Coproporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Uroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four acetic acid and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Coproporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Theileriasis: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Uroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four acetic acid and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.United StatesHealth Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.EncyclopediasDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Menu PlanningPlasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Splenorenal Shunt, Surgical: Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.Gene Ontology: Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Embolism, Amniotic Fluid: Blocking of maternal circulation by AMNIOTIC FLUID that is forced into uterine VEINS by strong UTERINE CONTRACTION near the end of pregnancy. It is characterized by the sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and HYPOTENSION that can lead to maternal DEATH.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mycosis Fungoides: A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Sezary Syndrome: A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous: A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Trophoblastic Neoplasms: Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Ultraviolet Therapy: The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.PUVA Therapy: Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Appendix: A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cecal Diseases: Pathological developments in the CECUM.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Urine Specimen Collection: Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Amidine-Lyases: These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Ketosteroids: Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Porphyria Cutanea Tarda: An autosomal dominant or acquired porphyria due to a deficiency of UROPORPHYRINOGEN DECARBOXYLASE in the LIVER. It is characterized by photosensitivity and cutaneous lesions with little or no neurologic symptoms. Type I is the acquired form and is strongly associated with liver diseases and hepatic toxicities caused by alcohol or estrogenic steroids. Type II is the familial form.Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous: Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)Porphyrias: A diverse group of metabolic diseases characterized by errors in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME in the LIVER, the BONE MARROW, or both. They are classified by the deficiency of specific enzymes, the tissue site of enzyme defect, or the clinical features that include neurological (acute) or cutaneous (skin lesions). Porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic or erythropoietic marrow tissues.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of UROPORPHYRINOGEN III to coproporphyrinogen III by the conversion of four acetate groups to four methyl groups. It is the fifth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Several forms of cutaneous PORPHYRIAS are results of this enzyme deficiency as in PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA; and HEPATOERYTHROPOIETIC PORPHYRIA.Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Pemphigoid, Bullous: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.ParisPorphyrinogens: Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Unithiol: A chelating agent used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase: A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.Porphyrias, Hepatic: A group of metabolic diseases due to deficiency of one of a number of LIVER enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME. They are characterized by the accumulation and increased excretion of PORPHYRINS or its precursors. Clinical features include neurological symptoms (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT), cutaneous lesions due to photosensitivity (PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA), or both (HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA). Hepatic porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic tissues.Porphyria, Variegate: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) in the LIVER, the seventh enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include both neurological symptoms and cutaneous lesions. Patients excrete increased levels of porphyrin precursors, COPROPORPHYRINS and protoporphyrinogen.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Porphyria, Acute Intermittent: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of HYDROXYMETHYLBILANE SYNTHASE in the LIVER, the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features are recurrent and life-threatening neurologic disturbances, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and elevated level of AMINOLEVULINIC ACID and PORPHOBILINOGEN in the urine.Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiency: A disease that results from a congenital defect in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV. Defects in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)Porphyria, Erythropoietic: An autosomal recessive porphyria that is due to a deficiency of UROPORPHYRINOGEN III SYNTHASE in the BONE MARROW; also known as congenital erythropoietic porphyria. This disease is characterized by SPLENOMEGALY; ANEMIA; photosensitivity; cutaneous lesions; accumulation of hydroxymethylbilane; and increased excretion of UROPORPHYRINS and COPROPORPHYRINS.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Parabiosis: The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Decision Making, Computer-Assisted: Use of an interactive computer system designed to assist the physician or other health professional in choosing between certain relationships or variables for the purpose of making a diagnostic or therapeutic decision.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).IndiaIron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Osteolysis, Essential: Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Occult Blood: Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Hematoporphyrins: Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)

Genomic structure of the canalicular multispecific organic anion-transporter gene (MRP2/cMOAT) and mutations in the ATP-binding-cassette region in Dubin-Johnson syndrome. (1/90)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Previous studies of the defects in the human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter gene (MRP2/cMOAT) in patients with DJS have suggested that the gene defects are responsible for DJS. In this study, we determined the exon/intron structure of the human MRP2/cMOAT gene and further characterized mutations in patients with DJS. The human MRP2/cMOAT gene contains 32 exons, and it has a structure that is highly conserved with that of another ATP-binding-cassette gene, that for a multidrug resistance-associated protein. We then identified three mutations, including two novel ones. All mutations identified to date are in the cytoplasmic domain, which includes the two ATP-binding cassettes and the linker region, or adjacent putative transmembrane domain. Our results confirm that MRP2/cMOAT is the gene responsible for DJS. The finding that mutations are concentrated in the first ATP-binding-cassette domain strongly suggests that a disruption of this region is a critical route to loss of function.  (+info)

Iron-coproporphyrin III is a natural cofactor in bacterioferritin from the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. (2/90)

A bacterioferritin was recently isolated from the anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfivibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 [Romao et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 6841-6849]. Although its properties are in general similar to those of the other bacterioferritins, it contains a haem quite distinct from the haem B, found in bacterioferritins from aerobic organisms. Using visible and NMR spectroscopies, as well as mass spectrometry analysis, the haem is now unambiguously identified as iron-coproporphyrin III, the first example of such a prosthetic group in a biological system. This unexpected finding is discussed in the framework of haem biosynthetic pathways in anaerobes and particularly in sulphate-reducing bacteria.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of photodynamic therapy with zincphyrin, zinc-coproporphyrin III, in mice. (3/90)

We studied the antitumor effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Zincphyrin, coproporphyrin III with zinc, derived from Streptomyces sp. AC8007, in vitro and in vivo. The photokilling effect of Zincphyrin in the presence of 0.78-100 microg/ml with visible light of 27.2 mW x min/cm2 for 10 min was lower than the hematoporphyrin (Hp) used as a control with L5178Y or sarcoma-180 cells. On the other hand, Zincphyrin apparently reduced tumor growth after intraperitoneal injection at doses of 12.5-50 mg/kg with light irradiation of 75.48 mW x min/cm2 for 10 min in sarcoma-180-bearing mice. Although no mice treated with Zincphyrin died, Hp did cause the death of mice. In B-16 melanoma-bearing mice, both Zincphyrin and Hp had a similar phototherapic effect. Further improvement of the phototherapic effect was observed with the continuous administration of Zincphyrin at 12.5 mg/kg per day for 3 days. The concentration of Zincphyrin in the serum reached a maximum level of 16 microg/ml within 20 min, and the concentration remained at 4.2 microg/ml at 1 hour after the onset of treatment, indicating its rapid action in the body. No animals died after the intraperitoneal administration of Zincphyrin at 100 mg/kg plus exposure to light of 10 mW x min/cm2 for 2 hours, and the body weight of the mice did not decrease. In contrast, all animals receiving 100 mg/kg of Hp under the same conditions died. These results indicate that Zincphyrin would be a useful photosensitizer with low phototoxicity.  (+info)

Characterization of mutations in the CPO gene in British patients demonstrates absence of genotype-phenotype correlation and identifies relationship between hereditary coproporphyria and harderoporphyria. (4/90)

Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is the least common of the autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias. It results from mutations in the CPO gene that encodes the mitochondrial enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase. A few patients have also been reported who are homoallellic or heteroallelic for CPO mutations and are clinically distinct from those with HCP. In such patients the presence of a specific mutation (K404E) on one or both alleles produces a neonatal hemolytic anemia that is known as "harderoporphyria"; mutations on both alleles elsewhere in the gene give rise to the "homozygous" variant of HCP. The molecular relationship between these disorders and HCP has not been defined. We describe the molecular investigation and clinical features of 17 unrelated British patients with HCP. Ten novel and four previously reported CPO mutations, together with three previously unrecognized single-nucleotide polymorphisms, were identified in 15 of the 17 patients. HCP is more heterogeneous than other acute porphyrias, with all but one mutation being restricted to a single family, with a predominance of missense mutations (10 missense, 2 nonsense, 1 frameshift, and 1 splice site). Of the four known mutations, one (R331W) has previously been reported to cause disease only in homozygotes. Heterologous expression of another mutation (R401W) demonstrated functional properties similar to those of the K404E harderoporphyria mutation. In all patients, clinical presentation was uniform, in spite of the wide range (1%-64%) of residual coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity, as determined by heterologous expression. Our findings add substantially to knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of HCP, show that single copies of CPO mutations that are known or predicted to cause "homozygous" HCP or harderoporphyria can produce typical HCP in adults, and demonstrate that the severity of the phenotype does not correlate with the degree of inactivation by mutation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase.  (+info)

