Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Pacific Ocean" is a geographical term referring to the largest ocean in the world, covering an area of about 63,800,000 square miles (165,200,000 square kilometers), and it is not a medical term.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "Belize" is a country located in Central America and not a medical term. It is always important to ensure the accuracy of terminology, particularly in medical contexts.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From, accessed 5/12/2020)
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
'Animal diseases' is a term that refers to any illness or infection that affects the health and well-being of non-human animals, caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances, which can impact individual animals, herds, or entire species, and may have implications for human health through zoonotic transmission.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organisms that live in water.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Florida" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition with a specific definition. It is the 27th largest state by area in the United States, located in the southeastern region of the country and known for its diverse wildlife, beautiful beaches, and theme parks. If you have any medical questions or terms that need clarification, please feel free to ask!
Activities performed by humans.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the world's five oceans, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. It doesn't have a direct medical definition, as it is not a medical term.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats. (1/350)


Large-scale movement and reef fidelity of grey reef sharks. (2/350)


Estimating the potential for adaptation of corals to climate warming. (3/350)


Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (4/350)


Diversity partitioning of stony corals across multiple spatial scales around Zanzibar Island, Tanzania. (5/350)


The vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum reduces coral growth and survival. (6/350)


Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals. (7/350)


Monitoring of ichthyic fauna in artificial reefs along the Adriatic coast of the Abruzzi Region of Italy. (8/350)

With the support of European Community funds, three submerged artificial reefs composed of concrete cubes, bell-shaped modules and natural rocks were deployed along the Adriatic coast of the Abruzzi Region to increase the fish population and to prevent illegal trawling. The Provincial governments of Teramo and Pescara requested the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' to monitor nectobenthic populations. Three sampling operations were conducted each year for each artificial reef. The authors present the results of a study conducted between 2005 and 2007, comparing the catches from the artificial reefs with those from the control sites using several diversity indexes. Artificial reef areas revealed greater species diversity and richness than the control sites. This study demonstrates the value of artificial reefs in response to the problem of low income, non-commercial fisheries as well as to the issue of over-exploitation of halieutic resources. In addition, the authors suggest that artificial reefs may be capable of activating habitat diversification processes that will increase biodiversity.  (+info)

Coral reefs are complex, underwater ecosystems formed by the accumulation of calcium carbonate structures secreted by colonies of corals. They provide habitat and protection for a wide variety of marine organisms, including fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and other invertebrates.

Coral reefs are found in shallow, tropical waters around the world, and they are often referred to as the "rainforests of the sea" due to their incredible biodiversity. They are formed over thousands of years as corals grow and reproduce, gradually building up layers of calcium carbonate structures known as skeletons.

There are several different types of coral reefs, including fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Fringing reefs are located close to the shore and are often found in areas with steep drop-offs. Barrier reefs are larger than fringing reefs and are separated from the shore by a lagoon or a body of water. Atolls are circular or ring-shaped reefs that surround a central lagoon.

Coral reefs provide many important ecosystem services, including coastal protection, nutrient cycling, and support for fisheries. However, they are facing numerous threats from human activities such as overfishing, pollution, and climate change, which can lead to coral bleaching and death. Conservation efforts are underway to protect and restore these valuable ecosystems.

Anthozoa is a major class of marine animals, which are exclusively aquatic and almost entirely restricted to shallow waters. They are classified within the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, sea anemones, and hydroids. Anthozoans are characterized by their lack of medusa stage in their life cycle, as they exist solely as polyps.

This class is divided into two main subclasses: Hexacorallia (also known as Zoantharia) and Octocorallia (also known as Alcyonaria). The primary differences between these subclasses lie in the structure of their polyps and the composition of their skeletons.

1. Hexacorallia: These are commonly referred to as 'stony' or 'hard' corals, due to their calcium carbonate-based skeletons. They have a simple polyp structure with six-fold symmetry (hence the name Hexacorallia), featuring 6 tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Hexacorallia include reef-building corals, sea fans, and black corals.
2. Octocorallia: These are also called 'soft' corals or 'leather' corals because they lack a calcium carbonate skeleton. Instead, their supporting structures consist of proteins and other organic compounds. Octocorallia polyps exhibit eight-fold symmetry (hence the name Octocorallia), with eight tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Octocorallia include sea fans, sea whips, and blue corals.

Anthozoa species are primarily found in tropical and subtropical oceans, but some can be found in colder, deeper waters as well. They play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by providing habitats and shelter for various other marine organisms, particularly on coral reefs. Additionally, they contribute to the formation of limestone deposits through their calcium carbonate-based skeletons.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Perciformes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology, specifically in taxonomy and ichthyology (the study of fish). Perciformes is an order of ray-finned bony fishes that includes over 10,000 species, making it the largest order of vertebrates. Examples of fish within this order include perch, sea bass, sunfish, and tuna.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Indian Ocean" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical term referring to the third largest of the world's five oceans, situated between southeastern Africa, the Southern Asian landmass, and Australia. It is bounded on the north by the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, on the west by eastern Africa, on the east by the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but seaweed is not typically referred to in medical definitions. Seaweed is a common name for various marine macroalgae, which are multicellular aquatic plants found in the ocean. They are often consumed as food and have been used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, there is no widely accepted medical definition for seaweed. If you're looking for information about a specific compound or substance derived from seaweed that might be relevant to medical definitions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more details.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Pacific Ocean" is a geographical term referring to the largest single body of saltwater on Earth, extending from the Arctic in the north to the Antarctic in the south. It covers an area of about 63,800,000 square miles (165,200,000 square kilometers).

If you're looking for a medical term or definition, I'd be happy to help with that as well. Could you please provide more context?

The Caribbean Region, also known as the Caribbean Basin or simply the Caribbean, is a geographical area that includes the Caribbean Sea and its surrounding islands and coasts. It is located in the tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and North America, east of Central America, and south of the Greater Antilles.

The region consists of more than 7,000 islands, islets, reefs, and cays, which are divided into three main groups: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Lucayan Archipelago (which includes the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands). The Caribbean Region also includes the coasts of several countries in North, Central, and South America that border the Caribbean Sea.

The Caribbean Region is known for its diverse cultures, rich history, and unique biodiversity. It is home to a wide range of ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, rainforests, and dry forests, which support a variety of plant and animal species, many of which are found nowhere else in the world.

The Caribbean Region is also an important economic and political area, with several countries and territories that have strong ties to each other and to the United States, Canada, and Europe. Tourism, fishing, agriculture, and shipping are major industries in the region, and many of its islands serve as popular destinations for travelers from around the world.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oceans and Seas" are not medical terms. Generally speaking, an ocean is a large body of saltwater that covers a majority of the Earth's surface, and a sea is a smaller body of saltwater that may be partially enclosed by land. However, if you have any questions related to marine biology or environmental science, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Cnidaria is a phylum of aquatic animals that includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra, and corals. They are characterized by the presence of specialized stinging cells called cnidocytes, which they use for defense and capturing prey. Cnidarians have a simple body organization with two basic forms: polyps, which are typically cylindrical and attached to a substrate; and medusae, which are free-swimming and bell-shaped. Some species can exist in both forms during their life cycle.

Cnidarians have no true organs or organ systems, but they do have a unique tissue arrangement with two main layers: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis, separated by a jelly-like mesoglea. They have a digestive cavity called the coelenteron, where they absorb nutrients after capturing and digesting prey. Cnidarians reproduce both sexually and asexually, with some species exhibiting complex life cycles involving multiple forms and reproductive strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fisheries" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Fisheries are places or practices concerned with the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, and other forms of aquatic life. They can refer to commercial operations, recreational activities, or scientific research related to aquatic species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

I am not aware of a standard medical definition for the term "islands." In general, an island is a landmass that is surrounded by water. In a medical context, it might be used to describe isolated areas or structures within the body, such as islands of Langerhans in the pancreas which are clusters of cells that produce hormones like insulin. However, I would need more specific context to provide an accurate definition related to medicine.

Dinoflagellida is a large group of mostly marine planktonic protists, many of which are bioluminescent. Some dinoflagellates are responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as "red tides," which can produce toxins that affect marine life and human health.

Dinoflagellates are characterized by two flagella, or whip-like structures, that they use for movement. They have complex cell structures, including a unique structure called the nucleomorph, which is the remnant of a former endosymbiotic event where another eukaryotic cell was engulfed and became part of the dinoflagellate's cell.

Dinoflagellates are important contributors to the marine food chain, serving as both primary producers and consumers. Some species form symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as corals, providing them with nutrients in exchange for protection and other benefits.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polynesia" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region in the Pacific Ocean, consisting of numerous island countries and territories. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Marine Biology" is not a medical term. Instead, it is a branch of biology that deals with the study of marine organisms, their behaviors, and their interactions with the marine environment. Marine biologists investigate various aspects of marine life, such as the ecology, physiology, and genetics of marine plants, animals, and microorganisms. They also study the impact of human activities on marine ecosystems and work towards conservation efforts to protect these environments.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The greenhouse effect is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of environmental science and meteorology. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you:

The greenhouse effect refers to the warming of Earth's surface and lower atmosphere caused by the trapping of heat by certain gases in the atmosphere, known as greenhouse gases. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases.

When sunlight reaches Earth's surface, it is absorbed and then re-emitted as heat energy, which would normally escape back into space. However, some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, causing the planet to warm up. This process is essential for life on Earth, as it helps to maintain a stable temperature that supports plant and animal growth.

However, human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture have led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which has caused the natural greenhouse effect to become amplified. This has resulted in global warming and climate change, with potentially serious consequences for both human health and the environment.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

Porifera, also known as sponges, is a phylum of multicellular aquatic organisms characterized by having pores in their bodies. These pores allow water to circulate through the body, bringing in food and oxygen while expelling waste products. Sponges do not have true tissues or organs; instead, they are composed of specialized cells that perform specific functions. They are generally sessile (non-mobile) and live attached to rocks, coral reefs, or other underwater structures. Some species can be quite large, while others are microscopic in size. Sponges have a long fossil record dating back over 500 million years and play important roles in marine ecosystems as filter feeders and habitat providers for many other marine organisms.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

## I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term 'Bahamas' is not a medical definition. It refers to a country in the Atlantic Ocean, north of Cuba and northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Bahamas is an archipelago of about 700 islands and cays, and is known for its beautiful beaches, coral reefs, and tropical climate.

If you have any medical question or looking for a medical term, please provide more information so I can give you accurate and helpful information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Climate change, as defined medically, refers to the long-term alterations in the statistical distribution of weather patterns caused by changes in the Earth's climate system. These changes can have significant impacts on human health and wellbeing.

Medical professionals are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing climate change as a public health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified climate change as one of the greatest threats to global health in the 21st century, with potential impacts including increased heat-related mortality, more frequent and severe natural disasters, changes in the distribution of infectious diseases, and decreased food security.

Climate change can also exacerbate existing health disparities, as vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, low-income communities, and those with chronic medical conditions are often disproportionately affected by its impacts. As a result, addressing climate change is an important public health priority, and medical professionals have a critical role to play in advocating for policies and practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote adaptation to the changing climate.

Alismatidae is a subclass of monocotyledonous aquatic and semi-aquatic flowering plants, also known as the water plantains. This group includes several families of plants that are typically found in wetlands, marshes, and along the edges of bodies of water. The plants in this group have adapted to their aquatic environments with specialized structures such as floating leaves and air-filled tissues that help them float on the water's surface. Some examples of plants in Alismatidae include waterlilies, pondweeds, and cattails.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "water movements." It is possible that it could be used in a specific context within a certain medical specialty or procedure. However, I can provide some general information about how the term "water" is used in a medical context.

In medicine, "water" often refers to the fluid component of the body, which includes all the fluids inside and outside of cells. The movement of water within the body is regulated by various physiological processes, such as osmosis and hydrostatic pressure. Disorders that affect the regulation of water balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, which can have serious consequences for health.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "water movements," I may be able to give a more specific answer.

Alveolata is a group of predominantly unicellular eukaryotes that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans (such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria), and ciliates. This grouping is based on the presence of unique organelles called alveoli, which are membrane-bound sacs or vesicles located just beneath the cell membrane. These alveoli provide structural support and may also be involved in various cellular processes such as osmoregulation, nutrient uptake, and attachment to surfaces.

