor weakness, convulsions and severe hyponatremia were features at presentation. Radiological investigation of brain ranged from unremarkable to extensive white matter and meningeal lesions. Diagnosis was established by the presence of HHV-6 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Retrospective analyses of plasma revealed the presence of viral DNAemia prior to the onset of disease in two subjects. Treatment with ganciclovir or foscarnet was given. Two subjects did not achieve engraftment and died of other transplant-related complications on day 38 and 56 post-transplant, respectively. One subject achieved disease-free survival for more than 1 year with a satisfactory neurological outcome. In conclusion, HHV-6 encephalitis is not uncommon among patients undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation. It is worth conducting further studies on early diagnosis and optimal management of this potentially fatal disease.  (+info)

Successful treatment of relapsed blastic natural killer cell lymphoma with unrelated cord blood transplantation. (4/440)

The prognosis for blastic natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma is generally dismal. We report a patient who was successfully treated with unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). A 15-year-old boy was diagnosed as having blastic NK cell lymphoma in the cervical lymph nodes. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed on achieving a complete remission. However, the disease recurred in the bone marrow 6 months later. Chemotherapy induced a second remission and the patient received UCBT with a conditioning regimen consisting of total body irradiation, thiotepa and cyclophosphamide. Chronic GVHD of the lung occurred, but it was well controlled with steroids. At the time of writing, he remains in remission 18 months after UCBT with an excellent performance status. UCBT may be an option for patients with blastic NK cell lymphoma.  (+info)

Combination treatment of bullous pemphigoid with anti-CD20 and anti-CD25 antibodies in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease. (5/440)

In this case report we describe a novel treatment with two chimeric monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) targeting the autoimmune B cell clone responsible for bullous pemphigoid (BP) as a manifestation of steroid refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that developed after unrelated cord blood transplantation. Monitoring the BP-specific circulating antibodies and CD25-expressing activated T lymphocyte subset led us to combine anti-CD20 (Rituximab) mediated B cell ablation with anti-CD25 (Daclizumab) therapy to block CD4(+) T cell help. Complete clinical and serologic response was achieved within 4 weeks of initiation of therapy allowing global immunosuppression to be dramatically reduced.  (+info)

A successful liver transplantation for refractory hepatic veno-occlusive disease originating from cord blood transplantation. (6/440)

An 11-month-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) from an unrelated donor after a first complete remission. Despite the prophylactic use of low molecular weight heparin, prostaglandin E1 and ursodeoxycholic acid, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred on the 29th day after CBT. Furthermore, neither defibrotide nor antithrombin-III improved the hepatic coma and coagulopathy due to the hepatic VOD. On the 42nd day after CBT, he underwent living related liver transplantation (LRLT) with a left lateral segment graft from his father. He received tacrolimus for the prevention of rejection and graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and also received aggressive antifungal and antiviral prophylaxis. Although he showed signs of acute rejection on postoperative days 5 and 10, the postoperative course was uneventful in general. At present, 17 months after LRLT, the patient shows stable liver function and no signs of either GVHD or a relapse of ALL. In conclusion, LRLT can be seen as a feasible option for the treatment of a hepatic VOD after CBT, though aggressive prophylaxis for infection and the anticipation of acute rejection are of importance.  (+info)

"Saviour siblings". (7/440)

The Victorian Infertility Treatment Authority has given permission to allow tissue typing in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This is a new application of IVF. Not only will it allow parents to select an embryo free from serious genetic disease it will allow them to simultaneously select for a match so that the umbilical cord blood of the resulting baby can provide stem cells to treat an existing sibling who has a disease.  (+info)

Induction of graft-versus-host disease and a graft-versus-leukemia effect using ubenimex in a patient with infantile leukemia relapsing after an unrelated cord blood transplant. (8/440)

A 20-month-old boy with infantile leukemia was treated with total body irradiation, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and unrelated cord blood transplantation with a one-antigen mismatch. He relapsed on day 100 and achieved remission after ubenimex administration, and also developed chronic graft-versus-host disease of the skin. He remained in remission for 22 months with repeated courses of ubenimex. Ubenimex may be an alternative to donor lymphocyte transfusion and may be useful for the treatment of a patient who has relapsed after cord blood transplantation.  (+info)

Cord blood stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the infusion of stem cells derived from the umbilical cord blood into a patient. These stem cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells, have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, including red and white blood cells and platelets.

Cord blood stem cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for patients with various malignant and non-malignant disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell disease, and metabolic disorders. The procedure involves collecting cord blood from the umbilical cord and placenta after the birth of a baby, processing and testing it for compatibility with the recipient's immune system, and then infusing it into the patient through a vein in a process similar to a blood transfusion.

The advantages of using cord blood stem cells include their availability, low risk of transmission of infectious diseases, and reduced risk of graft-versus-host disease compared to other sources of hematopoietic stem cells, such as bone marrow or peripheral blood. However, the number of stem cells in a cord blood unit is generally lower than that found in bone marrow or peripheral blood, which can limit its use in some patients, particularly adults.

Overall, cord blood stem cell transplantation is an important and promising area of regenerative medicine, offering hope for patients with a wide range of disorders.

Fetal blood refers to the blood circulating in a fetus during pregnancy. It is essential for the growth and development of the fetus, as it carries oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the developing tissues and organs. Fetal blood also removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetal tissues and transports them to the placenta for elimination.

Fetal blood has several unique characteristics that distinguish it from adult blood. For example, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is the primary type of hemoglobin found in fetal blood, whereas adults primarily have adult hemoglobin (HbA). Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin, which allows it to more efficiently extract oxygen from the maternal blood in the placenta.

Additionally, fetal blood contains a higher proportion of reticulocytes (immature red blood cells) and nucleated red blood cells compared to adult blood. These differences reflect the high turnover rate of red blood cells in the developing fetus and the need for rapid growth and development.

Examination of fetal blood can provide important information about the health and well-being of the fetus during pregnancy. For example, fetal blood sampling (also known as cordocentesis or percutaneous umbilical blood sampling) can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, infections, and other conditions that may affect fetal development. However, this procedure carries risks, including preterm labor, infection, and fetal loss, and is typically only performed when there is a significant risk of fetal compromise or when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (PBSCT) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of stem cells, which are immature cells found in the bone marrow that can develop into different types of blood cells. In PBSCT, these stem cells are collected from the peripheral blood instead of directly from the bone marrow.

The process begins with mobilization, where a growth factor medication is given to the donor to stimulate the release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. After several days, the donor's blood is then removed through a procedure called apheresis, where the stem cells are separated and collected while the remaining blood components are returned to the donor.

The collected stem cells are then infused into the recipient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to repopulate, leading to the production of new blood cells. This procedure is often used as a treatment for various malignant and non-malignant disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and aplastic anemia.

PBSCT offers several advantages over traditional bone marrow transplantation, including faster engraftment, lower risk of graft failure, and reduced procedure-related morbidity. However, it also has its own set of challenges, such as the potential for increased incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the need for more stringent HLA matching between donor and recipient.

Monocrotophos is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a pesticide that can have medical implications. It's a type of organophosphate insecticide that works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading to an overaccumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and resulting in symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, and, at high exposures, seizures and respiratory failure. Chronic exposure can lead to neurological problems and an increased risk of certain cancers.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure where stem cells, which are immature and unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types, are introduced into a patient. The main purpose of this procedure is to restore the function of damaged or destroyed tissues or organs, particularly in conditions that affect the blood and immune systems, such as leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, and inherited metabolic disorders.

There are two primary types of stem cell transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. In autologous transplantation, the patient's own stem cells are collected, stored, and then reinfused back into their body after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the diseased cells. In allogeneic transplantation, stem cells are obtained from a donor (related or unrelated) whose human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type closely matches that of the recipient.

The process involves several steps: first, the patient undergoes conditioning therapy to suppress their immune system and make space for the new stem cells. Then, the harvested stem cells are infused into the patient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to differentiate and produce new blood cells. This procedure requires close monitoring and supportive care to manage potential complications such as infections, graft-versus-host disease, and organ damage.

Penile implantation, also known as a prosthetic penis or penile prosthesis, is a surgical procedure to place devices into the penis to help a person with erectile dysfunction (ED) achieve an erection. The two main types of penile implants are inflatable and semi-rigid rods.

The inflatable implant consists of a fluid-filled reservoir, a pump, and two or three inflatable cylinders in the penis. The semi-rigid rod implant is a pair of flexible rods that are bent into an erect position for sexual intercourse and can be straightened when not in use.

Penile implantation is typically considered as a last resort treatment option for ED, when other treatments such as medications, vacuum constriction devices, or penile injections have failed or are not suitable. The procedure is typically performed by a urologist under general or spinal anesthesia and requires a hospital stay of one to two days.

It's important to note that like any surgical procedure, penile implantation also has risks such as infection, bleeding, mechanical failure, and device malfunction. It is essential for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before making a decision about this treatment option.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

Transplantation conditioning, also known as preparative regimen or immunoablative therapy, refers to the use of various treatments prior to transplantation of cells, tissues or organs. The main goal of transplantation conditioning is to suppress the recipient's immune system, allowing for successful engraftment and minimizing the risk of rejection of the donor tissue.

There are two primary types of transplantation conditioning: myeloablative and non-myeloablative.

1. Myeloablative conditioning is a more intensive regimen that involves the use of high-dose chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both. This approach eliminates not only immune cells but also stem cells in the bone marrow, requiring the recipient to receive a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from the donor to reconstitute their blood and immune system.
2. Non-myeloablative conditioning is a less intensive regimen that primarily targets immune cells while sparing the stem cells in the bone marrow. This approach allows for mixed chimerism, where both recipient and donor immune cells coexist, reducing the risk of severe complications associated with myeloablative conditioning.

The choice between these two types of transplantation conditioning depends on various factors, including the type of transplant, patient's age, overall health, and comorbidities. Both approaches carry risks and benefits, and the decision should be made carefully by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals in consultation with the patient.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

A blood bank is a facility that collects, tests, stores, and distributes blood and blood components for transfusion purposes. It is a crucial part of the healthcare system, as it ensures a safe and adequate supply of blood products to meet the needs of patients undergoing various medical procedures or treatments. The term "blood bank" comes from the idea that collected blood is "stored" or "banked" until it is needed for transfusion.

The primary function of a blood bank is to ensure the safety and quality of the blood supply. This involves rigorous screening and testing of donated blood to detect any infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and West Nile virus. Blood banks also perform compatibility tests between donor and recipient blood types to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Blood banks offer various blood products, including whole blood, red blood cells, platelets, plasma, and cryoprecipitate. These products can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, such as anemia, bleeding disorders, cancer, and trauma. In addition, some blood banks may also provide specialized services, such as apheresis (a procedure that separates specific blood components) and therapeutic phlebotomy (the removal of excess blood).

Blood banks operate under strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of their products and services. These regulations are established by national and international organizations, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where the donated immune cells (graft) recognize the recipient's tissues (host) as foreign and attack them. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs, particularly the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver.

Acute GVHD typically occurs within 100 days of transplantation and is characterized by symptoms such as rash, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. Chronic GVHD, on the other hand, can occur after 100 days or even years post-transplant and may present with a wider range of symptoms, including dry eyes and mouth, skin changes, lung involvement, and issues with mobility and flexibility in joints.

GVHD is a significant complication following allogeneic HSCT and can have a substantial impact on the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis. Preventative measures, such as immunosuppressive therapy, are often taken to reduce the risk of GVHD, but its management remains a challenge in transplant medicine.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization is the process of mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. HSCs are immature cells that have the ability to differentiate into all types of blood cells, including red and white blood cells and platelets.

Mobilization is often achieved through the use of medications such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) or plerixafor, which stimulate the release of HSCs from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. This allows for the collection of HSCs from the peripheral blood through a procedure called apheresis.

Mobilized HSCs can be used in stem cell transplantation procedures to reconstitute a patient's hematopoietic system after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It is an important process in the field of regenerative medicine and has been used to treat various diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, and sickle cell disease.

