Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Famous PersonsOwnership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.ArtHandbooksMedical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Paratuberculosis: A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.BooksVirtual Reality Exposure Therapy: Treatment technique in a virtual environment which allows the participant to experience a sense of presence in an immersive, computer-generated, three-dimensional, interactive environment that minimizes avoidance behavior and facilitates emotional involvement. (from Curr Psychiatry Rep (2010) 12:298)Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Medicine in ArtHomosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.

Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions. (1/32)

Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed.  (+info)

Biomedicine's electronic publishing paradigm shift: copyright policy and PubMed Central. (2/32)

Biomedical publishing stands at a crossroads. The traditional print, peer-reviewed, subscription journal has served science well but is now being called into question. Because of spiraling print journal costs and the worldwide acceptance of the Internet as a valid publication medium, there is a compelling opportunity to re-examine our current paradigm and future options. This report illustrates the conflicts and restrictions inherent in the current publishing model and examines how the single act of permitting authors to retain copyright of their scholarly manuscripts may preserve the quality-control function of the current journal system while allowing PubMed Central, the Internet archiving system recently proposed by the director of the National Institutes of Health, to simplify and liberate access to the world's biomedical literature.  (+info)

Biomedical publishing and the internet: evolution or revolution? (3/32)

The Internet is challenging traditional publishing patterns. In the biomedical domain, medical journals are providing more and more content online, both free and for a fee. Beyond this, however, a number of commentators believe that traditional notions of copyright and intellectual property ownership are no longer suited to the information age and that ownership of copyright to research reports should be and will be wrested from publishers and returned to authors. In this paper, it is argued that, although the Internet will indeed profoundly affect the distribution of biomedical research results, the biomedical publishing industry is too intertwined with the research establishment and too powerful to fall prey to such a copyright revolution.  (+info)

A study for watermark methods appropriate to medical images. (4/32)

The network system, including the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), is essential in hospital and medical imaging fields these days. Many medical images are accessed and processed on the web, as well as in PACS. Therefore, any possible accidents caused by the illegal modification of medical images must be prevented. Digital image watermark techniques have been proposed as a method to protect against illegal copying or modification of copyrighted material. Invisible signatures made by a digital image watermarking technique can be a solution to these problems. However, medical images have some different characteristics from normal digital images in that one must not corrupt the information contained in the original medical images. In this study, we suggest modified watermark methods appropriate for medical image processing and communication system that prevent clinically important data contained in original images from being corrupted.  (+info)

Report of a case of cyberplagiarism--and reflections on detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the Internet. (5/32)

BACKGROUND: The Internet is an invaluable tool for researchers and certainly also a source of inspiration. However, never before has it been so easy to plagiarise the work of others by clipping together (copy & paste) an apparently original paper or review paper from paragraphs on several websites. Moreover, the threshold of stealing ideas, whether lifting paragraphs or perhaps even whole articles from the Internet, seems to be much lower than copying sections from books or articles. In this article, we shall use the term cyberplagarism to describe the case where someone, intentionally or inadvertently, is taking information, phrases, or thoughts from the World Wide Web (WWW) and using it in a scholarly article without attributing the origin. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate a case of cyberplagiarism and to discuss potential Methods using the Internet to detect scientific misconduct. This report was also written to stimulate debate and thought among journal editors about the use of state of the art technology to fight cyberplagiarism. METHODS: A case of a recent incident of cyberplagiarism, which occurred in the Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (JRCSEd), is reported. A systematic search of the Internet for informatics tools that help to identify plagiarism and duplicate publication was conducted. RESULTS: This is the first in-depth report of an incident where significant portions of a web article were lifted into a scholarly article without attribution. In detecting and demonstrating this incident, a tool at, has proven to be particularly useful. The plagiarism report generated by this tool stated that more than one third (36%) of the JRCSEd article consisted of phrases that were directly copied from multiple websites, without giving attribution to this fact. CONCLUSIONS: Cyberplagiarism may be a widespread and increasing problem. Plagiarism could be easily detected by journal editors and peer-reviewers if informatics tools would be applied. There is a striking gap between what is technically possible and what is in widespread use. As a consequence of the case described in this report, JMIR has taken the lead in applying information technology to prevent and fight plagiarism by routinely checking new submissions for evidence of cyberplagiarism.  (+info)

