Sexual activities of animals.
Eating other individuals of one's own species.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Gibraltar" is not a medical concept or condition, it's a geographical location, a British Overseas Territory and city located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula in southern Europe. If you have more information or context about why you're looking for a medical definition for "Gibraltar," I would be happy to help further.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
The number of males per 100 females.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms, forming the basis of classes such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, which play a vital role in energy production and chemical synthesis.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
The physical measurements of a body.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Prolonged mating in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) increases likelihood of ovulation and embryo number. (1/462)

Prairie voles are induced ovulators that mate frequently in brief bouts over a period of approximately 24 h. We examined 1) impact of mating duration on ovulation and embryo number, 2) incidence of fertilization, 3) temporal pattern of embryo development, 4) embryo progression through the reproductive tract over time, and 5) embryo development in culture. Mating was videotaped to determine first copulation, and the ovaries were examined and the reproductive tracts flushed at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h and 2, 3, and 4 days after first copulation. The number of mature follicles and fresh corpora lutea and the number and developmental stage of embryos were quantified. One, two-, and four-cell embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium. Mature follicles were present at the earliest time examined (6 h). Thirty-eight percent of females that had been paired for < 12 h after the first copulation ovulated, whereas all females paired >/= 12 h after the first copulation ovulated. Virtually all (> 99%) oocytes recovered from females paired for >/= 12 h after first copulation were fertilized. Pairing time after first copulation and mean copulation-bout duration were significant (p < 0.05) determinants of embryo number. Embryos entered the uterine horns and implanted on Days 3 and 4, respectively, after first copulation (Day 0). Embryos cultured in vitro underwent approximately one cell division per day, a rate similar to that in vivo. We conclude that prairie voles ovulate reliably after pairing for >/= 12 h, although some females showed exceptional sensitivity not predicted by the variables quantified. Prolonged mating for longer than 12 h increased the total embryos produced. This mechanism likely has adaptive significance for increasing offspring number.  (+info)

Effect of pelvic endometrial implants on overall reproductive functions of female rats. (2/462)

The effects of pelvic endometrial implants on the overall reproductive potential of female rats were investigated. After homologous transplantation in the peritoneum, the ectopic endometrium developed into highly vascularized nodes that gradually increased in mass until the 9th week postsurgery and then plateaued. In the presence of these implants, overall reproductive function was adversely affected. The effect was of greatest magnitude during 50-70 days posttransplantation. As compared with values in corresponding controls, ovulation was reduced by 43% (6 of 14) (p < 0.05), mating rate was reduced by 44% (12 of 27) (p < 0.025), and premature termination of pregnancy occurred in 34% (5 of 15) of rats. Wastage of pregnancy, which included complete termination or reduction of fetal number, occurred during the postimplantation course of gestation. Furthermore, 100% of the rats with transplants failed to respond to the copulomimetic stimulation for the induction of pseudopregnancy (p < 0.01, compared with corresponding controls). However, on exposure to vasectomized males, 46% (6 of 13) of these rats exhibited development of pseudopregnancy (p < 0.05, compared with corresponding group receiving copulomimetic stimulation). Increased rate of mating failure and differential pseudopregnancy rates after copulomimetic and natural cervical stimulation suggest that the rats with endometrial explants possibly had an absence or a short appearance of behavioral estrus. Hormonal assessment during the preovulatory phase showed a tendency toward lower mean levels of preovulatory estradiol and significantly lower LH (p < 0.01) and progesterone (p < 0.01) concentrations. The adversely affected reproductive functions may be a secondary consequence of these altered endocrine milieus.  (+info)

Control of oocyte maturation in sexually mature Drosophila females. (3/462)

In many sexually mature insects egg production and oviposition are tightly coupled to copulation. Sex-Peptide is a 36-amino-acid peptide synthesized in the accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster males and transferred to the female during copulation. Sex-Peptide stimulates vitellogenic oocyte progression through a putative control point at about stage 9 of oogenesis. Here we show that application of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene mimics the Sex-Peptide-mediated stimulation of vitellogenic oocyte progression in sexually mature virgin females. Apoptosis is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in nurse cells of stage 9 egg chambers at physiological concentrations (10(-7) M). 20-Hydroxyecdysone thus acts as an antagonist of early vitellogenic oocyte development. Simultaneous application of juvenile hormone analogue, however, protects early vitellogenic oocytes from 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced resorption. These results suggest that the balance of these hormones in the hemolymph regulates whether oocytes will progress through the control point at stage 9 or undergo apoptosis. These data are further supported by a molecular analysis of the regulation of yolk protein synthesis and uptake into the ovary by the two hormones. We conclude that juvenile hormone is a downstream component in the Sex-Peptide response cascade and acts by stimulating vitellogenic oocyte progression and inhibiting apoptosis. Since juvenile hormone analogue does not elicit increased oviposition and reduced receptivity, Sex-Peptide must have an additional, separate effect on these two postmating responses.  (+info)

17beta-estradiol rapidly facilitates chemoinvestigation and mounting in castrated male rats. (4/462)

Testosterone and estradiol act synergistically to stimulate male sexual behavior. Previous studies demonstrated that testosterone's actions are mediated genomically. Attempts to show that estradiol acts in a similar fashion have been inconclusive. However, estrogens have been shown to exert short-latency effects by acting directly on neuronal membranes. The present experiment examined whether testosterone or estradiol rapidly facilitates copulatory behaviors in castrated sexually experienced rats. Within 35 min of administration, estradiol stimulated chemoinvestigation and frequency of mounting and reduced mount latency in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, acute administration of testosterone did not alter sexual activity. These data demonstrate for the first time that estradiol exerts short-latency effects on copulatory behavior, providing indirect evidence that this action is mediated through a nontranscriptional mechanism.  (+info)

Sperm transport and storage in the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis). (5/462)

This study was an examination of the timing of ejaculation and the dynamics of sperm transport in the female reproductive tract of the agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis) and the relationship of these parameters to single and multiple matings. Mating in this species is characteristically long compared with that of other mammals, lasting for up to 8-12 h during which time the pair remain locked together. After the first hour of mating, only approximately 40% of males had ejaculated, but by the third hour all males had ejaculated. The total number of spermatozoa extracted from the female tract remained at approximately 30 x 10(3) spermatozoa per side over the next 9 h of copulation. After completion of male/female access (12 h), approximately 56% of spermatozoa extracted were located in the lower isthmic region of the oviduct where specialized sperm storage crypts are located. The number of spermatozoa extracted from the female reproductive tract did not decline over the next 3 days, but there was a change in the distribution of spermatozoa with an increase in the proportion of extracted spermatozoa stored in the lower isthmus (approximately 76%). However, 7 to 14 days after mating, only approximately 30% of the stored spermatozoa ( approximately 9.4 x 10(3) spermatozoa per side) were still present in the isthmus. When females were mated with a second male on a consecutive day, the sperm numbers extracted from the tract were about twice that deposited during single mating, with sperm transport to the lower isthmus occurring over a similar time frame. Although the occurrence of extended copulations in the wild has not yet been confirmed, these laboratory results suggest that similar periods of copulation are likely, since completion of the ejaculation process requires at least 3 h. The extended copulation in A. agilis reduces the possibility of an early second mating, which might interfere with the normal transport and crypt colonization of spermatozoa through competition.  (+info)

Induction of pseudopregnancy in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) by vaginal stimulation. (6/462)