CD34 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. Specifically, CD34 antigens are present on hematopoietic stem cells, which are immature cells that can develop into different types of blood cells. These stem cells are found in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

CD34 antigens are a type of cell surface marker that is used in medical research and clinical settings to identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells. They are also used in the development of stem cell therapies and transplantation procedures. CD34 antigens can be detected using various laboratory techniques, such as flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry.

It's important to note that while CD34 is a useful marker for identifying hematopoietic stem cells, it is not exclusive to these cells and can also be found on other cell types, such as endothelial cells that line blood vessels. Therefore, additional markers are often used in combination with CD34 to more specifically identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Melphalan is an antineoplastic agent, specifically an alkylating agent. It is used in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other types of cancer. The medical definition of Melphalan is:

A nitrogen mustard derivative that is used as an alkylating agent in the treatment of cancer, particularly multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. Melphalan works by forming covalent bonds with DNA, resulting in cross-linking of the double helix and inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. This ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Melphalan is administered orally or intravenously, and its use is often accompanied by other anticancer therapies, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Common side effects of Melphalan include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Other potential side effects include hair loss, mucositis, and secondary malignancies.

It is important to note that Melphalan should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious adverse reactions if not administered correctly.

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a type of growth factor that specifically stimulates the production and survival of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell crucial for fighting off infections. G-CSF works by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature granulocytes, primarily neutrophils, in the bone marrow.

Recombinant forms of G-CSF are used clinically as a medication to boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, those with congenital neutropenia, and those who have had a bone marrow transplant. By increasing the number of circulating neutrophils, G-CSF helps reduce the risk of severe infections during periods of intense immune suppression.

Examples of recombinant G-CSF medications include filgrastim (Neupogen), pegfilgrastim (Neulasta), and lipegfilgrastim (Lonquex).

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Leukapheresis is a medical procedure that involves the separation and removal of white blood cells (leukocytes) from the blood. It is performed using a specialized machine called an apheresis instrument, which removes the desired component (in this case, leukocytes) and returns the remaining components (red blood cells, platelets, and plasma) back to the donor or patient. This procedure is often used in the treatment of certain blood disorders, such as leukemia and lymphoma, where high white blood cell counts can cause complications. It may also be used to collect stem cells for transplantation purposes. Leukapheresis is generally a safe procedure with minimal side effects, although it may cause temporary discomfort or bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A transplantation chimera is a rare medical condition that occurs after an organ or tissue transplant, where the recipient's body accepts and integrates the donor's cells or tissues to such an extent that the two sets of DNA coexist and function together. This phenomenon can lead to the presence of two different genetic profiles in one individual.

In some cases, this may result in the development of donor-derived cells or organs within the recipient's body, which can express the donor's unique genetic traits. Transplantation chimerism is more commonly observed in bone marrow transplants, where the donor's immune cells can repopulate and establish themselves within the recipient's bone marrow and bloodstream.

It is important to note that while transplantation chimerism can be beneficial for the success of the transplant, it may also pose some risks, such as an increased likelihood of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Busulfan is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is an alkylating agent that works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing.

The medical definition of Busulfan is:

A white crystalline powder used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer. Busulfan works by alkylating and cross-linking DNA, which inhibits DNA replication and transcription, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. It is administered orally or intravenously and is often used in combination with other chemotherapy agents. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased susceptibility to infection. Long-term use of busulfan has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis, infertility, and an increased risk of secondary malignancies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Myeloablative Agonists" is not a recognized medical term. Myeloablation is a medical process that involves destroying or damaging the bone marrow, often as part of a preparatory regimen before a stem cell transplant. Agonists are substances that bind to receptors and activate them, causing a response in the body. However, combining these two terms doesn't form a recognized medical concept. If you have any questions about myeloablation or agonists individually, I'd be happy to help clarify those concepts!

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help your body fight infection by producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than producing useful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications such as kidney damage, bone pain and fractures.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer called a plasma cell neoplasm. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which there is an overproduction of a single clone of plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, this results in the crowding out of normal plasma cells, red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to many of the complications associated with the disease.

The abnormal proteins produced by the cancer cells can also cause damage to organs and tissues in the body. These abnormal proteins can be detected in the blood or urine and are often used to monitor the progression of multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma is a relatively uncommon cancer, but it is the second most common blood cancer after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It typically occurs in people over the age of 65, and men are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women. While there is no cure for multiple myeloma, treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation can help manage the disease and its symptoms, and improve quality of life.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Blood component removal, also known as blood component therapy or apheresis, is a medical procedure that involves separating and removing specific components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, or plasma, while returning the remaining components back to the donor or patient. This process can be used for therapeutic purposes, such as in the treatment of certain diseases and conditions, or for donation, such as in the collection of blood products for transfusion. The specific method and equipment used to perform blood component removal may vary depending on the intended application and the particular component being removed.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

SCID mice is an acronym for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice. These are genetically modified mice that lack a functional immune system due to the mutation or knockout of several key genes required for immunity. This makes them ideal for studying the human immune system, infectious diseases, and cancer, as well as testing new therapies and treatments in a controlled environment without the risk of interference from the mouse's own immune system. SCID mice are often used in xenotransplantation studies, where human cells or tissues are transplanted into the mouse to study their behavior and interactions with the human immune system.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Histocompatibility is the compatibility between tissues or organs from different individuals in terms of their histological (tissue) structure and antigenic properties. The term is most often used in the context of transplantation, where it refers to the degree of match between the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and other proteins on the surface of donor and recipient cells.

A high level of histocompatibility reduces the risk of rejection of a transplanted organ or tissue by the recipient's immune system, as their immune cells are less likely to recognize the donated tissue as foreign and mount an attack against it. Conversely, a low level of histocompatibility increases the likelihood of rejection, as the recipient's immune system recognizes the donated tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Histocompatibility testing is therefore an essential part of organ and tissue transplantation, as it helps to identify the best possible match between donor and recipient and reduces the risk of rejection.

Whole-Body Irradiation (WBI) is a medical procedure that involves the exposure of the entire body to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation, typically used in the context of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The purpose of WBI is to destroy cancer cells or suppress the immune system prior to a bone marrow transplant. It can be delivered using various sources of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons, and is carefully planned and monitored to minimize harm to healthy tissues while maximizing the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. Potential side effects include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection due to decreased white blood cell counts.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from the bone marrow - the soft, inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. It is characterized by an abnormal production of white blood cells, known as leukocytes or blasts. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are several types of leukemia, classified based on the specific type of white blood cell affected and the speed at which the disease progresses:

1. Acute Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress rapidly, with symptoms developing over a few weeks or months. They involve the rapid growth and accumulation of immature, nonfunctional white blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Originates from lymphoid progenitor cells, primarily affecting children but can also occur in adults.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Develops from myeloid progenitor cells and is more common in older adults.

2. Chronic Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress slowly, with symptoms developing over a period of months to years. They involve the production of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells that can accumulate in large numbers in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Affects B-lymphocytes and is more common in older adults.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Originates from myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. It can occur at any age but is more common in middle-aged and older adults.

Treatment options for leukemia depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors. Treatments may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It involves the abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), leading to the formation of tumors in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other organs. NHL can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of lymphocyte involved and its characteristics.

The symptoms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:

* Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Persistent fatigue
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Itchy skin

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well understood, but it has been associated with certain risk factors such as age (most common in people over 60), exposure to certain chemicals, immune system deficiencies, and infection with viruses like Epstein-Barr virus or HIV.

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage and subtype of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and manage any potential long-term side effects of treatment.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation (MSCT) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. These cells can be obtained from various sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, or dental pulp.

In MSCT, MSCs are typically harvested from the patient themselves (autologous transplantation) or from a donor (allogeneic transplantation). The cells are then processed and expanded in a laboratory setting before being injected into the patient's body, usually through an intravenous infusion.

MSCT is being investigated as a potential treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, including degenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, and tissue injuries. The rationale behind this approach is that MSCs have the ability to migrate to sites of injury or inflammation, where they can help to modulate the immune response, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue repair and regeneration.

However, it's important to note that while MSCT holds promise as a therapeutic option, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy for specific medical conditions.

Vidarabine is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes simplex infections, particularly severe cases such as herpes encephalitis (inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus). It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus.

In medical terms, vidarabine is a nucleoside analogue that is phosphorylated intracellularly to the active form, vidarabine triphosphate. This compound inhibits viral DNA polymerase and incorporates into viral DNA, causing termination of viral DNA synthesis.

Vidarabine was previously used as an injectable medication but has largely been replaced by more modern antiviral drugs such as acyclovir due to its greater efficacy and lower toxicity.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

The "Graft versus Leukemia (GvL) Effect" is a term used in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to describe a desirable outcome where the donor's immune cells (graft) recognize and attack the recipient's leukemia cells (host). This effect occurs when the donor's T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and other immune cells become activated against the recipient's malignant cells.

The GvL effect is often observed in patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), where the donor and recipient are not genetically identical. The genetic disparity between the donor and recipient creates an environment that allows for the recognition of host leukemia cells as foreign, triggering an immune response against them.

While the GvL effect can be beneficial in eliminating residual leukemia cells, it can also lead to complications such as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's healthy tissues. Balancing the GvL effect and minimizing GvHD remains a significant challenge in allo-HSCT.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming and developing blood cells. It occurs in the bone marrow and includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis). This process is regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and cytokines. Hematopoiesis begins early in fetal development and continues throughout a person's life. Disorders of hematopoiesis can result in conditions such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis.

Infection is defined medically as the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites within the body, which can lead to tissue damage, illness, and disease. This process often triggers an immune response from the host's body in an attempt to eliminate the infectious agents and restore homeostasis. Infections can be transmitted through various routes, including airborne particles, direct contact with contaminated surfaces or bodily fluids, sexual contact, or vector-borne transmission. The severity of an infection may range from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening, depending on factors such as the type and quantity of pathogen, the host's immune status, and any underlying health conditions.

Thiotepa is an antineoplastic (cancer-fighting) drug. It belongs to a class of medications called alkylating agents, which work by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Thiotepa is used in the treatment of various types of cancers, including breast, ovarian, and bladder cancer.

It may be administered intravenously (into a vein), intravesically (into the bladder), or intrathecally (into the spinal cord). The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, thiotepa can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and a weakened immune system. It is important for patients to discuss these potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Phytochelatins are low molecular weight, heavy metal-binding peptides that are synthesized by plants and some other organisms in response to exposure to toxic metals. They are composed of repeating units of the amino acids glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, with the general structure (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, where n typically ranges from 2 to 5.

Phytochelatins are produced by the enzyme phytochelatin synthase, which is activated in the presence of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, and lead. Once synthesized, phytochelatins bind to these metals, forming metal-phytochelatin complexes that are then transported to the vacuole for sequestration and detoxification.

In addition to their role in heavy metal detoxification, phytochelatins have been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting plants against oxidative stress. They have also attracted interest as potential therapeutic agents for heavy metal poisoning in humans and other animals.

Salvage therapy, in the context of medical oncology, refers to the use of treatments that are typically considered less desirable or more aggressive, often due to greater side effects or lower efficacy, when standard treatment options have failed. These therapies are used to attempt to salvage a response or delay disease progression in patients with refractory or relapsed cancers.

In other words, salvage therapy is a last-resort treatment approach for patients who have not responded to first-line or subsequent lines of therapy. It may involve the use of different drug combinations, higher doses of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. The goal of salvage therapy is to extend survival, improve quality of life, or achieve disease stabilization in patients with limited treatment options.

Isogeneic transplantation is a type of transplant where the donor and recipient are genetically identical, meaning they are identical twins or have the same genetic makeup. In this case, the immune system recognizes the transplanted organ or tissue as its own and does not mount an immune response to reject it. This reduces the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are typically required in other types of transplantation to prevent rejection.

In medical terms, isogeneic transplantation is defined as the transfer of genetic identical tissues or organs between genetically identical individuals, resulting in minimal risk of rejection and no need for immunosuppressive therapy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cell transplantation is the process of transferring living cells from one part of the body to another or from one individual to another. In medicine, cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for various diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. The goal of cell transplantation is to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells with healthy ones, thereby restoring normal function to the affected area.