Electronic journal access: how does it affect the print subscription price? (6/32)

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the rates of print journal subscription price increases according to the type of available electronic access. The types of access included: electronic priced separately from the print, combination print with "free online" access, and aggregated, defined here as electronic access purchased as part of a collection. The percentages of print price increases were compared to each other and to that for titles available only in print. The authors were not aware of prior objective research in this area. METHODS: The authors analyzed the percentage print price increases of 300 journals over a five-year time period. The titles were grouped according to type of available electronic access. The median and mean percentage print price increases were calculated and plotted for all titles within each group. RESULTS: Using both the median and the mean to look at the percentage print price increases over five years, it was obvious that print prices for journals with electronic access exceeded journals that did not offer an electronic option. Electronic priced separately averaged 3% to 5% higher than print only titles using both measures. Combination print with "free online" access had higher increases from 1996 to 1999, but, in 2000, their percentage increases were about the same as print only titles. The rate of price increases for aggregated titles consistently went down over the past five years. Journals with no electronic option showed the lowest percentage rates of print price increase. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' findings reveal that the increases of print prices for their sample of titles were higher if a type of electronic access was offered. According to the results of this study, aggregated collections currently represent the electronic option whose percentage price increase for print prices was lowest. However, the uneven fluctuations in rates of subscription prices revealed that the pricing of journals with electronic access is still evolving. More study is recommended to see if the trends observed in this study are sustained over a longer time period.  (+info)

Restrictions impeding web-based courses: a survey of publishers' variation in authorising access to high quality on-line literature. (7/32)

BACKGROUND: Web-based delivery of educational programmes is becoming increasingly popular and is expected to expand, especially in medicine. The successful implementation of these programmes is reliant on their ability to provide access to web based materials, including high quality published work. Publishers' responses to requests to access health literature in the context of developing an electronic Master's degree course are described. METHODS: Two different permission requests were submitted to publishers. The first was to store an electronic version of a journal article, to which we subscribe, on a secure password protected server. The second was to reproduce extracts of published material on password protected web pages and CD Rom. RESULTS: Eight of 16 publishers were willing to grant permission to store electronic versions of articles without levying charges additional to the subscription. Twenty of 35 publishers gave permission to reproduce extracts of published work at no fee. Publishers' responses were highly variable to the requests for access to published material. This may be influenced by vague terminology within the 'fair dealing' provision in the copyright legislation, which seems to leave it open to individual interpretation. Considerable resource costs were incurred by the exercise. Time expended included those incurred by us: research to identify informed representatives within the publishing organisation, request 'chase-ups' and alternative examples being sought if publishers were uncooperative; and the publisher when dealing with numerous permission requests. Financial costs were also incurred by both parties through additional staffing and paperwork generated by the permission process, the latter including those purely borne by educators due to the necessary provision of photocopy 'course packs' when no suitably alternative material could be found if publishers were uncooperative. Finally we discuss the resultant bias in material towards readily available electronic resources as a result of publisher's uncooperative stance and encourage initiatives that aim to improve open electronic access. CONCLUSIONS: The permission request process has been expensive and has resulted in reduced access for students to the relevant literature. Variations in the responses from publishers suggest that for educational purposes common policies could be agreed and unnecessary restrictions removed in the future.  (+info)

Open access in the biomedical field: a unique opportunity for researchers (and research itself). (8/32)

Aim of this article is to offer an overview of the Open Access strategy and its innovative idea of a free scholarly communication. Following the worldwide debate on the crisis of the scholarly communication and the new opportunities of a networked environment, definitions, purposes and real advantages of the Open Access pathway are presented from a researcher's point of view. To maximize the impact and dissemination, by providing free access to the result of the research, two complementary roads are pointed out and explained self-archiving in open archives and publishing in Open Access journals. To let authors make their choice the most useful tools to find one's way in this new reality are shown: directories, search engines, citation tracking projects. The starting survey being done, the article deals in its conclusions with the Open Access challenges and most debated themes: impact and dissemination, new assessment measures alternative to the Impact Factor, new mandatory policies of the funding agencies, questions related to the copyright issue.  (+info)

