Molecular cloning of columbamine O-methyltransferase from cultured Coptis japonica cells. (1/29)To identify all of the O-methyltransferase genes involved in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in Coptis japonica cells, we sequenced 1014 cDNA clones isolated from high-alkaloid-producing cultured cells of C. japonica. Among them, we found all three reported O-methyltransferases and an O-methyltransferase-like cDNA clone (CJEST64). This cDNA was quite similar to S-adenosyl-l-methionine:coclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine:isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferase. As S-adenosyl-l-methionine:columbamine O-methyltransferase, which catalyzes the conversion of columbamine to palmatine, is one of the remaining unelucidated components in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in C. japonica, we heterologously expressed the protein in Escherichia coli and examined the activity of columbamine O-methyltransferase. The recombinant protein clearly showed O-methylation activity using columbamine, as well as (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine, (S)-, (R,S)-scoulerine and (R,S)-2,3,9,10-tetrahydroxyprotoberberine as substrates. This result clearly indicated that EST analysis was useful for isolating the candidate gene in a relatively well-characterized biosynthetic pathway. The relationship between the structure and substrate recognition of the O-methyltransferases involved in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, and a reconsideration of the biosynthetic pathway to palmatine are discussed. (+info)
Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica. (2/29)Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is preferentially accumulated in the rhizome of Coptis japonica, a ranunculaceous plant, whereas gene expression for berberine biosynthetic enzymes has been observed specifically in root tissues, which suggests that berberine synthesized in the root is transported to the rhizome, where there is high accumulation. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome. Functional analysis of Cjmdr1 by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system showed that CjMDR1 transported berberine in an inward direction, resulting in a higher accumulation of berberine in Cjmdr1-injected oocytes than in the control. Typical inhibitors of ABC proteins, such as vanadate, nifedipine, and glibenclamide, as well as ATP depletion, clearly inhibited this CjMDR1-dependent berberine uptake, suggesting that CjMDR1 functioned as an ABC transporter. Conventional membrane separation methods showed that CjMDR1 was localized in the plasma membrane of C. japonica cells. In situ hybridization indicated that Cjmdr1 mRNA was expressed preferentially in xylem tissues of the rhizome. These findings strongly suggest that CjMDR1 is involved in the translocation of berberine from the root to the rhizome. (+info)
Molecular cloning and characterization of CYP719, a methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzyme that belongs to a novel P450 family, from cultured Coptis japonica cells. (3/29)Two cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNAs involved in the biosynthesis of berberine, an antimicrobial benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, were isolated from cultured Coptis japonica cells and characterized. A sequence analysis showed that one C. japonica P450 (designated CYP719) belonged to a novel P450 family. Further, heterologous expression in yeast confirmed that it had the same activity as a methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzyme (canadine synthase), which catalyzes the conversion of (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine ((S)-THC) to (S)-tetrahydroberberine ((S)-THB, (S)-canadine). The other P450 (designated CYP80B2) showed high homology to California poppy (S)-N-methylcoclaurine-3'-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), which converts (S)-N-methylcoclaurine to (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine. Recombinant CYP719 showed typical P450 properties as well as high substrate affinity and specificity for (S)-THC. (S)Scoulerine was not a substrate of CYP719, indicating that some other P450, e.g. (S)-cheilanthifoline synthase, is needed in (S)-stylopine biosynthesis. All of the berberine biosynthetic genes, including CYP719 and CYP80B2, were highly expressed in selected cultured C. japonica cells and moderately expressed in root, which suggests coordinated regulation of the expression of biosynthetic genes. (+info)