In rats, pseudopregnancy has been induced by mating with vasectomized males, by mechanical stimulation of the uterine cervix with a glass rod or vibrator, and by stimulation of the vagina with a tampon. On the other hand, no practical data are available in reports on the induction of pseudopregnancy in Mongolian gerbils. Pseudopregnancy of gerbils has been induced by mating with vasectomized males. But this method was uncertain because the incidence of pseudopregnancy was lower than that obtained in rats by other means. In the present study, two experiments were undertaken as follows. 1) Copulatory behavior of gerbils was observed for one hour to determine the most effective stimulation interval. 2) From the results of Experiment 1, female gerbils in estrus were mechanically stimulated to test the effectiveness of inducing pseudopregnancy by vaginal stimulation at various time intervals. The results of these experiments indicated that, although the frequency of copulatory behavior varied among individuals, on average the most effective method for inducing pseudopregnancy was stimulation of 5 min duration and at 20 or 30 min intervals. Because the incidence of pseudopregnancy induced by such mechanical stimulation (83.3%) was higher than that induced by mating with vasectomized males (30.0%), this method might be useful in inducing pseudopregnancy in Mongolian gerbils.  (+info)

TGFbeta-like signaling and spicule development in Caenorhabditis elegans. (7/462)

A TGFbeta-like signal is required for spicule development in Caenorhabditis elegans males. This signal appears to originate in the male-specific musculature and is required for the migrations of cells within the proctodeum. The migrations of these cells form cellular molds, the spicule traces, in which the cuticle of the spicules is secreted. Mutations in daf-4, sma-2, sma-3, and sma-4, which disrupt TGFbeta-like signaling, result in aberrant migrations and morphologically abnormal spicules. daf-4, and hence the TGFbeta-like signal, is required prior to or during cell migrations. Therefore, the TGFbeta-like signal may act to prime the migrating cells or as a guidance cue. Mutations in lin-31 result in identical cell migration and spicule morphology defects. Thus, lin-31, which encodes a "winged helix" protein (Miller et al., Genes Dev. 7, 933-947, 1993), may be a component of this TGFbeta-like signaling pathway.  (+info)

Behavior and endocrine changes in high-performing, low-performing, and male-oriented domestic rams following exposure to rams and ewes in estrus when copulation is precluded. (8/462)

High-performing, low-performing, and male-oriented rams were used to investigate behavior and neuroendocrine correlates of sexual interest and discrimination. Treatment consisted of visual and olfactory contact with stimulus animals through a woven wire fence, which inhibited copulation (either ewes in estrus or other rams), for 4 h on each of three consecutive days. Before exposure to stimulus animals on d 1 and during the final 1 h of exposure on d 2, blood samples were collected every 15 min for 1 h to determine concentrations of LH and testosterone. During exposure to stimulus animals, rams were continuously observed and investigatory behaviors were recorded. There was no day effect for any behavior. Groups of rams differed (P < .05) in amounts of behaviors exhibited, but behaviors were not influenced by sex of stimulus animals. High-performing rams exhibited more (P < .05) investigatory behaviors toward stimulus animals than low-performing or male-oriented rams. Plasma concentrations of LH increased (P < .05) in high-performing rams following exposure to estrous ewes, but not following exposure to rams. In low-performing and male-orientated rams, concentrations of LH were unchanged regardless of sex of the stimulus animal. Change in plasma concentrations of testosterone from pre- to posttreatment did not differ between high-performing, low-performing, and male-oriented rams. However, low-performing rams exhibited an increase (P < .05) in plasma concentrations of testosterone following exposure to rams. In conclusion, high-performing rams exhibit a high degree of investigatory behaviors toward estrous ewes and other rams. High-performing rams seem to discriminate sex of stimulus animals and exhibit a neuroendocrine response (i.e., increased plasma LH) only when exposed to ewes in estrus. The sensory signals provided by estrous females are either not detected by low-performing or male-oriented rams or are not sufficiently provocative to elicit further investigation by these rams.  (+info)

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Cannibalism is defined in medical terms as the act or practice of consuming flesh or organs of one's own species as food. It is a term that is often used to describe situations where humans consume the flesh or organs of other humans. Cannibalism can occur in various contexts, including survival situations, cultural practices, and criminal activities.

It is important to note that cannibalism is generally considered taboo in most societies and cultures today. In medical and psychological terms, cannibalism can be associated with a range of negative consequences, such as the transmission of infectious diseases, ethical concerns, and psychological distress. However, it is essential to approach this topic with sensitivity and cultural relativism, recognizing that cultural practices and beliefs may vary widely across different societies and historical periods.

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen, typically accompanied by orgasm, during sexual activity. It occurs when the male reproductive system releases semen from the penis. This process is usually brought on by sexual arousal and stimulation, which cause the sperm-carrying vas deferens to contract and push the semen into the urethra, from where it is expelled through the tip of the penis.

There are two types of ejaculation:

1. **Reflex ejaculation**: This occurs when there is a high level of sexual excitement or stimulation, leading to an involuntary and automatic response.
2. **Premature ejaculation**: This refers to the condition where ejaculation happens too quickly, often before or shortly after penetration, causing distress and affecting sexual satisfaction for both partners.

It is essential to understand that a healthy male can experience variations in the timing of ejaculation throughout their life, influenced by factors such as age, stress levels, and overall health. If you have concerns about your ejaculation patterns or any related issues, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for advice and treatment options.

Insemination, in a medical context, refers to the introduction of semen into the reproductive system of a female for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This can be done through various methods including intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Intracervical insemination involves placing the semen at the cervix, the opening to the uterus. Intrauterine insemination involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. In vitro fertilization is a more complex process where the egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish and then transferred to the uterus.

Insemination is often used in cases of infertility, either because of male or female factors, or unexplained infertility. It can also be used for those who wish to become pregnant but do not have a partner, such as single women and same-sex female couples.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Gibraltar." In general, Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is known for its iconic Rock of Gibraltar, a large limestone promontory. If you're referring to a different context or a specific medical term that uses "Gibraltar," please provide more information so I can give a more accurate response.

Sperm transport refers to the series of events that occur from the production of sperm in the testes to their release into the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. This process involves several stages:

1. Spermatogenesis: The production of sperm cells (spermatozoa) takes place in the seminiferous tubules within the testes.
2. Maturation: The newly produced sperm are immature and incapable of fertilization. They undergo a maturation process as they move through the epididymis, where they acquire motility and the ability to fertilize an egg.
3. Ejaculation: During sexual arousal, sperm are mixed with seminal fluid produced by the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands to form semen. This mixture is propelled through the urethra during orgasm (ejaculation) and released from the penis into the female reproductive tract.
4. Transport within the female reproductive tract: Once inside the female reproductive tract, sperm must travel through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes to reach the site of fertilization, the ampullary-isthmic junction of the fallopian tube. This journey can take several hours to a few days.
5. Capacitation: During their transport within the female reproductive tract, sperm undergo further changes called capacitation, which prepares them for fertilization by increasing their motility and making them more responsive to the egg's chemical signals.
6. Acrosome reaction: The final step in sperm transport is the acrosome reaction, where the sperm releases enzymes from the acrosome (a cap-like structure on the head of the sperm) to penetrate and fertilize the egg.

Mating preference in animals refers to the selection of specific individuals as mates based on certain characteristics or traits. These preferences can be influenced by various factors such as genetic compatibility, physical attributes (e.g., size, color, health), behavioral traits (e.g., dominance, aggression), and environmental conditions.

Mating preferences play a crucial role in the process of sexual selection, which is one of the main mechanisms driving evolutionary change. They can lead to assortative mating, where similar individuals are more likely to mate with each other, or disassortative mating, where dissimilar individuals are more likely to mate.

Mating preferences can also contribute to reproductive isolation between different populations or species, ultimately leading to speciation. In some cases, these preferences may be hard-wired into an animal's behavior, while in others, they might be more flexible and influenced by learning and experience.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

The preoptic area (POA) is a region within the anterior hypothalamus of the brain. It is named for its location near the optic chiasm, where the optic nerves cross. The preoptic area is involved in various functions, including body temperature regulation, sexual behavior, and sleep-wake regulation.

The preoptic area contains several groups of neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature and are responsible for generating heat through shivering or non-shivering thermogenesis. It also contains neurons that release inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and galanin, which help regulate arousal and sleep.

Additionally, the preoptic area has been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior, particularly in males. Certain populations of neurons within the preoptic area are involved in the expression of male sexual behavior, such as mounting and intromission.