  • We also tee up some issues that the Committee might consider looking at in future hearings - from " orphan works " to licensing and artist leverage to voluntary copyright registries to "parity" in broadcasting . (
  • Unlike the patent system, there is no comprehensive repository for copyrighted works. (
  • Finally, this Part will turn to the United States' obligations under international law to assert that American law should be amended so as to recognize the possibility of actors obtaining copyrights in their individual performances within audiovisual works. (
  • Identification of the copyrighted work you believe to have been infringed or, if the claim involves multiple works on the Website, a representative list of such works. (
  • Rather than analyzing the arguments in the Ninth Circuit's en banc opinion, this Note will explore the issues raised by Garcia in light of international intellectual property law. (
  • The Garcia litigation has ignited extensive debate in both professional and academic communities regarding the possibility of granting copyrights in actors' individual performances. (
  • The court stated that the term "research", which is explicitly included as fair dealing under Canadian copyright law , should be broadly interpreted and is not limited to private or non-commercial endeavours-and that if a facility's general purpose qualifies as research, it is protected under fair dealing even if some people might use the facility to infringe. (
  • 2) After an uproar from third-party content distributors, film industry players, and a variety of others, the court revisited the case en banc. (
  • Part I of this Note will provide the background of the Garcia case, outlining the relevant portions of the Ninth Circuit's initial opinion, as well as its subsequent en banc opinion. (
  • All software, both binary and source published by the Association for Computing Machinery (hereafter, Software) is copyrighted by the Association (hereafter, ACM) and ownership of all right, title and interest in and to the Software remains with ACM. (
  • Other domain names, trademarks and/or copyrights that may be referenced, indicated or linked to are outside the jurisdiction, ownership and responsibility of Majon International. (
  • Customer acknowledges that ITKnowledgeExchange and/or third-party content providers remain the owners of the posted materials, and that Customer does not acquire any of those ownership rights by downloading copyrighted materials. (
  • The deal, announced via the Google Japan blog , will raise awareness of an author's right to keep their books from Google's Book search, which includes a snippet for copyrighted text to help users identify the book as legitimate. (
  • To illustrate their point, the groups hold remixing contests, promote open-source software and rally against legislation like the Induce Act, which would hold technology companies liable for encouraging people to infringe copyrights. (
  • Justice Elena Kagan, joined by Justice Samuel Alito, said in a separate opinion that Congress is free to change the law if it thinks holders of copyrights need more protection. (
  • Copyright Protection in Romania and Italy ," Ovidius University Annals, Economic Sciences Series , Ovidius University of Constantza, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 0(2), pages 75-78, May. (
  • The case, originally filed in 2008, involves Georgia State University's electronic reserve system, a system through which professors made small excerpts of copyrighted books available to their students for free. (
  • The ban has resulted in a reshuffle of the online video-sharing industry in China, with major domestic websites gearing up to offer copyrighted imports of TV series and films. (
  • Li said it is likely that video-sharing websites will cooperate to import copyrighted programs from overseas in order to lower the cost of watching TV series online. (
  • Internet Archive's wholesale scanning and posting of copyrighted books without the consent of authors, and without paying a dime, is piracy hidden behind a sanctimonious veil of progressivism," said Douglas Preston, author and president of the Authors Guild. (
  • Copyright [$date-of-software] World Wide Web Consortium , ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology , European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics , Keio University , Beihang ). (
  • Rainfall, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff: these are Bureau data and fall under the Bureau's copyright policy . (
  • SHANGHAI (Reuters) - A group representing authors in China has accused Google of violating copyrights with its digital library, a claim that Google denies by saying the service complies with international law. (
  • Sohu TV already offers many copyrighted online videos of American TV series, including Gossip Girl, The Big Bang Theory and Nikita, after signing agreements with Warner Bros. (
  • Copyright law faced its first big challenge in the twentieth century when the Apollo Company began selling piano rolls that allowed pianos to play music without the aid of a pianist. (