Interaction between isopoly-tungstic acid and berberine hydrochloride by resonance Rayleigh scattering spectrum. (4/29)In a weak acid medium, when an isopoly-tungstic acid reacts with berberine to form an ion-association complex, strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) appears and obvious frequency-doubling scattering (FDS) as well as second-order scattering (SOS) come into being. The scattering peaks are located at 288 and 369 nm for RRS, at 290, 370 and 390 nm for FDS, and at 480, 540 and 740 nm for SOS. Under optimum conditions, all three scattering intensities are directly proportional to the concentration of berberine and can be applied to the determination of berberine. The sensitivity of the RRS method is the highest; the detection limit (3sigma) for berberine hydrochloride is 7.6 ng/ml. The method also has good selectivity. It has been applied to the determination of berberine in pharmaceuticals and goldthread extracts with satisfactory results. In the paper, studies of the existing species of isopoly-acid and the component of the ion-association complex are reported and the reasons of enhancement of RRS are discussed. (+info)
Effect of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants with anti-diarrheal properties on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia. (5/29)Effects of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants, namely, Qinpi (Fraxini cortex), Kushen (Sophora flavescens, AITON), and Huanglian (Coptis teeta, WALLICH), on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were determined in this study. Rat intestinal epithelia mounted in an Ussing chamber attached to a voltage/current clamp were used for measuring changes in the short circuit current across the epithelia. Activation of the intestinal epithelia by serosal administration of 5 microM forskolin resulted in an increase in basal short circuit current. The ethanol extracts of each of the three plants partially reduced the current stimulated by forskolin. In the following experiments, ouabain and bumetanide were added prior to adding the ethanol extract of these plants for revealing their effect on Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The results suggest that the ethanol extract of the Qinpi would affect Cl(-) transport. On the contrary, the ethanol extract of Kushen would affect Na(+) transport rather than Cl(-) movement. This study provides evidences that reveal the pharmacological mechanism of the Chinese plants with anti-diarrheal properties. (+info)
Inhibition of the bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase sortase by isoquinoline alkaloids. (6/29)The inhibitory activity of Coptis chinensis rhizome-derived material was evaluated against sortase, a bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase, from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p and compared to that of four commercially available isoquinoline alkaloids. The biologically active constituent of C. chinensis extract was characterized as the isoquinoline alkaloid, berberine chloride, by spectral analysis. The isolate was a potent inhibitor of sortase, with an IC50 value of 8.7 microg/ml and had antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 50-400 microg/ml. Among the four isoquinoline alkaloids tested, berberine chloride had strong inhibitory activity. These results indicate that berberine is a possible candidate for the development of a bacterial sortase inhibitor. (+info)
In vivo bioconversion of tetrahydroisoquinoline by recombinant coclaurine N-methyltransferase. (7/29)Coclaurine N-methyltransferase from Coptis japonica catalyzes the N-methylation of coclaurine as well as simple tetrahydroisoquinoline. We examined the possibility of converting 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline into its N-methylated product using transgenic Escherichia coli, which expressed recombinant coclaurine N-methyltransferase, without the addition of a methyl-group donor. Transgenic E. coli successfully N-methylated the substrate added to the medium and excreted the product. Limitation of bioconversion by the supply of methyl-group donor is discussed. (+info)
Transient RNA silencing of scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase expression by double stranded RNA in Coptis japonica protoplasts. (8/29)RNAi (RNA interference, RNA silencing) is a powerful tool for functional genomics, but the construction of an RNAi vector(s) and the establishment of stable transformants are time-consuming and laborious. Here we report the transient RNAi of endogenous biosynthetic genes involved in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in Coptis japonica protoplasts. Double stranded (ds) RNA fragments of various lengths prepared from several different positions of the coding sequence of scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase (SMT) were introduced into C. japonica protoplasts by polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation, and their effects were monitored by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Substantial silencing of SMT gene expression was obtained by the introduction of these SMT dsRNAs. A significant reduction in SMT protein levels was also observed. The potentials of this transient RNAi system to evaluate the functions of biosynthetic genes in Coptis alkaloid research are discussed. (+info)
Coptis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, also known as coptis or goldthread. The name "Coptis" is derived from the Greek word "koptos," which means "cutting" or "engraved," referring to the shape of the root.