In the context of medical research, cell transplantation may involve the use of stem cells, which are immature cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of specialized cells. Stem cell transplantation has shown promise in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injuries, stroke, and heart disease.

It is important to note that cell transplantation carries certain risks, such as immune rejection and infection. As such, it is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have failed or are unlikely to be effective.

Hematologic diseases, also known as hematological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the production, function, or destruction of blood cells or blood-related components, such as plasma. These diseases can affect erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets (thrombocytes), as well as clotting factors and hemoglobin.

Hematologic diseases can be broadly categorized into three main types:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, or hematocrit, leading to insufficient oxygen transport to tissues and organs. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, and aplastic anemia.
2. Leukemia and other disorders of white blood cells: These conditions involve the abnormal production or function of leukocytes, which can lead to impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Examples include leukemias (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia), lymphomas, and myelodysplastic syndromes.
3. Platelet and clotting disorders: These diseases affect the production or function of platelets and clotting factors, leading to abnormal bleeding or clotting tendencies. Examples include hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Hematologic diseases can have various causes, including genetic defects, infections, autoimmune processes, environmental factors, or malignancies. Proper diagnosis and management of these conditions often require the expertise of hematologists, who specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders related to blood and its components.

Embryonic stem cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, which is a very early-stage embryo. These cells have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body, making them a promising area of research for regenerative medicine and the study of human development and disease. Embryonic stem cells are typically obtained from surplus embryos created during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, with the consent of the donors. The use of embryonic stem cells is a controversial issue due to ethical concerns surrounding the destruction of human embryos.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

POEMS syndrome is a rare and complex disorder that affects multiple parts of the body. The name POEMS is an acronym that stands for the following symptoms: Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal gammopathy, and Skin changes.

Here's a brief definition of each component of the syndrome:

* Polyneuropathy: This refers to damage to the peripheral nerves that can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, pain, and weakness in the arms and legs.
* Organomegaly: This means enlargement of organs, such as the liver, spleen, or lymph nodes.
* Endocrinopathy: This refers to abnormalities in hormone-producing glands, which can lead to symptoms such as diabetes, low testosterone levels, and thyroid dysfunction.
* Monoclonal gammopathy: This is an abnormal production of a single type of immunoglobulin (a protein produced by the immune system) in the bone marrow.
* Skin changes: These can include skin thickening, darkening, or redness, as well as skin lesions.

POEMS syndrome is typically caused by an underlying plasma cell disorder, such as multiple myeloma or a related condition called Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Treatment for POEMS syndrome usually involves addressing the underlying plasma cell disorder, as well as managing specific symptoms of the syndrome.

Amyloidosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of insoluble proteins called amyloid in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These misfolded protein deposits can disrupt the normal function of affected organs, leading to a range of symptoms depending on the location and extent of the amyloid deposition.

There are different types of amyloidosis, classified based on the specific proteins involved:

1. Primary (AL) Amyloidosis: This is the most common form, accounting for around 80% of cases. It results from the overproduction and misfolding of immunoglobulin light chains, typically by clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. The amyloid deposits can affect various organs, including the heart, kidneys, liver, and nervous system.
2. Secondary (AA) Amyloidosis: This form is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or familial Mediterranean fever. The amyloid fibrils are composed of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant produced during the inflammatory response. The kidneys are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.
3. Hereditary or Familial Amyloidosis: These forms are caused by genetic mutations that result in the production of abnormal proteins prone to misfolding and amyloid formation. Examples include transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, fibrinogen amyloidosis, and apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis. These forms can affect various organs, including the heart, nerves, and kidneys.
4. Dialysis-Related Amyloidosis: This form is seen in patients undergoing long-term dialysis for chronic kidney disease. The amyloid fibrils are composed of beta-2 microglobulin, a protein that accumulates due to impaired clearance during dialysis. The joints and bones are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.

The diagnosis of amyloidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and tissue biopsy with the demonstration of amyloid deposition using special stains (e.g., Congo red). Treatment depends on the specific type and extent of organ involvement and may include supportive care, medications to target the underlying cause (e.g., chemotherapy, immunomodulatory agents), and organ transplantation in some cases.

Blood cells are the formed elements in the blood, including red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes). These cells are produced in the bone marrow and play crucial roles in the body's functions. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from them, while white blood cells are part of the immune system and help defend against infection and disease. Platelets are cell fragments that are essential for normal blood clotting.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Hodgkin disease, also known as Hodgkin lymphoma, is a type of cancer that originates in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It typically affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The disease is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell, known as a Reed-Sternberg cell, within the affected lymph nodes.

The symptoms of Hodgkin disease may include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin; fever; night sweats; weight loss; and fatigue. The exact cause of Hodgkin disease is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious factors.

Hodgkin disease is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for Hodgkin disease is generally very good, with a high cure rate. However, long-term side effects of treatment may include an increased risk of secondary cancers and other health problems.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders characterized by dysplasia (abnormal development or maturation) of one or more types of blood cells or by ineffective hematopoiesis, resulting in cytopenias (lower than normal levels of one or more types of blood cells). MDS can be classified into various subtypes based on the number and type of cytopenias, the degree of dysplasia, the presence of ring sideroblasts, and cytogenetic abnormalities.

The condition primarily affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. MDS can evolve into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in approximately 30-40% of cases. The pathophysiology of MDS involves genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that lead to impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, ultimately resulting in cytopenias and an increased risk of developing AML.

The diagnosis of MDS typically requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, along with cytogenetic and molecular analyses to identify specific genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment options for MDS depend on the subtype, severity of cytopenias, and individual patient factors. These may include supportive care measures, such as transfusions and growth factor therapy, or more aggressive treatments, such as chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

Adult stem cells, also known as somatic stem cells, are undifferentiated cells found in specialized tissues or organs throughout the body of a developed organism. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are derived from blastocysts and have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body (pluripotency), adult stem cells are typically more limited in their differentiation potential, meaning they can only give rise to specific types of cells within the tissue or organ where they reside.

Adult stem cells serve to maintain and repair tissues by replenishing dying or damaged cells. They can divide and self-renew over time, producing one daughter cell that remains a stem cell and another that differentiates into a mature, functional cell type. The most well-known adult stem cells are hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to all types of blood cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, which can differentiate into various connective tissue cells such as bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle.

The potential therapeutic use of adult stem cells has been explored in various medical fields, including regenerative medicine and cancer therapy. However, their limited differentiation capacity and the challenges associated with isolating and expanding them in culture have hindered their widespread application. Recent advances in stem cell research, such as the development of techniques to reprogram adult cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have opened new avenues for studying and harnessing the therapeutic potential of these cells.

Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemias and lymphomas. Its chemical name is cytosine arabinoside, and it works by interfering with the DNA synthesis of cancer cells, which ultimately leads to their death.

Cytarabine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and may be administered through various routes, such as intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous injection, or orally. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, cytarabine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system, and it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment to minimize these risks.

It's important to note that medical treatments should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and this information should not be used as a substitute for medical advice.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in our body. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are three types of HLA antigens: HLA class I, HLA class II, and HLA class III. HLA class I antigens are found on the surface of almost all cells in the body and help the immune system recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells. They consist of three components: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C.

HLA class II antigens are primarily found on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. They assist in the presentation of foreign particles (like bacteria and viruses) to CD4+ T cells, which then activate other parts of the immune system. HLA class II antigens include HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

HLA class III antigens consist of various molecules involved in immune responses, such as cytokines and complement components. They are not directly related to antigen presentation.

The genetic diversity of HLA antigens is extensive, with thousands of variations or alleles. This diversity allows for a better ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. However, this variation can also lead to compatibility issues in organ transplantation, as the recipient's immune system may recognize the donor's HLA antigens as foreign and attack the transplanted organ.

Aplastic anemia is a medical condition characterized by pancytopenia (a decrease in all three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) due to the failure of bone marrow to produce new cells. It is called "aplastic" because the bone marrow becomes hypocellular or "aplastic," meaning it contains few or no blood-forming stem cells.

The condition can be acquired or inherited, with acquired aplastic anemia being more common. Acquired aplastic anemia can result from exposure to toxic chemicals, radiation, drugs, viral infections, or autoimmune disorders. Inherited forms of the disease include Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, frequent infections, and fever. Treatment options for aplastic anemia depend on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause. They may include blood transfusions, immunosuppressive therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are caused by the human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), a type of herpesvirus. The infection can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation.

CMV can be spread through close contact with an infected person's saliva, urine, blood, tears, semen, or breast milk. It can also be spread through sexual contact or by sharing contaminated objects, such as toys, eating utensils, or drinking glasses. Once a person is infected with CMV, the virus remains in their body for life and can reactivate later, causing symptoms to recur.

Most people who are infected with CMV do not experience any symptoms, but some may develop a mononucleosis-like illness, characterized by fever, fatigue, swollen glands, and sore throat. In people with weakened immune systems, CMV infections can cause more severe symptoms, including pneumonia, gastrointestinal disease, retinitis, and encephalitis.

Congenital CMV infection occurs when a pregnant woman passes the virus to her fetus through the placenta. This can lead to serious complications, such as hearing loss, vision loss, developmental delays, and mental disability.

Diagnosis of CMV infections is typically made through blood tests or by detecting the virus in bodily fluids, such as urine or saliva. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's overall health. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Inbred NOD (Nonobese Diabetic) mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically predisposed to develop autoimmune diabetes. This strain was originally developed in Japan and has been widely used as an animal model for studying type 1 diabetes and its complications.

NOD mice typically develop diabetes spontaneously at around 12-14 weeks of age, although the onset and severity of the disease can vary between individual mice. The disease is caused by a breakdown in immune tolerance, leading to an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Inbred NOD mice are highly valuable for research purposes because they exhibit many of the same genetic and immunological features as human patients with type 1 diabetes. By studying these mice, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the disease and develop new treatments and therapies.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL positive is a specific subtype of leukemia that originates in the bone marrow and involves the excessive production of mature granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. It is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is formed by a genetic translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. This gene encodes for an abnormal protein with increased tyrosine kinase activity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The presence of this genetic abnormality is used to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Carmustine is a chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancer, including brain tumors, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. It belongs to a class of drugs called alkylating agents, which work by damaging the DNA in cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing.

Carmustine is available as an injectable solution that is administered intravenously (into a vein) or as implantable wafers that are placed directly into the brain during surgery. The drug can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and low blood cell counts, among others. It may also increase the risk of certain infections and bleeding complications.

As with all chemotherapy drugs, carmustine can have serious and potentially life-threatening side effects, and it should only be administered under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional. Patients receiving carmustine treatment should be closely monitored for signs of toxicity and other adverse reactions.

Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (previously known as Precursor T-lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma) is a type of cancer that affects the early stages of T-cell development. It is a subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs.

In Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, these abnormal lymphoblasts accumulate primarily in the lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes, leading to the enlargement of these organs. This subtype is more aggressive than other forms of ALL and has a higher risk of spreading to the central nervous system (CNS).

The medical definition of Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma includes:

1. A malignant neoplasm of immature T-cell precursors, also known as lymphoblasts.
2. Characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of these abnormal cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes.
3. Often associated with chromosomal abnormalities, genetic mutations, or aberrant gene expression that contribute to its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
4. Typically presents with symptoms related to bone marrow failure (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and potential CNS involvement.
5. Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular genetic testing.
6. Treated with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, often combined with radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation to achieve remission and improve survival outcomes.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Lymphocyte depletion is a medical term that refers to the reduction in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the body. Lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immune system, as they help to fight off infections and diseases.

Lymphocyte depletion can occur due to various reasons, including certain medical treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, immune disorders, viral infections, or bone marrow transplantation. This reduction in lymphocytes can make a person more susceptible to infections and diseases, as their immune system is weakened.

There are different types of lymphocytes, including T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphocyte depletion can affect one or all of these types. In some cases, lymphocyte depletion may be temporary and resolve on its own or with treatment. However, in other cases, it may be more prolonged and require medical intervention to manage the associated risks and complications.

Transplantation Immunology is a branch of medicine that deals with the immune responses occurring between a transplanted organ or tissue and the recipient's body. It involves understanding and managing the immune system's reaction to foreign tissue, which can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. This field also studies the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection and the potential risks and side effects associated with their use. The main goal of transplantation immunology is to find ways to promote the acceptance of transplanted tissue while minimizing the risk of infection and other complications.

Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Ifosfamide is used to treat various types of cancers, such as testicular cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and certain types of sarcomas.

The medical definition of Ifosfamide is:

Ifosfamide is a synthetic antineoplastic agent, an oxazaphosphorine derivative, with the chemical formula C6H15Cl2N2O2P. It is used in the treatment of various malignancies, including germ cell tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. The drug is administered intravenously and exerts its cytotoxic effects through the alkylation and cross-linking of DNA, leading to the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Ifosfamide can cause significant myelosuppression and has been associated with urotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and secondary malignancies. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

A platelet count is a laboratory test that measures the number of platelets, also known as thrombocytes, in a sample of blood. Platelets are small, colorless cell fragments that circulate in the blood and play a crucial role in blood clotting. They help to stop bleeding by sticking together to form a plug at the site of an injured blood vessel.

A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (µL) of blood. A lower than normal platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, while a higher than normal platelet count is known as thrombocytosis.

Abnormal platelet counts can be a sign of various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your platelet count or if you experience symptoms such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, or excessive menstrual flow.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

Pluripotent stem cells are a type of undifferentiated stem cell that have the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm) of a developing embryo. These cells can give rise to all the cell types that make up the human body, with the exception of those that form the extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta.

Pluripotent stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew, which means they can divide and produce more pluripotent stem cells, and differentiate, which means they can give rise to specialized cell types with specific functions. Pluripotent stem cells can be derived from embryos at the blastocyst stage of development or generated in the lab through a process called induced pluripotency, where adult cells are reprogrammed to have the properties of embryonic stem cells.

Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering because they can be used to generate large numbers of specific cell types that can potentially replace or repair damaged or diseased tissues in the body. However, their use is still a subject of ethical debate due to concerns about the source of embryonic stem cells and the potential risks associated with their use in clinical applications.

Cyclosporine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. Cyclosporine works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce the risk of the body attacking the transplanted organ.

In addition to its use in organ transplantation, cyclosporine may also be used to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It does this by suppressing the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

Cyclosporine is available in capsule, oral solution, and injectable forms. Common side effects of the medication include kidney problems, high blood pressure, tremors, headache, and nausea. Long-term use of cyclosporine can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer and infections.

It is important to note that cyclosporine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it requires regular monitoring of blood levels and kidney function.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

The "Graft vs Tumor Effect" is a term used in the field of transplantation medicine, particularly in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It refers to the anti-tumor activity exhibited by donor immune cells (graft) against residual malignant cells (tumor) in the recipient's body.

After HSCT, the donor's immune system is reconstituted in the recipient's body. If the donor and recipient are not identical, there may be differences in their major and minor histocompatibility antigens, which can lead to a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues. However, these same donor immune cells can also recognize and target any residual tumor cells in the recipient's body, leading to a graft vs tumor effect.

This effect can contribute to the elimination of residual malignant cells and reduce the risk of relapse, particularly in hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. However, it is important to balance this effect with the risk of GVHD, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, strategies such as donor selection, graft manipulation, and immunosuppressive therapy are used to optimize the graft vs tumor effect while minimizing GVHD.

Chimerism is a medical term that refers to the presence of genetically distinct cell populations within an individual. This phenomenon can occur naturally or as a result of a medical procedure such as a stem cell transplant. In natural chimerism, an individual may have cells with different genetic compositions due to events that occurred during embryonic development, such as the fusion of two fertilized eggs (also known as "twinning") or the exchange of cells between twins in utero.

In the context of a stem cell transplant, chimerism can occur when a donor's stem cells engraft and begin to produce new blood cells in the recipient's body. This can result in the presence of both the recipient's own cells and the donor's cells in the recipient's body. The degree of chimerism can vary, with some individuals showing complete chimerism (where all blood cells are derived from the donor) or mixed chimerism (where both the recipient's and donor's cells coexist).

Monitoring chimerism levels is important in stem cell transplantation to assess the success of the procedure and to detect any potential signs of graft rejection or relapse of the original disease.

Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease (VOD), also known as Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (SOS), is a medical condition characterized by the obstruction or blockage of the small veins (venules) in the liver. This results in the backup of blood in the liver, leading to swelling and damage to the liver cells.

The obstruction is usually caused by the injury and inflammation of the endothelial cells lining the venules, which can be triggered by various factors such as chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or exposure to certain toxins. The damage to the liver can lead to symptoms such as fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), enlarged liver, jaundice, and in severe cases, liver failure.

The diagnosis of VOD/SOS is typically made based on a combination of clinical signs, symptoms, and imaging studies, such as ultrasound or CT scan. In some cases, a liver biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for VOD/SOS is primarily supportive, with the goal of managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include medications to reduce swelling, improve liver function, and prevent infection. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be considered as a last resort.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "siblings" is not a medical term. It is a term used in genealogy and sociology to refer to the brothers and sisters that someone has. Sibling relationships can have medical implications, such as when inherited genetic disorders are present in a family, but the term "siblings" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

A "Blood Cell Count" is a medical laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a sample of blood. This test is often used as a part of a routine check-up or to help diagnose various medical conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, and many others.

The RBC count measures the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood, while the WBC count measures the number of immune cells that help fight infections. The platelet count measures the number of cells involved in clotting. Abnormal results in any of these counts may indicate an underlying medical condition and further testing may be required for diagnosis and treatment.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

A residual neoplasm is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the remaining abnormal tissue or cancer cells after a surgical procedure or treatment aimed at completely removing a tumor. This means that some cancer cells have been left behind and continue to persist in the body. The presence of residual neoplasm can increase the risk of recurrence or progression of the disease, as these remaining cells may continue to grow and divide.

Residual neoplasm is often assessed during follow-up appointments and monitoring, using imaging techniques like CT scans, MRIs, or PET scans, and sometimes through biopsies. The extent of residual neoplasm can influence the choice of further treatment options, such as additional surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies, to eliminate the remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Immunophenotyping is a medical laboratory technique used to identify and classify cells, usually in the context of hematologic (blood) disorders and malignancies (cancers), based on their surface or intracellular expression of various proteins and antigens. This technique utilizes specific antibodies tagged with fluorochromes, which bind to the target antigens on the cell surface or within the cells. The labeled cells are then analyzed using flow cytometry, allowing for the detection and quantification of multiple antigenic markers simultaneously.

Immunophenotyping helps in understanding the distribution of different cell types, their subsets, and activation status, which can be crucial in diagnosing various hematological disorders, immunodeficiencies, and distinguishing between different types of leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies. Additionally, it can also be used to monitor the progression of diseases, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, and detect minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up care.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Blood group incompatibility refers to a situation where the blood type of a donor and a recipient are not compatible, leading to an immune response and destruction of the donated red blood cells. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the donor's red blood cells as foreign due to the presence of incompatible antigens on their surface.

The most common type of blood group incompatibility occurs between individuals with different ABO blood types, such as when a person with type O blood receives type A, B, or AB blood. This can lead to agglutination and hemolysis of the donated red blood cells, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as hemolytic transfusion reaction.

Another type of blood group incompatibility occurs between Rh-negative mothers and their Rh-positive fetuses. If a mother's immune system is exposed to her fetus's Rh-positive red blood cells during pregnancy or childbirth, she may develop antibodies against them. This can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn if the mother becomes pregnant with another Rh-positive fetus in the future.

To prevent these complications, it is essential to ensure that donated blood is compatible with the recipient's blood type before transfusion and that appropriate measures are taken during pregnancy and childbirth to prevent sensitization of Rh-negative mothers to Rh-positive red blood cells.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells found in various tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. They have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, under specific conditions. MSCs also possess immunomodulatory properties, making them a promising tool in regenerative medicine and therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and tissue injuries. It is important to note that the term "Mesenchymal Stem Cells" has been replaced by "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" in the scientific community to better reflect their biological characteristics and potential functions.