Overall, the preoptic area is a critical region for the regulation of various physiological and behavioral functions, making it an important area of study in neuroscience research.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Competitive behavior, in a medical or psychological context, refers to the actions, attitudes, and strategies that individuals employ in order to achieve their goals while contending with others who have similar objectives. This concept is often studied within the framework of social psychology and personality psychology.

Competitive behavior can manifest in various domains, including sports, academics, professional settings, and social relationships. It may involve direct competition, where individuals or groups engage in head-to-head contests to determine a winner, or indirect competition, where individuals strive for limited resources or recognition without necessarily interacting with one another.

In some cases, competitive behavior can be adaptive and contribute to personal growth, skill development, and motivation. However, excessive competitiveness may also lead to negative outcomes such as stress, anxiety, reduced cooperation, and strained relationships. Factors that influence the expression of competitive behavior include genetic predispositions, environmental influences, cultural norms, and individual personality traits.

In a medical setting, healthcare providers may encounter competitive behavior among patients vying for attention or resources, between colleagues striving for professional advancement, or in the context of patient-provider relationships where power dynamics can influence decision-making processes. Understanding the nuances of competitive behavior is essential for fostering positive interactions and promoting collaboration in various domains.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

I could not find a widely accepted medical definition for "sex attractants" as it is not a standard term used in medical literature. However, the concept of sex attractants is often discussed in the context of animal behavior and can refer to chemical substances that animals produce and release to attract mates. These substances are also known as pheromones.

In humans, there is ongoing scientific debate about whether or not pheromones play a significant role in sexual attraction and mate selection. Some studies suggest that humans may have a functional vomeronasal organ (VNO), which is involved in the detection of pheromones in other animals. However, many scientists remain skeptical about the role of human sex attractants or pheromones due to limited evidence and conflicting results from various studies.

Therefore, it's essential to note that while there may be some scientific interest in the concept of human sex attractants, it is not a well-established area of study within medical research.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spiders" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a common name used to refer to arachnids of the order Araneae, characterized by having two main body parts (the cephalothorax and abdomen), eight legs, and fangs that inject venom.

However, in a medical context, "spider" or "spider bite" may be used to describe skin lesions or reactions resulting from the bite of certain spiders, particularly those with medically significant venoms. For example, necrotic arachnidism is a condition caused by the bite of some spider species, such as recluse spiders (Loxosceles spp.). The bites can cause skin necrosis and other systemic symptoms in severe cases.

If you are looking for information on a specific medical topic or condition, please provide more details so I can offer a more accurate response.

"Panstrongylus" is a genus of kissing bugs (triatomines), which are insects that feed on the blood of mammals, including humans. They are called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans around the mouth and eyes. The most well-known species in this genus is "Panstrongylus megistus," which is a vector for Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness endemic to Central and South America.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans through the feces of infected triatomines. The infection can lead to serious cardiac and gastrointestinal complications if left untreated.

It's important to note that while "Panstrongylus" species are vectors for Chagas disease, not all kissing bugs transmit the disease. Furthermore, Chagas disease is primarily a concern in endemic areas of Central and South America, and it's rare for travelers to contract the infection elsewhere.

Tephritidae is a family of flies commonly known as "fruit flies" or "vinegar flies." The term "Tephritidae" is derived from the Greek word "tephra," which means "ash," likely referring to the often gray or sooty coloration of some members of this family.

Tephritidae includes over 4,000 species worldwide, many of which are important agricultural pests. These flies are known for their habit of laying eggs in or on fruits and vegetables, leading to the development of larvae that feed on the plant tissue and cause damage. Some well-known examples of Tephritidae include the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella).

It is worth noting that "fruit flies" is also a common name for Drosophilidae, another family of small flies. While both families are sometimes referred to as "fruit flies," Tephritidae species tend to be larger and more brightly colored than Drosophilidae species.

To the best of my knowledge, there is no medical definition for "courtship" as it is a term that is more commonly used in social and cultural contexts rather than in the field of medicine. Courtship generally refers to the period of time during which two people engage in various social activities to get to know each other and determine whether they are compatible before deciding to start a romantic relationship or get married.

However, it's worth noting that some aspects of courtship, such as dating and forming intimate relationships, can have implications for mental and physical health. For example, having positive and satisfying relationships is associated with better mental and physical health outcomes, while being in abusive or unhealthy relationships can negatively impact one's well-being.

Consummatory behavior refers to the specific, targeted actions that an organism takes in order to obtain a reward or satisfy a physiological need. In the context of human medicine and psychology, consummatory behavior is often used to describe the way that individuals engage with substances or activities that bring them pleasure or satisfaction, such as eating food or using drugs.

In the case of eating, consummatory behavior might refer to the specific actions involved in seeking out, obtaining, and consuming food. This could include things like searching for food, preparing it, and then actually eating it. In the context of drug use, consummatory behavior might refer to the specific actions involved in obtaining and using drugs, such as seeking out a dealer, purchasing drugs, and then using them.

Consummatory behavior is an important concept in medicine and psychology because it can help researchers and clinicians understand why individuals engage in certain behaviors, and how those behaviors might be influenced by factors like physiological needs, environmental cues, and individual preferences. By studying consummatory behavior, researchers may be able to develop more effective interventions for addressing problematic behaviors like substance abuse or disordered eating.

New World camelids are a family of mammals (Camelidae) that are native to South America. The family includes four species: the llama (Lama glama), the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). These animals are characterized by their long necks, long legs, and a pad on their chest instead of a true knee joint. They are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments with limited water and food resources.

"Papio hamadryas" is a species of old world monkey, also known as the Hamadryas baboon. It is not a medical term or concept. Here's a brief overview of its biological significance:

The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern Arabian Peninsula. They are highly social primates, living in large groups called troops. These troops can consist of hundreds of individuals, but they are hierarchically structured with multiple adult males, harems of females, and their offspring.

Hamadryas baboons have a distinctive appearance, characterized by their dog-like faces, hairless calluses on their rumps, and long, flowing manes. They primarily feed on plants, but they are also known to consume small vertebrates and invertebrates. Their gestation period is approximately six months, and females typically give birth to a single offspring.

In captivity, Hamadryas baboons have been used as subjects in various biomedical research studies due to their close phylogenetic relationship with humans. However, the term 'Papio hamadryas' itself does not have a medical definition.

The penis is a part of the male reproductive and urinary systems. It has three parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root attaches to the pelvic bone and the body makes up the majority of the free-hanging portion. The glans is the cone-shaped end that protects the urethra, the tube inside the penis that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles.

The penis has a dual function - it acts as a conduit for both urine and semen. During sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect when blood fills two chambers inside its shaft. This process is facilitated by the relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arterial walls and the trappping of blood in the corpora cavernosa. The stiffness of the penis enables sexual intercourse. After ejaculation, or when the sexual arousal passes, the muscles contract and the blood flows out of the penis back into the body, causing it to become flaccid again.

The foreskin, a layer of skin that covers the glans, is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. Circumcision is often performed for religious or cultural reasons, or as a matter of family custom. In some countries, it's also done for medical reasons, such as to treat conditions like phimosis (an inability to retract the foreskin) or balanitis (inflammation of the glans).

It's important to note that any changes in appearance, size, or function of the penis should be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as they could indicate an underlying medical condition.

Paternity is the legal or biological relationship between a father and his child. Medical definitions of paternity often refer to the biological relationship, which is established through genetic testing to identify if a man has transmitted his genetic material to a child. This is typically determined by comparing the DNA of the alleged father and the child. In contrast, legal paternity refers to the establishment of a father-child relationship through court order or other legal means, whether or not the individual is the biological father.

Oviposition is a medical/biological term that refers to the process of laying or depositing eggs by female organisms, including birds, reptiles, insects, and fish. In humans and other mammals, the term is not applicable since they give birth to live young rather than laying eggs.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weevils" are not a medical term. They are small beetles, typically characterized by their elongated snouts. Some species are known to infest and damage crops such as grains, causing agricultural harm. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to help!