In a medical context, Coptis species, particularly Coptis chinensis and Coptis japonica, have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The rhizomes (underground stems) of these plants contain various alkaloids, including berberine, which has been studied for its potential medicinal properties.
Berberine has been found to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, among others. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, such as gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using Coptis or its constituents for medicinal purposes.
It's important to note that while some natural substances like berberine have shown promise in preliminary studies, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.
Berberine is a chemical found in several plants including European barberry, goldenseal, goldthread, Oregon grape, phellodendron, and tree turmeric. It has a yellow color and has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes such as treating diarrhea, reducing inflammation, and fighting bacteria.
Berberine has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to lower blood sugar levels, reduce cholesterol and triglycerides, and improve cardiovascular health. It is thought to work by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays a role in regulating metabolism.
However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of berberine, and it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment. As with any supplement, it's important to talk to your doctor before taking berberine or any other herbal remedy.
Berberine alkaloids are a type of natural compound found in several plants, including the Berberis species (such as barberry and tree turmeric), goldenseal, Oregon grape, and phellodendron. The most well-known and researched berberine alkaloid is berberine itself, which has a yellow color and is commonly used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating diarrhea, reducing inflammation, and combating bacterial and fungal infections.
Berberine alkaloids have a complex chemical structure that includes a nitrogen atom, making them basic in nature. They are known to interact with several biological targets, including enzymes and receptors, which contributes to their diverse pharmacological activities. Some of the key mechanisms of action of berberine alkaloids include:
1. Inhibition of DNA gyrase: Berberine alkaloids can interfere with bacterial DNA replication by inhibiting the activity of DNA gyrase, an enzyme that helps to unwind and supercoil DNA during replication. This makes them effective against a wide range of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).
2. Interaction with cell membranes: Berberine alkaloids can interact with the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, disrupting their integrity and increasing permeability. This can lead to the death of bacteria, fungi, and cancer cells.
3. Modulation of gene expression: Berberine has been shown to regulate the expression of various genes involved in metabolic processes, inflammation, and cell growth. For example, it can activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key enzyme that regulates energy metabolism, which may contribute to its potential benefits in treating diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
4. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators: Berberine alkaloids can inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which are involved in the development of various inflammatory diseases.
5. Antioxidant activity: Berberine alkaloids have antioxidant properties, which can help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This may contribute to their potential benefits in treating neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.
In summary, berberine alkaloids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and metabolic regulatory effects. These properties make them promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic agents to treat various diseases, such as infections, inflammation, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects before they can be safely and effectively used in clinical settings.
Ranunculaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the buttercup family. It includes over 2,000 species distributed across 58 genera. The plants in this family are characterized by their showy, often brightly colored flowers and typically have numerous stamens and carpels. Many members of Ranunculaceae contain toxic compounds, which can be irritants or even poisonous if ingested. Examples of plants in this family include buttercups, delphiniums, monkshood, and columbines.
'Berberis' is a genus of shrubs and small trees that belong to the Berberidaceae family. These plants are commonly known as barberries and are native to Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America. The name 'Berberis' comes from the Arabic word "barbar", which means "foreign".
While 'Berberis' is not a medical term itself, some species of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for their medicinal properties. For example, Berberis vulgaris (European barberry) contains berberine, an alkaloid that has been shown to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. However, it is important to note that the use of Berberis species in modern medicine is not well-studied, and more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy.
Therefore, while 'Berberis' has some medicinal uses, it is not a medical term with a specific definition in the way that terms like "inflammation" or "hypertension" are defined in medicine.
"Lithospermum" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of plants commonly known as "stone seeds" or "gromwells." These plants are part of the forget-me-not family (Boraginaceae) and are native to North America, Europe, and Asia. The name "Lithospermum" comes from the Greek words "lithos," meaning stone, and "sperma," meaning seed, which refers to the hard, stony seeds found in these plants.