Upon birth, umbilical cord blood is taken and used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The conception of a child in ... A savior sibling may be the solution for any disease treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is effective ... that can best be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The savior sibling is conceived through in vitro ... that can best be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and ...
... is amongst the diseases treated with bone marrow transplantation and cord blood stem cells.[citation needed] WHIM ... Myelokathexis is a congenital disorder of the white blood cells that causes severe, chronic leukopenia (a reduction of ... Blood. 95 (1): 320-327. doi:10.1182/blood.V95.1.320. PMID 10607719. S2CID 9635789. Hord, JD; Whitlock, JA; Gay, JC; Lukens, JN ... circulating white blood cells) and neutropenia (a reduction of neutrophil granulocytes). The disorder is believed to be ...
This usually takes the form of a bone-marrow transplantation, but the cells can also be derived from umbilical cord blood. ... Fetal tissue implant Induced pluripotent stem cell Induced stem cells Stem cell chip Stem cell therapy for macular degeneration ... 16 December 2013 Why Perform a Stem Cell Transplant? Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation ... "Selling Stem Cells in the USA: Assessing the Direct-to-Consumer Industry". Cell Stem Cell. 19 (2): 154-157. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ...
... and not pluripotent stem cells (such as embryonic stem cells, which can differentiate into any type of tissue). Cord blood has ... hematopoietic cell transplantation stem cell transplantation (4th ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444303537. Haller M J ... Along with cord blood, Wharton's jelly and the cord lining have been explored as sources for mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and ... Any such potential beyond blood and immunological uses is limited by the fact that cord cells are hematopoietic stem cells ( ...
Jane Dreaper (13 May 2005). "Concern over cord blood banking". BBC News. Retrieved 24 March 2016. "New cord blood stem cell ... "Global Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) At One Million: An Achievement Of Pioneers and Foreseeable Challenges For ... It procures, processes and stores human umbilical cord blood and tissue samples that may be used for stem cell treatments. ... "5 things to think about when banking your baby's stem cells". Cord Blood Aware. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016. ...
Transplantation of stem cells are taken from the bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord of healthy, matched donors. ... Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to blood cells. Differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells require a lot ... Stem cells are taken from an affected child's blood or bone marrow. Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) involves intravenous infusion of stem cells to those who have either a damaged ...
... cord blood stem cells are multipotent. Cord blood is used the same way that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to ... pluripote "How do embryonic stem cells, somatic stem cells, and cord blood stem cells differ? , NYSTEM". stemcell.ny.gov. ... Cord blood is composed of all the elements found in whole blood - red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, platelets. ... Collected cord blood is cryopreserved and then stored in a cord blood bank for future transplantation. Cord blood collection is ...
Only Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT), commonly referred to as bone marrow or (umbilical) cord blood transplant, ... Immature granulocytes and nucleated red cells in the peripheral blood. White blood cell count >10 x 109/L. Clonal chromosomal ... Fludarabine before Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Study of 33 Cases in Single Center". Blood. 134 (Supplement_1): ... The only treatment that has resulted in cures for JMML is stem cell transplantation, also known as a bone marrow transplant, ...
... endothelial stem cells (to form lining of blood vessels) from umbilical cord blood; and mesenchymal stem cells (to form ... A proof-of-concept of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate human organ for transplantation was reported by ... July 2010). "Reprogramming of human peripheral blood cells to induced pluripotent stem cells". Cell Stem Cell. 7 (1): 20-4. doi ... Embryonic cord-blood cells were induced into pluripotent stem cells using plasmid DNA. Using cell surface endothelial/pericytic ...
... unless there is a family member with a current or potential need to undergo a stem cell transplantation. The American Academy ... However, cord blood stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells) are not embryonic stem cells (pluripotent stem cells). Cryo-Cell ... Cord blood stem cells are blood cell progenitors which can form red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This is why ... Since then, cord blood has become increasingly recognized as a source of stem cells that can be used in stem cell therapy. ...
It is also used before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, because blood group incompatibility can be responsible for some ... 141 Cord blood samples may be contaminated with Wharton's jelly, a viscous substance that can cause red blood cells to stick ... two populations of red blood cells are apparent after reaction with the blood typing antisera. Some of the red blood cells are ... In blood typing, reagents containing blood group antibodies, called antisera,: 586 are added to suspensions of blood cells. If ...
Treatment options are limited, although hematopoietic stem cell transplantations using bone marrow or cord blood seem to help ... Induced pluripotent stem cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, gene correction, and transplantation to promote the maturation ... Oligodendrocyte precursor cells and neural stem cells have been transplanted successfully and have shown to be healthy a year ... globoid cell leukodystrophy - GLD), gene therapy using autologous hematopoietic stem cells to transfer the healthy copy of the ...
Manufacturing of stem cells is done through the collection of cord blood, to then be put in the cord blood bank. Canadian Blood ... After transplantation, donated stem cells that are deemed healthy replace damaged stem cells in a patient's bone marrow and ... Cord blood is the blood remaining in the umbilical cord and placenta after a baby is delivered. Cord blood contains an ... Cord Blood Bank is now officially launched , Canadian Blood Services". www.blood.ca. Retrieved 2019-11-12. "Cord blood matters ...
... and stores umbilical cord blood for the purpose of clinical cures and basic research in the field of stem cell transplantation ... LifeSouth Cord Blood Bank participates in the network of public cord blood banks affiliated with the National Marrow Donor ... LifeSouth Cord Blood Bank is a program of LifeSouth Community Blood Centers which performs community and donor education, cord ... LifeSouth Cord Blood Bank is a community-based public cord blood bank that collects ...
Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. Even in cases in which ... type Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis Leydig cell tumor Leydig cell tumor Sertoli cell tumor Sertoli cell tumor Large cell ... This is because the lymphatic system of the scrotum, through which white blood cells (and, potentially, cancer cells) flow in ... Germ cells derived from germ cell neoplasia in situ Noninvasive germ cell neoplasia Germ cell neoplasia in situ' Specific forms ...
It is also used before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as it may be responsible for some cases of acute graft-versus- ... Blood compatibility testing is also routinely performed on pregnant women and on the cord blood from newborn babies, because ... define the Er red blood cell antigens". Blood. 141 (2): 135-146. doi:10.1182/blood.2022016504. PMID 36122374. S2CID 252382544. ... We identified ABCB6 as the genetic basis of the Lan blood group antigen expressed on red blood cells but also at the plasma ...
"Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR5Δ32/Δ32 stem cell transplantation". Blood. 117 (10): 2791-2799. doi:10.1182/blood ... StemCyte began collaborations with cord blood banks worldwide to systematically screen umbilical cord blood samples for the ... 2015). "Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation". Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and ... February 2009). "Long-term control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 stem-cell transplantation". The New England Journal of ...
12,506 peripheral blood stem-cell donations, and 3,949 cord-blood units). Autologous HSCT requires the extraction (apheresis) ... "Peripheral blood stem cells for allogeneic transplantation: a review". Stem Cells. 19 (2): 108-117. doi:10.1634/stemcells.19-2- ... Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ... Peripheral blood stem cells are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood through a ...
"Stem Cell Transplant (Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Cord Blood Transplants)". Retrieved 4 March 2012. "Peripheral Blood ... Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), also called "Peripheral stem cell support", is a method of replacing blood- ... "Peripheral blood stem cells for allogeneic transplantation: a review". Stem Cells. 19 (2): 108-17. doi:10.1634/stemcells.19-2- ... "Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation". 2005-09-09. Welte, K; Gabrilove, J; Bronchud, MH; ...
... peripheral blood stem cells collected by apheresis, and umbilical cord stem cells. By 2016, this has grown to over 13,000 stem ... On January 13, 2011, City of Hope performed its 10,000th hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which includes transplants of ... contract to facilitate stem cell research from laboratory to clinical study; focus on development and manufacture of stem cell ... Joy, Darrin S. (2009-12-14). "City of Hope receives $17 million for islet and stem cell informatics". City of Hope - Hope News ...
This enables Hematopoietic stem cells to be harvested directly from the blood. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) ... or umbilical cord blood. It may be autologous (the patient's own stem cells are used), allogeneic (the stem cells come from a ... Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells. This process is called haematopoiesis. ... Dzierzak E, Bigas A (May 2018). "Blood Development: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Dependence and Independence". Cell Stem Cell. 22 (5 ...
Mannitol-enhanced delivery of stem cells and their growth factors across the blood-brain barrier. Cell transplantation, 23(4-5 ... normally impermeable blood components like the large molecule albumin or red blood cells can be detected in spinal cord tissue ... which induces BSCB disruption that allows white blood cell migration, followed by the white blood cells releasing more ... It results in increased BSCB permeability that allows white blood cells to migrate into the spinal cord, where they can release ...
... is therefore a potential source of adult stem cells, often collected from cord blood. Wharton's jelly-derived ... mesenchymal stem cells may have immunomodulatory effect on lymphocytes. Wharton's jelly tissue transplantation has shown to be ... January 2003). "Matrix Cells from Wharton's Jelly Form Neurons and Glia". Stem Cells. 21 (1): 50-60. doi:10.1634/stemcells.21-1 ... "Immunomodulatory effect of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on lymphocytes". Cell Immunol. ...
The T-cells of umbilical cord blood (UCB) have an inherent immunological immaturity, and the use of UCB stem cells in unrelated ... "Unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation: marrow or umbilical cord blood?". Blood. 101 (11): 4233-44. doi:10.1182/ ... GvHD is commonly associated with bone marrow transplants and stem cell transplants. White blood cells of the donor's immune ... "Acute GVHD prophylaxis plus ATLG after myeloablative allogeneic haemopoietic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from ...
... or umbilical cord blood. It may be autologous (the patient's own stem cells are used), allogeneic (the stem cells come from a ... is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, ... A stem cell transplant is a transplant intended to replace the progenitor hematopoietic stem cells Hematopoietic stem cell ... All blood cells are divided into three lineages. Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, are the oxygen-carrying cells. ...
... to freeze for long-term storage at a cord blood bank should the child ever require the cord blood stem cells (for example, to ... "Cord Blood Banking for Potential Future Transplantation". Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. "Cord blood yields 'ethical ... The umbilical cord lining is a good source of mesenchymal and epithelial stem cells. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC- ... 2005). "Anti-inflammatory effects of human cord blood cells in a rat model of stroke". Stem Cells Dev. 14 (5): 595-604. doi: ...
... stem cell factor and rhIL-4 stimulate differentiation and proliferation of CD3+ cells from umbilical cord blood and CD3+ cells ... "Serum stem cell growth factor for monitoring hematopoietic recovery following stem cell transplantation". Bone Marrow ... "In vitro differentiation of endothelial cells from AC133-positive progenitor cells". Blood. 95 (10): 3106-12. doi:10.1182/blood ... Hollenbeck ST, Sakakibara K, Faries PL, Workhu B, Liu B, Kent KC (August 2004). "Stem cell factor and c-kit are expressed by ...
... A offer stem cell enriched cord blood repository services as well as stem cell enriched cord blood for transplantation ... Under ReliCord S the stored cord blood stem cells can be used for haematopoetic stem cell transplantation for family members ... culturing of mesenchymal stem cells and storage of cord tissue with 15 million stem cells. Before storage the cord blood is ... The stem cell enriched cord blood is then cryo-preserved at the repository at a temperature of minus 196 degrees Celsius. Stem ...
Mesenchymal stem cells are found in umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, and adipose tissue and can generate a number of cell ... See Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) Of the types of adult stem cells have successfully been isolated and identified, ... Stem cell Embryonic stem cell Induced pluripotent stem cell Induced stem cells Adult stem cell Cell culture Immortalised cell ... Types of adult stem cells include hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are found in ...
Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program and National Cord Blood Inventory, HRSA helps make possible blood stem cell transplants ... Stem cells for transplant come from adult volunteer donors and umbilical cord blood units donated to public cord blood banks. ... 62 FR 43173 69 FR 56433 science of biogenetics (11 February 2017). "What you must know about umbilical cord stem cells". U.S. ... The program recruits adult volunteer donors, helps member cord blood banks collect and list additional units, and supports ...
Human cord blood-derived viral pathogens as the potential threats to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation safety: A mini ... Human cord blood-derived viral pathogens as the potential threats to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation safety: A mini ... Human cord blood-derived viral pathogens as the potential threats to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation safety: A mini ... Human cord blood-derived viral pathogens as the potential threats to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation safety: A mini ...
The image below illustrates an algorithm for typically preferred hematopoietic stem cell transplantation cel... ... infusion of autologous or allogeneic stem cells to reestablish hematopoietic function in patients whose bone marrow or immune ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) involves the intravenous (IV) ... Cord blood. Cord blood transplantation refers to the use of hematopoietic stem cells collected from the umbilical cord and ...
Read chapter 2 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: With the potential for self-renewal and differentiation, the ... Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program examines:. *The role of cord blood in stem cell ... Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults: Results of the prospective cord blood transplantation (COBLT). Biology of Blood ... Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program (2005) Chapter: 2 Hematopoietic Stem Cell ...
"Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation" was ... Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation*Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. *Stem Cell Transplantation, Placental Blood ... Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. *Placental Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. *Stem Cell Transplantation, Cord ... Harris DT, Israel S. What will Become of the Taxpayer Investment in Public Cord Blood Stem Cell Banking? Curr Stem Cell Res ...
Cord blood banks recruit expectant mothers who donate their babys umbilical cord blood for stem cell transplants. The blood in ... The cord blood banks collect, process, test and store the donated umbilical cord blood. Blood from each cord is frozen ( ... Cord Blood Bank. An organization that helps to collect and store umbilical cord blood for transplantation. ... the umbilical cord contains large numbers of stem cells. ... Cord Blood Bank. Search for glossary terms (regular expression ...
To determine whether umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an alternative cure for myelofibrosis (MF), we evaluated 35 ... Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects * Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods* ... Unrelated cord blood transplantation for patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014 ... 21 University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf Center of Oncology, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, Chairman of the ...