The medical significance of Alveolata lies primarily within the Apicomplexa, which contains many important parasites that infect humans and animals. These include Plasmodium spp., which cause malaria; Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis; and Cryptosporidium parvum, which is responsible for cryptosporidiosis. Understanding the biology and behavior of these parasites at the cellular level can provide valuable insights into their pathogenesis, transmission, and potential treatment strategies.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Belize" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Central America, bordered by Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Global Warming" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of climate science and environmental studies. Global warming refers to the long-term increase in Earth's average temperature. As a result of human activities, especially the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, like carbon dioxide and methane, the planet is experiencing an overall rise in temperatures, leading to various consequences such as melting ice caps, rising sea levels, and changing weather patterns. While not a medical term, it is still a critical issue that can have significant impacts on human health, including increased heat-related illnesses and deaths, changes in disease patterns, and threats to food security.

'Homing behavior' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it is commonly used to describe an animal's innate ability to return to its home territory or nest after traveling large distances. This behavior has been observed in various species including birds, insects, and mammals. It is not a medical condition or disease.

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a natural climate phenomenon that occurs in the Pacific Ocean. It is a periodic fluctuation in sea surface temperature and air pressure of the overlying atmosphere across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. ENSO has two main phases: El Niño and La Niña.

El Niño phase: During an El Niño event, the surface waters in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean become warmer than average, and the atmospheric pressure in the western Pacific decreases relative to the eastern Pacific. This leads to a weakening or even reversal of the Walker circulation, which typically brings cooler water from the deep ocean to the surface in the eastern Pacific. El Niño can cause significant changes in weather patterns around the world, often leading to droughts in some regions and heavy rainfall and flooding in others.

La Niña phase: During a La Niña event, the surface waters in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean become cooler than average, and the atmospheric pressure in the western Pacific increases relative to the eastern Pacific. This strengthens the Walker circulation, leading to increased upwelling of cold water in the eastern Pacific. La Niña can also cause significant changes in weather patterns around the world, often resulting in opposite effects compared to El Niño, such as increased rainfall and flooding in some regions and droughts in others.

The ENSO cycle typically lasts between 2-7 years, with an average of about 4-5 years. The fluctuations in ocean temperatures and atmospheric pressure can have substantial impacts on global climate, affecting temperature, precipitation, and storm patterns worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands Antilles" is not a medical term. It refers to a former political entity in the Caribbean that was composed of several islands including Curacao, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius. These islands are now special municipalities of the Netherlands or part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. I'm here to help with medical information, so if you have any health-related questions, feel free to ask!

Rhodophyta, also known as red algae, is a division of simple, multicellular and complex marine algae. These organisms are characterized by their red pigmentation due to the presence of phycobiliproteins, specifically R-phycoerythrin and phycocyanin. They lack flagella and centrioles at any stage of their life cycle. The cell walls of Rhodophyta contain cellulose and various sulphated polysaccharides. Some species have calcium carbonate deposits in their cell walls, which contribute to the formation of coral reefs. Reproduction in these organisms is typically alternation of generations with a dominant gametophyte generation. They are an important source of food for many marine animals and have commercial value as well, particularly for the production of agar, carrageenan, and other products used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

In the context of mental health and psychology, "predatory behavior" is not a term that is commonly used as a medical diagnosis or condition. However, it generally refers to aggressive or exploitative behavior towards others with the intention of taking advantage of them for personal gain or pleasure. This could include various types of harmful behaviors such as sexual harassment, assault, stalking, bullying, or financial exploitation.

In some cases, predatory behavior may be associated with certain mental health conditions, such as antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others. However, it's important to note that not all individuals who engage in predatory behavior have a mental health condition, and many people who do may not necessarily exhibit these behaviors.

If you or someone else is experiencing harm or exploitation, it's important to seek help from a trusted authority figure, such as a healthcare provider, law enforcement officer, or social worker.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "food chain" is not typically used in a medical context. It is a concept from ecology that describes the sequence of organisms through which food and energy pass as one organism eats another.

However, if you're referring to "food web" or "dietary intake," these terms might be more applicable in a medical context. For instance, dietary intake refers to what and how much a person consumes, which can have significant implications for their health. A food web, on the other hand, is a more complex network of relationships between different species that consume and are consumed by others, which can help researchers understand the impacts of changes in one species' population or behavior on others within an ecosystem.

If you meant to ask about something else, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I will do my best to provide a helpful answer!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Queensland" is not a medical term. It is the second largest state in Australia, located in the northeastern part of the country. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Animal diseases are health conditions that primarily affect animals, including but not limited to, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and pets. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, genetic disorders, and environmental conditions. Some animal diseases can also pose a risk to human health, either directly or indirectly, through the consumption of contaminated food or water, contact with infected animals, or the spread of vectors like ticks and mosquitoes. Examples of animal diseases include rabies, avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and heartworm disease. It is important to monitor, control, and prevent the spread of animal diseases to protect animal health, food security, and public health.

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

'Aquatic organisms' are living beings that inhabit bodies of water, such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and ponds. This group includes a wide variety of species, ranging from tiny microorganisms like plankton to large marine mammals like whales. Aquatic organisms can be divided into several categories based on their specific adaptations to their environment, including:

1. Plankton: small organisms that drift with the water currents and include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton).
2. Nekton: actively swimming aquatic organisms, such as fish, squid, and marine mammals.
3. Benthos: organisms that live on or in the bottom of bodies of water, including crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and some types of algae.
4. Neuston: organisms that live at the air-water interface, such as certain species of insects and small fish.

Aquatic organisms play a critical role in maintaining the health and balance of aquatic ecosystems, providing food and habitat for other species, and contributing to global nutrient cycling and climate regulation.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guam" is not a medical term. It is a territorial island in the Pacific Ocean and is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States. Guam is known for its unique Chamorro culture, beautiful beaches, and historical sites. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Sea Anemones are not considered a medical term, but they are rather marine biology organisms. They are a group of predatory sea animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, and hydras. Sea anemones typically have a cylindrical or bell-shaped body crowned with tentacles that bear stinging cells used for capturing prey.

However, in a medical context, the term "anemone" is sometimes used to describe a type of skin lesion characterized by its resemblance to the sea anemone's shape and appearance. An anemone lesion is a rare cutaneous condition that presents as a solitary, red, or purple papule with multiple radiating fronds, often occurring on the face or neck. The lesions may be tender or pruritic (itchy) and can persist for several weeks to months.

It's important to note that sea anemones themselves do not have a direct medical relevance, but they can serve as a source of inspiration for medical terminology due to their unique morphological features.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sharks" are not a medical term. Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral and dorsal fins without spines.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hawaii" is not a medical term. It is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, located in the Central Pacific. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Florida." It is primarily used to refer to a state in the United States located in the southeastern region. If you have any specific medical context in which this term was used, please let me know and I will do my best to provide a relevant answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Activities" is a very broad term and not something that typically has a specific medical definition. Human activities can encompass everything from physical movement like exercise or daily chores, to mental activities like work or hobbies, to social interactions, and more.

However, in a medical context, human activities might be discussed in terms of their impact on health. For example, certain activities could be considered "healthy" if they contribute to physical fitness, stress reduction, or overall well-being. Conversely, other activities might be seen as "risky" or "unhealthy" if they increase the likelihood of injury or disease.

If you're looking for information on a more specific concept related to human activities and health, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

## I am not aware of any medical definition for "Barbados."

Barbados is an island country located in the Caribbean region of North America. It is the easternmost island in the Lesser Antilles and is situated in the Atlantic Ocean, east of the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest city is Bridgetown.

The population of Barbados is approximately 287,000 people, and the official language is English. The country has a tropical climate with two main seasons: the dry season from December to May and the wet season from June to November.

Barbados is known for its beautiful beaches, crystal-clear waters, and vibrant culture. It is also famous for its rum, which is produced from sugarcane grown on the island. The country has a rich history, with influences from Africa, the Americas, and Europe.

In terms of medical care, Barbados has a well-developed healthcare system, with both public and private hospitals and clinics available. The country has a life expectancy of around 75 years, which is higher than the average for Latin America and the Caribbean. However, there are still challenges related to noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "ships" is not a medical term. It is a common noun referring to large vehicles used for transportation on water. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sargassum" is not a medical term. It refers to a type of brown seaweed or macroalgae that floats in the ocean and forms large floating mats. The two main species are Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans. These seaweeds are named after the Sargasso Sea, a region in the Atlantic Ocean known for its dense population of Sargassum. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Water quality, in the context of public health and environmental medicine, refers to the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water that determine its suitability for various uses, such as drinking, recreation, or industrial processes. The term encompasses a wide range of parameters, including but not limited to:

1. Microbial contaminants: Presence of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microorganisms that can cause waterborne diseases.
2. Chemical contaminants: Including heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), disinfection byproducts, and other potentially harmful substances.
3. Physical parameters: Such as temperature, turbidity (cloudiness), color, taste, and odor, which can affect the water's acceptability for different uses.
4. Radiological contaminants: Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive elements present in water sources.

Regulatory agencies establish guidelines and standards for water quality to protect public health and minimize potential adverse effects associated with exposure to contaminated water. Regular monitoring, treatment, and management of water sources are essential to ensure safe and reliable water supplies.

"Extinction, Biological" refers to the state or process of a species or taxonomic group becoming extinct, meaning that there are no surviving members remaining alive anywhere in the world. This can occur due to various factors such as environmental changes, competition with other species, overexploitation by humans, or a combination of these and other elements. It is an important concept in the field of biology and conservation, as the extinction of a species can have significant impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity.

Ecology is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of biology. It refers to the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment. This includes how organisms interact with each other and with their physical surroundings, such as climate, soil, and water. Ecologists may study the distribution and abundance of species, the flow of energy through an ecosystem, and the effects of human activities on the environment. While ecology is not a medical field, understanding ecological principles can be important for addressing public health issues related to the environment, such as pollution, climate change, and infectious diseases.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

'Biota' is a term that refers to the total collection of living organisms in a particular habitat, ecosystem, or region. It includes all forms of life such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Biota can be used to describe the communities of living things in a specific area, like a forest biota or marine biota, and it can also refer to the study of these organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. In medical contexts, 'biota' may specifically refer to the microorganisms that inhabit the human body, such as the gut microbiota.

Ecological parameter monitoring is the systematic and ongoing observation, measurement, and tracking of specific physical and biological variables within an ecological system or community. This process involves regularly assessing various parameters, such as air and water quality, soil composition, climate conditions, species diversity, population dynamics, and habitat structure, to understand the current state and trends of the ecosystem. The data collected from ecological parameter monitoring are used to inform conservation efforts, land management practices, public health and safety measures, and climate change adaptation strategies. This information is also critical for evaluating the effectiveness of restoration and management actions over time.

Heterotrophic processes refer to the metabolic activities carried out by organisms that cannot produce their own food and have to obtain energy by consuming other organisms or organic substances. These organisms include animals, fungi, and most bacteria. They obtain energy by breaking down complex organic molecules from their environment using enzymes, a process known as respiration or fermentation. The end products of this process are often carbon dioxide, water, and waste materials. This is in contrast to autotrophic processes, where organisms (like plants) synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

American Samoa is a territorial possession of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, approximately 1,600 miles southwest of Hawaii. It consists of five main islands and two coral atolls, with a total land area of about 77 square miles. The population is approximately 55,000 people, most of whom are of Samoan descent.

The main islands are Tutuila, Ta'u, Olosega, Ofu, and Aunu'u. The capital and largest city is Pago Pago, located on Tutuila. American Samoa is known for its beautiful beaches, tropical climate, and rich cultural heritage.

As a territorial possession of the United States, American Samoa is governed by a governor and lieutenant governor, elected every four years by the residents. The territory also sends a non-voting delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives. While American Samoans are U.S. nationals, they are not U.S. citizens unless they are born in the United States or have been naturalized.