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Bedbugs are small, wingless insects that belong to the family Cimicidae. The scientific name for the most common species of bedbug is Cimex lectularius. Adult bedbugs are oval-shaped, flat, and reddish-brown in color, while nymphs (immature bedbugs) are smaller, lighter in color, and translucent.

Bedbugs feed on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded animals, usually at night when their hosts are asleep. They are attracted to body heat and carbon dioxide exhaled by their hosts. Bedbug bites can cause itchy red welts or bumps on the skin, but they are not known to transmit any diseases.

Bedbugs can be found in a variety of places where people sleep or rest for extended periods, including homes, hotels, hostels, and college dormitories. They can hide in cracks and crevices in furniture, walls, floors, and bedding, making them difficult to detect and eliminate.

To prevent bedbug infestations, it is recommended to inspect second-hand furniture carefully before bringing it into your home, use protective encasements on mattresses and box springs, and avoid storing items under beds or near walls. If you suspect a bedbug infestation, contact a pest management professional for assistance.

"Gryllidae" is not a medical term. It is the family designation for crickets in the order Orthoptera, which includes various species of insects that are characterized by their long antennae and ability to produce chirping sounds. The misinterpretation might have arisen from the fact that some scientific research or studies may reference these creatures; however, it is not a medical term or concept.

Chiroptera is the scientific order that includes all bat species. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, and they are distributed worldwide with the exception of extremely cold environments. They vary greatly in size, from the bumblebee bat, which weighs less than a penny, to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, which has a wingspan of up to 6 feet.

Bats play a crucial role in many ecosystems as pollinators and seed dispersers for plants, and they also help control insect populations. Some bat species are nocturnal and use echolocation to navigate and find food, while others are diurnal and rely on their vision. Their diet mainly consists of insects, fruits, nectar, and pollen, although a few species feed on blood or small vertebrates.

Unfortunately, many bat populations face significant threats due to habitat loss, disease, and wind turbine collisions, leading to declining numbers and increased conservation efforts.

"Poecilia" is not a medical term, but a biological genus name. It belongs to the family Poeciliidae and includes several species of small freshwater fish commonly known as mollies, guppies, and swordtails. These fish are often kept in aquariums as pets. They are livebearers, which means they give birth to live young rather than laying eggs.

Triatominae is a subfamily of insects in the family Reduviidae, also known as assassin bugs. Triatomines are commonly called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans near the mouth or eyes while they sleep. They are called this because of their habit of feeding on the blood of mammals, including humans, and prefer to bite near the lips or eyes where the skin is thin.

Triatomines are vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic protozoan that causes Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness endemic in the Americas. The transmission of T. cruzi to humans occurs when feces or urine from an infected triatomine is accidentally rubbed into the bite wound or mucous membranes, such as those found in the eyes or mouth.

Triatomines are typically nocturnal and hide during the day in crevices in walls, roofs, or beds. They are attracted to light and can be found near human dwellings, particularly in rural areas with poor housing conditions. Preventing triatomine infestations and reducing contact with these insects is an important part of Chagas disease prevention.

A pair bond, in the context of human and animal behavior, refers to a long-term emotional and social attachment between two individuals, usually characterized by a strong affection, shared activities, and often sexual interaction. In humans, this concept is often discussed in the context of romantic relationships and marriage. From a medical or scientific perspective, pair bonding involves neurological and hormonal processes that help to create and maintain the attachment, such as the release of oxytocin and vasopressin during physical touch and sexual activity. The strength and duration of pair bonds can vary widely between different species and individuals.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

The clitoris is an important female sex organ that is primarily responsible for sexual arousal and pleasure. It is a small, highly sensitive piece of tissue located at the front of the vulva, where the labia minora meet. The clitoris is made up of two parts: the visible part, known as the glans clitoris, and the hidden part, called the corpora cavernosa and crura.

The glans clitoris is a small knob-like structure that is covered by a hood, or prepuce, and is located at the top of the vulva. It contains a high concentration of nerve endings, making it highly sensitive to touch and stimulation. The corpora cavernosa and crura are the internal parts of the clitoris, which are made up of sponge-like erectile tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual arousal, leading to clitoral erection.

The clitoris plays a crucial role in female sexual response and pleasure. During sexual arousal, the clitoris swells and becomes more sensitive to touch, which can lead to orgasm. The clitoris is also an important source of sexual pleasure during masturbation and partnered sexual activity. Despite its importance in female sexuality, the clitoris has historically been overlooked or stigmatized in many cultures, leading to a lack of understanding and education about this vital organ.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

Cyprinodontiformes is an order of ray-finned fish that includes several families, such as Cyprinodontidae (livebearers), Poeciliidae (including guppies and mollies), Aplocheilidae, Nothobranchiidae, Rivulidae, Valenciidae, Profundulidae, Goodeidae, Anablepidae, and Jenynsiidae. These fish are characterized by their small size, live-bearing reproduction (in most families), and the presence of a urogenital papilla in males. They inhabit a wide range of freshwater and brackish environments, with some species also found in marine habitats. Many cyprinodontiform fishes are popular as aquarium pets due to their vibrant colors and interesting behaviors.

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

"Social dominance" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a concept that is often used in the social sciences, including sociology, psychology, and anthropology. It refers to the degree of control, influence, or power that an individual or group has over others within a particular social context or hierarchy.

In some cases, social dominance may be associated with certain medical conditions or situations. For example, individuals with antisocial personality disorder or other psychiatric disorders may exhibit dominant behaviors as part of their symptoms. Similarly, social dominance can be a factor in the development and maintenance of certain types of relationships, such as those seen in abusive or coercive relationships.

However, it's important to note that social dominance is not a medical diagnosis or condition in and of itself. Rather, it is a social phenomenon that can intersect with various medical and psychological issues.

In the context of human behavior, grooming typically refers to the act of cleaning or maintaining one's own or another person's appearance or hygiene. However, in the field of forensic psychology and child protection, "grooming" has a specific meaning. It refers to the process by which an abuser gradually gains the trust of a potential victim, or the victim's family or friends, with the intent to manipulate or coerce the victim into sexual activity.

This can involve various behaviors such as complimenting, giving gifts, attention, and affection, gradually increasing in intimacy and inappropriateness over time. The grooming process can take place in person, online, or a combination of both. It's important to note that grooming is a criminal behavior and is often used by abusers to exploit and victimize children and vulnerable adults.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Passeriformes" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an order of birds that includes over half of all bird species. Passeriformes are often referred to as perching birds or songbirds because many of them have specialized feet for perching on branches and a wide variety of vocalization capabilities. Examples of Passeriformes include sparrows, finches, robins, and crows.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a group of conditions that occur when there is a difference in the development and assignment of sex characteristics. These differences may be apparent at birth, at puberty, or later in life. DSD can affect chromosomes, gonads, genitals, or secondary sexual characteristics, and can result from genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development.

DSDs were previously referred to as "intersex" conditions, but the term "Disorders of Sex Development" is now preferred in medical settings because it is more descriptive and less stigmatizing. DSDs are not errors or abnormalities, but rather variations in human development that require sensitive and individualized care.

The diagnosis and management of DSD can be complex and may involve a team of healthcare providers, including endocrinologists, urologists, gynecologists, psychologists, and genetic counselors. Treatment options depend on the specific type of DSD and may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions to support physical and emotional well-being.

Semen is a complex, whitish fluid that is released from the male reproductive system during ejaculation. It is produced by several glands, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. Semen contains several components, including sperm (the male reproductive cells), as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Its primary function is to transport sperm through the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse, providing nutrients and aiding in the protection of the sperm as they travel toward the egg for fertilization.

'Animal structures' is a broad term that refers to the various physical parts and organs that make up animals. These structures can include everything from the external features, such as skin, hair, and scales, to the internal organs and systems, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and digestive system.