Successful umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients with MDS/AML associated with ... AML/MDS with underlying GATA2 mutations who underwent a successful umbilical cord hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using ...
Stem Cell Transplantation in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart ... Umbilical cord blood transplantation. Autologous stem cell transplantation. Syngeneic stem cell transplantation. umbilical cord ... Stem Cell Transplantation. donor. stem cells from. peripheral blood. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Stem Cell come form ... Leukemia - Stem Cell Transplantation. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Leukemia - Stem Cell Transplantation ...
... of monoclonal gammopathy associated with donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome after cord blood stem cell transplantation. / ... of monoclonal gammopathy associated with donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome after cord blood stem cell transplantation. ... of monoclonal gammopathy associated with donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome after cord blood stem cell transplantation, ... of monoclonal gammopathy associated with donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome after cord blood stem cell transplantation. ...
Home Exome pubmed: wnt1 Transplantation of human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs) enhances the recovery of ...
... therapy combined with allogeneic cord blood stem cell transplantation (SCT) was used to treat a 4-year-old girl with recurrent ... We decided to perform cord blood stem cell transplantation (CBSCT) for hematopoietic rescue after the myeloablative therapies. ... I-131-Metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy with allogeneic cord blood stem cell transplantation for recurrent neuroblastoma. *Yuya ... Iodine-131-metaiodiobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) therapy combined with allogeneic cord blood stem cell transplantation (SCT) was ...
Comparison of Outcomes after Unrelated Double-Unit Cord Blood and Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in ... Fetal Blood. Humans. Recurrence. Graft vs Host Disease. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation ... Unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide as graft- ... Unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide as graft- ...
About Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Latest from News Top Ways To Generate Leads With SEO Techniques In 2022 ...
Study finds mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood, compared with bone marrow, could be a utility in ... FACT Accredited Cord Blood Banks AABB Accredited Cord Blood Facilityies FDA Cord Blood Banking Information for Consumers Cryo- ... Transplantation of porcine umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinsons disease. The present ... study compared mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord matrix (UCM-MSCs) with bone marrow (BM-MSCs) of miniature ...
Open the PDF for Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Induced Toxicity in Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Report of Three Cases and Review ... Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Induced Toxicity in Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature ... View article titled, Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Induced Toxicity in Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Report of Three Cases and ... Stem Cell Transplantation Procedures Are Becoming Affordable for Individuals Living in Developing (Middle-Income) Countries ...
Upon birth, umbilical cord blood is taken and used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The conception of a child in ... A savior sibling may be the solution for any disease treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is effective ... that can best be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The savior sibling is conceived through in vitro ... that can best be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and ...
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived MSCs are an alternative to adult MSCs that can circumvent issues regarding scalability ... This study represents an important step in the development of a commercially scalable and efficacious cell therapy for SLE/LN. ... the inability to manufacture large quantities of functional cells from a single donor as well as donor-dependent variability in ... BWF1 lymphocytes decreased lymphocyte secretion of TNFα and IL-6 and enhanced the percentage of putative regulatory T cells. ...
... bank of cord blood, founded by the Bank of Life Charitable Foundation, started its work in Ukraine. The bank PBKM of Poland ... About 48% of these patients need stem cell transplantation. More than half of them need stem cells from an unrelated donor. ... To begin, we want to donate 100 samples of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells." This donation will help Bank of Life ... He is chief executive of the European umbilical cord blood bank network FamiCord Group and co-founder of a public cord blood ...
Refractory facial cellulitis following cosmetic rhinoplasty after cord-blood stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol 2000; 72 ... Intraoperative blood cultures were negative [59]. On the other hand staphylococcus-exotoxine can cause a toxic-shock-syndrome ( ... Stoll W. Complications following implantation or transplantation in rhinoplasty. Fac Plast Surg 1997; 13 (1): 45-50.. 12.. ... In cases of pain, fever and pathologic blood parameters, systemic application of penicillin may prevent orbital celullitis and ...
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation uses donor stem cells to treat and sometimes cure certain blood disorders and blood ... These new stem cells produce healthy new blood cells. Many people who need stem cell transplantation use stem cells donated by ... Umbilical cord blood stem cells: These are stem cells from umbilical cords and placenta after a baby is born. ... Allogeneic stem cell transplantations replace unhealthy stem cells with healthy stem cells that can make new, healthy blood ...
It will take 6 to 12 months or more for your childs blood counts and immune system to fully recover. During this time, the ... It will take 6 to 12 months or more for your childs blood counts and immune system to fully recover. During this time, the ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Kastan MB, Doroshow JH, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs ... Umbilical cord blood transplant - children - discharge ... www.cancer.gov/types/childhood-cancers/hp-stem-cell-transplant ...
... cells_in_mice_using_natural_killer_nk_cells_from_umbilical_cord_blood ... However, in 1988, researchers found cord blood to be another source for stem cell transplantation. These immature stem cells ... Stem Cell Research. Breakthrough in treating leukemia, lymphoma with umbilical cord blood stem cells. December 9, 2013 06:56 PM ... Zweidler-McKays study involves selecting out NK cells from cord blood. As the cord blood is expanded to multiply in number, ...
Gamida Cell Reports First Quarter 2021 Financial Results and Provides Company Update - read this article along with other ... Phase I/II study of stem-cell transplantation using a single cord blood unit expanded ex vivo with nicotinamide. J Clin Oncol. ... About Gamida Cell. Gamida Cell is an advanced cell therapy company committed to cures for patients with blood cancers and ... BLA submission for omidubicel, a potentially life-saving treatment for patients with blood cancers in need of stem cell ...
CD40 ligand is expressed on activated T lymphocytes and is necessary for T cells to induce B cells to undergo immunoglobulin... ... Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or cord blood stem cell transplantation has been tried in a few patients, with variable ... Cord blood stem cells (fully or partially matched) or bone marrow from an unrelated matched donor may be considered if a ... This process occurs largely in an antigen-independent way (pro-B cells, pre-B cells). Once IgM B cells are engaged with ...
Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Is a Feasible Rescue Therapeutic Option for Patients Suffering from Graft Failure after ... Iron overload in patients with acute leukemia or MDS undergoing myeloablative stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow ... Oxidative stress in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy plus peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Biol Trace Elem ... Assessment of Labile Plasma Iron in Patients Who Undergo Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Subject Area: Hematology , ...
... autologous stem cell transplants and allogeneic stem cell transplants. Find out how a bone marrow transplant restores the bone ... autologous stem cell transplants and allogeneic stem cell transplants. Find out how a bone marrow transplant restores the bone ... marrows ability to create normal, hematopoietic stem cells. ... marrows ability to create normal, hematopoietic stem cells. ... Borje S. Andersson, learn about the two types of stem cell transplants, ...
Guidelines for Preventing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Through Transplantation of Human Tissue and Organs ... Furthermore, cord blood stem cells are being used for both related- and unrelated-donor allogeneic transplantation.. Current ... Peripheral blood stem cells are being used for autologous transplantation and, in the future, may be useful for allogeneic use ... In addition to HIV transmission through blood and blood products, reports of HIV infection following transplantation have ...
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a focus on the use of umbilical cord blood grafts; Allogenic stem cell ... The Cord Blood Apgar: a novel scoring system to optimize selection of banked cord blood grafts for transplantation (CME).  ... pediatric blood and marrow transplantation, umbilical cord blood banking and transplantation, and novel applications of cord ... CD34+ cell content of 126 341 cord blood units in the US inventory: implications for transplantation and banking.  Barker, ...
Blood Banks; Blood Donors; Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Cryopreservation; Female; Fetal Blood; Histocompatibility; ... Results of the cord blood transplantation (COBLT) study unrelated donor banking program.. Go back to Publications ... BACKGROUND: The goals of the Cord Blood Transplantation (COBLT) Study banking program initiated in 1996 were to develop ... for cord blood (CB) donor recruitment and banking and to build an ethnically diverse unrelated CB bank to support a ...
Sickle cell disease (SCD) and its variants are genetic disorders resulting from the presence of a mutated form of hemoglobin, ... Families should also follow the advances of gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation, and the usage of cord blood stem cells. ... Sickle cell disease: an international survey of results of HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood ... American Society of Hematology 2021 guidelines for sickle cell disease: stem cell transplantation. Blood Adv. 2021 Sep 28. 5 ( ...
  • Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and potential alternative for bone marrow transplantation for patients who lack human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors. (wjgnet.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) involves the intravenous infusion of hematopoietic stem cells in order to reestablish blood cell production in patients whose bone marrow or immune system is damaged or defective. (medscape.com)
  • FIGURE 2-1 Formation of the multiple peripheral blood cells from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. (nationalacademies.org)
  • To begin, we want to donate 100 samples of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • In those early days, there was great doubt and skepticism about the utility of UCB as a source of hematopoietic stem cells. (duke.edu)
  • Opportunistic infections (OIs) are defined as any in- the infusion of hematopoietic stem cells from a donor fections that occur with increased frequency or severity into a patient who has received chemotherapy, which in HSCT patients. (cdc.gov)
  • 18 Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. (nih.gov)
  • Whither the Bone Marrow Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma? (karger.com)
  • How I counted: over 7 years Ukraine spent more than UAH 1 billion on treatment abroad, of which 60% was funding for bone marrow transplantation. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or cord blood stem cell transplantation has been tried in a few patients, with variable outcome. (medscape.com)
  • Some research indicates possible benefits associated with using bone marrow transplantation or cord blood transfusion as treatments for Krabbe disease. (disabled-world.com)
  • Prognosis may be significantly better for children who receive umbilical cord blood stem cells before disease onset or early bone marrow transplantation. (disabled-world.com)
  • Bone marrow transplantation, begun in 1983, and stem cell transplantation have grown to encompass allogeneic, unrelated, cord blood, autologous transplants and mini-allogeneic (reduced intensity conditioning) transplantation strategies. (nymc.edu)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) should be administered promptly, and evaluation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) should be started. (medscape.com)
  • Cells for HSCT may be obtained from the patient himself or herself (autologous transplant) or from another person, such as a sibling or unrelated donor (allogeneic transplant) or an identical twin (syngeneic transplant). (medscape.com)
  • Blood and Marrow Transplant Research [CIBMTR] in 2004), the European Research Project on Cord Blood Transplantation (Eurocord) in 1993, and the Japanese Cord Blood Banking Network in 1996-expedited the clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of transplantation of cord blood from unrelated donors. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Gannamani V, Varma A, Nathan S, Ustun C. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) associated permanent hyponatremia in umbilical cord blood transplant recipient. (jefferson.edu)
  • Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. (jefferson.edu)
  • Blood from each cord is frozen (cryopreservervation) as an individual cord blood unit that is available to transplant. (bonemarrowtest.com)
  • A savior baby or savior sibling is a child who is conceived in order to provide a stem cell transplant to a sibling that is affected with a fatal disease, such as cancer or Fanconi anemia, that can best be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company also highlighted progress with omidubicel , an advanced cell therapy with positive Phase 3 clinical data, as a potentially life-saving treatment option for patients in need of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (bone marrow) transplant, and GDA-201 , a natural killer (NK) cell immunotherapy in Phase 1/2 development for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). (biospace.com)
  • During the quarter, Gamida Cell continued to advance omidubicel, the first cell therapy for bone marrow transplant to receive Breakthrough Therapy Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (biospace.com)
  • The company anticipates submitting a Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA in the fourth quarter of this year, based on the results of an international, randomized Phase 3 study of omidubicel that was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of omidubicel in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing a bone marrow transplant compared to patients who received a standard umbilical cord blood transplant. (biospace.com)
  • A key milestone in a patient's recovery, neutrophil engraftment is a measure of how quickly the stem cells a patient receives in a bone marrow transplant are established and begin to make healthy new cells. (biospace.com)
  • In February 2021, the company presented details of the results of the omidubicel Phase 3 study at the Transplantation & Cellular Therapy Meetings of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy and Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research. (biospace.com)
  • Historical transplants used a matched donor's peripheral blood or bone marrow to transplant to a patient. (biologynews.net)
  • Zweidler-McKay also predicts this type of transplant could be used for adults who have already had a transplant or for those adult and pediatric patients who aren't candidates for other stem cell transplants due to blood counts or illness. (biologynews.net)
  • A stem cell transplant is often the best option to treat blood cancers, such as leukemia , lymphoma and multiple myeloma , as well as bone marrow failure syndromes like myelodysplastic syndrome . (mdanderson.org)
  • A hematopoietic stem cell transplant replaces faulty cells so the body can produce normal, healthy cells again. (mdanderson.org)
  • An autologous stem cell transplant uses the patient's own cells for treatment. (mdanderson.org)
  • An allogeneic stem cell transplant is similar, but we take cells from someone other than the patient. (mdanderson.org)
  • Where do allogeneic stem cell transplant donor cells come from? (mdanderson.org)
  • With a peripheral blood cell transplant, the donor receives growth factor shots to stimulate the bone marrow to push the stem cells into the blood. (mdanderson.org)
  • The cells for a cord blood transplant come from an umbilical cord collected at birth by the MD Anderson Cord Blood Bank . (mdanderson.org)
  • For many patients who don't have a well-matched, healthy donor, a cord blood transplant is a viable option. (mdanderson.org)
  • Bone marrow/stem cell transplantation , including traditional and reduced-intensity transplant, using related, unrelated or umbilical cord blood cells for transplant. (dana-farber.org)