In medical terms, American Samoa has unique health challenges and disparities due to its remote location, limited resources, and cultural factors. Common health issues include non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, as well as infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and dengue fever. Access to healthcare services can be limited, particularly in rural areas, and there is a shortage of healthcare professionals. The territory also faces challenges related to mental health, substance abuse, and environmental health hazards such as contaminated water sources and poor sanitation.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

An endangered species is a species of animal, plant, or other organism that is at risk of becoming extinct because its population is declining or threatened by changing environmental or demographic factors. This term is defined and used in the context of conservation biology and wildlife management to identify species that need protection and preservation efforts.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a "Red List" of species, categorizing them based on their extinction risk. The categories include "Critically Endangered," "Endangered," "Vulnerable," and "Near Threatened." A species is considered endangered if it meets certain criteria indicating that it faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

The primary causes for species to become endangered include habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts often focus on protecting habitats, managing threats, and implementing recovery programs to help endangered species recover their populations and reduce the risk of extinction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Caledonia" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually the name of a group of islands located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. The main island, Grande Terre, is known for its beautiful landscapes, which include mountains, beaches, and lagoons. New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France, and French is one of the official languages spoken there. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Sulfonium compounds are organosulfur molecules that contain a central sulfur atom bonded to three alkyl or aryl groups and have the general formula (R-S-R'-R'')+X-, where R, R', and R'' are organic groups and X is an anion. These compounds are widely used in chemical synthesis as phase-transfer catalysts, alkylating agents, and in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Sulfonium compounds can also be found in some natural sources, such as certain antibiotics and marine toxins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the five oceans on Earth. It doesn't have a medical definition. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface. It stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, alternatively, to the Antarctica region) in the south, and is bounded by the Americas to the west and Europe and Africa to the east.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Pigmentation, in a medical context, refers to the coloring of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a pigment called melanin, which determines the color of our skin, hair, and eyes.

There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue. The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes can vary from person to person, leading to differences in skin color and hair color.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors such as genetics, exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. For example, hyperpigmentation refers to an excess production of melanin that results in darkened patches on the skin, while hypopigmentation is a condition where there is a decreased production of melanin leading to lighter or white patches on the skin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Invertebrates" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a vast group of animals that do not have a vertebral column or spinal cord. This includes creatures such as insects, worms, starfish, and shellfish, among many others. They are classified as invertebrates because they lack a backbone, which is a characteristic of vertebrates, or animals that include humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Papua New Guinea" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, made up of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!

I believe you may be mistakenly using the term "starfish" to refer to a medical condition. If so, the correct term is likely " asterixis," which is a medical sign characterized by rapid, rhythmic flapping or tremulous movements of the hands when they are extended and the wrist is dorsiflexed (held with the back of the hand facing upwards). This is often seen in people with certain neurological conditions such as liver failure or certain types of poisoning.

However, if you are indeed referring to the marine animal commonly known as a "starfish," there isn't a specific medical definition for it. Starfish, also known as sea stars, are marine animals belonging to the class Asteroidea in the phylum Echinodermata. They have a distinctive shape with five or more arms radiating from a central disc, and they move slowly along the ocean floor using their tube feet. Some species of starfish have the ability to regenerate lost body parts, including entire limbs or even their central disc.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indian Ocean Islands" is a geographical term referring to the islands located in the Indian Ocean, and not a medical term. However, I can provide some general information about these islands.

The Indian Ocean Islands include a diverse group of island nations and territories, such as Madagascar, Maldives, Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Réunion (a French territory), and the British Indian Ocean Territory (including the Chagos Archipelago). These islands have unique ecosystems and diverse cultures, with flora and fauna that are often endemic to each island. Some of these islands face challenges in terms of healthcare access, resources, and infrastructure due to their remote locations and smaller populations.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