Animal structures are designed to perform specific functions that enable the animal to survive, grow, and reproduce. For example, the heart pumps blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells, while the lungs facilitate gas exchange between the animal and its environment. The brain serves as the control center of the nervous system, processing sensory information and coordinating motor responses.

Animal structures can be categorized into different systems based on their function, such as the circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, and reproductive system. Each system is made up of various structures that work together to perform a specific function.

Understanding animal structures and how they function is essential for understanding animal biology and behavior. It also has important implications for human health, as many animals serve as models for studying human disease and developing new treatments.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Genitalia, also known as the genitals, refer to the reproductive organs located in the pelvic region. In males, these include the penis and testicles, while in females, they consist of the vulva, vagina, clitoris, and ovaries. Genitalia are essential for sexual reproduction and can also be associated with various medical conditions, such as infections, injuries, or congenital abnormalities.

The sex ratio is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in demography and population health. The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a given population. It is typically expressed as the number of males for every 100 females. A sex ratio of 100 would indicate an equal number of males and females.

In the context of human populations, the sex ratio at birth is usually around 103-107 males per 100 females, reflecting a slightly higher likelihood of male births. However, due to biological factors such as higher male mortality rates in infancy and childhood, as well as social and behavioral factors, the sex ratio tends to equalize over time and can even shift in favor of women in older age groups.

It's worth noting that significant deviations from the expected sex ratio at birth or in a population can indicate underlying health issues or societal problems. For example, skewed sex ratios may be associated with gender discrimination, selective abortion of female fetuses, or exposure to environmental toxins that affect male reproductive health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrocarbons" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. They are primarily used in industry as fuel, lubricants, and as raw materials for the production of plastics, fibers, and other chemicals.

However, in a broader scientific context, hydrocarbons can be relevant to medical discussions. For instance, in toxicology, exposure to certain types of hydrocarbons (like those found in gasoline or solvents) can lead to poisoning and related health issues. In environmental medicine, the pollution of air, water, and soil with hydrocarbons is a concern due to potential health effects.

But in general clinical medicine, 'hydrocarbons' wouldn't have a specific definition.

I must clarify that the term 'pupa' is not typically used in medical contexts. Instead, it is a term from the field of biology, particularly entomology, which is the study of insects.

In insect development, a pupa refers to a stage in the life cycle of certain insects undergoing complete metamorphosis. During this phase, the larval body undergoes significant transformation and reorganization within a protective casing called a chrysalis (in butterflies and moths) or a cocoon (in other insects). The old larval tissues are broken down and replaced with new adult structures. Once this process is complete, the pupal case opens, and the adult insect emerges.

Since 'pupa' is not a medical term, I couldn't provide a medical definition for it. However, I hope this explanation helps clarify its meaning in the context of biology.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Songbirds" is a common name given to a group of birds known for their vocal abilities, rather than a term used in medical definitions. Songbirds, also known as passerines, are a diverse group of more than 5,000 species of small to medium-sized birds. They belong to the order Passeriformes and include familiar birds such as sparrows, finches, robins, and warblers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, please let me know and I would be happy to help!

Longevity, in a medical context, refers to the condition of living for a long period of time. It is often used to describe individuals who have reached a advanced age, such as 85 years or older, and is sometimes associated with the study of aging and factors that contribute to a longer lifespan.

It's important to note that longevity can be influenced by various genetic and environmental factors, including family history, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare. Some researchers are also studying the potential impact of certain medical interventions, such as stem cell therapies and caloric restriction, on lifespan and healthy aging.

Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure where one or both of the testicles are removed. It is also known as castration. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, or other conditions that may affect the testicles. It can also be done to reduce levels of male hormones in the body, such as in the case of transgender women undergoing gender affirming surgery. The specific medical definition may vary slightly depending on the context and the extent of the procedure.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Diptera is an order of insects that includes flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. The name "Diptera" comes from the Greek words "di," meaning two, and "pteron," meaning wing. This refers to the fact that all members of this order have a single pair of functional wings for flying, while the other pair is reduced to small knob-like structures called halteres, which help with balance and maneuverability during flight.

Some common examples of Diptera include houseflies, fruit flies, horseflies, tsetse flies, and midges. Many species in this order are important pollinators, while others can be significant pests or disease vectors. The study of Diptera is called dipterology.

In medical terms, observation refers to the close monitoring and recording of a patient's signs, symptoms, or biological parameters over time in order to evaluate their condition, response to treatment, or any changes that may occur. This can include continuous or intermittent monitoring of vital signs, behavior, appearance, laboratory results, or other relevant factors. The purpose is to gather data and assess the patient's status, which will help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, or further management. Observation can take place in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, or at home with the use of telemedicine technologies.

"Body size" is a general term that refers to the overall physical dimensions and proportions of an individual's body. It can encompass various measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and other anthropometric measures.

In medical and public health contexts, body size is often used to assess health status, risk factors for chronic diseases, and overall well-being. For example, a high body mass index (BMI) may indicate excess body fat and increase the risk of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Similarly, a large waist circumference or high blood pressure may also be indicators of increased health risks.

It's important to note that body size is just one aspect of health and should not be used as the sole indicator of an individual's overall well-being. A holistic approach to health that considers multiple factors, including diet, physical activity, mental health, and social determinants of health, is essential for promoting optimal health outcomes.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

In invertebrate biology, ganglia are clusters of neurons that function as a centralized nervous system. They can be considered as the equivalent to a vertebrate's spinal cord and brain. Ganglia serve to process sensory information, coordinate motor functions, and integrate various neural activities within an invertebrate organism.

Invertebrate ganglia are typically found in animals such as arthropods (insects, crustaceans), annelids (earthworms), mollusks (snails, squids), and cnidarians (jellyfish). The structure of the ganglia varies among different invertebrate groups.

For example, in arthropods, the central nervous system consists of a pair of connected ganglia called the supraesophageal ganglion or brain, and the subesophageal ganglion, located near the esophagus. The ventral nerve cord runs along the length of the body, containing pairs of ganglia that control specific regions of the body.

In mollusks, the central nervous system is composed of several ganglia, which can be fused or dispersed, depending on the species. In cephalopods (such as squids and octopuses), the brain is highly developed and consists of several lobes that perform various functions, including learning and memory.

Overall, invertebrate ganglia are essential components of the nervous system that allow these animals to respond to environmental stimuli, move, and interact with their surroundings.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Macaca" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus that includes several species of monkeys, commonly known as macaques. These primates are often used in biomedical research due to their similarities with humans in terms of genetics and physiology. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Genetically modified animals (GMAs) are those whose genetic makeup has been altered using biotechnological techniques. This is typically done by introducing one or more genes from another species into the animal's genome, resulting in a new trait or characteristic that does not naturally occur in that species. The introduced gene is often referred to as a transgene.

The process of creating GMAs involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The desired gene is isolated from the DNA of another organism.
2. Transfer: The isolated gene is transferred into the target animal's cells, usually using a vector such as a virus or bacterium.
3. Integration: The transgene integrates into the animal's chromosome, becoming a permanent part of its genetic makeup.
4. Selection: The modified cells are allowed to multiply, and those that contain the transgene are selected for further growth and development.
5. Breeding: The genetically modified individuals are bred to produce offspring that carry the desired trait.

GMAs have various applications in research, agriculture, and medicine. In research, they can serve as models for studying human diseases or testing new therapies. In agriculture, GMAs can be developed to exhibit enhanced growth rates, improved disease resistance, or increased nutritional value. In medicine, GMAs may be used to produce pharmaceuticals or other therapeutic agents within their bodies.

Examples of genetically modified animals include mice with added genes for specific proteins that make them useful models for studying human diseases, goats that produce a human protein in their milk to treat hemophilia, and pigs with enhanced resistance to certain viruses that could potentially be used as organ donors for humans.