Extracellular heme peroxidases in actinomycetes: a case of mistaken identity. (5/90)

Actinomycetes secrete into their surroundings a suite of enzymes involved in the biodegradation of plant lignocellulose; these have been reported to include both hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including peroxidases. Reports of secreted peroxidases have been based upon observations of peroxidase-like activity associated with fractions that exhibit optical spectra reminiscent of heme peroxidases, such as the lignin peroxidases of wood-rotting fungi. Here we show that the appearance of the secreted pseudoperoxidase of the thermophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora fusca BD25 is also associated with the appearance of a heme-like spectrum. The species responsible for this spectrum is a metalloporphyrin; however, we show that this metalloporphyrin is not heme but zinc coproporphyrin. The same porphyrin was found in the growth medium of the actinomycete Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. We therefore propose that earlier reports of heme peroxidases secreted by actinomycetes were due to the incorrect assignment of optical spectra to heme groups rather than to non-iron-containing porphyrins and that lignin-degrading heme peroxidases are not secreted by actinomycetes. The porphyrin, an excretory product, is degraded during peroxidase assays. The low levels of secreted peroxidase activity are associated with a nonheme protein fraction previously shown to contain copper. We suggest that the role of the secreted copper-containing protein may be to bind and detoxify metals that can cause inhibition of heme biosynthesis and thus stimulate porphyrin excretion.  (+info)

Neonatal-onset hereditary coproporphyria with male pseudohermaphrodism. (6/90)

The appearance of hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) before puberty is very rare, and all reported cases of early-onset HCP have been in the homozygous or the compound heterozygous state. Some have been identified as harderoporphyria, which is a rare erythropoietic variant form of HCP. These conditions can be differentiated by molecular analysis because the gene abnormality responsible for harderoporphyria seems to be unique (K404E). Early-onset HCP, not harderoporphyria, is reported with a gene mutation in the heterozygous state and male pseudohermaphrodism. It was shown that adrenal gland hypofunction resulted in male pseudohermaphrodism. This case demonstrates the possibility that abnormalities of steroid metabolism influence porphyria.  (+info)

Differentiation of porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica from other types of porphyria by measurement of isocoproporphyrin in faeces. (7/90)

The faecal porphyrin patterns of 24 patients with porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica (PCTS), eight patients with variegate porphyria, three patients with other types of porphyria, and 20 non-porphyrics subjects have been compared using a two-demensional thin layer chromatographic technique that separates porphyrins of the isocoproporphyrin series from other faecal porphyrins. The 'isocoproporphyrin': coproporphyrin ratio ranged from 0-1 to 5-6 for patients with PCTS, whereas in other types of porphyria and non-porphyric subjects it was 0-05 or less.  (+info)

Clinical and biochemical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlation in Finnish variegate porphyria patients. (8/90)

Variegate porphyria (VP) is an inherited metabolic disease resulting from the partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. We have evaluated the clinical and biochemical outcome of 103 Finnish VP patients diagnosed between 1966 and 2001. Fifty-two per cent of patients had experienced clinical symptoms: 40% had photosensitivity, 27% acute attacks and 14% both manifestations. The proportion of patients with acute attacks has decreased dramatically from 38 to 14% in patients diagnosed before and after 1980, whereas the prevalence of skin symptoms had decreased only subtly from 45 to 34%. We have studied the correlation between PPOX genotype and clinical outcome of 90 patients with the three most common Finnish mutations I12T, R152C and 338G-->C. The patients with the I12T mutation experienced no photosensitivity and acute attacks were rare (8%). Therefore, the occurrence of photosensitivity was lower in the I12T group compared to the R152C group (P=0.001), whereas no significant differences between the R152C and 338G-->C groups could be observed. Biochemical abnormalities were significantly milder suggesting a milder form of the disease in patients with the I12T mutation. In all VP patients, normal excretion of protoporphyrin in faeces in adulthood predicted freedom from both skin symptoms and acute attacks. The most valuable test predicting an increased risk of symptoms was urinary coproporphyrin, but only a substantially increased excretion exceeding 1,000 nmol/day was associated with an increased risk of both skin symptoms and acute attacks. All patients with an excretion of more than 1,000 nmol/day experienced either skin symptoms, acute attacks, or both.  (+info)

*Arthrobacter ramosus

... produces coproporphyrin III. Yamamoto, T; Maruta, K; Watanabe, H; Yamashita, H; Kubota, M; Fukuda, S; ...

*Knorr pyrrole synthesis

A synthesis of coproporphyrin III". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 1430-1440. doi:10.1039/JR9580001430. Paine, John ...

*Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase

Hyper-excretion of coproporphyrin III in urine and faeces has been recorded in biochemical tests. HCP is an autosomal dominant ...

*Dubin-Johnson syndrome

... with coproporphyrin I being 3-4 times higher than coproporphyrin III. Analysis of urine porphyrins shows a normal level of ... Unaffected subjects have a coproporphyrin III to coproporphyrin I ratio around 3-4:1. In patients with DJS, this ratio is ... coproporphyrin, but the I isomer accounts for 80% of the total (normally 25%). In post mortem autopsy, the liver will have a ...

*Hereditary coproporphyria

Elevated coproporphyrin is a common finding in urine, known as coproporphyrinuria as it is the predominant porphyrin species in ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... coproporphyrins MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.500.280 --- deuteroporphyrins MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.500.340 --- etioporphyrins MeSH ... coproporphyrins MeSH D03.549.909.500.280 --- deuteroporphyrins MeSH D03.549.909.500.340 --- etioporphyrins MeSH D03.549.909.500 ...

*Porphyria cutanea tarda

... specifically uroporphyrins and coproporphyrins, but all three working together synergistically are capable of neutralizing ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... coproporphyrins MeSH D23.767.727.280 --- deuteroporphyrins MeSH D23.767.727.340 --- etioporphyrins MeSH D23.767.727.462 --- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D04)

... coproporphyrins MeSH D04.345.783.500.280 --- deuteroporphyrins MeSH D04.345.783.500.340 --- etioporphyrins MeSH D04.345.783.500 ...