"Coral Reefs". International Society for Reef Studies. Retrieved 29 January 2019. "Coral Reefs". Springer. Retrieved 2022-05-10 ... coral reef topics such as conservation of coral reef fishes and different approaches that capture the complexity of coral reefs ... Coral Reefs is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal dedicated to the study of coral reefs. It was established in 1982 ... "Coral Reefs". 2017 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2018. "Coral Reefs". Springer. ...
... are the coral reefs which are present in Africa. Most are found along the eastern and southern coasts of ... List of reefs East African coral coast Discover a special coral of Tenerife: the black coral Azores, Madeira and Canary islands ... killed 90 percent of corals on the reef. The CORDIO (COral Reef Degradation in the Indian Ocean) NGO have set up an East ... No 2287/2003 As with coral reefs elsewhere, African coral reefs are more biologically diverse than the surrounding ocean, and ...
Le Récif de corail at Films de France Coral Reefs at IMDb Coral Reefs at AllMovie v t e (CS1 French-language sources (fr), ... Coral Reefs (French title: Le Récif de corail) is a 1939 French-language adventure film made in Germany. Directed by Maurice ... On the way the vessel stops at Togobu, an unclaimed coral reef inhabited by a few happy Polynesians and an Englishman who hates ...
... are one of the most ancient and dynamic ecosystems of India. The coral reefs not only provide a sanctuary ... Angria Bank is a coral reef off Vijaydurg in Maharashtra. Tarkarli in Malwan, Maharashtra is a smaller reef. There is a coral ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coral reefs in India. Coral Reefs in India - National Biodiversity Authority of India ... Forest and Climate Change manages and guidelines for the protection of the Coral reefs in India. If the Coral reef region is ...
ISBN 978-0-549-98995-0. Reef resilience - coral reef conservation site of The Nature Conservancy (Coral reefs). ... The resilience of coral reefs is the biological ability of coral reefs to recover from natural and anthropogenic disturbances ... Reef resistance measures how well coral reefs tolerate changes in ocean chemistry, sea level, and sea surface temperature. Reef ... Another anthropogenic force that degrades coral reefs is bottom trawling; a fishing practice that scrapes coral reef habitats ...
The coral atolls and reef islands of Kiribati have been formed from oceanic volcanos, with a coral reef growing around the ... Stony corals plus coralline algae strongly dominated the reefs at Kingman Reef (71% LCC) with numerous large coral colonies ( ... The recognizable reef systems in these archipelagos are: 3 reef communities or submerged reefs; 15 fringing reefs; and 18 ... The coral reefs of the Phoenix Islands were notable for their moderate Live Coral Cover (LCC) of 20-40% and evidence of high ...
2. Status of coral reefs of the world (Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and the International Coral Reef Initiative). pp. ... 1. Status of coral reefs of the world (Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and the International Coral Reef Initiative). p. ... The coral reefs of Tuvalu consist of three reef islands and six atolls, containing approximately 710 km2 (270 sq mi) of reef ... June 2007). "Funafuti Atoll Coral Reef Restoration Project - baseline report" (PDF). Coral Reefs in the Pacific (CRISP), Nouméa ...
The Census of Coral Reefs (CReefs) is a field project of the Census of Marine Life that surveys the biodiversity of coral reef ... And increase access to and exchange of coral reef data throughout the world. Because coral reefs are the most diverse and among ... to study the species that inhabit coral reefs. These structures are placed on the sea floor in areas where coral reefs exist, ... the goals of the CReefs Census of Coral Reef Ecosystems were to conduct a diverse global census of coral reef ecosystems. ...
However, the reefs were once much larger. About 85% of Jamaica's coral reefs were lost between 1980-2000. Coral reef ... Environmental issues with coral reefs "'The coral are coming back': Reviving Jamaica's elegant and essential coral reefs". USA ... "Jamaican coral reefs get a helping hand , DW , 21.08.2014". DW.COM. Retrieved 2019-10-22. Charpentier, Will. "Coral Reefs in ... "Hurricanes and their effects on coral reefs" (PDF). Jones, Loureene (2008). Status of Caribbean Coral Reefs after Bleaching and ...
International Coral Reef Information Network: "Cyanide Fishing and Coral Reefs" The Coral Reef Alliance, 2002. <"The Coral Reef ... International Coral Reef Information Network Cyanide Fishing and Coral Reefs - The Coral Reef Alliance, 2002. Lu, Andrea. " ... the coral reefs in these countries are experiencing a decline. There are no pristine coral reefs in the world. Coral reefs in ... the coral reefs in these countries are experiencing a decline. There are no pristine coral reefs left in the world. Coral reefs ...
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system. The reef is located in the Coral Sea and a large part of the ... "Coral Reefs : Climate Change and Marine Disease". Retrieved 5 March 2019. "Reef Resilience: Coral Reef ... Wilkinson, Clive (2008) Status of Coral Reefs of the World: Executive Summary. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network. "Reefs at ... and subsequently coral reefs, because ingesting these fragments reduced coral food intake as well as coral fitness since corals ...
"Corals and Coral Reefs". Nancy Knowlton, iBioSeminars, 2011. About coral reefs Living Reefs Foundation, Bermuda Caribbean Coral ... Coral Reef Protection: What Are Coral Reefs?. US EPA. UNEP. 2004. Coral Reefs in the South China Sea. UNEP/GEF/SCS Technical ... A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps ... Schooling reef fish Caribbean reef squid Banded coral shrimp Whitetip reef shark Green turtle Giant clam Soft coral, cup coral ...
"How Coral Reefs Grow" Coral Reef Alliance. Caldow, Chris, Barry Devine, Peter Edmunds et al. "Ecology of Coral Reefs in the US ... As stated, the coral reefs such as fringing reefs, deep reefs, patch reefs and spur and groove formation are distributed over ... These coral reefs can be located between the islands of St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. These coral reefs have an area of ... The coral reefs as well as hard-bottom habitat accounts for 297.9 km2. The coral reefs are home to diverse species. There are ...
Coral reefs are composed of tiny, fragile animals known as coral polyps. Coral reefs are significantly important because of the ... The recognizable reef systems in the Solomons are: fringing reef, patch reef, barrier reef, atoll reefs and lagoon environment ... The Coral reefs of the Solomons make up nearly 6,750 km2 (2,610 sq mi) of total coral reef area. There are 113 Locally Managed ... is totally enclosed by the coral reef. Sikaiana is an example of a coral atoll formed from an oceanic volcano, with a coral ...
Coral bleaching Coral reef protection "Our Team". Coral Reef Alliance. Retrieved February 8, 2021. Vince, Gaia (October 18, ... "Local Engagement". Coral Reef Alliance. Retrieved 19 May 2022. "Coral Bleaching". Coral Reef Alliance. Retrieved 19 May 2022. " ... CORAL estimates that 90% of the world's coral reefs could undergo annual coral bleaching, and in a Nature Ecology and Evolution ... CORAL also has a coral bleaching response network using high-resolution satellite images to monitor coral reefs and bleaching ...
Its coral reef covers a concentrated part of the western littoral. The coral reef is located between St Leu and St Gilles. It ... Coral reefs are among the most densely populated marine environments. The coral reef fringing Réunion is a rich habitat for ... The coral reef is a natural barrier that protects the coast from typhoons. The least vulnerable sectors of the reef are in St ... The coral reef influences the price of local housing; homes close to a beach protected by corals enjoy lower real estate prices ...
... widely-adopted term used to refer to mesophotic coral reefs, as opposed to other similar terms like "deep coral reef ... "Community ecology of mesophotic coral reef ecosystems". Coral Reefs. 29 (2): 255-275. doi:10.1007/s00338-010-0593-6. ISSN 1432- ... A Mesophotic coral reef or mesophotic coral ecosystem (MCE), originally from the Latin word meso (meaning middle) and photic ( ... Mesophotic coral ecosystems-A lifeboat for coral reefs? Nairobi and Arendal: The United Nations Environment Programme and GRID- ...
... at IMDb Coral Reef Adventure at AllMovie v t e v t e (Articles needing additional references from June ... to a friend's coral reef-sustained village in Fiji, the diving expeditions show a range of coral reefs, from flourishing ones ... Coral Reef Adventure is a documentary film released in 2003 to IMAX theaters. It was directed by Greg MacGillivray and narrated ... Along their journey, scientists working to understand and save the reefs meet with the Hall's. Jean-Michel Cousteau, son of the ...
Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) National Center for Coral Reef Research (NCORE) Reef Ball Southeast Florida Coral Reef ... CORAL) Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for Management Coral Restoration ... Global Coral Reef Alliance (GCRA) Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network Great Barrier Reef Foundation Great Barrier Reef Marine ... Coral Cay Counterpart International U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (CRTF) National Coral Reef Institute (NCRI) US Department of ...
"We believe in coral reefs". Coral Reef Alliance. Retrieved 2022-11-17. "Coral Reefs and Corals , Smithsonian Ocean". ... Coral reef restoration strategies use natural and anthropogenic processes to restore damaged coral reefs. Reefs suffer damage ... "How Coral Gardening Is Saving Reefs". Sciencing. Retrieved 2023-03-01. Fisheries, NOAA (2021-09-27). "Restoring Coral Reefs , ... 375 billion dollars come from ecosystem services provided by coral reefs each year. The most prevalent coral in tropical reefs ...
... are fish which live amongst or in close relation to coral reefs. Coral reefs form complex ecosystems with ... coral reef fish harbour parasites. Since coral reef fish are characterized by high biodiversity, parasites of coral reef fish ... Whitetip, blacktip and grey reef sharks dominate the ecosystems of coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Coral reefs in the western ... Centre of Excellence Coral Reef Studies Coral Reefs at Curlie WhyReef, an online virtual reef for kids List of aquarium ...
... with Coral Reef Drive extending eastwards beyond the highway into Palmetto Bay. As Coral Reef Drive crosses US 1, it enters the ... section of Coral Reef Drive between the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike and US 1. Coral Reef Drive begins along the ... Coral Reef Drive, also known as Southwest 152nd Street, is a 9.6-mile-long (15.4 km) main east-west road south of Miami in ... East of here, Coral Reef Drive passes along the southern boundary of Three Lakes; while to its south lies the former Naval Air ...
The Coral Reef Restaurant is a themed seafood restaurant in The Seas Pavilion (formerly The Living Seas pavilion) on the ... Ron Douglas's cookbook America's Most Wanted Recipes: Just Desserts includes two dishes from the Coral Reef Restaurant: the ...
"Species on Coral Reefs". Coral Reef Alliance. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. "Value of Corals , Coral Reef ... Environmental issues with coral reefs Coral Reef Alliance Seacology Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Marine cloud brightening ... Coral reef protection is the process of modifying human activities to avoid damage to healthy coral reefs and to help damaged ... The aim of coral restoration is to help coral adapt to stressors and changing environments. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation ...
It contains a well-preserved Middle Devonian coral reef along with rare tabulate and rugose corals, crinoids, gastropods, and ... Fossil Coral Reef, also known locally as Bradbury Quarry, is a 100-acre (0.40 km2) abandoned limestone quarry in Le Roy, New ...
Formation of coral reefs Darwin's paradox List of reefs Zimmerman's Competing Theory of Reef Formation Gordon Chancellor (2008 ... Coral Reefs is fully supported by citations and material gathered together in the Appendix. Coral Reefs is arguably the first ... If the land subsides slowly, the fringing reefs keep pace by growing upwards on a base of dead coral, and form a barrier reef ... Darwin reviewed the distribution of different species of coral across a reef. He thought that the seaward reefs most exposed to ...
The mission of the Coral Reef Conservation Program is outlined in the Coral Reef Conservation Act and can be summarised as to " ... NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program. (2018, December 6). Coral Reef Condition: A status report for American Samoa . Retrieved ... Coral Reef Conservation Program. (2018). Strategic Plan. Silvery Spring, MD NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program. (2009). Goals ... Coral Reef Conservation Program. (2018). Strategic Plan. Silvery Spring, MD: NOAA. Coral Reef Conservation Program. (2018). ...
Reef Encounter, International Coral Reef Society. "Conferences & Meetings". International Coral Reef Society. Retrieved 1 ... "ICRS 2022". International Coral Reef Society. Retrieved 1 December 2022. "International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) Proceedings ... symposia and conferences relating to coral reefs. ICRS helps organize the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS). The most ... The International Coral Reef Society (ICRS; previously the International Society for Reef Studies) is an international, not-for ...
... best practices in coral reef management and building capacity of coral reef managers around the world ensuring that coral reefs ... "International Coral Reef Initiative - an informal partnership to preserve coral reefs around the world". ... Network is the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network which produces global and regional reports on the status of coral reefs on ... It is the "only global entity solely devoted to coral reefs". ICRI was established in 1994 at the initiative of eight founding ...
... is a coral reef located in the Bay of Cartagena, Colombia. Its paradoxical existence, harboring high ... "Surviving marginalized reefs: assessing the implications of the microbiome on coral physiology and survivorship". Coral Reefs. ... the only coral reef surviving from the polluted waters of the Bay of Cartagena: the Coral Reef of Varadero. This includes its ... With the rapid decline of coral reefs in the Caribbean, scientists are examining reefs such as Varader that are surviving in ...
"Coral Reefs". International Society for Reef Studies. Retrieved 29 January 2019. "Coral Reefs". Springer. Retrieved 2022-05-10 ... coral reef topics such as conservation of coral reef fishes and different approaches that capture the complexity of coral reefs ... Coral Reefs is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal dedicated to the study of coral reefs. It was established in 1982 ... "Coral Reefs". 2017 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2018. "Coral Reefs". Springer. ...
A new report released by the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network found that up to 14% of the worlds coral reefs... ... Planting diverse corals under the sea could help save threatened coral reef ecosystems, according to a new study published... ... Coral reef capacity has declined by 50% since the 1950s. *Bonface Landi ... Proposed Florida bill could require prescription for sunscreens in effort to save coral reefs. *Mariecor Agravante ...
While some corals may be able to adjust to some level of heat stress over time, our actions to reduce emissions will largely ... Record-setting global temperatures are increasingly stressing corals, leading to weakness and even death for these sensitive ... determine how reefs fare in a climate increasingly inhospitable to their survival. ...
You can find detailed stats on the economic activity of the labor force broken over different age-groups and sexes. We also have stats on employment in different sectors, trade union memberships, the average work time, the average number of days the workers take off or even just dont show up! How many female decision makers does a country have? Doctors? What is the normal gender division of the housework? What are the unemployment details and benefits available? How long does an average person need to work to buy a loaf of bread? A car? A television set? Compare these values for different countries.. TOP STATS: Salaries and benefits , Minimum wage, Average monthly wage , Local currency , Net, Labor force , By occupation and 374 more ...
Coral reefs, the ". rain forests of the sea,. ". play a crucialrole in the oceans as an anchor for most marine ecosystems. ... You have to go and look at the coral reefs now, as we arelosing them,. ". said Clive Wilkinson, a leading Australianscientist. ... s reefs is global warming, which iscausing a damaging condition known as coral bleaching. ... Researchers told the 1,500 delegates from 52 countries attendingthe 9th International Coral Reef Symposium on Indonesia. . s ...