  • The study involved targeted mutational analysis of samples obtained before stem cell transplant from 1,514 MDS patients enrolled at the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Repository between 2005 and 2014. (ascopost.com)
  • GVHD is a common problem after a transplant using donor cells. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • The number of cells in a single UCB can be limiting, but the use of two UCBs for a single transplant shows promise to overcome this obstacle. (duke.edu)
  • Women who deliver at any of the four collection sites are given the option to consent to donate their baby's cord blood for biomedical research in the event the cord blood collection does not qualify for transplant. (blood.ca)
  • IU researchers aided doctors in France in the first cord blood transplant in 1989. (ibj.com)
  • A cord blood transplant in the future might be indicated, so we're going to save the blood just in case," said Dr. Scott Goebel, who is part of the pediatric stem cell transplantation program at the children's hospital. (ibj.com)
  • The program, which is accredited by the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy , has pioneered a tandem stem cell transplant for Hodgkin lymphoma, reduced intensity conditioning treatments utilizing the drug mitoxantrone, ara-C and pentostatin and refrigerated marrow storage techniques that have led to wide acclaim. (nymc.edu)
  • Hopefully, following the recommendations made in the guidelines will reduce morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. (cdc.gov)
  • For the purposes of this document, HSCT is defined of the CDC, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, as any transplantation of blood or marrow-derived he- and the American Society of Blood and Marrow Trans- matopoietic stem cells, regardless of transplant type plantation," which was published in the Morbidity and (allogeneic or autologous) or cell source (bone marrow, Mortality Weekly Report [1]. (cdc.gov)
  • No prospective data are available that comprehensively describe the incidence, symptoms, risk factors, and outcomes associated with detection of KIPyV and WUPyV in respiratory specimens from hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. (cdc.gov)
  • Abbey Jenkins, president and CEO of Gamida, called the approval "a major advancement in the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies that we believe may increase access to stem cell transplant and help improve patient outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • A savior sibling may be the solution for any disease treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • B lood cell differentiation begins with multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), which are located in the marrow spaces of the bone. (nationalacademies.org)
  • As the cells reproduce, they commit to a particular task or cell line and become known as committed progenitor cells . (nationalacademies.org)
  • These committed progenitor cells are difficult to discern from the original multipotent cells but can be cultured to form colonies of specific types of blood cells (Guyton and Hall, 2000). (nationalacademies.org)
  • Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of these committed progenitor cells and, presumably, multipotent HPCs (Knudtzon, 1974). (nationalacademies.org)
  • BACKGROUND:Umbilical cord blood has become an important source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for therapeutic applications. (duke.edu)
  • Globally, it is estimated that 120 000 corneal transplantations and 18 000 transplantations of allogeneic haematopoietic progenitor cells took place in the year 2000. (who.int)
  • In preclinical and clinical studies, progenitor cell therapy (cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells) has shown promise in reversing the underlying pathology of SNHL, the loss of cochlear sensory hair cells. (intechopen.com)
  • Progenitor cell therapy may also allow functional reorganization of the auditory pathways including primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus). (intechopen.com)
  • We will present a summary of the effect of hearing loss on auditory development, existing preclinical and clinical data on progenitor cell therapy, and its potential role in the (re)habilitation of non-genetic SNHL. (intechopen.com)
  • 2 Evaluation of harvest adequacy requires the use of reliable progenitor cell assays and this is usually achieved by CD34 cell counting using flow cytometry. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • CD34, a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein, is present on immature hematopoietic precursor cells and all hematopoietic colony-forming cells in bone marrow and blood, including unipotent and pluripotent progenitor cells. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • For many hematopoietic malignancies, collection and infusion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells following chemotherapy is critical. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Flow cytometric enumeration of CD34+ HSCs and progenitor cells is an established method for the evaluation of bone marrow and stem cell grafts. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Flow cytometric applications for CD34+ cell identification and enumeration provide a rapid, quantitative and reproducible method to evaluate the progenitor cell population. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • This article contains highlights of "Guidelines for Pre- allogeneic or autologous, depending on the source of venting Opportunistic Infections among Hematopoi- the transplanted hematopoietic progenitor cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Omidubicel is made from umbilical cord donor stem cells that are processed with nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3, to enhance and expand the number of progenitor cells, the product's maker, Israel-based Gamida Cell, explained in a press announcement . (medscape.com)
  • The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), founded in 1986, and the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), founded in 1988, were established to (1) locate and secure appropriate unrelated-donor HSCT sources for patients by promoting volunteer donation of bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells in the community and (2) promote ethical practices of sharing stem cell sources by need, rather than by geographic location of the donor. (medscape.com)
  • This, along with the development of unrelated cord blood transplantation and familial haploidentical transplantation methods, have improved the likelihood of finding an appropriate HSCT source in a timely manner. (medscape.com)
  • Body iron disorders have been reported after myeloablative conditioning in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (karger.com)
  • For pre-symptomatic infants and older individuals with mild symptoms, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with cord blood is beneficial over symptomatic treatment only. (disabled-world.com)
  • 30,000 patients with blood-related malignancies receive HDC, which, if the response is satisfactory, could subsequently be followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (bdbiosciences.com)
  • CONTEXT: Omidubicel is an ex vivo expanded stem cell product derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). (duke.edu)
  • The most common adverse event following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which can increase morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • are basically 3 phases of immune recovery for HSCT patients, The purposes of the guidelines are (1) to summarize the beginning at day 0, the day of transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • This study compared outcomes after dUCBT and haplo-HCT using peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in adult patients with AML in complete remission (CR) who underwent transplantation in European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)-affiliated centers. (unisr.it)
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapeutic drugs (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, therarubicin, and cisplatin), irradiation of the abdominal cavity, and surgical resection of the adrenal gland, followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • An overview of bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell and cord blood transplantation. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (bone marrow, cord blood, or peripheral blood stem cells) may cure aplastic anemia and prevent myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • 2003). After the early success of transplantation of cord blood from related donors, cord blood banks were established to provide rapidly accessible, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed units predominantly for transplantation of HPCs from unrelated donors. (nationalacademies.org)
  • With more than 6,000 transplants of cord blood from related and unrelated donors performed thus far, cord blood has emerged as an acceptable, alternative source of HPCs that has some advantages over adult sources of HPCs and the availability of which represents an important development in the field. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Exclusion of prospective blood donors based on their acknowledged risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection began in 1983 (1). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1985, when tests for HIV antibody became available, screening prospective donors of blood, organs, and other tissues also began (2,3). (cdc.gov)
  • Organ Transplantation.2 These Guiding Principles - whose emphases include voluntary donation, noncommercialization, genetic relation of recipients to donors and a preference for cadavers over living donors as sources - have considerably influenced professional codes, national, state and provincial legislation, and the policies of intergovernmental organizations. (who.int)
  • Approximately 70% of patientswith life-threatening diseasestreatable with allogeneic bloodstem cell transplantation do not havematched related donors. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The NMDP performs thistask by maintaining a registry of morethan 4.9 million volunteer donors ofmarrow and peripheral blood stemcells (PBSC) and 12 cord blood bankscontaining more than 25,000 units ofumbilical cord blood. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is limited mainly by lack of histocompatible donors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The aims of this article are to review the current knowledge regarding therapeutic mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells in acute liver failure, to discuss recent advancements in preclinical and clinical studies in the treatment of mesenchymal stem cells, and to summarize the methodological improvement of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treating liver failure. (springer.com)
  • [ 1 ] More than half of autologous transplantations are performed for multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma , and the vast majority of allogeneic transplants are performed for hematologic and lymphoid cancers. (medscape.com)
  • Cord blood banks recruit expectant mothers who donate their baby's umbilical cord blood for stem cell transplants. (bonemarrowtest.com)
  • In total there are four transplantation centers in the state, however, during all the time of independence, no transplants from an unrelated donor have been performed. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • Graft-versus-host disease is a common side effect of patients receiving stem cell transplants, which results when the T cells in the transplanted blood react against the patient's own cells. (biologynews.net)
  • To understand the different types of stem cell transplants and how they work, we spoke with Borje S. Andersson, M.D., Ph.D. Here's what he had to say. (mdanderson.org)
  • What are the types of stem cell transplants? (mdanderson.org)
  • Stem cell transplants fall into two categories: autologous and allogeneic. (mdanderson.org)
  • The number of human tissue transplants is increasing in both developed and developing countries, but global data on this form of transplantation are less complete. (who.int)
  • Access to transplantation is limited in low- and many medium-income countries, where the rate of transplants remains far below that of richer nations. (who.int)
  • Cord blood and haploidentical (half-matched) transplants are used to treat an increasing number of patients. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • Although liver failure can be treated via hepatocyte transplantation, it also faces multiple problems comprising the shortage of high-quality hepatocytes sources, rejection of allogeneic transplants, difficulty to expand, and losing hepatic characteristics in vitro [ 7 , 8 ]. (springer.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved omidubicel-onlv (Omisirge) for reducing infections and hastening neutrophil recovery for blood cancer patients aged 12 years and older who are undergoing allogeneic umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants. (medscape.com)
  • The FDA approval was based on phase 3 testing that pitted the use of omidubicel in 62 patients against standard unmanipulated cord blood transplants in 63 patients following myeloablative conditioning. (medscape.com)
  • Transplantation without full human leukocyte antigen matching is possible and, despite a lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease, graft-versus-leukemia is preserved. (duke.edu)
  • Unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (haplo-PTCY) and unrelated double-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation (dUCBT) are feasible options for treating patients with high-risk acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). (unisr.it)
  • Cord blood is a promising source of natural killer cells because the NK cells have enhanced sensitivity to stimulation, decreased potential to cause graft-versus-host disease and are available from cord banks throughout the country and world," says Zweidler-McKay. (biologynews.net)
  • Improving immune recovery following alternative donor stem cell transplantation using donor graft manipulation. (duke.edu)
  • Doubts about whether UCB, containing 10-20x fewer cells than bone marrow, had sufficient cells to durably engraft a myeloablated patient and, after demonstration that engraftment occurred with less graft-versus-host disease, whether it would confer graft-versus-leukemia activity were raised. (duke.edu)
  • Blood product transfusions must be lymphocyte-depleted and irradiated to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (medscape.com)
  • The purpose is to deliver chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiation to eliminate malignancy, prevent rejection of new stem cells, and create space for the new cells. (medscape.com)
  • For example, people who have stem cell transplantation go through intensive chemotherapy before treatment. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Once the process is complete, the NK cells can be transplanted to patients without prior chemotherapy. (biologynews.net)
  • We extract blood cells, treat the cancer with high-dose chemotherapy , then place the cells back into the patient. (mdanderson.org)
  • Once the cancer is less active and the patient has been pre-treated with chemotherapy (known as conditioning), he or she receives the donor's healthy stem cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • Stem cell transplantation is performed after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) to restore a cancer patient's blood and immune cell production capacity. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • 3 Following exogenous stimulation, such as chemotherapy or using growth factors such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and filgrastim, the number of HSCs in the peripheral blood increases, either becoming on par or even exceeding the number in the bone marrow. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • It is intended for use in patients with blood cancers planned for umbilical cord blood transplantation following a myeloablative conditioning regimen, such as radiation or chemotherapy. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Chemotherapy, radiation, or both are initiated prior to transplantation to enable engraftment of the transplanted cells, decrease tumor size, and reduce immunoreactivity of the recipient. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • An environment for GVHD is formed when antigen-presenting cells are activated by the patient's disease and the pretreatment destruction of cells caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also sometimes used for solid tumors (eg, some germ cell tumors) that respond to chemotherapy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We decided to perform cord blood stem cell transplantation (CBSCT) for hematopoietic rescue after the myeloablative therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: CT-039 Health-Related Quality of Life Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation With Omidubicel Versus Standard Umbilical Cord Blood. (duke.edu)
  • This is the ultimate alternative to embryonic stem cells," Woods said. (ibj.com)
  • Each of those cell sources has specific advantages and disadvantages, and each has found particular clinical applications. (medscape.com)
  • Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are showing promise in clinical trials for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (nature.com)
  • However, the inability to manufacture large quantities of functional cells from a single donor as well as donor-dependent variability in quality limits their clinical utility. (nature.com)
  • We also continue to expand our clinical pipeline with plans to submit an IND for our GDA-201 natural killer cell therapy, initiate a multi-center Phase 1/2 clinical study in NHL and continue to advance our R&D activities to pursue the development of genetically modified NAM-enabled NK cells in solid tumors. (biospace.com)