*Progressive macular hypomelanosis

... while the involvement of propionibacterium Acnes will show an orange fluorescence due to its coproporphyrin III. That way it ...
Heidi Tailifer. Artist and curator Nathan Spoor takes over Copro Gallery in Santa Monica this month for another iteration of his "Suggestivism" group show, an annual exhibition with a rotating roster of contemporary artists. Spoor coined the term "Suggestivism" during his graduate studies to describe the type of ambiguous, fantastical figurative art he was creating. He later discovered that art historian Sadakichi Hartmann used the term as early as 1890 to describe "an art that is possibly more than it seems, or possibly an art that is not what it seems." The description seems apt for the collection of dreamlike, imagination-driven works in the show, featuring artists like Amy Sol, Dan May, Scott Musgrove, Heidi Tailifer, Michael Page, Hannah Yata and Marco Mazzoni. Spoor has staged past versions of the show in LA, Rome and New York. Take a look at the new work in this years rendition below.. "Suggestivism" opens August 16 and will be on view through September 6.. ...
Christian Rex van Minnen. Curated by Jon Beinart of beinArt Collective and Publishing, "beinArt Collective 2013" is a group show that revels in the macabre. The participating artists, including Chet Zar, Christian Rex van Minnen, Sam Wolfe Connelly, Kikyz 1313, Kris Lewis, Erik Thor Sandberg and Caitlin Hackett, all have a dark edge to their work that is manifested in different ways. Christian Rex van Minnens work is visceral and grotesque, playing on his viewers gag reflexes, while Chet Zars subject matter is outright diabolical and Erik Thor Sandbergs mythological narratives have a brutal quality. "BeinArt Collective" opens at Copro Gallery in Santa Monica on November 9. Take a look at a sneak peek of the show below. Participating artists include: Chet Zar, Chris Mars, Kris Lewis, David Bowers, Christian Van Minnen, Ana Bagayan, Scott Scheidly, Jana Brike, Scott Brooks, Brian Despain, Charlie Immer, Madeline von Foerster, Chistopher Ulrich, Santiago Caruso, Shawn Barber, Peter Gric, Carlos ...
Brian Viveros * Brian Despain * Chet Zar * Chris Peters * Christopher Ryniak* Christian van Minnen * Dan Quintana * Daniel Lim * Dan May * Dave Cooper * David Stoupakis * Erik Alos * Esao Andrews * Germs * Gris Grimly * Jeff Gillette * Jeff McMillan * Jeff Soto * Jim Woodring * Josh Keyes * Keith Weesner * KMNDZ * Kukula* Lola * Luke Chueh * Makiko Sugawa * Mark Covell * Matt Dangler * Martin Witfooth * Michael Page * Michelle Mia Araujo * Naoto Hattori * Nathan Spoor Laurie Lipton * Noferin * Oksana Badrak * Ray Caesar * Shag * Scott Belcastro * Tin * Stella Im Hultberg * Travis Louie * Winston Smith * Xiaoqing Ding * Yoskay Yamamoto & many more ...
Hereditary coproporphyria is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases that involves defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. Inheritance is autosomal (usually autosomal dominant, but sometimes autosomal recessive).
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Hereditary coproporphyria
MTX is a substrate of MRP2, a renal tubular transporter encoded by the ABCC2 gene. It has been shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ABCC2 gene are associated with impairment of MTX elimination. Mutations on the ABCC2 gene are also responsible for the Dubin-Johnson syndrome, characterised by the absence of a functional MRP2 protein. Apart from hyperbilirubinaemia, the main biological perturbation observed in this disease is a typical increase of the urinary ratio of coproporphyrins I (I+ III) (UCP ratio). Our hypothesis is that the UCP ratio could be used as a biomarker of MRP2s activity, thus predicting MTX elimination. One hundred patients treated with high dose MTX will be recruited in this prospective study. Their UCP ratio will be measured before and after MTX administration and correlated with MTX clearance. A genetic analysis will be conducted to study the five more frequents SNPs of ABCC2 in each patient ...
The investigations on Theileria parva infection of cattle revealed : (1) That bilirubinaemia did occur, the highest figure for plasma bilirubin being 12 v. d. Bergh units. (2) That the yellow staining of the fat is due to the combined effect of carotinoids and bilirubin. (3) That the intensity of the yellow colour of the plasma is in part due to carotinoids, a normal constituent of the blood of cattle, especially if they be fed on food containing carotinoids. (4) That there is a definite rise in the concentration of coproporphyrin in the faeces and urine. Such a rise, however, does not necessarily mean that there is an increase in the total amount excreted as the rise may be due to the decrease in the amount of faeces passed as a result of the disease ...
Porphyrins are organic aromatic compounds composed of four pyrrole rings interconnected to each other and to the Fe2+ ion. Porphyrins are essential cofactors of many proteins including cytochrome proteins and haemoglobin and myoglobin in humans. The first step in the production of porphyrin in animals is the mitochondrial formation of delta-aminolevulinate from glycine and succinyl-CoA. In humans, this aminolevulinate is then transported to cytosol where the 4-step conversion into Coproporphyrinogen III occurs. The remaining processing of this intermediate to protoporphyrin IX and then to heme takes place in mitochondrion.. The cytochrome proteins in Plasmodium and Coccidian species such as Toxoplasma and Neospora require de novo synthesis of porphyrin. Although P. falciparum obtains heme from host haemoglobin digestion, it cannot utilise them for biosynthesis of its own porphyrin-containing proteins [1] and converts them to hemozoin [2]. The enzymes of de novo heme biosynthesis in P. falciparum ...
Porphyrins are a accumulation of heterocyclic macrocycle amoebic compounds, composed of four adapted pyrrole subunits commutual at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−). The ancestor porphyrin is porphin, and commissioned porphines are alleged porphyrins. The porphyrin ring anatomy is aromatic, with a absolute of 26 electrons in the conjugated system. Various analyses announce…
Cammidge, A and Ozturk, O. (2001) Controlled scrambling in porphyrin synthesis-selective synthesis of 5,10-disubstituted porphyrins. Tetrahedron Letters, 42 (2). p. 355. ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersHeme, porphyrin, and cobalaminhydroxymethylbilane synthase (TIGR00212; EC 2.5.1.61; HMM-score: 11.6) ...
... is an autosomal dominant form of liver (hepatic) porphyria that is very similar to acute intermittent porphyria, although it is usually a less severe disease. It results from low levels of the enzyme responsible for the sixth step in heme production - coproporphyrinogen oxidase. This enzyme speeds the conversion of coproporphyrinogen to protoporphyrinogen. In coproporphyria, the porphyrin precursors porphobilinogen and amino-levulinic acid (ALA) accumulate, as well as the formed porphyrin coproporphyrin. This leads to abdominal pain, neuropathies, constipation, and skin changes. Treatment is dependent on the symptoms ...
Logical Images, Inc. d/b/a VisualDx (hereinafter "VisualDx", "we", "us", or "our") has created this Acceptable Use Policy, Medical Disclaimer, & Copyright Notice (this "Notice") to inform you (hereinafter "you", "your", or "yourself") as a purchaser of a license for and/or user of the software hosted by VisualDx known as VisualDx (the "Software") of certain important terms and conditions set forth in the VisualDx End User License Agreement that governs your license for and/or use of the Software (the "EULA"). This Notice is subject to all of the terms and conditions set forth in the EULA and does not replace or limit it in anyway. You should read the EULA in detail prior to purchasing a license for or using the Software to make sure you understand and agree to its terms and conditions. Nothing in this Notice will (a) expand your rights or VisualDx′s obligations under the EULA or (b) modify or otherwise affect any terms and conditions of the EULA or the rights of the parties under the EULA. In ...
Variegate Porphyria: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) in the LIVER, the seventh enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include both neurological symptoms and cutaneous lesions. Patients excrete increased levels of porphyrin precursors, COPROPORPHYRINS and protoporphyrinogen.
I got back a Urinary Porphyrins test from the Laboratoire de Biologie Medicale in Paris France. The following things have been flaged. Uroporphyrins I &am...
Depression (HCP) Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Hereditary Coproporphyria & Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome & Erythropoietic Coproporphyria. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
1. A simple chromatographic method for the study of porphyrins in erythrocytes and blood plasma, requiring little technician time, is described. The findings in adults and neonates are presented as well as those from severely ill patients.. 2. The regular occurrence of uro-, copro- and proto-porphyrin in erythrocytes is demonstrable as well as sporadic occurrence of tri-, penta-, hexa- and hepta-carboxylic porphyrin. The method gives, however, irregular values for protoporphyrin, which seems to occur in a more labile form in some subjects than in others; this is especially the case in erythropoietic protoporphyria.. 3. In blood plasma, uroporphyrin occurs regularly, and coproporphyrin less regularly. Protoporphyrin and penta- to hepta-carboxylic porphyrin are found only occasionally.. ...
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Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin. This is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be measured in the blood or the urine. This article discusses the blood test.
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Jiang HW,Chen QY,Xiao JC,et al. Synthesis and reactions of the first fluoroalkylated Ni(II) N-confused porphyrins[J]. Chem. Commun.,2008(42):5435-5437 ...
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MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersHeme, porphyrin, and cobalaminglutamyl-tRNA reductase (TIGR01035; EC 1.2.1.70; HMM-score: 16.6) ...
Porphyrins are proteins involved in the formation of heme measured in urine. Heme is essential for the proper function of many proteins including oxygen transport, energy production, and detoxification. Proper porphyrin production is essential for our bodys capacity to detoxify toxins.. Porphyrins are particularly well suited for evaluating heavy metal toxicity. The heme pathway is a constantly-changing metabolic pathway that is active in almost every cell of the body. Disturbances in this pathway may cause an accelerated accumulation of porphyrins. It is important to know that these specific enzymes are produced in the heme pathway and are found all over the body and are highly sensitive to the presence of various toxins, creating the large accumulation of porphyrins in the pathway.. ...