It is important to note that the use of genetically modified animals raises ethical concerns related to animal welfare, environmental impact, and potential risks to human health. These issues must be carefully considered and addressed when developing and implementing GMA technologies.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Copulation is the act of sexual reproduction in animals, achieved through the process of mating and engaging in sexual intercourse. It involves the insertion of the male's reproductive organ (the penis) into the female's reproductive organ (vagina), followed by the ejaculation of semen, which contains sperm. The sperm then travels up through the cervix and into the uterus, where they may fertilize an egg or ovum that has been released from one of the ovaries.

In a broader sense, copulation can also refer to the act of reproduction in other organisms, such as plants, fungi, and protists, which may involve different processes such as pollination, fusion of gametes, or vegetative reproduction.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Genetic selection, also known as natural selection, is a fundamental mechanism of evolution. It refers to the process by which certain heritable traits become more or less common in a population over successive generations due to differential reproduction of organisms with those traits.

In genetic selection, traits that increase an individual's fitness (its ability to survive and reproduce) are more likely to be passed on to the next generation, while traits that decrease fitness are less likely to be passed on. This results in a gradual change in the distribution of traits within a population over time, leading to adaptation to the environment and potentially speciation.

Genetic selection can occur through various mechanisms, including viability selection (differential survival), fecundity selection (differences in reproductive success), and sexual selection (choices made by individuals during mating). The process of genetic selection is driven by environmental pressures, such as predation, competition for resources, and changes in the availability of food or habitat.

Microinjection is a medical technique that involves the use of a fine, precise needle to inject small amounts of liquid or chemicals into microscopic structures, cells, or tissues. This procedure is often used in research settings to introduce specific substances into individual cells for study purposes, such as introducing DNA or RNA into cell nuclei to manipulate gene expression.

In clinical settings, microinjections may be used in various medical and cosmetic procedures, including:

1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): A type of assisted reproductive technology where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to increase the chances of fertilization during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.
2. Botulinum Toxin Injections: Microinjections of botulinum toxin (Botox, Dysport, or Xeomin) are used for cosmetic purposes to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the muscles responsible for their formation. They can also be used medically to treat various neuromuscular disorders, such as migraines, muscle spasticity, and excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).
3. Drug Delivery: Microinjections may be used to deliver drugs directly into specific tissues or organs, bypassing the systemic circulation and potentially reducing side effects. This technique can be particularly useful in treating localized pain, delivering growth factors for tissue regeneration, or administering chemotherapy agents directly into tumors.
4. Gene Therapy: Microinjections of genetic material (DNA or RNA) can be used to introduce therapeutic genes into cells to treat various genetic disorders or diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, or cancer.

Overall, microinjection is a highly specialized and precise technique that allows for the targeted delivery of substances into small structures, cells, or tissues, with potential applications in research, medical diagnostics, and therapeutic interventions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

The extracellular space is the region outside of cells within a tissue or organ, where various biological molecules and ions exist in a fluid medium. This space is filled with extracellular matrix (ECM), which includes proteins like collagen and elastin, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans that provide structural support and biochemical cues to surrounding cells. The ECM also contains various ions, nutrients, waste products, signaling molecules, and growth factors that play crucial roles in cell-cell communication, tissue homeostasis, and regulation of cell behavior. Additionally, the extracellular space includes the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid component of the ECM, and the lymphatic and vascular systems, through which cells exchange nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules with the rest of the body. Overall, the extracellular space is a complex and dynamic microenvironment that plays essential roles in maintaining tissue structure, function, and homeostasis.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