Coral reefs are one of the most important parts of the marine ecosystem. Find out what you can do to save them! ... What are Coral Reefs?. Coral reefs may look like stone but they are actually made up of tiny clear organisms called coral ... Without coral reefs to call home, these animals could all die.. Threats to the Reef. More than half the worlds coral reefs are ... Types of Coral Reefs. * Fringing reefs: Reefs that form along a coastline and grow on the continental shelf in shallow water. ...
... the giant Turbinaria bifrons was collected from Shark Bay Reef, off the coast of Western Australia, more than 120 years ago. ... Can our coral reefs recover?. Climate change, ocean acidification and human interference have caused a great deal of damage to ... The short answer to a difficult question is that coral reefs can recover over time, but the way they grow back will be ... The piece of coral going on display is a Turbinaria, a genus of colonial stony corals native to the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, ...
Physical sciences/Earth sciences/Oceanography/Marine biology/Marine life/Coral/Coral reefs ... with warming ocean waters bleaching the reefs and leaving behind lifeless skeletons. The loss of coral reefs has far-reaching ... Coral reefs are relatively tiny compared to the vastness of the ocean, and running a simulation at high enough resolution over ... "Coral reefs are not doing well, and weve all been going through a period of mourning," Kleypas said. "This study highlights ...
Protecting coral reefs and mangrove forests makes economic sense according to a new report by the United Nations Environment ... Coral reefs decimated by 2050, Great Barrier Reefs coral 95% dead. Australias Great Barrier Reef could lose 95 percent of its ... Caribbean reefs suffer severe coral bleaching event. The Caribbean experienced one of the most devastating coral bleaching ... Reefs-more than pretty fish. UNEP estimates the value of coral reefs is between US$100,000 to US$600,000 per square kilometer a ...
A new estimate of microbial life living in Pacific reefs is similar to global counts, suggesting many more microbes call Earth ... Coral reefs are hot spots for more than fish.. Fish and corals in reefs across the Pacific Ocean may harbor nearly 3 million ... Coral reefs host millions of bacteria, revealing Earths hidden biodiversity. Sampling at just 99 Pacific Ocean reefs ... Researchers collect samples from a coral reef as part of the Tara Pacific Expedition, an effort to document biodiversity in ...
... Greg McFall/NOAA , Public Domain. Likened to cities on land, coral creates a habitat for a diverse ... Coral reefs are in crisis. Facing extreme heat in the oceans, coral are drained of their color and starving in mass bleaching ... Were working to protect our oceans, including coral reefs, from climate change, plastic pollution and more. Will you make a ...
This endeavor sparks an idea to plant healthy colonies in dying coral reefs. Readers are likely to be intrigued by the hands-on ... The Brilliant Deep: Rebuilding the Worlds Coral Reefs. Kate Messner, illus. by Matthew Forsythe. Chronicle, $17.99 (48p) ISBN ... Messner draws a poetic analogy between people and corals in this story of Ken Nedimyer, founder of the Coral Restoration ... process of regrowing the reefs: "With a careful dab of epoxy-just the size of a Hersheys Kiss-volunteers attach the coral ...
Scientists still expect that more than 90 per cent of corals will die b ... Scientists race to prevent wipeout of worlds coral reefs Scientists still expect that more than 90 per cent of corals will die ... Catlin Seaview Survey shows a snorkeler surveying the coral bleaching in the Maldives. Coral reefs, unique underwater ... "To lose coral reefs is to fundamentally undermine the health of a very large proportion of the human race," said Ruth Gates, ...
Bleaching Is Hitting Coral Reefs Faster Than Ever. The reefs have always lived near the edge. But now, in just four decades of ... Coral reefs are among the planets richest habitats, and the death of a reef puts many ocean species at risk: it also damages ... Bleached coral on the Great Barrier Reef. (Acrapora at English Wikipedia / Wikipedia Commons) Tim Radford / Climate News ... Coral reefs now face this hazard every six years. That is, in four decades of global warming and climate change, the risks have ...
Coral reefs in the Caribbean are being overrun by seaweed, but the Caribbean king crab could get the overgrowth under control ... "Coral reefs are tough neighbourhoods," says Butler. "There are a lot of hungry mouths to feed on a coral reef and the tiny ... "The main way that people are trying to restore coral reefs is to transplant corals onto reefs but that doesnt get rid of the ... Read more: Coral reefs are vanishing faster than rainforests. Butler and co-author Angelo Jason Spadaro, also at Florida ...
New research examines impact of mass tourism on reefs in the Philippines ... Does whale shark tourism damage coral reefs?. New research examines impact of mass tourism on reefs in the Philippines ... Whale Shark Tourism: Impacts on Coral Reefs in the Philippines. Environmental Management, 2018; DOI: 10.1007/s00267-018-1125-3 ... Reef-based tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades yet its impacts on reef ecosystems are often overlooked. There ...
Learn more coral reef facts and see coral reef photos and maps. ... Coral reefs are the rainforests of the sea, home to many, many ... Threats to Coral Reefs The coral reefs zooxanthellae, or symbiotic algae, give it its color. When coral is stressed, it expels ... all reefs have a fore reef, or seaward slope, and a back reef. The back reef is the part of the reef closest to shore, while ... Coral Reef Conditions and Structure Coral reefs, indicated by red dots, are found predominantly in tropical waters 30 degrees ...
Coral Reefs, Papua, Indonesia Photographic Print by Michele Westmorland at, with fast shipping, easy returns, ...
As she admits, its easy to get sad about the state of coral reefs; theyre in the news lately because of how quickly theyre ... Kristen Marhaver studies corals, tiny creatures the size of a poppyseed that, over hundreds of slow years, create beautiful, ... As she admits, its easy to get sad about the state of coral reefs; theyre in the news lately because of how quickly theyre ... As she admits, its easy to get sad about the state of coral reefs; theyre in the news lately because of how quickly theyre ...
Local fisheries management resulted in a 62 per cent increase in the density of young corals, which improves the ecosystems ... which makes it easier for baby corals to get started and thrive on the reef, Steneck said.. But coral reefs are complicated, ... and especially not for coral reefs, researchers said.. Certainly, stresses on reef corals from climate and atmospheric changes ... MPAs can help coral reefs, but studies to the contrary just were not measuring the right things at the right scales, said ...
... about 90 percent of coral reef is already gone due to hurricanes, pollution and global warming ... Hard corals grow in colonies and are the architects of coral reefs. Once wounded hard coral is recovered, David starts the ... But now there is a new hope: the coral polyps, living animals that make up the reefs. The new Coral Genetic Bank is working to ... The efforts of Mote Marine Laboratories to create a coral genetic bank and the Marine Sanctuary to keep the coral reef alive ...
... where stressed corals expel their colorful algae symbionts, leaving them pale and vulnerable. ... Floridas coral reefs are also a tourist attraction and help support the local economy.. "We want to restore corals in these ... Floridas rising water temperatures raise concerns for health of coral reefs. The extreme heat has triggered coral bleaching, ... So we take corals from the port and bring them and repopulate some of our reefs that have been decimated." Related Tags. United ...
This immense reef (temporarily) spells out hope and shows that hope can lead to actions that save the worlds oceans. ... The SHEBA Hope Reef near Bontosua is made of 840 reef stars and about 13,000 fragments of 42 different types of coral. The reef ... The worlds coral reefs are at risk. Climate change has accelerated the destruction of coral reefs around the world-scientists ... Since the reef was planted, coral cover has grown from five percent to 55 percent. Before long, the coral will have grown so ...
This first-ever global coral reef atlas contains maps of over 65,000 square kilometers (25,097 square miles) of coral reefs and ... Scientists offer a new way to accurately map coral reefs using a combination of Earth-orbiting satellites and field ... The high-resolution coral reef maps made for this study can be found on the World Reef Map, an interactive coral reef atlas ... Largest collection of coral reef maps ever made. New global atlas offers new way to map coral reefs from space. Date:. April 23 ...
These findings highlight the utility of passive acoustic tools for long-term monitoring and management of coral reefs, which is ... which provides new insights into the ecology of vocalising reef fish species and the surrounding ecosystem. All choruses were ... The coral reefs surrounding Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef have a diverse soundscape that contains an array of ... highly relevant in light of recent global disturbance events, particularly coral bleaching. ...
5 year impact factor: 5.275. Resilience Alliance is a registered 501 (c)(3) non-profit organization. Permissions and Copyright Information. Online and Open Access since 1997. Ecology and Society is now licensing all its articles under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Ecology and Society ISSN: 1708-3087. ...
Researchers develop novel approach to understand both human and environmental impacts on coral reef health across the Hawaiian ... Many of Hawaiis once-thriving coral reefs are now struggling to recover from recent extreme coral bleaching caused by rising ... "These are some of Hawaiis most vibrant coral reefs, so we were heartbroken - and determined to better understand how reef ... Before reefs become deserts: Keeping coral healthy in Hawaii. Researchers develop novel approach to understand both human and ...
Coral reefs are made up of the coral polyps that excrete the substance that forms the reef skeleton, as well as the algae, fish ... Climate changes devastating impact on coral reefs is on display in the new Netflix film "Chasing Coral." ... Netflix Film Chasing Coral Warns of Grim Future for Imperiled Reefs. By Mindy Weisberger published 14 July 17. ... 85 Miles of Atlantic Coral Reef Stayed Hidden Until Now. By Mindy Weisberger published 27 August 18. ...
The Great Coral Reef Of Florida. First, I am going to talk about the importance of coral reefs. Coral reefs are some of the ... The Dangers Of Coral Reef Bleaching. Coral Reefs have a huge role in our environment, even though they only make up less than ... The Coral Reef Biomes : The Environmental Effects Of Coral Reefs. The ocean is two-thirds of our planet a vast blue landscape ... Through coral reefs we can view the effects that these changes have on the ocean through how the coral reef biome is affected. ...
Habitat: Intertidal, Estuaries, Sandy Plains, Rocky Reefs, Coral Reefs, Open Ocean, Deep Sea ... Coral Reefs: Diversity on Display. Tiger Shark. One of the largest and most notorious of sharks, the Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo ...
  • A new report released by the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network found that up to 14% of the world's coral reefs. (
  • More than half the world's coral reefs are threatened by humans, either through coastal development, over-fishing , and/or marine pollution. (
  • Forty years ago, the world's coral reefs faced a known risk: every 25 or 30 years, ocean temperatures would rise to intolerable levels. (
  • In 2017 they found that reefs in the western Pacific and off the Indian Ocean had been damaged beyond repair , and a separate set of calculations has warned that by 2100, up to 99% of the world's coral colonies could be at risk of bleaching every year . (
  • Even a slight increase in ocean temperature, or increased CO2… can cause stresses such as bleaching… These stresses slow the rate of growth of the corrals… With some 60 percent of the world's coral reefs now losing productivity, it's becoming a global crisis and a scientific mystery. (
  • Its members now include 45 countries that represent three quarters of the world's coral reefs. (
  • Play a fun tablet game, learn about coral reefs and help NASA scientists build an algorithm that will map out the world's coral! (
  • Planting diverse corals under the sea could help save threatened coral reef ecosystems, according to a new study published. (
  • Principal Curator Miranda Lowe says the Turbinaria, one of the largest specimens in the Museum's marine invertebrates collection, provides a timely reminder of the importance of coral reefs as well as human impact on underwater ecosystems. (
  • As warming ocean temperatures threaten the existence of coral reefs, scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have successfully used an extremely high-resolution computer simulation of ocean circulation to identify possible "thermal refugia" where these biodiverse ecosystems are more likely to survive. (
  • The report, titled "In the Front Line: Shoreline Protection and other Ecosystem Services from Mangroves and Coral Reefs", argues that conserving these ecosystems for the services they provide-from fisheries protection to erosion control to a source for medical compounds-is cost-effective relative to destroying them and substituting their role with man-made structures. (
  • Coral reefs, unique underwater ecosystems that sustain a quarter of the world's marine species and half a billion people, are dying on an unprecedented scale. (
  • Reef-based tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades yet its impacts on reef ecosystems are often overlooked. (
  • These are some of Hawaii's most vibrant coral reefs, so we were heartbroken - and determined to better understand how reef ecosystems could be more resilient in the future. (
  • Although people have known that natural and human-caused phenomena affect the health and resilience of coral reef ecosystems, little is known about which factors are more important in each region. (
  • Coral reefs are the most diverse and biologically richest of all marine ecosystems. (
  • Aside from its biologically diverse ecosystems, coral reefs are major source of food for millions and provides habitats and nursery areas for many marine organisms. (
  • Climate change is the greatest global threat to coral reef ecosystems," NOAA said in a recent report. (
  • Not having access to accurate, large-area reef maps has limited our understanding of these ecosystems and the benefits they provide. (
  • We're helping to build a culture of environmental stewardship that leads to better protections for coral reef ecosystems. (
  • We increase stewardship for coral reefs by building community awareness about coral reef ecosystems and the threats they face. (
  • We support and encourage protections for other related ecosystems, like mangrove forests and lagoons, that are essential for healthy coral reefs. (
  • Coral reefs are among the world's most spectacular ecosystems. (
  • How can instruments and systems for the conservation of nature, the biosphere, the highly biodiverse coral reef ecosystems of the seas and oceans be improved? (
  • This increase in temperature and the increase in the scale of water pollution in the seas and oceans is causing the death of coral reefs, which have formed over millions of years and have developed the most biodiverse ecosystems of the seas and oceans. (
  • Firstly, Coral reefs systems consist of both coldwater/deepsea corals, and tropical coral reefs with associated ecosystems of mangroves, seagrass beds, etc. (
  • The coral bleaching could have a devastating impact on coral reef ecosystems by killing coral and destroying food chains in the ocean. (
  • The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) said it would secure public and private investment to help conserve and restore coral ecosystems, which sustain a quarter of the world's marine species and more than a billion people. (
  • These ecosystems are more than just beautiful places - coral reefs are important for humans, providing food through fisheries, income through tourism and coastal protection to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. (
  • In recent years, observations of coral bleaching, which can have devastating effects on coral reefs up to the collapse of entire ecosystems, have become more frequent. (
  • Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on the planet and although they are mostly known for their incredible beauty, they are furthermore crucial for fisheries, coastal protection and tourism income, especially "in developing countries and island nations where dependence on coral reefs for food and livelihoods is high" (Burke et al. (
  • 2009), a phenomenon that can cause the death of corals and thereby the collapse of entire ecosystems and has been described as "one of the most striking impacts of climate change that has been observed to date" (Cinner et al. (
  • This issue covers topics including a study of coral in the Red Sea and its thermal thresholds which can then be examined to expect negative outcomes of shifting climate. (
  • While some corals may be able to adjust to some level of heat stress over time, our actions to reduce emissions will largely determine how reefs fare in a climate increasingly inhospitable to their survival. (