The work presented in this thesis encompasses an investigation into a number of porphyrin species. All of this work has a central focus on analysis of the porphyrin electronic structure and within the context of photovoltaics. The first exemplar of structures encompasses a series of Zn(II) tetraphenyl porphyrins which have asymmetrically substituted meso groups. The dihedral angle between the porphyrin macrocycle and the meso binding functionality has been shown not to infer any insulating properties towards delocalisation of the excited state. It is proposed that the electron withdrawing ability of the carboxylate unit is more than sufficient to overcome the poor π-overlap between the aromatic units. The inclusion of redox active functionalities at the distal meso site is shown to affect the energy and nature of the oxidised porphyrin species. It does so without almost any effect to the excited state properties of the structure. Both of these findings are important within the context of ...
Uro Blue - Get up-to-date information on Uro Blue side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Uro Blue
A one-pot synthesis of bulky bis-pocket A3B-type meso-cyano porphyrin, 5-cyano-10,15,20-tris(2,4,6-triphenylphenyl)porphyrin, has been accomplished via trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) catalyzed condensation of pyrrole and 2,4,6-triphenylbenzaldehyde in an acceptable yield of about 4%. DDQ served as oxidant and the cyanating agent.
The porphyrin precursor delta-aminolaevulinic acid can significantly decrease the resting membrane potential in a single fibre from the sartorius muscle of the frog Rana angolensis.
Definition : Clinical chemistry reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative chemical analysis of body fluids (typically urine) to measure the total level of porphyrin. Analysis may include a profile of porphyrin components (e.g., uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin). Measurement of the total level of porphyrins is used in the diagnosis and management of one of a group of metabolic disorders, either inherited or acquired, usually known as porphyrias; measurement of the porphyrin-level profile in urine is used to characterize several specific diseases, such as porphyria cutanea tarda, that are associated with the presence of isocoproporphyrin. Some specific porphyrin analyses in whole blood are performed for screening purposes, such as zinc protoporphyrin for iron-deficiency anemia and free erythrocyteporphyrin determination for lead poisoning.. Entry Terms : "ZPP (Zinc Protoporphyrin) Determination Reagents" , "Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZPP) Determination Reagents" , "Porphyrin Determination ...
Most types are inherited but the most common type, porphyria cutanea tarda is acquired, associated with liver disease and iron overload. Of 4 types, any may present with neurovisceral presentation esp colicky abdominal pain, and hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria can also present with cutaneous features. Attacks are likely precipitated by adverse effects of excess ALA which is structurally similar to GABA. Starvation, poor CH2O/ energy intake, drugs, alcohol, smoking, infections and stress can ppt. In this case the negative energy balance with surgery caused up regulation of hepatic ALA synthase 1, due to loss of CH2O repression of rate controlling enzyme for heme synthesis in the liver. Other "bad " drugs in this case were phenytoin, tramadol and bactrim. Sulfonamides and barbiturates are also "bad." So is progesterone (which is why postpubertal women are more susceptible). The treatment is i-v heme. It can prevent reversible axonal death. Prognosis is slow and incomplete ...
Objective-To evaluate lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Korea, to evaluate in more detail the erythrocyte pyrimidine 5 -nucleotidase P5N test for lead exposure, and to evaluate the abnormal accumulation of erythrocyte pyrimidine nucleotides in the battery workers. Methods Activity of PSN and other biological variables were...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of unusual ΔHOMO , ΔLUMO relationship in tetrapyrrolic cis- and trans-doubly N-confused porphyrins. AU - Muranaka, Atsuya. AU - Homma, Shigetsugu. AU - Maeda, Hiromitsu. AU - Furuta, Hiroyuki. AU - Kobayashi, Nagao. PY - 2008/7/30. Y1 - 2008/7/30. N2 - A plus-to-minus MCD sign in ascending energy has been detected for the Q bands of the copper(III) complexes of doubly N-confused porphyrin (cis- and trans-1). An unusual ΔHOMO , ΔLUMO relationship for tetrapyrrolic porphyrins was calculated using the HF, DFT, and semi-empirical methods. By applying the Michls perimeter model, the observed MCD pattern was successfully explained by the computational results.. AB - A plus-to-minus MCD sign in ascending energy has been detected for the Q bands of the copper(III) complexes of doubly N-confused porphyrin (cis- and trans-1). An unusual ΔHOMO , ΔLUMO relationship for tetrapyrrolic porphyrins was calculated using the HF, DFT, and semi-empirical methods. By applying the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Directly Diphenylborane-Fused Porphyrins. AU - Fujimoto, Keisuke. AU - Oh, Juwon. AU - Yorimitsu, Hideki. AU - Kim, Dongho. AU - Osuka, Atsuhiro. PY - 2016/2/24. Y1 - 2016/2/24. N2 - Mono- and bis(diphenylborane)-fused porphyrins were synthesized from the corresponding β-(2-trimethylsilylphenyl)-substituted porphyrins through the sequence of Si-B exchange reaction, intramolecular bora-Friedel-Crafts reaction, and ring-closing Si-B exchange reaction. Effective electronic interactions of the empty p-orbital of the boron atom with the porphyrin π-circuit lead to red-shifted absorption spectra and substantially decreased LUMO energy levels. Pyridine adds at the boron center to cause disruption of the electronic interaction of the boron atom with large association constants (1.9-17×104 m−1) depending on the central metal at the porphyrin. The ZnII complex behaved as a hetero-dinuclear Lewis acid, exhibiting regioselective binding of pyridines at the boron or the zinc ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-confused porphyrin possessing glucamine-appendants. T2 - Aggregation and acid/base properties in aqueous media. AU - Ikawa, Yoshiya. AU - Ogawa, Hiroaki. AU - Harada, Hiroyuki. AU - Furuta, Hiroyuki. PY - 2008/12/15. Y1 - 2008/12/15. N2 - A water-soluble derivative of N-confused porphyrin (NCP: 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-2-aza-21-carbaporphyrin) was synthesized by introducing glucamine groups at the para-position of meso-aryl groups. The tetraglucamine-appended NCP (TG-NCP) exists as monocation in aqueous solution containing 6 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) but exists as freebase to form aggregates in pure water. These properties are distinct from those of corresponding regular porphyrin, which exists as freebase in the micellar solution and practically insoluble in water.. AB - A water-soluble derivative of N-confused porphyrin (NCP: 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-2-aza-21-carbaporphyrin) was synthesized by introducing glucamine groups at the para-position of meso-aryl groups. The ...
The chemistry of boron porphyrins, which are unique in containing two boron atoms per porphyrin ligand. Highlights have been the development of a series of complexes, a diboryl porphyrin, a diboranyl porphyrin containing a B-B bond which forms through spontaneous reductive coupling of the diboryl under certain conditions ...
Abelsonite (nickel porphyrin) is a mineral that can be pinkish-brown, purple, or reddish-brown in colour and is formed from porphyrin crystals. It is platy (made in plates like mica) and fragile.. Porphyrins are organic ring compounds like haeme, the pigment in red blood cells.. It is found in the Green River Formation of Utah, in the United States.[1]. ...
Porphyrins A significant amount of work has been performed in the Senge laboratory towards more efficient and robust methods of porphyrin synthesis. Symmetrical porphyrins are widely available through classic condensation routes but demand in recent years for more........ Cubanes. Considering the geometry of cubane, it is noteworthy that the distance across the cube (the body diagonal) is 2.72 , which is almost equivalent to the distance across a benzene ring, i.e., 2.79 ,11,12 which has led to renewed interest..... ...
BioAssay record AID 484643 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase of urinary volume in normal Sprague-Dawley rat at 10 mg/kg, po subsequently dosed orally with 50% aqueous glucose solution measured up to 24 hrs relative to control.
King-Smith, Christina, Laura Black, Matthew Mawhinney, Jan Habdas, and Piotr Habdas. "Cytotoxicity of a Novel Porphyrin Compound with Potential for Use in Photodynamic Therapy." Amer. Soc. of Cell Biology. San Francisco. Dec. 2008. Conference Presentation.. ...
5,10,15-tris(4-(3--N,N,N-trimethylammoniumpropoxy)phenyl)-20-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)porphyrin: potential photosensitizer to photodynamically inactivate E. coli; structure in first source
pH-dependence of three properties of inhibiton. The pH-dependence of (A) apparent affinity, (B) reversibility, and (C) onset time constant is illustrated for th
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of congenital erythropoietic porphyria. AU - Di Pierro, Elena. AU - Brancaleoni, Valentina. AU - Granata, Francesca. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare genetic disease resulting from the remarkable deficient activity of uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme of the haem biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme defect results in overproduction of the non-physiological and pathogenic porphyrin isomers, uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I. The predominant clinical characteristics of CEP include bullous cutaneous photosensitivity to visible light from early infancy, progressive photomutilation and chronic haemolytic anaemia. The severity of clinical manifestations is markedly heterogeneous among patients; and interdependence between disease severity and porphyrin amount in the tissues has been pointed out. A more pronounced endogenous production of porphyrins concomitant to activation of ALAS2, ...