In cryptography, Russian copulation is a method of rearranging plaintext before encryption so as to conceal stereotyped headers ...
... are specific to copulation. These innate processes direct heterosexual copulation. Female lordosis behaviour became secondary ... Before mating and copulation, the male spider spins a small web and ejaculates on to it. He then stores the sperm in reservoirs ... In zoology, copulation is animal sexual behavior in which a male introduces sperm into the female's body, especially directly ... The duration of copulation varies significantly between mammal species, and may be correlated with body mass, lasting longer in ...
A study of one group found 88% in-pair copulation and 12% extra-pair copulation. However, there is much variability in rates of ... mating outside this pairing is extra-pair copulation. Across the animal kingdom, extra-pair copulation is common in monogamous ... Therefore, extra-pair copulations have a greater cost for women because they put the support and resources that their mate can ... Extra-pair copulation (EPC) is a mating behaviour in monogamous species. Monogamy is the practice of having only one sexual ...
... such as by cloacal copulation. For most non-human mammals, mating and copulation occur at the point of estrus (the most fertile ... Before mating and copulation, the male spider spins a small web and ejaculates on to it. He then stores the sperm in reservoirs ... Coitus and copulation are both technical terms for sexual intercourse. The male sex act involves an erection, in which the limp ... Copulation, by contrast, more often denotes the mating process, especially for non-human animals; it can mean a variety of ...
Copulation. Lit. Dust. Ponsigué = n. Ber. Prendido(a) = adj. Tipsy, wanting more. Lit. Ignited, turned on. Puta = n. Used in ...
... oral copulation; burglary; arson; train wrecking; mayhem; rape by instrument; carjacking; torture; poisoning (17) the murder ...
In whitetail deer, copulation consists of a single pelvic thrust. One of the first to perform this move on stage was Elvis ... The pelvic thrust is used during copulation by many species of mammals, including humans, or for other sexual activities (such ... copulation thrusting. Bruce Bagemihl (15 January 1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. ...
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Music and copulation. Building a stone house to preserve the witches at the Day of Judgement, but the walls were perpetually ...
Copulation often follows. There does not appear to be a set breeding season; instead, the species forms nesting colonies in ...
Copulation then occurred. After copulation, the female returned to sit in the nest until the male fed her again. This behaviour ... The frequent copulations and lengthy stay of the female in the nest suggested incubation but the researchers did not check the ... Frequent copulation was interspersed with joint inspections of the magpie nest. The morning after the aforementioned ...
"Copulation in English." Paris Review #164 Winter 2002-2003, p. 76. Novel, The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf 2006, Carroll & Graf ...
Pallett, Owen (28 March 2014). "Ecstatic Melodic Copulation". Slate. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 22 ...
Copulation lasts for 30 minutes in M. quadridens, while in most wasp species, it only lasts a minute or two. It nests in a ... ISBN 978-0-19-530785-6. Kenneth G. Ross & Robert W. Matthews (1991). "Courtship and copulation". The Social Biology of Wasps. ...
Copulation a tremendous success!' Attagirl". In The Independent, Ellen E Jones was less impressed, writing: "The romantic ...
Copulation usually occurs underground. Females produce one litter per year of four to five pups. Once the pups are born, the ... Hoogland, John L. "Estrus and copulation of Gunnison's prairie dogs.[dead link]" Journal of Mammalogy 79.3 (1998): 887-897. " ...
Copulation begins with foreplay; the male smells the female's genitalia and often bites her there or around her hump. The male ... Copulation takes from 7 to 35 minutes, averaging 11 to 15 minutes. Normally, three to four ejaculations occur. The semen of a ...
Copulation occurs in July. Adults, semiadults and juveniles were observed simultaneously from May to October. The life cycle ...
It is becoming clear that even animals that are overtly socially monogamous engage in extra-pair copulations. For example, ... Birkhead, T.R.; Møller, A.P. (1995). "Extra-pair copulations and extra-pair paternity in birds". Animal Behaviour. 49 (3): 843- ... This is called extra-pair copulation. Sometimes these extra-pair sexual activities lead to offspring. Genetic tests frequently ... Welsh, D.; Sedinger, J.S. (1990). "Extra-Pair copulations in Black Brant". The Condor. 92 (1): 242-4. doi:10.2307/1368407. ...
Copulation occurs multiple times. Eggs are laid from early May to mid-June (although this is happening earlier due to climate ... During copulation, the male hovers over the female, and then mounts her, giving ticking calls. He then makes cloacal contact ... The male often utters a ticking (or rasping) aggression call during copulation, and both sexes use it at the end of mobbing ... Females may also choose sperm after copulation to ensure a compatible mate. In support of this theory, a 2007 study found that ...
Copulation requires ~1 hour. Postcopulatory behaviors are brief. D. armigera are known to cause significant plant damage, ...
"Forced copulation in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): II. Temporal factors" from 1982 and "Forced Copulation in Captive ... with Kimberly Ming Tak Cheng & Jeffrey Thomas Burns (1983). "Forced Copulation in Captive Mallards III. Sperm Competition" (PDF ... with Kimberly Ming Tak Cheng & Jeffrey Thomas Burns (1982). "Forced copulation in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): II. ... with Pierre Mineau & Scott Richard Derrickson (1983). "Forced Copulation in Waterfowl". Behaviour. 86 (3/4): 250-294. doi: ...
After copulation, Elaphe spp. seek an appropriate place to lay the developing eggs. They usually lay eggs in the soft heart of ... They continue in such position, which is then followed by dancing for up to an hour before copulation, during which the male ...
Thus, copulation rarely occurs. Even when courtship does continue to a later stage, the female of the other species rejects the ... For males, it is vital to ensure paternity after copulation. To ensure this trait, males who mate with a female first (before ... and nutrients into the bursa copulatrix of the female during copulation. Other donations after the first mating are smaller in ... which facilitates copulation. Indian-meal moths are known to mate multiple times. ...
Courtship and copulation follow a stereotyped pattern, beginning when one fish identifies a prospective mate nearby and ... Males, on the other hand, can selectively absorb the eggs of lower-quality females after copulation. By doing so, the male ... "Pipefish Courtship and Copulation". W. W. Norton & Company. Berglund, Anders; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Svensson, Ingrid (1988). " ...
The duration of copulation can be extremely long. For water strider Aquarius najas it was a total of 3 months. For water ... Forced copulation (sexual coercion) by males occurs in a wide range of species and may elicit behaviors such as aggression, ... Males cannot force copulation; however, while females lay eggs fertilized from a previous mating, a new male mounts the female ... During forced copulation, male water striders (genus Gerris) attack females. As a result, a struggle occurs because the female ...
Pasolini, Pier Paolo (1 January 1975). "L'aborto il coito" [Abortion, Copulation]. Corriere della Sera. Archived from the ...
Copulation can take several hours. Sometimes females mate with other males later. The gestation period of the females lasts 11 ...
The rhythm of copulations becomes more frequent from the fifth day onwards, after having reached a peak on the third day. At ... "Mating, Parts 3&4 : Copulation". Tiger Territory. Retrieved April 1, 2009. Kailash Sankhala (1998, p. 37) Maxine, Annabell. " ...
Ovulation is induced by copulation. The breeding season is variable depending upon latitude and environmental factors. In the ...
In cryptography, Russian copulation is a method of rearranging plaintext before encryption so as to conceal stereotyped headers ...
Across all copulations it lasts from between 8 to 70 seconds (G.B. Schaller 1972). Captive lions under observation in one study ...
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Under such a model, females pursue extra-pair copulations as insurance against the functional infertility of their mate, and ... or extra-pair fertilizations are often interpreted as providing evidence that females are using extra-pair copulations to ... positive associations between male phenotype and success at obtaining extra-pair copulations ... Male Phenotype, Fertility, and the Pursuit of Extra-Pair Copulations by Female Birds *Sheldon, B. C. ...
We studied male behaviour to assess whether extra-pair males were timing copulation attempts to coincide with peaks in female ... Extra-pair males concentrated copulation attempts at peaks in female fertility. ... Extra-pair copulation (EPC) occurs frequently in hihi (stitchbird), Notiomystis cincta, resulting in a high rate of extra-pair ... Extra-pair copulation and paternity defense in the hihi (or stitchbird) Notiomystis cincta. Research Article ...
Des Vaters Segens-Wunsch/ bey seiner lieben Kinder Copulation, Hat Bey Ehelicher Vertrauung Des Wohl-Ehrwürdigen ... Herrn M. ... Des Vaters Segens-Wunsch/ bey seiner lieben Kinder Copulation, Hat Bey Ehelicher Vertrauung Des Wohl-Ehrwürdigen ... Herrn M. ...
LEFT: On April 4/2023 we witnessed 8 copulations This video is 4 of them. Then they relax. ...
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Tag Archive for: forced copulation. You are here: Home / Articles / forced copulation ... animal animals archetype australia buying car carly carly wilson clutter consumer consumerism copulation courtship crap de ... In the duck world, rape (or if you are scientist, "forced copulation") is a fact of life. It seems to be as normal an act as ...
You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about oral copulation in a very simple ... Are you curious to know what is oral copulation? ... What Is Oral Copulation?. Oral copulation refers to the act of ... What Is Oral Copulation With Child Under 14?. California Penal Code 288a defines the sex crime of oral copulation with a minor ... What Is Oral Copulation In Concert With Force?. Penalties for Oral copulation by force or fear ...
... Oral copulation refers to contact between ones mouth and another persons genitals. ... Elements of Crime for Oral Copulation by Force or Fear. What Is Oral Copulation Crime. When charged with oral copulation by ... Legal Penalties for a Forced Oral Copulation Conviction. What Is Oral Copulation Crime. Oral copulation by force or fear is a ... Oral Copulation with an Unconscious Person. What Is Oral Copulation Crime. Engaging in oral sex with an unconscious person who ...
Bald Eagles copulation sequence. April 9, 2014 in Bald Eagle While checking on a pair of nesting Bald Eagles along the ... Most copulations occur from six days before to three days following the laying of the first egg. Sex is more common in the ... Copulations occur often during the breeding season but slow down once the eggs are laid and stop after the eggs hatch (Wolfe ... The bald eagles engaged in a copulation sequence that lasted just a few seconds. Found some commentary on the web that perhaps ...
I consider the female copulation instinct to be one of the important variables in what makes some men long for a female body ... They are closer to the side that is neither masculine or feminine as regards copulation instinct. They are more like the ... This present topic is a perfect example: it is described as a discussion of female and male copulation instincts, sex in ... But again, this is an exploration, and as I said there is much more to crossdreamer psychology than a copulation instinct. ...