  • Climate change poses such a threat to coral reefs worldwide that the majority are expected to be lost in less than three decades, with warming ocean waters bleaching the reefs and leaving behind lifeless skeletons. (
  • The resulting atlas offers some hope, according to Kleypas, who has conducted pioneering research into the effects of climate change on coral reefs. (
  • We're working to protect our oceans, including coral reefs, from climate change, plastic pollution and more. (
  • The climate has warmed rapidly in the past 50 years, first making El Niños dangerous for corals, and now we're seeing the emergence of bleaching in every hot summer. (
  • While climate change threatens many coral reefs around the world, algal overgrowth, including seaweed, is also an issue. (
  • WASHINGTON: Marine protected areas (MPAs) may be effective in saving coral reefs from the damaging effects of global climate change, according to a study which contradicts the notion that such efforts are futile. (
  • Certainly, stresses on reef corals from climate and atmospheric changes are serious and beyond direct management control,' Steneck said. (
  • Rising temperatures in Florida's waters due to climate change have sparked an extreme stressor for coral reefs causing bleaching, which has scientists concerned. (
  • Climate change has accelerated the destruction of coral reefs around the world-scientists say that without interventions 90 percent are at risk of dying this century , perhaps even by 2043. (
  • Scientists estimate that over 50 percent of coral reefs worldwide have been lost in the past 40 years due to climate change and other human pressures. (
  • Climate change's devastating impact on coral reefs is on display in the new Netflix film "Chasing Coral. (
  • However, 75% of the coral reefs are under threat from induced impacts of humans and climate change (Burke, et al. (
  • The main cause of mass coral bleaching happens when there is an increase in ocean water temperature caused by climate change . (
  • Coral reefs are suffering because of the impacts of climate change. (
  • Their latest production, " Coral City Flourotour, " will be shown on the New World Center Wallscape this week as the Aspen Institute hosts a major climate conference in Miami Beach. (
  • the three main problems facing coral reefs are pollution, climate change, and ocean acidification. (
  • Hence, anthropogenic causes (including IPCC's position that climate change is mainly due to anthropogenic GHGs emissions) of the deteriorating conditions of these coral reefs can differ. (
  • Richard Leck, Climate Change Strategy Leader for WWF's Coral Triangle Program. (
  • A recent World Wildlife Fund report, Implications of Climate Change for Australia's Great Barrier Reef , warns that both the frequency and severity of coral bleaching will increase worldwide, and predicts that less than 5% of the coral on Australia's Great Barrier Reef will remain by 2050 due to climate change . (
  • Adult mountainous star coral (Orbicella faveolata) such as these in the Florida Keys' Cheeca Rocks face life-threatening bleaching and other diseases due to climate change. (
  • The discovery may help improve efforts to save corals from bleaching and other consequences of climate change. (
  • Climate change threatens the survival of coral reefs globally. (
  • SINGAPORE (Reuters) - An alliance of nations said on Tuesday members would raise $12 billion to protect coral reefs from threats such as pollution and overfishing, but experts warned the funding would only be a drop in the ocean unless broader climate risks are addressed. (
  • Numerous marine habitats, especially coral reefs, are altering in an irreversible manner as a result of climate change and pollution caused by human activities. (
  • Warming temperatures, rising sea levels and other disturbances have already destroyed or damaged most coral reefs around the world, and experts predict that 70 to 90 percent of the live coral today will be lost by 2050 if climate change isn't kept in check. (
  • Temperature rises caused by the El-Nino effect and climate change have caused widespread damage to the reef. (
  • This can mainly be attributed to climate change since high sea surface temperatures are widely understood as the trigger of coral bleaching. (
  • The results of this work imply that poor coastal communities are highly vulnerable to climate change through coral bleaching, which should be taken into consideration for climate change adaptation and mitigation. (
  • ICRI said it aims to 'secure the future' of 125,000 square kilometres of shallow-water tropical coral reefs and double the areas under effective protection by the end of the decade. (
  • Tropical coral reefs in the Caribbean, South Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, tropical Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico are considered high-risk areas for exposure to fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. (
  • scoral reefs have been destroyed by pollution and global warming andunless drastic measures are taken, most of the remaining reefs maybe dead in 20 years, scientists said today. (
  • Cringing at the mention of crowbars, Miranda was quick to point out that in the age of exploration, the way scientists approached the reef was different to how they work today. (
  • According to Miranda, having such a large specimen allowed scientists to properly identify coral for the first time, because the corallites - the tiny holes that give coral a pitted surface - were large enough to see partly with a naked eye and with microscopes of that time. (
  • Scientists have since used the details of corallites to identify coral. (
  • However, 'for the purpose of coral identification, scientists in Victorian times preferred pristine-looking specimens, so they were bleached and scrubbed clean. (
  • We hope this work serves as a starting point for other scientists who are interested in reefs," said NCAR scientist Scott Bachman, who led the new study, published in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science . (
  • However, scientists have found that some reefs do fare better than others. (
  • Even if the world could halt global warming now, scientists still expect that more than 90 per cent of corals will die by 2050. (
  • In 2015, during a severe El Niño event , scientists began to record cases of coral death. (
  • In this article, you'll learn how coral reefs form, what kind of life they harbor and why scientists say they may largely disappear in the coming century. (
  • If you have ever seen branching corals spreading their arms out like tree limbs, you can see why early scientists thought corals were plants. (
  • Scientists offer a new way to accurately map coral reefs using a combination of Earth-orbiting satellites and field observations. (
  • A study from scientists at the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation and the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science offers a new way to accurately map coral reefs using a combination of Earth-orbiting satellites and field observations. (
  • The maps, published today in the journal Coral Reefs , are the result of a 10-year Global Reef Expedition by scientists for the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation. (
  • To develop the new model to accurately map coral reef and other tropical shallow-water marine habitats, scientists took data collected from extensive SCUBA surveys conducted on the Global Reef Expedition and extrapolate that information across the entire reef using ultra-high-resolution satellite imagery. (
  • By comparing the maps with video footage from cameras dropped at precise coordinates along the reef, the scientists were able to verify the accuracy of their new mapping method. (
  • Scientists now have a way to peer beneath the waves to accurately map large areas of coral reefs at greatly reduced cost. (
  • Using this new model, scientists can create detailed coral reef habitat maps at a regional scale without having to survey the entire reef in person. (
  • Data created by this mapping study are available for free at the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System , where scientists, managers and members of the public can explore and further analyze what drives variation on coral reefs. (
  • The findings counter the commonly held notion among scientists that if coral parents can handle the heat, so should their offspring. (
  • To assess which corals could more readily handle higher temperatures, the scientists collected coral reproductive cells, known as gametes, from two different coral reef sites in the Florida Keys. (
  • The scientists hope to dig deeper into how corals adapt to environmental changes and pass on resilience, examining the impact of corals' history and relationships with other organisms as well as the overall health of the reef. (
  • An international team of scientists has discovered a new coldwater coral habitat in Irish waters. (
  • While mapping and inspecting some previously unconfirmed reefs on the edge of the Porcupine Bank Canyon, 300 km offshore from Dingle, the scientists decided to venture further into the canyon itself. (
  • All of these will allow scientists to gather equivalent data from oyster and coral reefs throughout the world. (
  • It's tricky for scientists to track just how much coral is being lost, since reefs are spread all over the world and hidden underwater. (
  • But recent advances in satellite technology have made it easy for scientists to collect photos of many of the world's reefs, which they can use to learn about things like coral abundance and diversity, and how those important measures of reef health are changing over time. (
  • Once they've digitized enough photos, scientists will be able to use a computer algorithm to do the task automatically, offering unprecedented insights into coral reef health around the world. (
  • While NASA's computer scientists develop new ways to deal with giant satellite datasets, the coral reefs themselves are at the heart of NeMO-Net. (
  • That means giving information to coral reef managers and scientists doing on-the-ground (well, under-the-water) experiments to test ways to save or even rebuild reefs. (
  • Scientists predict that the northern region of the reef will take 10-15 years to recover, but yet another bleaching event could thwart progress. (
  • Facing extreme heat in the oceans, coral are drained of their color and starving in mass bleaching events. (
  • According to some environmentalist organizations, pollution and abuse of the oceans will kill all coral reefs by the year 2050. (
  • Coral reefs make up 1 percent of all of the footprint of the world oceans,' says David Lackland, marine biologist at Mote Marine Laboratories in Summerland Keys in Florida, and an expert in coral reproduction and restoration. (
  • Benthic habitat maps are an essential tool in coral reef conservation as they provide a snapshot of where reefs are located and the status of their health," said Alexandra Dempsey, the director of science management for the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation and a co-author of the paper. (
  • Consisting of less than 1% of the world oceans, the coral reefs are ancient animals comprising of thin calcium carbonate deposits within the photic layer. (
  • The warming oceans prompt coral bleaching and raise the risk of infectious diseases that can cause mass die-offs in coral, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (
  • Record-setting global temperatures are increasingly stressing corals, leading to weakness and even death for these sensitive species. (
  • Reefs provide homes to fish, support endangered and threatened species , and are safe havens to marine mammals and turtles. (
  • If there are no algae, there's no coral and if there is no coral, thousands of marine species could become extinct . (
  • This one coral would have been home to multiple species of fish and filter-feeders like molluscs, sponges and serpulid tube worms. (
  • It's a reminder that if we don't have coral reefs , we lose thousands of species of fish and eventually commercial economies and food supply as well - because without the reefs you don't have the diversity of fishes. (
  • Likened to cities on land, coral creates a habitat for a diverse array of species. (
  • The health of the planet depends on it: Coral reefs support a quarter of all marine species, as well as half a billion people around the world. (
  • Coral reefs are among the planet's richest habitats, and the death of a reef puts many ocean species at risk: it also damages local commercial fish catches and local tourist industries. (
  • There are a lot of hungry mouths to feed on a coral reef and the tiny crabs are eaten by quite a few different species. (
  • Over 4,000 different species of fish, hundreds of species of coral and thousands more kinds of plants and animals inhabit the reefs. (
  • In that 1 percent it is said that between a quarter and a third of all aquatic species either spend their whole life or an intricate part of their life on or around that one percent which is our coral reefs. (
  • David has collected samples of 27 of the more than 50 species of hard coral in the Keys, mostly those from shallow waters where they are more exposed to busy boat traffic and human activity. (
  • Coral reefs create homes for millions of species of marine life, support healthy ocean food webs and protect coastlines, experts say. (
  • The choruses displayed a broad range of periodicities, from diel to annual, which provides new insights into the ecology of vocalising reef fish species and the surrounding ecosystem. (
  • The livestream has already revealed that staghorn and other corals can adapt and thrive even in a highly urbanized undersea environment, along with 177 species of fish, dolphins, manatees and other sea life, Foord said. (
  • Mountainous star coral (foreground) are a key denizen of reefs, which other species - including the furtive barracuda at right - depend on. (
  • The study focuses on one specific coral species, and different species may behave differently. (
  • The team found found many species of coral, sponges, crabs and fish. (
  • This includes taking high-resolution photographs that are utilized later for spotting species and microscope observations for baby coral to be counted. (
  • What they didn't expect to find was a ray of hope - a small number of reef locations that if protected could substantially contribute to the recovery of predatory fish populations and help restore depleted species. (
  • The idea behind MPAs is that, by reducing fishing pressure, you increase the number of seaweed-eating fish, and they decrease the amount of harmful seaweed, which makes it easier for baby corals to get started and thrive on the reef,' Steneck said. (
  • Alicia Ferrer, from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and David Lackland have teamed up on two projects: the development of baby corals or small colonies and the replanting of larger pieces into the reef. (
  • Reefs that form along a coastline and grow on the continental shelf in shallow water. (
  • The high-resolution coral reef maps contain information on shallow water marine habitat such as fore and back reefs as well as information on the size of seagrass beds and mangrove forests for key locations visited on the expedition. (
  • The high-resolution coral reef maps made for this study can be found on the World Reef Map, an interactive coral reef atlas where users can explore all of the coral reefs and shallow water marine habitats mapped on the Global Reef Expedition. (
  • Over the past eight-nine months, two-thirds of a 700km section lost its shallow-water corals, James Cook University researchers found. (
  • This first-ever global coral reef atlas contains maps of over 65,000 square kilometers (25,097 square miles) of coral reefs and surrounding habitats. (
  • Many human activities can destroy reef habitats quickly, with little gain. (
  • We increase compliance with laws and regulations that protect reef habitats by conducting law enforcement patrols, clarifying governance, and building awareness among community members. (
  • As coral reefs face an increasing number of threats, coral reef visitors can play an important role in helping protect these vulnerable habitats. (
  • Coral reefs are among the planet's most precious natural resources, and the most precarious. (
  • Seventy percent of coral reefs may be gone in less than 40 years if the present rate of destruction continues [source: Nature Conservancy]. (
  • Reef bleaching occurs when water temperatures increase (due to global warming), which causes algae - the major food source of coral polyps - to die. (
  • Corals would minimise the risk of death by everting the algae with which they lived in symbiotic partnership: that is, the reef animals would avoid death by getting rid of the algae, deliberately weakening themselves. (
  • Bleaching events are a fact of life for corals: these little creatures tend to live best in temperatures near the upper limit of their tolerance levels, and respond to extreme events by rejecting the algae that normally provide the nutrients they need. (
  • Coral almost could be considered half-plant because of the zooxanthellae (pronounced zoo-zan-thelly) algae that live just inside each polyp's cell walls. (
  • Coral polyps also use the energy supplied by their symbiotic algae to produce calcium carbonate , or limestone. (
  • But coral reefs are complicated, and lots of other things can affect fish numbers, their ability to control the growth of algae and the ability of corals to take advantage of this,' he said. (