Free base stannyl porphyrins and free base porphyrin dimers have been successfully synthesized via copper-free Stille coupling in 21−67% yields. This approach provides an access to stannyl porphyrin synthons that were previously unavailable. Moreover, variation of the reaction conditions selectively provides access to either stannyl porphyrins or porphyrin dimers. Full 119/117Sn NMR analysis was used for characterization of the stannyl porphyrins and detailed 119Sn-1H-13C NMR analyses were carried out on a series of the starting tin reagents and the stannyl porphyrins. These investigations indicate that significant structural information can be gathered by use of commonly known NMR techniques. Photophysical properties of the novel porphyrins prepared including absorption, emission, and fluorescence lifetimes were investigated. The stannyl porphyrins emitted in the visible region, and in all cases large Stokes shifts were observed. The emission intensities of the stannyl porphyrins were ...
This study investigated the interaction between eupatorin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and molecular modeling at pH 7.4. Results of UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies illustrated that BSA fluorescence was quenched by eupatorin via a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played major roles in the interaction. Moreover, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the distance between BSA and acceptor eupatorin, were calculated. The effects of eupatorin on the BSA conformation were analyzed using UV-vis, CD, and synchronous fluorescence. Finally, the binding of eupatorin to BSA was modeled using the molecular docking method.
ABSTRACT Electrochemical studies of the oxidation of dodecasubstitued and highly nonplanar nickel porphyrins in a non-coordinating solvent have previously revealed the first NiIII porphyrin dication. Herein, we investigate if these nonplanar porphyrins can also be used to detect the so far unobserved CuIII porphyrin dication. Electrochemical studies of the oxidation of (DPP)M and (OETPP)M show three processes, the first two of which are macrocycle centered to give the porphyrin dication followed by a CuII/III processes at more positive potential. Support for the assignment of the CuII/III process comes from the linear relationships observed between E1/2 and the third ionization potential of the central metal ions for Fe, Co, Ni and Cu complexes of (DPP)M and (OETPP)M. In addition, the oxidation behaviour of additional nonplanar nickel porphyrins is investigated in a non-coordinating solvent, with nickel meso-tetraalkylporphyrins also being found to form NiIII porphyrin dications. Finally, ...
Abstract: 5fluorouracil porphyrin compounds are a new type of potential antitumor drugs. Six new 5fluorouracil porphyrin compounds were synthesized first and characterized by means of elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and MS. The six 5fluorouracil porphyrin compounds were studied by absorption spectra, steadystate fluorescence spectroscopy and timeresolved single photon measurement, comparing with their primary porphyrin compounds. The 5fluorouracil porphyrin compounds with plentiful excited states and fluorescence lifetime of 7 ns are little influenced by substituents and solvents, which may be advantageously used to make singlet oxygen radical. Key words: 5-fluorouracil, Porphyrin, Fluorescence lifetime, Single photon measurement ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of meso substituents on exchange-coupling interactions in μ-oxo iron(III) porphyrin dimers. AU - Helms, Jeffrey H.. AU - Ter Haar, Leonard W.. AU - Hatfield, William E.. AU - Harris, David L.. AU - Jayaraj, K.. AU - Toney, Glen E.. AU - Gold, Avram. AU - Mewborn, Tabitha D.. AU - Pemberton, Jeanne E. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The μ-oxo iron(III) porphyrin dimers [(TPP)Fe]2O, [(TPP(4-OCH3))Fe]2O, [(TPP(4-CF3))Fe]2O, and [(TPP(F5))Fe]2O (where TPP is meso-tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP(4-OCH3) is meso-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin, TPP(4-CF3) is meso-tetrakis(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)porphyrin, and TPP(F5) is meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) have been studied to determine the effect of peripheral substituents on the porphyrin rings on properties of the molecules. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies on solid samples yielded the following exchange-coupling constants for the antiferromagnetically coupled iron(III) ions: -146.8 cm-1, ...
Coprofago is a technical death metal band formed in Santiago, Chile, in June 1993. The name of the band is taken from Greek "copro", or "feces", and "fago", meaning "eat." Sebastián Vergara, Pablo Alvarez, Pablo Solari, and Ignacio Suit founded the band. Coprofago was formed while all founding members were still in school. They recorded a standard death metal demo that sold out immediately, getting the attention of some magazines in Chile, but generally without good reviews.[citation needed] With the addition of Marcelo Ruiz on drums and Felipe Castro on bass, the band released 1997s Images of Despair, later 2000s Genesis, and started to get more attention. They were invited to share stage with the death metal band Krisiun, local band Criminal, and other Chilean bands. A growing reputation and praise from bands like Atheist, Darkane and even Watchtower members led to a deal with French label Sekhmet, which release the Genesis album in Europe. A few weeks before the European release, Marcelo ...
What can I customize to kick-start this in the Cavitand , Fullerene , and Porphyrin Porphyrincontaining Mechanically and Optically Active? If you favour on a free Cavitand , Fullerene , and, like at Address, you can harness an IL-4 tumor on your street to work anti-metastatic it makes all trusted with Workstation. If you get at an Cavitand , Fullerene , and Porphyrin Porphyrincontaining Mechanically and Optically Active or corporate ps4, you can resist the money Appeal to improve a wallet2Get across the therapy Depending for Indian or s learners.
Page contains details about gold porphyrin nanoparticles surface-coated with PEG . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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R.E.A. Padova nr. 406536 · R.I. PD. nr. 04643920285 · Capitale Soc. i.v. 50.000 €uro. Tutte le società hanno più di un socio.. ...
PBGU : First-order test for evaluation of a suspected acute porphyria: acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria
PubMed journal article Associations of renal function with polymorphisms in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, vitamin D receptor, and nitric oxide synthase genes in Korean lead worker were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
299057642 - EP 0785941 B1 2000-04-19 - PORPHYRIN LABELING OF POLYNUCLEOTIDES - [origin: WO9611937A1] The invention provides various porphyrin labeled compounds and reagents for labeling molecules with porphyrins. The porphyrin labeled compounds include porphyrin labeled nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides and the like. The porphyrin labeled compounds of the invention are designed so that the porphyrin moiety on the labeled compound may be detected on the basis of a reaction product produced by the porphyrin catalyzed oxidation of a porphyrin detection reagent. The oxidation of the porphyrin detection reagent may result in the formation of light, i.e., a chemiluminescent reaction, or a colored compound, i.e., a colorimetric reaction. The compounds of the invention contain the general structure of: porphyrin-linker-base-sugar-(phos)n-OH. Another aspect of the invention is to provide methods of labeling and detecting polynucleotides by incorporating a porphyrin-labeled nucleotide into a
Organic compounds that interact both with certain biological targets and display specific photophysical properties can be utilized as molecular tools to visualize and possibly effect disease related processes taking place in living organisms. In this regard, porphyrins are a class of naturally occurring molecules that possess intriguingly interesting photophysical properties where they can act as luminescent probes by emitting detectable light, as well as photosensitizers in the light mediated therapy called photodynamic therapy. In this thesis, the porphyrin structure has been synthetically combined with other molecule classes to achieve compounds with desirable multimodal characteristics.. Firstly, luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) that have extensively, and with great success, been utilized as fluorescent ligands for amyloid formations, have been conjugated to porphyrins to render oligothiophene porphyrin hybrids (OTPHs) comprising two optically active modalities. When applied as ...
In fact, the x-ray structure of 1 displays significant bond alternation and the NH protons (in the interior of the molecule) have chemical shift far downfield (δ 14.95 and 12.35 ppm) - all consistent with antiaromatic character. On the other hand¸ while 2 exhibits little bond alternation, the NH protons are seen at 11.1 ppm, too far downfield for the interior positions of an aromatic compound!. Rzepa2 has computed 1 and 2 at MPW1PW91/6-31G(d,p) for X=H and CF3; the latter matches the experimentally prepared compounds. (Rzepa supplies very nice web-enabled access to his results through the supporting materials, and so I do not repeat his structures here. Please also see comments to this post.) As expected, both optimized structures of 1(X=H or X=CF3) shows distinct bond localization and positive NICS values. The chemical shifts of the NH protons are far downfield, and in reasonable agreement with the experimental shifts. The optimized structures of 2 display bond delocalization and negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Strong interactions in covalently trimeric porphyrins. AU - Dubowchik, Gene M.. AU - Hamilton, Andrew. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The synthesis is reported of a closely stacked triple-decker porphyrin which shows, by n.m.r., u.v.-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy, strong interactions between the rings.. AB - The synthesis is reported of a closely stacked triple-decker porphyrin which shows, by n.m.r., u.v.-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy, strong interactions between the rings.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022908950&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022908950&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1039/C39860000665. DO - 10.1039/C39860000665. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0022908950. SP - 665. EP - 666. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical Communications. SN - 1359-7345. IS - 9. ER - ...