  • In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine , R. Coleman Lindsley, MD, PhD , of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and colleagues found that a number of mutations present in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were associated with poorer clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (ascopost.com)
  • Although these initial results suggest that Modulatist TM transplantation is a promising therapy, more clinical studies in COPD patients are warranted to evaluate efficacy. (vinastemcelllab.com)
  • Mast Cell Leukemia: Clinical and Molecular Features and Survival Outcomes of Patients in the ECNM Registry. (cdc.gov)
  • Successful umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients with MDS/AML associated with underlying GATA2 mutations: two case reports and review of literature. (bvsalud.org)
  • We present two cases of pediatric AML/MDS with underlying GATA2 mutations who underwent a successful umbilical cord hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using two different conditioning regimens. (bvsalud.org)
  • Patrick Zweidler-McKay, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics from the Children's Cancer Hospital at M. D. Anderson, has shown an effective method for expanding the number of NK cells from a single cord blood unit while retaining the cells' anti-leukemia effects, as presented at the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology annual conference on May 16. (biologynews.net)
  • Dr. Kurtzberg is an internationally renowned expert in pediatric hematology/oncology, pediatric blood and marrow transplantation, umbilical cord blood banking and transplantation, and novel applications of cord blood and birthing tissues in the emerging fields of cellular therapies and regenerative medicine. (duke.edu)
  • Washington, DC- Children's National Health System announced the appointment of Catherine M. Bollard, MBChB, MD, FRACP, FRCPA , as a senior scientist in the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research at the Children's Research Institute, a member of the Division of the Blood and Marrow Transplantation , and the Principal Investigator and Co-Director of the Immunology Initiative of the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation . (childrensnational.org)
  • As a leader in the area of immunology/immunotherapy, Dr. Bollard's work will be an asset to strengthening programs within Children's Research Institute, the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, and the Blood and Marrow Transplantation Division," said Mark Batshaw, MD, Physician-in-Chief and Chief Academic Officer of Children's National. (childrensnational.org)
  • 5 however, it has been used to treat many pediatric hematologic conditions, including chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and other blood dyscrasias. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Iodine-131-metaiodiobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-MIBG) therapy combined with allogeneic cord blood stem cell transplantation (SCT) was used to treat a 4-year-old girl with recurrent neuroblastoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Omisirge is a modified allogeneic cord blood-based cell therapy to quicken the recovery of neutrophils and reduce the risk of infection. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Engraftment failure and delays, likely due to diminished cord blood unit (CBU) potency, remain major barriers to the overall success of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). (duke.edu)
  • CD34+ cell dose is critical for cord blood (CB) engraftment. (duke.edu)
  • The stem cells extracted from the baby's umbilical cord blood might someday save the life of her sibling. (ibj.com)
  • What's the difference between allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantations? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • An autologous stem cell transplantation uses your own blood stem cells. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • 3 Autologous stem cell transplantation almost exclusively uses peripheral blood, while for allogeneic SCT, T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood could pose some danger. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Even between countries which have similar levels of health resources, patients' access to transplantation also varies. (who.int)
  • Moreover, for patients who have kidney failure, access to transplantation is reduced when funds are spent on other forms of treatment that are less cost-effective. (who.int)
  • Access to transplantation entails more than the surgery itself, because success is measured by longer survival of the patient and a long-term improvement in the quality of life. (who.int)
  • UCB increases access to transplantation therapy for many patients unable to identify a fully matched adult donor. (duke.edu)
  • The ability to grow blood stem cells (HSCs) in culture would greatly improve the patient outcome in transplantation, and make cord blood to be useful for adult applications. (gabriellesangels.org)
  • The patient has low blood counts until the replaced cells replenish the patient's body with healthy cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • The transplanted cells kill any remaining cancer cells and restore the patient's immune system. (mdanderson.org)
  • If the donor cells aren't a close enough match, the patient's body may recognize the donor cells as foreign and reject them. (mdanderson.org)
  • Successful transplantation of organs and living tissues depends on continued medical follow-up and the patient's compliance with a regimen of immunosuppressive drugs. (who.int)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be autologous (using the patient's own cells) or allogeneic (using cells from a donor). (msdmanuals.com)
  • While both treatments help your bone marrow to develop new blood cells, studies show allogeneic stem cell transplantations work by causing the donor cells to attack unhealthy cells. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 2008 marks the 20th anniversary of the first use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of donor cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (duke.edu)
  • People in remission from AML may be candidates for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • LOS ANGELES (AP) - Selma Blair says she's in remission from multiple sclerosis as a result of undergoing stem cell transplantation. (turnto23.com)
  • Patients were evaluated by the COPD assessment test (CAT) score as well as the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC) score, before and after transplantation (1, 3 and 5 months post transplantation). (vinastemcelllab.com)
  • Evidence shows that MSCs home to sites of inflammation where they inhibit immune and inflammatory responses by influencing the behavior of local innate and adaptive immune cells (reviewed in 20 ). (nature.com)
  • This is a group of rare disorders caused by mutations in different genes involved in the development and function of infection-fighting immune cells. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • It will take 6 to 12 months or more for your child's blood counts and immune system to fully recover. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A distinguished hematologist and immunotherapist, Dr. Bollard's research interests focus on three different areas including developing cell and gene therapies for patients with cancer and underlying immune deficiencies. (childrensnational.org)
  • Stem cells from cord blood are used today to treat leukemia and other cancers, various blood disorders and immune deficiency diseases. (ibj.com)
  • Researchers consider stem cells the building blocks of a person's blood and immune systems. (ibj.com)
  • One concern about the procedure is that immune cells in cord blood do not have experience with the viruses responsible for latent infections, leading to a higher percentage of naive T cells and thus increased vulnerability to reactivation of cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We kicked off the first ScienceBrew of 2024 with two great talks, covering the expansion of blood with nanotechnology and the possible role of immune system in limb regeneration. (lu.se)
  • Considerable time and effort has been spent in developing targeted therapies to fight SLE, yet only one therapy, belimumab (Benlysta), a monoclonal antibody targeting B cell-activating factor, or BAFF, has been approved for the treatment of SLE in the last half-century 16 . (nature.com)
  • She also has a specific interest in cell therapies for EBV-associated lymphomas and as head of the NHL committee of the Children's Oncology Group is moving cell therapies to the cooperative group setting. (childrensnational.org)
  • I have expertise in novel therapies for acute myeloid leukemia, stem cell mobilization and homing, as well as stem cell transplantation. (rochester.edu)
  • In the future, it may emerge as a source of cells for cellular therapies focused on tissue repair and regeneration. (duke.edu)
  • Such stem cell research provides hope for more safe and effective medical therapies in the future. (blood.ca)
  • Research projects that promote advances in the field of transfusion, cellular therapies, and transplantation medicine are given priority in the distribution of cord blood products for research. (blood.ca)
  • For example, in developing and developed countries alike, kidney transplantation not only yields survival rates and quality-of-life that are far superior to those obtained with other treatments for end-stage renal disease, such as haemodialysis, but is also less costly in the long run. (who.int)
  • The US FDA has approved Gamida Cell's Omisirge (omidubicel), an allogeneic cell therapy for patients with blood cancers who are set to undergo stem cell transplantation. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • The FDA's "approval is an important advance in cell therapy treatment in patients with blood cancers. (medscape.com)
  • This study represents an important step in the development of a commercially scalable and efficacious cell therapy for SLE/LN. (nature.com)
  • BOSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Gamida Cell Ltd. (Nasdaq: GMDA), an advanced cell therapy company committed to cures for blood cancers and serious blood diseases, today reported financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2021. (biospace.com)
  • Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have found a therapy that effectively kills human leukemia cells in mice using natural killer (NK) cells from umbilical cord blood. (biologynews.net)
  • However, Zweidler-McKay and co-senior investigator Elizabeth Shpall, M.D., professor in M. D. Anderson's Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, have found a novel process to increase NK cells in cord blood more than 30-fold, generating more than 150 million NK cells from one cord blood unit while maintaining their activation to find and kill acute leukemia cells. (biologynews.net)
  • American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Cord Blood Special Interest Group (2020). (duke.edu)
  • Dr. Bollard joins Children's National from the Baylor College of Medicine where she was a Professor in the Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine and Immunology, at the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Texas Children's Hospital, The Methodist Hospital, and Baylor College of Medicine. (childrensnational.org)
  • If B cells do not engraft, monthly IVIg replacement therapy may be required. (medscape.com)
  • Because T cells are absent, dysfunctional, or both, administer P jiroveci (carinii) pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis to all patients until T-cell function is restored by means of BMT or other therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: FDA OKs Stem Cell Therapy to Reduce Infection Risk in Blood Cancer Patients - Medscape - Apr 18, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • To determine whether umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an alternative cure for myelofibrosis (MF), we evaluated 35 UCBTs reported to Eurocord. (nih.gov)
  • Although previous recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through transplantation of human tissue and organs have markedly reduced the risk for this type of transmission, a case of HIV transmission from a screened, antibody-negative donor to several recipients raised questions about the need for additional federal oversight of transplantation of organs and tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside our bones, is the factory for blood cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • The use of gametes, embryonic and fetal tissue as well as blood and blood products raises additional questions that need to be separately addressed. (who.int)
  • Many believe that someday they'll be able to develop stem cells into other organs, muscles and nerves and use them to rebuild cardiac tissue, repair damage caused by stroke or spinal cord injuries, and reverse the effects of diseases such as Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis. (ibj.com)
  • Extracorporeal photopheresis inactivates antigen-presenting cells and T cells, whereas TNF antagonists decrease cellular activation and local tissue damage. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Optimising tissue acquisition and the molecular testing pathway for patients with non-small cell lung cancer: A UK expert consensus statement. (cdc.gov)
  • Complementary Roles for Tissue- and Blood-Based Comprehensive Genomic Profiling for Detection of Actionable Driver Alterations in Advanced NSCLC. (cdc.gov)
  • The large proteoglycan molecules made up of protein cores, and GAG branches are secreted by cells and constitute a significant fraction of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. (medscape.com)
  • The enzyme deficiencies lead to the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the lysosomes of the cells in the connective tissue and to an increase in their excretion in the urine. (medscape.com)
  • She underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation which uses stem cells derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. (turnto23.com)
  • She is also interested in stem cell and cord blood transplantation, and improving outcomes by decreasing infectious complications and preventing relapse. (childrensnational.org)
  • To investigate whether respiratory detection of these new polyomaviruses is associated with specific outcomes in patients after HCT, a real-time PCR specific for KIPyV and WUPyV DNA was developed and used to examine nasal wash specimens collected prospectively from HCT recipients with and without respiratory symptoms for 1 year after transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • A working group formed by the Public Health Service (PHS) in 1991 to address these issues concluded that further recommendations should be made to reduce the already low risk of HIV transmission by transplantation of organs and tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • This occurrence raised questions about the need for additional federal oversight of transplantation of organs and tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • The working group concluded that, although existing recommendations are largely sufficient, revisions should be made to reduce the already low risk of HIV transmission via transplantation of organs and tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Nonetheless, the transplantation of organs and tissues does raise ethical concerns. (who.int)
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is known to be associated with functional abnormalities of B cells, including hypergammaglobulinemia and monoclonal gammopathy (MG). However, the pathogenesis of these immunological disorders has not been clarified. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These immature stem cells were easier to match to patients, especially those from non-Caucasian ethnicities, and could be stored for use as needed. (biologynews.net)
  • Because cord blood contains immature stem cells, HLA matching appears less crucial than for the other types of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation uses donor stem cells to treat and sometimes cure certain blood disorders and blood cancers. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What cancers are treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Not all cancers or blood diseases respond to stem cell transplantation, including allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Blood cancers multiply uncontrollably, hindering the growth of these cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • Older adults with cancers of the blood often have different needs from younger adults, for example, a higher risk for heart disease, diabetes, or kidney problems, which may limit treatment options. (dana-farber.org)
  • Healthcare providers may recommend allogeneic stem cell transplantation for severe forms of aplastic anemia. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. (jefferson.edu)
  • This requires obtaining fetal cells by chorionic villus sampling or culturing amniotic fluid cells obtained by amniocentesis. (disabled-world.com)
  • Umbilical cord blood is blood collected from the umbilical cord and placenta after a baby is born. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • We work closely with hospital researchers to provide cord blood and/or placenta samples that support research studies that are compatible with cord blood collection. (blood.ca)
  • Learn about the advances in blood cancer care and research presented by Dana-Farber physicians and scientists at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH). (dana-farber.org)
  • 8 The BD ® Stem Cell Enumeration Kit incorporates BD Trucount™ tubes to determine the absolute cell count, thereby eliminating variability associated with hematology-derived absolute counts. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • When given to mice with aggressive human leukemias, these NK cells reduced the circulating human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells by 60 to 85 percent. (biologynews.net)
  • The three sources of stem cells include bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)

No images available that match "cord blood stem cell transplantation"