  • The extreme heat has triggered coral bleaching, where stressed corals expel their colorful algae symbionts, leaving them pale and vulnerable. (
  • Stanford researchers in the Hawaiian Islands compared healthy coral, left, with degraded coral dominated by algae overgrowth. (
  • Coral bleaching occurs when water is too warm, causing corals to expel the algae living in their tissues and turn completely white -- often killing the coral. (
  • The sight of the global mass coral bleaching event -- a phenomenon that occurs when water is too warm, causing corals to expel the algae living in their tissues and turn completely white -- led Foster and her team to start Coral Maker , a collaboration between the California Academy of Sciences and Autodesk. (
  • A coral gets its food from the algae living in its tissues. (
  • This stress causes the relationship between the coral and the algae to break down," Foster said. (
  • And instead of providing the coral with 80% or 90% of its nutrition, the algae is now becoming toxic to the coral. (
  • Once it defines the five reef classes, eCognition determines seagrass classes (dense and sparse), sand types and dredged areas, and then finishes with mapping the deeper hard-bottom-with-algae classes. (
  • When the sea warms too quickly, coral expels the algae living in its tissue, causing it to turn completely white. (
  • We invite researchers to look at our website, identify where refugia may be, and then go observe the health of the reefs. (
  • The urgency to promote awareness about caring for the environment, especially of coral reefs, motivated the present study, which was based on socioenvironmental and psychopedagogical principles and followed an interdisciplinary approach focusing on the health of the reefs as these have unique functions for ecological balance and human wellbeing while being increasingly vulnerable to the impacts of tourism. (
  • Does whale shark tourism damage coral reefs? (
  • This approach, synthesizing data from a large geographic area and over a long period of time to get a big-picture perspective on reef health and regional impacts, provides a foundation for further research and informs policies to protect coral reefs. (
  • But corals are sensitive to temperature fluctuations, and are suffering from rising ocean temperatures and acidification, as well as from overfishing, pollution, coastal development and agricultural runoff. (
  • Coral restoration projects are an important part of reversing the damage, which is also caused by non-sustainable fishing techniques, pollution, and even by tourists swimming with the wrong sunscreen. (
  • The pollution being released into the environment is poisoning the coral and causes death and malformation to the wildlife. (
  • A study published recently by a team of researchers, alumni and students from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) showed that local impacts of humans-nutrient pollution from activities on land-may accelerate the negative impacts of global ocean acidification on coral reefs. (
  • There is a long history of examining the impacts of nutrient pollution and ocean acidification on coral reefs," said lead author Nyssa Silbiger , assistant professor at California State University, Northridge and alumna of the UH Mānoa Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) at SOEST. (
  • The new study in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences showed that nutrient pollution, which includes septic systems and agricultural and stormwater runoff, could make coral reefs more vulnerable to ocean acidification and accelerate the predicted shift from net growth to overall loss. (
  • We showed that nutrient pollution decreases overall reef growth and disrupts the natural chemical dynamics on coral reefs," said Silbiger. (
  • Nutrient pollution reduced calcification rates-a measure of how quickly reef builders are creating the skeletal framework-nearly tenfold in waters that would otherwise promote reef growth, and enhanced both skeletal dissolution and the growth of seaweed competitors. (
  • But until now we never quantified how nutrient pollution can directly reduce corals' ability to build reef structure. (
  • Nutrient pollution negatively effects reef growth both directly and indirectly, creating a double whammy for coral reefs already stressed by ocean acidification around the world," said co-author Megan Donahue, researcher at HIMB. (
  • The study comes less than two weeks after NOAA declared the third ever global coral bleaching event and warned that locally produced threats to coral, such as pollution, stress the health of corals and decrease the likelihood that they will resist bleaching, or recover from it. (
  • Any small effort to reduce oxybenzone pollution could mean that a coral reef survives a long, hot summer, or that a degraded area recovers. (
  • Coral reefs have come under increasing pressure as a result of rising marine pollution, destructive coastal development and fishing fleets. (
  • They have published multiple in-depth articles covering coral reef topics such as conservation of coral reef fishes and different approaches that capture the complexity of coral reefs when examining canopy-forming organisms. (
  • Coral reefs are one of the most ecologically important organisms in the world - but they're dying at an alarming rate. (
  • Coral reefs may look like stone but they are actually made up of tiny clear organisms called coral polyps and their skeletons . (
  • In order for coral reefs to thrive, calcifying organisms, such as corals, must build the reef faster than bioeroding organisms and natural dissolution break down the reef. (
  • What this work revealed is that the nutrients also change the local pH environment by compromising how corals and other reef organisms breathe, which influences the chemistry of the reef. (
  • It occurs when the zooxanthellae - the tiny organisms that live within the coral - become expelled from the coral because of stress. (
  • The cliff face, never seen by humans before, was covered in corals and other associated organisms. (
  • It also provides much-needed baseline data of coral reef health prior to the 2017 mass bleaching event. (
  • Researchers predict a major marine heat wave in the Pacific Ocean could prove disastrous to the fragile coral reefs. (
  • Researchers collect samples from a coral reef as part of the Tara Pacific Expedition, an effort to document biodiversity in reefs across the ocean. (
  • Fish and corals in reefs across the Pacific Ocean may harbor nearly 3 million varieties of bacteria , researchers report June 1 in Nature Communications . (
  • The study by researchers at the University of Maine in the US spanned 700 kilometers of the eastern Caribbean, discovering that local reef protection efforts can work. (
  • Taking field measurements on coral reefs is time consuming, so many researchers are forced to take shortcuts and use simple, widely available data to analyse how reefs respond to protection, said Peter Mumby from the University of Queensland, Australia. (
  • There is no management panacea for any ecosystem, and especially not for coral reefs, researchers said. (
  • Researchers develop novel approach to understand both human and environmental impacts on coral reef health across the Hawaiian Islands. (
  • A team of researchers is developing a solution using robotics and manufacturing techniques to help grow a million new corals each year. (
  • To date, Project: CORaiLhas collected more than 71,000 images, which researchers use to gauge reef health by analyzing fish populations in real-time. (
  • To date, Project: CORaiL has collected more than 71,000 images, which researchers use to gauge reef health by analyzing fish populations in real-time, essentially doing hands-on monitoring without disrupting the underwater environment. (
  • Researchers found "100% mortality" at a coral reef site off Florida. (
  • The researchers carefully bred the corals in a controlled environment and exposed the coral larvae to heat stress conditions in the lab. (
  • The researchers then measured how the corals survived. (
  • Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have found that up to 90 percent of predatory fish are gone from Caribbean coral reefs, straining the ocean ecosystem and coastal economy. (
  • Some features have a surprisingly large effect on how many predators a reef can support," said Courtney Ellen Cox, a coauthor and former UNC-Chapel Hill doctoral student now at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. For example, researchers believe that the Columbia Reef within the fisheries closures of Cozumel, Mexico, could support an average 10 times the current level of predatory fish if protected. (
  • As with almost every ecosystem and its members, coral reefs provide several ecosystem services. (
  • Coral reefs provide critical ecosystem services including food security and shoreline protection to coastal communities. (
  • The report estimates that a typical coral reef can absorb up to 90 percent of the energy of wind-generated waves thus protecting coastal areas from damage. (
  • The report cites a study from Sri Lanka which shows that one square kilometer of coral reef prevents 2,000 cubic meters of coastal erosion annually. (
  • In addition to the variety of marine life they support, coral reefs are also immensely beneficial to humans, buffeting coastal regions from strong waves and storms, providing millions of people with food and jobs and prompting advances in modern medicine. (
  • These periodic increased temperatures combined with coastal runoff, fishing pressure and other impacts are all suspected of contributing to slow reef recovery. (
  • Reefs also provide coastal protection by reducing the impact of waves on shore, and support local tourist economies that can offer diving excursions. (
  • But reefs are endangered: threatened by everything from destructive fishing methods to warming temperatures to unsustainable coastal development. (
  • We strengthen coastal communities' capacity to generate income from tourism in a way that protects coral reefs and supports local livelihoods. (
  • Oxybenzone is found in over 3,500 sunscreen products worldwide, and pollutes coral reefs from swimmers wearing sunscreens and through wastewater discharges from municipal sewage outfalls and from coastal septic systems. (
  • In the Pacific many of the Small Island Developing States, such as the Solomon Islands, rely largely on the coast and coastal environments such as coral reefs for food supply. (
  • Since coral reefs are an important income and nutrition source for coastal communities, especially in developing countries, it seems likely that coral bleaching has a negative effect on wellbeing. (
  • The value of reefs in biodiverse regions can be even higher. (
  • When thousands of corals connect they form a colony, making up a biodiverse ecosystem. (
  • The piece of coral going on display is a Turbinaria , a genus of colonial stony corals native to the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, Japan and the South Central Pacific Ocean, which grows in a cup shape on the reef. (
  • Coral reefs are made predominantly of stony corals and supported by the limestone skeleton they excrete. (
  • A genetic bank of corals would be basically like a living library of representatives of each of the stony corals that we have here in the western Atlantic,' he explains. (
  • Egg cases were associated with reefs formed by accumulated skeletal matrix of the stony coral Solenosmilia variabilis, with >90% egg cases (including most of those recently laid) observed on living S. variabilis that characterises a " coral zone" in c. 950-1350 m depths. (
  • This digital resource has been made available to the public so that governments and conservation organizations can use these maps to protect and restore their coral reefs for generations to come. (
  • This area of research has been a long-term need for coral reef conservation and management. (
  • This research was supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and NOAA Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. (
  • As the plight of coral reefs has become more urgent, so too have TNC's efforts to tackle coral conservation, and meet the demands for better maps. (
  • Reef maps are an essential tool for coral resource managers, but historically these maps have had insufficient detail, been outdated or been produced for small areas," said Steve Schill, TNC marine conservation specialist. (
  • Your purchase contributes to coral reef conservation. (
  • Lead author Dr. Craig Downs of Haereticus Environmental Laboratory Virginia, said, "The use of oxybenzone-containing products needs to be seriously deliberated in islands and areas where coral reef conservation is a critical issue. (
  • How can instruments and systems for the conservation of nature, the biosphere, the biodiversity of marine and ocean coral reefs be improved? (
  • The site has already been designated a Special Area of Conservation due to coral reefs in the vicinity. (
  • There has been effective conservation of nursery habitat , however, because four of the six nursery sites identified here and extensive coral reef areas are protected within marine parks. (
  • Messner draws a poetic analogy between people and corals in this story of Ken Nedimyer, founder of the Coral Restoration Foundation: "Some drift in the currents until they come to rest, not too deep, on the ocean floor. (
  • A few meters away, is the second part of the nursery: the restoration of bigger pieces of coral, cemented back to the reef after a ship grounding cause extensive damages. (
  • We want to restore corals in these coral reefs in a manner in which they can now take on their own replication and put us out of business in terms of coral restoration," said Michael Crosby, president and CEO of Mote Marine Laboratory and Aquarium. (
  • We're trying to figure out how these corals have been able to survive and whether or not we can use those same mechanisms to make them be successful as part of coral restoration. (
  • The letters, made from innovative reef stars and rapidly growing coral, signal the next phase of the world's largest coral restoration program. (
  • The SHEBA cat food brand and parent company Mars Inc. are spurring action with their new coral restoration project and the SHEBA Hope Reef , announced May 5, 2021. (
  • Already having invested more than $10 million in reef restoration over the last decade and $1 billion through its Sustainable In A Generation Plan , SHEBA and Mars now aim to restore the equivalent of 148 Olympic-sized pools of coral reefs by the end of 2029. (
  • Off Sulawesi, the SHEBA coral restoration project has already planted more then 19,000 reef stars seeded with more than 285,000 coral fragments. (
  • Coral reef restoration programs often operate with limited means," said Shubham Goel, the Coral Maker team lead and a senior engineer manager at Autodesk. (
  • But hope isn't lost: Teams have been working on worldwide coral restoration for years. (
  • The nonprofit Coral Restoration Foundation has restored 120,000 corals since 2007. (
  • And according to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, more than 20 active nurseries are active in the Caribbean, providing more than 40,000 healthy corals for reef restoration each year. (
  • The Coral Restoration Foundation found 100% coral mortality at Sombrero Reef, a restoration site near Key West that the group has worked on for a decade. (
  • Everyone wants to build coral nurseries for reef restoration, but this will achieve little if the factors that originally killed off the reef remain or intensify in the environment. (
  • It also vowed to 'accelerate' restoration of damaged reefs using innovative new solutions. (
  • Ironically, Australia and Saudi Arabia are strong supporters of coral restoration 'solutions' because it buys time for fossil fuel industries to continue to pollute the atmosphere for as long as it's profitable. (
  • In response to the crisis , NOAA and Mote Marine Laboratory and Aquarium are pooling resources and say they have come up with new techniques to propagate and transplant healthy corals . (
  • In the Philippines, for example, more than one million small-scale fishers depend directly on coral reefs for their livelihoods. (
  • Reefs can recover, but this recovery can take as long as a decade. (
  • Local fisheries management resulted in a 62 per cent increase in the density of young corals, which improves the ecosystem's ability to recover from major impacts like hurricanes and coral bleaching, the study discovered. (
  • But human activities are destroying the reefs so fast that they could take centuries to recover. (
  • Many of Hawaii's once-thriving coral reefs are now struggling to recover from recent extreme coral bleaching caused by rising water temperatures. (
  • The corals starve from malnutrition, and often never recover. (
  • Keep in mind the Great Barrier Reef has recently been reported to recover well). (
  • A new study published today in a toxicology journal has found that a chemical widely used in personal care products such as sunscreen, poses an ecological threat to corals and coral reefs and threatens their existence. (
  • The coral reefs surrounding Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef have a diverse soundscape that contains an array of bioacoustic phenomena, notably choruses produced by fishes. (
  • In the future, the research team will focus on how other reef constituents such as fishes interact with these processes to impact coral reef ecosystem functioning, because reefs are complex networks and these interactions are critical to resilience. (