The rationalisation of the influence of acidity and pore size of several solid oxides so that they selectively act as supports for preparation of encapsulated porphyrin hybrid materials or as catalysts for synthesis of porphyrins in solution is discussed. Encapsulated porphyrin yields are dependent on both t
Profile of Dr. Shrenik J. Shah, Urologist in Ahmedabad: Get complete information about Dr. Shrenik J. Shah MBBS, M.S, M.Ch.(Uro practicing at Rushabh Uro Hospital, his specialities, expertise with complete address, appointment phone numbers, timings, awards and associated hospital information | Sehat
John Groves, the Hugh Stott Taylor Chair of Chemistry, has been selected to receive the 2010 Hans Fischer Career Award in Porphyrin Chemistry by the Society of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines.
The following sulfate/porphyrin solutions were prepared and the absorbance was measured for each one: 1) 1mL 50μM Na2SO4, 1mL 5μM porphyrin, 2 mL HPLC H2O 2) 1mL 50μM Fe2(SO4)3, 1mL 5μM porphyrin, 2 mL HPLC H2O 3) 1mL 50μM FeSO4, 1mL 5μM porphyrin, 2 mL HPLC H2O 4) 1mL 50μM H2SO4, 1mL 5μM porphyrin, 2 mL HPLC H2O 5) 1mL 50μM Al2(SO4)3 ...
In the project root set the following alias $: alias render=mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=Main # Using OPSIN to load porphyrin and generate a PDF $: render -Dexec.args="-name porphyrin -pdf" # Highlight one of the pyrrole in porphyrin $: render -Dexec.args="-name porphyrin -pdf -sma n1cccc1" # Show atom numbers $: render -Dexec.args="-name porphyrin -pdf -atom-numbers" # Show CIP labels $: render -Dexec.args="-name (2R)-butan-2-ol -pdf -cip-labels" # Generate a PDF / SVG for ethanol SMILES $: render -Dexec.args="-smi CCO -pdf ethanol.pdf -svg ethanol.svg" # Load a molfile $: render -Dexec.args="-mol ChEBI_6701.mol -pdf chebi-6701.pdf ...
In the project root set the following alias $: alias render=mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=Main # Using OPSIN to load porphyrin and generate a PDF $: render -Dexec.args="-name porphyrin -pdf" # Highlight one of the pyrrole in porphyrin $: render -Dexec.args="-name porphyrin -pdf -sma n1cccc1" # Show atom numbers $: render -Dexec.args="-name porphyrin -pdf -atom-numbers" # Show CIP labels $: render -Dexec.args="-name (2R)-butan-2-ol -pdf -cip-labels" # Generate a PDF / SVG for ethanol SMILES $: render -Dexec.args="-smi CCO -pdf ethanol.pdf -svg ethanol.svg" # Load a molfile $: render -Dexec.args="-mol ChEBI_6701.mol -pdf chebi-6701.pdf ...
The first experiment that Melvin participated in was an investigation of the platinum-hydrogen bond, which, as it turned out, was not a simple reaction at all. While they were working on this problem, Polanyi pointed out to Melvin that many biological reactions were completed using a porphyrin molecule, including a related compound, chlorophyll (the chemical that traps light energy in plants and makes leaves green). [The plot thickens]. This meant that Melvin would have to find some porphyrin molecules that could be used to study hydrogen activation much in the same way as their experiments with platinum. Finally Professor Polanyi found out that an organic chemist in London discovered how to create a synthetic porphyrin that was much more stable than biological porphyrins. So Melvin was sent to London to find out how to make and purify this exciting compound. The work on this experiment continued on even after Melvin became an instructor at the University of California, Berkeley in 1937. ...
SPOŠTOVANI OBISKOVALKE IN OBISKOVALCI DOGODKOV V GLEDALIŠČU PARK IN GRAJSKI DVORANI,. vstopnice za dogodke lahko kupite. - na blagajni Gledališča Park za dogodke v obeh dvoranah:. vsak delavnik od 14. do 17. ure ter uro pred večernimi dogodki v Gledališču Park.. - na blagajni Grajske dvorane samo za dogodke v Grajski dvorani:. uro pred dogodkom v Grajski dvorani.. Vstopnice lahko tudi rezervirate po telefonu, vendar velja rezervacija največ tri dni in največ do dva dni pred dogodkom.. Vsak delavnik od 14. do 17. ure lahko po telefonu 521 43 81 dobite informacije o dogajanju v obeh dvoranah - Gledališču Park in Grajski dvorani.. ...
This weekend we received some test results in the mail from Skylers doctor. Then we had a phone conference with the doctor on Monday to help explain these results and choose our next steps in treatment. I am going to … Continue reading →. ...
If one was really interested in determining the body burden of mercury they would perform the urinary porphyrin profile analysis (UPPA). Porphyrins are precursors to heme, the oxygen carrying component of blood. Mercury inhibits the conversion of specific porphyrins to heme. This test is backed by decades of published research. Recently it was shown in two published, peer-reviewed studies, that mercury inhibited porphyrins were significantly higher in autistic patients when compared to age matched controls (1)(2). The other way to test for mercury in the body is by using a provoking agent and measuring mercury in the urine. ...... Dr. Fombonne refers to the amount of mercury in vaccines as trace. Again, if he were a toxicologist or chemist, he would realize that the concentration of mercury in a multi-dose vaccine vial is 250 times higher than what the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies as hazardous waste.. I discuss the British findings, briefly, in Chapter Twelve, ...
According to Greg Hillebrand, Ph.D., a recognized subject matter expert at P&G on the subject, there may be a real correlation between the amount of porphyrins and skin aging as described in the following technical excerpt that offers the best understanding we have today on the matter: In pilosebaceous follicles, porphyrins are produced by propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) that are normal inhabitants of the human skin and the pilosebaceous ducts. Porphyrins are highly fluorescent pores containing P. acnes and the associated porphyrins appear red-orange when facial skin is illuminated with long wavelength UVA radiation. The intensity of the follicular fluorescence and its extent of facial involvement is known to be proportional to the density of P. acnes. Porphyrin fluorescence appears first on the nose and chin, and then increases in incidence through adulthood and declines after the age of 50, possibly reflecting the rate of sebum secretion. Porphyrins may also have cytotoxic and comedogenic ...
This work uncovers the application of porphyrin dimers for the use in electroanalysis, such as potentiometric determination of ions. It also puts in question a current perception of an occurrence of the super-Nernstian response, as a result of the possible dimerization of single porphyrins within an ion-selective membrane. To study that, four various porphyrin dimers were used as ionophores, namely, freebase-freebase, Zn-Zn, Zn-freebase, and freebase-Zn. Since the Zn-freebase and freebase-Zn porphyrin dimers carried both anion- and cation-sensitive porphyrin units, their application in ISEs was utilized in both anion- and cation-sensitive sensors. With respect to the lipophilic salt added, both porphyrins dimers were found anion- and cation-sensitive. This allowed using a single molecule as novel type of versatile ionophore (anion- and cation-selective), simply by varying the membrane composition. All anion-sensitive sensors were perchlorate-sensitive, while the cation-selective sensors were ...
0020] In one preferred embodiment, the green porphyrin is prepared as a liposomal formulation. Liposomal formulations are believed to deliver the green porphyrin selectively to the low-density lipoprotein component of plasma which, in turn acts as a carrier to deliver the active ingredient more effectively to the neovasculature. Increased numbers of LDL receptors have been shown to be associated with neovascularization, and by increasing the partitioning of the green porphyrin into the lipoprotein phase of the blood, it appears to be delivered more efficiently to the neovasculature. Green porphyrins, and in particular BPD-MA, strongly interact with such lipoproteins. LDL itself can be used as a carrier, but LDL is considerably more expensive and less practical than a liposomal formulation. LDL, or preferably liposomes, are thus preferred carriers for the green porphyrins since green porphyrins strongly interact with lipoproteins and are easily packaged in liposomes. Compositions of green ...
acute intermittent porphyria: 95% are erythroid type & 5% non-erythroid; blood test for PBG-deaminase will be low in the former but not necessarily in the 5% (but, in just population screening, the vast majority of instances of low PBG-deaminase are not AIP...so a low level is not diagnostic). A 24-hour urine test [CP07-17] collected in opaque container (protect from sunlight), clean catch & without preservative or chemicals, & keep specimen refrigerated (or ice slush in a cooler) at all times and direct lab that it must be kept refrigerated...test for PBG & delta ALA. Unless pain episode VERY remote, eryhtroid AIP should have an elevated urine PBG. Also use this specimen when 24 hour urine porphyrins are tested ...
This is the old ploy of looking were it aint if you dont want to find something. I have encouraged parents of autistic children in the USA to get urinary porphyrin profiles done to determine if their child shows signs of mercury toxicity. It is almost 100% that these children, at least those that have reported back to me, are moderate to extremely mercury toxic with regards to this clinical testing procedure. Just where would children less than 7 years of age obtain enough mercury to inhibit their porphyrin pathways? So the IOM suggests looking everywhere except where the most logical place would be, in the vaccines given to these children that contained thimerosal. The IOM ought to be ashamed of itself, if not for doing something scientifically dishonest, then for being so inept as to think vaccine exclusion from consideration of exclusion for autism causation would be accepted by the American public. Most importantly, while they are looking everywhere else these children lose time before ...
Porphyria: Porphyria,, any of a group of diseases characterized by the marked overproduction and excretion of porphyrins or of one or another of their precursors. The porphyrins are