While "Lithospermum" is not a medical term itself, some species of this plant genus have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. For example, Lithospermum officinale (also known as common gromwell) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation and skin conditions. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants in medical treatments should be based on scientific research and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
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- We prepare our Coptis Extract from the rhizome of Coptis chinensis plants which are cultivated, harvested & processed according to traditional Chinese methods 3. (vitacart.com)
- Coptis (goldthread or canker root) is a genus of between 10-15 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native to Asia and North America. (wikipedia.org)
- The effects of loss of sex in clonal populations of an endangered perennial Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae)," Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 47-54. (wikipedia.org)
- The herbal formula " huang lian jie du wan " , 黃連解毒湯, which in english is " coptis decoction to relieve toxicity ", is categorized within the " clear heat " functional grouping and within the " clear heat from the qi level " sub-category. (yinyanghouse.com)
- Coptis are all-natural Chinese herbal caps made from Huang Lian Su Wan, a bitter, cool herb used to drain heat and relieve toxicity from the lower body. (fmvitamin.com)
- Huang lian/coptis is a very cold herb and can injure the Spleen and Stomach when taken for too long or in excess amounts. (fmvitamin.com)
- Coptis may be used in combination with the R-5081 as an alternative to the Allicin for individuals who experience gastric distress or other problems using the potent garlic bulb extract. (drrons.com)
- The product image of Herb Pharm - Coptis Extract - 1 oz shown on this page may differ from actual size and flavor, or due to packaging update. (vitacart.com)
- Formula este realizata cu 91.9% extract de Coptis Japonica, o planta bogata in antioxidanti si substante nutritive, ce confera un plus de energie si vitalitate tenului. (k-beauty.ro)
- Switching gears from the acquisition of RORE TECHNOLOGIES' and leveraging its Cosmetic expertise, Calsil successfully qualified its silicone ingredients to match the stringent COPTIS standards. (calsilsilicones.com)
- Joining COPTIS database with than 12,000 cosmetic ingredients demonstrates Calsil takes a major step forward ensuring we are not only compliant with the cosmetics industry and our regulatory and Responsible Care standards, we continuously improve our cosmetic solutions, services, leveraging our expertise in the form of simple guidelines to help formulators best leverage the power of silicones" says Philippe Rovere, Calsil® Brand and Silicone Business Manager. (calsilsilicones.com)
- The learning database in the Coptis Lab software is enriched as more formulas and stability test results are added," it added. (personalcaremagazine.com)
- certified organic grain alcohol, distilled water & Coptis extractives. (vitacart.com)
- For more than 15 years having extensive "IT and Cosmetic Market" expertise, COPTIS specializes in the development of performing software solutions for Cosmetic R&D laboratories based in US and Europe.Coptis LAB, our major product, is an integrated. (cosmeticsdesign.com)
- Coptis and R-5081 are effective wide-spectrum antimicrobials for combating the Lyme infection. (drrons.com)
- NOTE: Some users may experience mild to extreme drowsiness when first taking the Coptis. (drrons.com)
- With 22 years of digital experience, a large network of Coptis users worldwide and our insightful understanding of our customers' needs, we are the primary cosmetic software company with the potential to succeed with the most precision. (personalcaremagazine.com)
- To assure optimal quality Coptis rhizomes, we directly purchase from China only rhizomes that have had their superfluous rootlets removed, and are carefully dried. (vitacart.com)
- In a collaborative effort, Coptis has introduced an AI R&D program integrated in its Coptis Lab software. (personalcaremagazine.com)
- In this study, the genetic diversity patterns and biogeographical information of cultivated Huang-lian and their wild relatives Coptis species were assessed using three plastids DNA regions. (nih.gov)
- Berberine is a natural medicine derived from the flowering plant Coptis japonica and is reputed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of conjunctivitis and stomatitis as well as being a stomachic, intestinal remedy and antidiarrheic. (jascoinc.com)
- It is suggested that berberine, one of alkaloids contained in Coptis japonica, which has yellow color and bitter taste may have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. (jascoinc.com)