  • They identified reefs, known as supersites, which can support large numbers of predator fishes that if reintroduced, can help restore the environmental and economic setback inflicted by overfishing. (
  • Not long ago, large fishes were plentiful on coral reefs, but are now largely absent due to targeted fishing. (
  • Work to restore the reef known as Salisi' Besar near the tiny island of Bontosua and its neighbor Badi began in 2019. (
  • Project: CORaiL, an artificial intelligence-powered system for monitoring fish populations, was born, and the system was deployed in a reef in the Philippines in 2019. (
  • The main way that people are trying to restore coral reefs is to transplant corals onto reefs but that doesn't get rid of the seaweed problem," says Butler. (
  • As an alternative, Caribbean king crabs ( Maguimithrax spinosissimus ) aren't picky eaters and will finish off seaweed that other animals avoid, which could help restore the reefs. (
  • Check out the reef for yourself on Google Earth and watch this YouTube video of The Film That Grows Coral and you can help generate funds to restore more reefs around the world. (
  • A live shark is worth over a million dollars in tourism revenue over its lifespan because sharks live for decades and thousands of people will travel and dive just to see them up close," said Valdivia, now at the Center for Biological Diversity in Oakland, Calif. "There is a massive economic incentive to restore and protect sharks and other top predators on coral reefs. (
  • Butler says the seaweed covers up corals, shading them from light and preventing young corals from growing. (
  • In parts of Indonesia and the Caribbean where tourism is the main use, reefs are estimated to be worth US$1 million per square kilometer, based on the cost of maintaining sandy beaches and the value of attracting snorkelers and scuba divers. (
  • In the Caribbean, says UNEP, the net annual benefits from diver tourism was US$2 billion in 2000 with US$625 million spent directly on diving on reefs. (
  • Caribbean coral reefs that are being taken over by seaweed could be saved by giant herbivorous crabs. (
  • Historically, herbivores such as sea urchins would keep the seaweed in check, but in the early 1980s almost the entire Caribbean population died suddenly - exactly why is unknown - and the seaweed took over the reefs. (
  • Other features that make a supersite are amount of available food, size of reef and proximity to mangroves. (
  • We have these very resilient corals growing here. (
  • Coral reef biologists want to know what makes some reefs resilient while others don't survive. (
  • While most of the studies to date focus on the whale shark population and tourism perception, this is the first study that investigates the impacts of intensive provisioning and concentrating tourism activities on the health of the largely understudied yet highly vulnerable local reef ecosystem. (
  • The data presented in the paper shows that in comparison to a reference site further south the coast, Tan-awan is affected by greater impacts of degradation as indicated by higher macroalgae and lower coral density as well as a less diverse coral community dominated by weedy corals (Pocillopora) and stress-tolerant (Porites) corals. (
  • 2011). This essay looks at the human impacts constantly being inflicted on coral reefs. (
  • TED Senior Fellow Kristen Marhaver is a marine biologist studying the ecology, behavior and reproduction of reef corals. (
  • Explore the latest questions and answers in Coral Reef Ecology, and find Coral Reef Ecology experts. (
  • Protecting coral reefs and mangrove forests makes economic sense according to a new report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (
  • To find out what factors play the largest role in reef resilience, the group synthesized 10 years of datasets from university and government sources examining factors they knew had an impact on coral reefs, such as sedimentation, development and fishing. (
  • This is over 12 times higher than the concentrations necessary to impact on coral. (
  • The team, led by Professor Andy Wheeler of University College Cork, were on the Marine Institute's RV Celtic Explorer during the QuERCi survey on Irish coldwater coral reefs. (
  • The discovery possibly doubles the amount of coldwater corals previously thought to exist in Irish waters. (
  • There's some hopeful news for Australia's Great Barrier Reef, long a victim of rising ocean temperatures and. (
  • In 2016, they observed that 93% of Australia's Great Barrier reef had been affected . (
  • The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is predicting severe bleaching for parts of the Coral Sea, near Australia's Great Barrier Reef, and the Coral Triangle , causing immense damage to an important global marine environment over the next few months. (
  • A recent study published by One Earth has revealed the troubled state of coral reefs globally and their. (
  • These 'phase shifts' to algal reefs are occurring globally, causing a major change in how reefs function," said co-author Craig Nelson, faculty at UH Mānoa in Oceanography and Hawaiʻi Sea Grant. (
  • Humans are a danger to the coral reefs and the wildlife that resides in the biome. (
  • Florida's coral reefs are also a tourist attraction and help support the local economy. (
  • One of the greatest threats is elevated seawater temperatures , which result in "reef bleaching. (
  • In nutrient polluted seawater, calcifiers were less able to capitalize on the dissolved compounds that make up the building blocks of coral reefs. (
  • Measurements of oxybenzone in seawater within coral reefs in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands found concentrations ranging from 800 parts per trillion to 1.4 parts per million. (
  • Sets of coral larvae were kept in individual floating 'net wells,' which allow seawater to flow in and out, to track survival over time. (
  • While the crabs are native to the region, they are not naturally abundant on reefs as few survive to adulthood. (
  • The ocean is changing due to global warming which is causing a change in the temperature and rising water levels leading to a change in the stabile areas coral can survive. (
  • We work with communities and partners around the world to keep coral reefs healthy, so they can survive for generations to come. (
  • You are scuba diving along one of the many coral reefs scattered throughout the equatorial seas, glimpsing the multitude of life that this largest of living structures supports. (
  • Kristen Marhaver studies corals, tiny creatures the size of a poppyseed that, over hundreds of slow years, create beautiful, life-sustaining ocean structures hundreds of miles long. (
  • Throughout the process of building these structures erosion occurs and the result of erosion is the run-off of sediments that reach the reefs, in due time. (
  • Coral reefs… are fragile structures living within a narrow range of temperature, clarity, salinity and chemistry. (
  • Stronger storms and changes in water chemistry can destroy reef structures, while altered currents sweep away food and larvae. (
  • Like trees, coral reefs are living structures that can take years to regenerate once destroyed. (
  • Millions of people around the world depend on coral reefs for food, protection and jobs. (
  • These services largely depend on the highly complex three-dimensional structure of coral reefs. (
  • Corals depend upon the zooxanthellae to share the energy produced through photosynthesis. (
  • Since coral reefs are vital for people that depend on them as an income or nutrition source, it is crucial to understand the effects coral bleaching has for their wellbeing. (
  • They added the crabs to 24 reefs in the Florida Keys, then monitored their effects on the corals and fish after two years. (
  • In the Florida Keys, in the southern part of the U.S. about 90 percent of the coral reef is already gone. (
  • But within the last few decades, the Florida Keys have lost 90 percent of their coral coverage. (
  • The Great Barrier Reef will be listed as a World Heritage Site in danger if UNESCO's recommendations. (
  • UNEP says that of the estimated 30 million small-scale fishers in the developing world, most are dependent to a greater or lesser extent on coral reefs. (
  • The world has lost roughly half its coral reefs in the last 30 years. (
  • Before the 1980s, mass bleaching of corals was unheard of, even during strong El Niño conditions, but now repeated bouts of regional-scale bleaching and mass mortality of corals has become the new normal around the world as temperatures continue to rise," said Terry Hughes, who directs Australia's Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University. (
  • Although they by no means cover every reef worldwide, this new atlas covers a meaningful portion of key reef provinces around the world. (
  • Healthy coral reefs provide food and a home to about 25% of all marine creatures in the world. (
  • The world has already lost about 50% of its coral, and by midcentury, it is projected to lose up to 90%, Foster said. (
  • The staghorn, elkhorn and brain coral living in Government Cut provide a real-world example of how coral communities can adapt to such things as rising heat and polluted runoff, even in such an unlikely setting as the port of Miami. (
  • Also, it aids in tracking the health of coral reefs throughout the world. (
  • Looking at satellite photos of reefs from all around the world, players trace corals and other things on the ocean-floor in three dimensions, using their in-game paintbrushes to color-code what they see. (
  • Meet Kireina-Netanayah, a young girl who enjoys playing on the coral reef next to her home on American Samoa, where rates of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are among the highest in the world. (
  • This work uses Indonesia as a case study, since it is part of the so-called coral triangle, one of the world's centers of marine biodiversity, and has the "largest reef associated population in the world" (Burke et al. (
  • We establish management plans for protected areas , like Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs), that include habitat protections such as prohibiting destructive fishing practices and reducing anchor damage to reefs. (
  • It is not unfeasible that there is over 100km2 of coral habitat that was previously unaccounted for. (
  • Off Australia , coral reef egg case nursery habitat is restricted to a narrow depth range in temperate latitudes where it is scarce and impacted by historical bottom trawl fishing in many locations. (
  • tourists' activities (e.g. inexperienced tourists/snorkelers/divers accidentally breaking the corals, destructive fishing practices such as bottom trawling and fish-bombing, strong waves during hurricanes, and high sea surface temperature (SST) that can lead to bleachings, etc. (
  • Prior research showed that stressors associated with human-derived carbon dioxide emissions, such as ocean acidification, are shifting coral reefs toward net loss, which would lead to the loss of the three-dimensional framework in the future. (
  • The relationship between nutrients and reef metabolism exacerbates pH change, which can make the whole system more susceptible to global threats such as ocean acidification," said co-author Hollie Putnam, assistant professor at University of Rhode Island and alumna of HIMB. (
  • The research team has published an interactive, freely available online global atlas with the locations of these areas, where ocean dynamics and cooler waters combine to provide possible havens for coral reefs. (
  • For example, a combination of the tides and the deep basins of the Coral Triangle - a marine area that includes the waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and other nearby countries - create conditions that favor gravity waves bringing cooler water to the surface. (
  • Corals are invertebrates, living mostly in tropical waters. (
  • Beneath ocean waters in the coral reefs, sea life is feeling it too. (
  • These carnivorous coral polyps reach their tentacles out to search for food. (
  • Thousands of individual polyps cluster together to form this single branching coral. (
  • Even a single branching coral comprises thousands of individual polyps. (
  • Either way, new coral polyps settle towards the ocean bottom until they find a hard substrate to call home, either combining with a pre-existing coral colony or starting one of their own. (
  • But now there is a new hope: the coral polyps, living animals that make up the reefs. (
  • Coral Reef Senior High School 2023-2024 Rankings. (
  • They are cultivating coral fragments in nurseries, ensuring their strength and viability before reintroducing them into the ocean. (
  • Seamount coral reefs are egg case nurseries for deep-sea skates. (
  • Nutrients from fertilizers are often thought to impact reefs indirectly, for example, by giving an advantage to weedy seaweeds that can overtake reefs, an observation reinforced by this study. (
  • In Indonesia, a hotel in West Lombok has spent an average of US$125,000 per year over seven years restoring its 250 meter-long beach following erosion that resulted from offshore coral mining. (
  • The group's goal is to use coral science and manufacturing technology to produce one million live corals per year by automating the coral production process, more effectively restoring the ocean's declining coral population. (
  • Accenture teamed up with technology and industry partners to develop an innovative solution for restoring the reefs. (
  • Restoring reefs depends first upon accurately assessing their overall health, but traditional monitoring efforts are time-intensive and unreliable, often yielding inaccurate results. (
  • The work, led by former UNC-Chapel Hill graduate student Abel Valdivia working with John Bruno, a marine biologist at UNC College of Arts & Sciences, suggests that these supersites - reefs with many nooks and crannies on its surface that act as hiding places for prey (and attract predators) - should be prioritized for protection and could serve as regional models showcasing the value of biodiversity for tourism and other uses. (
  • This endeavor sparks an idea to plant healthy colonies in dying coral reefs. (
  • Readers are likely to be intrigued by the hands-on process of regrowing the reefs: "With a careful dab of epoxy-just the size of a Hershey's Kiss-volunteers attach the coral colonies. (
  • Forsythe's grainy scenes of Nedimyer diving are infused with a golden glow that emanates from the healthy coral colonies-a hint at the wonder that ocean life inspires in the subject. (
  • Over hundreds or thousands of years, these colonies may connect to form a reef . (
  • Hard corals grow in colonies and are the architects of coral reefs. (
  • Under a controlled environment, the first coral colonies of the bank are now starting to grow. (
  • Once we plant the seeds it is going to take up to hundreds of years for the corals to reestablished themselves in colonies, especially to the masses that were destroyed originally,' he says. (
  • Reefs generate an estimated global economic value of $10 trillion per year, and the protection they provide to shorelines from storm and flood damage is worth billions of dollars each year, according to NCAR scientist and study co-author Joan Kleypas. (
  • In addition, many local communities rely on coral reefs to generate an income through activities such as fishing and diving. (
  • Meanwhile, a recent study of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia found that the reef is worth more to the country as an intact ecosystem than an extractive reserve for fishing. (
  • More coral bleaching at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. (
  • We were really astounded by the first year's results where we saw on average about an 80 per cent reduction in the seaweeds on those reefs where we put the crabs," says Butler. (
  • At HIMB, the team used a state-of-the-art system in which they continuously added nutrients (nitrate and phosphate commonly found in fertilizers) to aquariums housing different members of the coral reef community, including corals, seaweeds, dead reef rubble or sand. (
  • A great number of animals would have lived or been associated with the coral - for not just shelter but also food,' Miranda says. (
  • The report estimates that reef fisheries were worth between $15,000 and $150,000 per square kilometer a year, while fish caught for aquariums were worth $500 a kilogram against $6 for fish caught as food. (
  • Once an area with an abundance of undersea life , dynamite and cyanide fishing that began decades ago resulted in not only the capture of edible fish but the killing of corals and other parts of the food chain. (
  • Reef fish can become contaminated through the food web. (
  • In order to stop or at least slow down the process of destruction, David has started a new and promising project: the creation of a coral genetic bank. (
  • Since most corals grow less than an inch per year, reef destruction can have long-lasting consequences. (
  • The new count of bacteria living in the Pacific Ocean's coral reefs alone falls within current estimates for the total microbial diversity of Earth, suggesting that there exponentially more bacteria living on the planet than previously thought. (
  • We partner with the tourism industry and dive community to raise awareness and reduce the adverse effects of unsustainable activities like overcrowding and reef trampling. (