... oral copulation is a serious crime. If you are accused of committing oral copulation, Wallin & Klarich can help protect your ... Oral Copulation by Force or Threats of Force. In order to be convicted of oral copulation by means of force of threat, the ... Oral copulation with a minor is broken up into three separate circumstances:. *Oral copulation with a person under 18 years of ... Consequences of Oral Copulation with a Minor under PC 288a. According to PC 288a, oral copulation with a minor is a "wobbler" ...
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Klarich discuss California oral copulation sentencing guidelines and the additional consequences of the crime. ... Oral Copulation in Concert (PC 288a(d)(1)). Oral copulation is a serious crime in California.. Oral copulation in concert is ... Our skilled oral copulation attorneys can help you now!. If you or a loved one is facing a charge of oral copulation, it is ... California Oral Copulation Sentencing Guidelines. In California, oral copulation is defined as any contact, no matter how ...
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  • As with any sexual activity, the key factor in engaging in oral copulation is enthusiastic consent from all parties involved. (
  • Increased prison sentences for engaging in oral copulation with a minor or a child. (
  • Seeking legal representation from a competent criminal defense attorney is advisable if you are charged with oral copulation by force. (
  • If you are charged with oral copulation with a victim 14 years old or younger and you were at least 10 years older than the victim, you could face up to eight years in prison. (
  • If you or a loved one has been charged with oral copulation or any sex crime, you need to contact an experienced criminal defense attorney at Wallin & Klarich immediately. (
  • A person who commits an act of oral copulation when the act is accomplished against the victim's will by means or force, violence, duress, menace, or fear of immediate and unlawful bodily injury on the victim or another person may be charged with Oral Copulation by Force or Fear. (
  • Witness the intricate courtship rituals, copulation, and the impact of temperature on centipede mating behaviors. (
  • A detailed behavioural analysis revealed that while during courtship the male repeatedly licks the female genitalia independently of ovipositor extrusion, licking an extruded ovipositor prompts a copulation attempt. (
  • We thus uncover the significance of the communication between male and female that initiates the transition from courtship to copulation. (
  • What Is Oral Copulation Crime Oral copulation refers to contact between one's mouth and another person's genitals. (
  • Oral copulation is oral sex involving contact between one's mouth to another's genitals or anus. (
  • In field and laboratory studies of birds, positive associations between male phenotype and success at obtaining extra-pair copulations or extra-pair fertilizations are often interpreted as providing evidence that females are using extra-pair copulations to obtain indirect benefits for their offspring, either through genes for increased viability, or for a fisherian mating advantage. (
  • Under such a model, females pursue extra-pair copulations as insurance against the functional infertility of their mate, and obtain only direct benefits for themselves in their current reproductive event. (
  • Further, many extra-pair copulations ( ∼ 20%) elicited post-copulatory aggression-likely, punishment-from cuckolded males. (
  • LEFT: On April 4/2023 we witnessed 8 copulations This video is 4 of them. (
  • So, what about ice makes it such a worthy addition to one's copulation life? (
  • Under California Penal Code Section 288a, it is a crime to commit the act of oral copulation with a minor or by use of force or fear. (
  • California Penal Code 288a defines the sex crime of oral copulation with a minor: Oral copulation is the act of copulating the mouth of one person with the sexual organ or anus of someone else. (
  • If you are accused of oral copulation with a minor under PC 288a, how you will be charged will depend on the circumstances of your case. (
  • According to PC 288a, oral copulation with a minor is a "wobbler" offense, meaning that it can be charged as a misdemeanor or a felony. (
  • However, under California Penal Code Section 288a, it is unlawful to commit the act of oral copulation with a minor or by force or fear. (
  • If you are convicted of oral copulation with a minor under California Penal Code Section 288a, you face up to eight years in prison. (
  • Oral copulation by force or fear is a grave offense in California, carrying both legal and social consequences. (
  • Conviction for oral copulation by force or fear is considered a sexual offense and results in mandatory registration as a sex offender in California. (
  • If you are convicted of oral copulation by force or fear, you could be sentenced to up to eight years in prison. (
  • Typically, this involves oral copulation by force or fear. (
  • Accomplishing this act by force or fear could result in up to 12 years in prison, while committing oral copulation in concert with a minor under 14 years of age is punishable by up to 14 years in prison. (
  • Oral copulation with a minor under the age of 18 is a wobbler offense, meaning you could be charged with a misdemeanor or a felony. (
  • You could face oral copulation charges even if the alleged victim is not a minor. (
  • After an investigation, detectives found evidence that the allegations were true and served a warrant for her arrest on charges of sex with a minor, oral copulation with a minor and molesting a child, KTLA News reports. (
  • Our skilled criminal defense attorneys at Wallin & Klarich know the legal defenses to oral copulation. (
  • At Wallin & Klarich, our skilled attorneys have been successfully defending clients facing charges of oral copulation for over 30 years. (
  • In this blog post, we will explore the concept of oral copulation, its dynamics, considerations for consent and safety, and its role in sexual relationships. (
  • Oral copulation through fear or force occurs when an individual makes contact between their sexual organs and another person's mouth without consent, using fear or physical violence. (
  • Lack of Consent: Consent is crucial in determining whether an act of oral copulation was committed willingly. (
  • Oral copulation with someone under age 16 when you are at least 21 years old is a felony punishable by up to three years in prison. (
  • Here we show a novel role for ovipositor extrusion in promoting male copulation attempts in virgin and mated females and signalling acceptance in virgins. (
  • However, if the ovipositor is not subsequently retracted, copulation is prevented, as it happens with mated females. (
  • After copulation, where sperm from the male is transferred to the female's oviducts, the female's eggs become fertilized. (
  • During copulation, the male's cloaca contacts and ejects sperm into the cloaca of the female. (
  • Oral copulation refers to the act of using the mouth, lips, and tongue to stimulate the genitals of a partner, typically involving the penis (fellatio) or the vulva and clitoris (cunnilingus). (
  • We studied male behaviour to assess whether extra-pair males were timing copulation attempts to coincide with peaks in female fertility, and whether paired males were behaving in ways to reduce cuckoldry. (
  • Extra-pair males concentrated copulation attempts at peaks in female fertility. (
  • This section deals with social mating systems, extra-pair copulation, the evolutionary consequences of conflicts between the sexes and parent-offspring, as well as theories of sexual selection and mate choice. (
  • What Is Oral Copulation? (
  • You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about oral copulation in a very simple explanation. (
  • One such act is oral copulation, also known as oral sex. (
  • Oral copulation is often pursued for the pleasure it can bring to both partners. (
  • While the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is generally lower with oral copulation compared to other forms of sexual activity, it is not risk-free. (
  • Establishing boundaries and discussing preferences and concerns regarding oral copulation is crucial. (
  • Oral copulation is a consensual sexual act that can bring pleasure, intimacy, and connection to individuals engaged in sexual relationships. (
  • a) Oral copulation is an act of copulating the mouth of one individual with the sexual organ or anus of another person. (
  • What Is Oral Copulation In Concert With Force? (
  • What Is The Law For Oral Copulation In California? (
  • Oral copulation is any contact, no matter how slight, between the mouth of one person and the sexual organ or anus of another person. (
  • What Is Oral Copulation With Child Under 14? (
  • It's illegal for any person who engages in oral copulation with anyone who is under 18 years. (
  • Actual Oral Sex: Oral copulation involves contact between the mouth and another person's genitals. (
  • Under California under Penal Code Section 288(a), oral copulation is a serious crime. (
  • Oral sex between consenting adults is not a crime, but there are many ways in which it could become a crime of oral copulation. (
  • Note that oral copulation is essentially a strict liability crime, meaning that the prosecution does not need to prove that you intended to engage in oral sex before you committed the crime. (
  • California oral copulation is a very serious crime. (
  • The punishment you face for oral copulation will depend on the age of the defendant and the age of the victim. (
  • Oral copulation in concert is when you performed the crime of oral copulation with another person. (
  • You may have aided and abetted the other person in committing oral copulation, or he or she may have aided you in committing the act. (
  • 1. Defendant participated in an act of oral copulation with a person. (
  • Potential additional paternity guards, such as frequent copulation, did not occur in this population. (
  • 2. In the book "The Bald Eagle," eagle biologist Mark Stalmaster says, "Copulation takes place in as little as five to fifteen seconds, but can last one to two minutes, and may occur several times a day. (
  • Most copulations occur from six days before to three days following the laying of the first egg. (
  • Genetic silencing of the descending neurons shows that ovipositor extrusion stimulates the male to attempt copulation. (
  • In this study we reveal a dual function of the ovipositor: while its extrusion is necessary for initiating copulation by the male, its retraction signals female acceptance. (
  • Moreover, at least one study on a wild primate reports a lack of tactical deception in a context (that is, sneak copulations), where it would presumably benefit a subordinate male 22 . (
  • The female sometimes eats the male during or after copulation. (
  • It is transmitted transovarially and also from infected male to female ticks, probably during copulation (11,15,16,18). (
  • I consider the female copulation instinct to be one of the important variables in what makes some men long for a female body and a female identity. (
  • Popular Talented Artist Known as Demarco comes through with another new song titled Copulation with it Mp4 and lyrics and it is right here available for free and fast Mp3 download. (
  • In the duck world, rape (or if you are scientist, "forced copulation") is a fact of life. (
  • Though ice play may not be for everyone, it is certainly something worth trying up the fun factor during copulation. (
  • We had the entire weekend forward, a ample room totally at our disposition, some kinky copulation fucktoys and a hilarious costume … Hmm, it appears like a flawless mixture for a wild copulation soiree! (
  • Ovulation occurs 30-48 hours following copulation (Chen and Yuan, 1979). (
  • Across all copulations it lasts from between 8 to 70 seconds (G.B. Schaller 1972). (