- This LC application shows the separation of berberine obtained from powder extracts of Coptis japonica using analytical HPLC, the separation is scaled-up using semi-preparative HPLC for isolation and purification. (jascoinc.com)
- Weigh 0.5 g of powdered Coptis japonica and place in a centrifuge tube. (jascoinc.com)
- Figure 2 is Chromatogram and contour plot of the extracts from Coptis japonica powder using conventional HPLC separation. (jascoinc.com)
- Figure 3 is Chromatogram of the extract from Coptis japonica powder using semi-preparative HPLC scaled up from the analytical scale method. (jascoinc.com)
- Coptis Japonica makino extract suppresses angiogenesis through regulation of cell cycle-related proteins. (logosbio.com.cn)
- Berberine can be produced from cultures of Coptis japonica and Thalictrum rugosum cells. (nih.gov)
- Coptis trifolia (syn. (herbal-organic.com)
- Coptis are all-natural Chinese herbal caps made from Huang Lian Su Wan, a bitter, cool herb used to drain heat and relieve toxicity from the lower body. (pickcategory.com)
- Huang lian/coptis is a very cold herb and can injure the Spleen and Stomach when taken for too long or in excess amounts. (pickcategory.com)
- Cum poti conserva ardeii copti pentru iarna. (lecturisiarome.ro)
Software solutions for cosmetic3
- For the past 23 years, Coptis has been at the forefront of software solutions for cosmetic laboratories. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Coptis specialises in the development of performing software solutions for cosmetic R&D laboratories. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Coptis provides performing software solutions for cosmetic R&D laboratories to achieve worldwide regulatory compliance of development projects. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Coptis and burdock are complementary herbs that support immune health. (reddremedies.com)
- Established in 1999, Croissy-sur-Seine, France-based Coptis develops and markets specialised software to support cosmetic laboratories and raw material manufacturers during formulation and regulatory compliance stages. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Join the Coptis Network and its exclusive Regulatory group! (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Coptis teeta is used as a medicinal herb in China and the Eastern Himalayan regions of India particularly in Mishmi Hills of Arunachal Pradesh where it is used as a bitter tonic for treating malarial fever and dyspepsia. (wikipedia.org)
- Cosmetic laboratories software company Coptis is joining forces with Extens, the first French fund dedicated to health care software publishers, and Swiss investment fund Clearsight to grow Coptis' operations. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Coptis Clear is a broad range antibiotic formula that can be used for supporting the immune system's ability to fight off Candida, Gut dysbiosis, Lung and Respiratory infections, swollen lymph nodes, skin rashes, acne breakouts, and even viruses like Herpes Zoster, Herpes Simplex and parasites and Helminths that can live in your colon, small intestines or liver flukes. (functionalcompounds.com)
-  In their suggested reconstitution, the scholars included one mutilated leaf preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris (BnF) under call number Copte 129.19, f. 85 . (manuscriptroom.com)
- The golden color of Coptis is attributed to a high alkaloid content. (reddremedies.com)
- Read more about Coptis. (henriettes-herb.com)
- I also appreciate the Extens Club, which brings together the different company managers to discuss shared problems, which is what our customers do in the Coptis Users' Club. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Do you want to see the latest features of Coptis software solutions? (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- I sincerely believe that Extens and Clearsight will contribute to the success of Coptis in the coming years. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Anne Karagoz, President of Coptis, commented: "I have chosen Extens to support Coptis in the next stages of its development, and to help it thrive more rapidly in its own markets, as well as new markets. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- The combination of Coptis and burdock creates a powerful support for healthy immune system function. (reddremedies.com)
- This will mark the first time that Coptis has opened up its capital to Extens (which is making the second investment of its third fund currently being raised) and Clearsight, in order to accelerate its commercial and technical development planning. (cosmeticsbusiness.com)
- Coptis promotes balance in gastrointestinal microflora and supports intestinal health. (reddremedies.com)