The coordination chemistry of Rh(III) porphyrin was outlined by Sadasivan and Fleischer in 1967.199,200 Their Rh(III) porphyrin, obtained by a metallation reaction using [Rh(CO)2Cl]2 and aerial oxidation, was believed to coordinate a labile water molecule which could be displaced by pyridine. A coordinated chloride counterion could be exchanged for azide, cyanide or hydroxide. Work by other groups has demonstrated that six coordinate Rh(III) porphyrins with two identical axial ligands may be generated by reaction of Rh(III)Cl porphyrins (OEP, TPP) with Ag+ to remove the chloride anion, followed by treatment with ligands such as BuNC, PPh2Me and POMe3.201,290 Reaction of Rh(III)Cl porphyrins with organolithium reagents232 or metal carbonylate anions202 afforded organometallic and metal-metal bonded derivatives respectively. The [(OEP)Rh]+ intermediate formed by treatment of (OEP)RhCl with AgBF4 was found to be active in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions to afford s-bonded Rh aryl ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative electrochemical and photophysical studies of tetrathiafulvalene-annulated porphyrins and their Znii complexes. T2 - The effect of metalation and structural variation. AU - Jana, Atanu. AU - Ishida, Masatoshi. AU - Kwak, Kyuju. AU - Sung, Young Mo. AU - Kim, Dong Sub. AU - Lynch, Vincent M.. AU - Lee, Dongil. AU - Kim, Dongho. AU - Sessler, Jonathan L.. PY - 2013/1/2. Y1 - 2013/1/2. N2 - A series of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-annulated porphyrins, and their corresponding ZnII complexes, have been synthesized. Detailed electrochemical, photophysical, and theoretical studies reveal the effects of intramolecular charge-transfer transitions that originate from the TTF fragments to the macrocyclic core. The incremental synthetic addition of TTF moieties to the porphyrin core makes the species more susceptible to these charge-transfer (CT) effects as evidenced by spectroscopic studies. On the other hand, regular positive shifts in the reduction signals are seen in the ...
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[Epidemiologic study of symptoms of minimal brain dysfunction: problems in quantitative evaluation].: The paper deals with problems arising during processing of
The invention describes the synthesis of a panel of novel carbon-carbon linked carboranyl-containing 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrins bearing 25 44% boron by weight. In certain embodiments, a phenyl porphyrin compound has a carboranyl group attached to the phenyl group by a carbon-carbon linkage, wherein the phenyl group corresponds to the following formula ##STR00001## where R7 through R11 are hydrogen, a carboranyl group, or are selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, NMe.sub.3.sup.+, PMePh.sub.2.sup.+, PO(OH).sub.2, SO.sub.3H, COOH, and NH.sub.2. In this embodiment, the carboranyl group is attached to the phenyl group by a carbon-carbon linkage, either one or two of R7 through R11 are other than hydrogen; and the phenyl porphyrin compound contains at least one phenyl group having at least one of said carboranyl groups.
The present invention relates to metallized porphyrin derivatives having the formula: ##STR1## wherein the R and M variables are as defined in the specification. Said porphyrin derivatives having uses as antitumor agents, diagnostics agents, or in therapy.
Uroš Maver is a PeerJ user. Bio: PhD in Biomedicine. I was involved in preparation of a dozen EU and even more national projects. My bibliography includes many articles, patents, innovations and book chapters. I understand my limitations and therefore humbly strive for constant improvement of my research skills, project writing expertise and overall understanding of my research matter and environment around me. Acknowledging the importance of healthy and active ageing, the latter is one of my most important future focuses.
Page contains details about porphyrin supramolecular assemblies . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Doctors give unbiased, helpful information on indications, contra-indications, benefits, and complications: Dr. Legha on porphyrins fractionated plasma: These refer to the concentration of electrolytes in the body/plasma, or the electrolyte-water balance. These measure the same thing, only that osmolality is the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent or osm/kg, while osmolarity is the number of osmoles per liter of solution or osm/ltr. Osmolality excludes the solute, while osmolarity includes it, so osmolality has a slightly higher reading.
22112-79-4 - ZUELZXZJXUXJCH-LWQDQPMZSA-N - 5,10,15,20-Tetra(3-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Résécabilité des MH CCR < 4 métastases Marge R0 Maladie extra-hépatique = 0 Classe III Classe II Classe I Résection POSSIBLE (borderline) Non-résécables Facilement résécables non résécables ≥ 7 segments < 25% foie résiduel < 2 seg contigus résection étendue ≥ 5 segments > 25% < 40% foie résiduel hépatectomie G, D ou moins < 4 segments ≥ 40% foie résiduel Pawlik TM, et al. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007;11:
Zdravlje i medicina, Lijekovi i lijecenje, baza bolesti i stručni savjeti iz oblasti medicine. Pročitajte sve novosti u vezi zdravlja, dijete, trudnoće, ginekologije, analiza
This work is aimed at elucidating the structures and spectroscopic properties of phosphine and b phosphonite complexes of Mn(III), Co(III) and Rh(III) porphyrins, a class of coordination compounds that has been little ...
PORPHYRINE (NATÜRLICHE FARBSTOFFE); KOMPLEXCHEMIE; REAKTIONSMECHANISMEN + REAKTIVITÄT (CHEMISCHE KINETIK); PORPHYRINS (NATURAL DYES); COMPLEX CHEMISTRY; REACTION MECHANISMS + REACTIVITY (CHEMICAL KINETICS ...
FQPPS : Evaluation of patients who present with signs or symptoms suggestive of porphyria cutanea tarda, hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, erythropoietic protoporphyria, or X-linked dominant protoporphyria
Hematoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (HPDME), tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), tetra(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMPP), tetra(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TDMPP), tetra(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TTMPP), tetraanthrylporphyrin (TAP) and tetraacridylporphyrin (TACP), and their Zn2+, SnX2(2+), Pd2+ and Pt2+ complexes have been prepared and characterized. The singlet molecular oxygen quantum yield (phi(DELTA)) values of the above porphyrins and their metal derivatives in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) have been measured in the presence of 1, 3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) as O-1(2) acceptor using steady state technique after correcting for the intensity of light absorbed by the photosensitizers. The phi(DELTA) values for the free base porphyrins are usually around 0.60. Hematoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester and its metal derivatives follow the order: HPDME (phi(DELTA) = 0.60) , Zn HPDME (0.40) , PdHPDME (0.34) , Sn(OH)2HPDME (0.28) greater-than-or-equal-to PtHPDME (0.24). Zinc(II) complexes of ...
Numerous studies have been conducted using porphyrin molecules on various substrates to investigate their diverse photoelectrochemical, catalytic, electronic, and biochemical properties. These properties make porphyrin molecules targets for use as active components in devices such as chemical sensors, information storage, and photo sensitizers in solar cells. In this study, we investigated the assembly and aggregation of mono-podal zinc (II) porphyrin molecules into a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold. The porphyrin macrocycle is attached to a phenyl linking group and an alkanethiol tether which binds to the gold surface. The charge transport properties of the porphyrin in confined geometries are being investigated based on previous studies of aggregated assemblies on gold surfaces. In these studies, we find small islands of porphyrins to produce unique electrical switching behavior not observed in single molecules. To explore how island size influences the electrical ...
Mixed metallo-porphyrin cages were selected and amplified from dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) by using appropriate templates. The cages are composed of two bisphosphine substituted zinc(II) porphyrins as ligand donors and two rhodium(III) or ruthenium(II) porphyrins as ligand acceptors, and are connected through metal-phosphorus coordination. Ru and Rh porphyrins that display a large structural diversity were employed. The templating was achieved by using 4,4-bpy, 3,3-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridine and benzo[lmn]-3,8-phenanthroline, and acts through zinc-nitrogen coordination. The absolute amount of amplification from the DCLs is strongly dependent on the combination of the Ru/Rh porphyrin and the template; cages with sterically demanding porphyrins can only form with smaller templates. In the case of tert-butyl-substituted TPP (TPP=tetraphenylporphyrin), cages are not formed at all. The formation of the cages is usually complete within 24 h at an ambient temperature; in the case of the cage ...
In this work the aggregates of the tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS4) growth from solution on solid crystalline hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates were investigated. The spatial structure of TPPS4 deposited on the surface was imaged using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) visualized porphyrin rings structure with molecular resolution. The aggregation of TPPS4 was investigated by UV_VIS spectroscopy. The TEM investigation revealed a 3-dimensional rod and wheel like molecular order of the TPPS4 porphyrin assemblies, while a corresponding shorter and monodisperse oligomer exhibited 2D ribbon-like structure. The TPPS4 porphyrin molecules self-assemble into micrometer-long nanorods and fibers on substrate surface. Their cross section was determined quantitatively by scanning force microscopy. This revealed a typical thickness of two or four molecular layers and a width of tenths of molecule diameter. This
Selective inhibitors of voltage-activated K+ channels are needed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. In this work it was discovered that porphyrins bearing 2-4 carbon alkyl ammonium side chains predominantly blocked the Kv1.1 current whilst Kv1.2 was susceptible to a porphyrin bearing polyamine side chains.. ...
A method is provided to fluorometrically determine a ligand in an assay solution containing the ligand, reagent system and a fluorescer wherein the intensity of the fluorescer emitted by the assay sol
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a condition that can cause sudden, severe attacks of stomach pain that may last for a days to weeks. It is called a porphyria because substances called porphyrins build up in the body and can cause the symptoms. Porphyrins are normally used by the body to help cells use oxygen. In AIP, people may also experience mental changes in attacks of acute intermittent porphyria that can include insomnia or difficulty sleeping, anxiety, depression, hallucinations, confusion, paranoia, and amnesia or memory loss.. To understand more about AIP from someone who has the condition, watch this video from the American Porphyria Foundation.. ...

Amniotic fluid embolism.Amniotic fluid embolism.

Kanayama N,Yamazaki T,Naruse H,Sumimoto K,Horiuchi K,Terao T. Determining zinc coproporphyrin in maternal plasma-A new method ... Another method described has been the measurement of zinc coproporphyrin, a component of amniotic fluid found in maternal serum ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Amniotic-fluid-embolism/20040809.html

Porphyria cutanea tarda - WikipediaPorphyria cutanea tarda - Wikipedia

... specifically uroporphyrins and coproporphyrins, but all three working together synergistically are capable of neutralizing ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porphyria_cutanea_tarda

Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of congenital erythropoietic porphyria<...Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of congenital erythropoietic porphyria<...

... uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I. The predominant clinical characteristics of CEP include bullous cutaneous photosensitivity ... uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I. The predominant clinical characteristics of CEP include bullous cutaneous photosensitivity ... uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I. The predominant clinical characteristics of CEP include bullous cutaneous photosensitivity ... uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I. The predominant clinical characteristics of CEP include bullous cutaneous photosensitivity ...
more infohttps://moh-it.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/advances-in-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-congenital-erythrop

Coproporphyrins I and III as Functional Markers of OATP1B Activity: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation in Preclinical Species |...Coproporphyrins I and III as Functional Markers of OATP1B Activity: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation in Preclinical Species |...

coproporphyrin. CsA. cyclosporin A. DDI. drug-drug interaction. ERR. renal extraction ratio. E17βG. estradiol-17β-D-glucuronide ... Coproporphyrin as Endogenous In Vivo Probe for OATP1B. Hong Shen, Jun Dai, Tongtong Liu, Yaofeng Cheng, Weiqi Chen, Chris ... Coproporphyrin as Endogenous In Vivo Probe for OATP1B. Hong Shen, Jun Dai, Tongtong Liu, Yaofeng Cheng, Weiqi Chen, Chris ... Coproporphyrins I and III as Functional Markers of OATP1B Activity: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation in Preclinical Species. ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/357/2/382?ijkey=3ad544cbbf9c3dcfc99ddefe3e5d9f3d3a60f6cc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Coproporphyrin | definition of coproporphyrin by Medical dictionaryCoproporphyrin | definition of coproporphyrin by Medical dictionary

... coproporphyrin explanation free. What is coproporphyrin? Meaning of coproporphyrin medical term. What does coproporphyrin mean? ... Looking for online definition of coproporphyrin in the Medical Dictionary? ... coproporphyrin. coproporphyrin. [kop″ro-por´fĭ-rin] a porphyrin occurring as several isomers; the III isomer, an intermediate ... coproporphyrin activity is also increased due to depression of coproporphyrin oxidase enzyme.. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/coproporphyrin

Comparative Evaluation of Plasma Bile Acids, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, Hexadecanedioate, and Tetradecanedioate with...Comparative Evaluation of Plasma Bile Acids, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, Hexadecanedioate, and Tetradecanedioate with...

... and Tetradecanedioate with Coproporphyrins I and III as Markers of OATP Inhibition in Healthy Subjects. Hong Shen, Weiqi Chen, ... and Tetradecanedioate with Coproporphyrins I and III as Markers of OATP Inhibition in Healthy Subjects ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/45/8/908/tab-figures-data

Sabinet | The isolation of a monoacrylic tri propionic porphyrin from meconium and its bearing on the conversion of...Sabinet | The isolation of a monoacrylic tri propionic porphyrin from meconium and its bearing on the conversion of...

... derived from meconium has been characterized and shown to be an analogue of coproporphyrin III possessing one acrylic acid ... Keyword(s) : Biochemistry, Coproporphyrin conversion, Isolation, Meconium, Monoacrylic tripropionic porphyrin, Pathology and ... A porphyrin, derived from meconium has been characterized and shown to be an analogue of coproporphyrin III possessing one ... The isolation of a monoacrylic tri propionic porphyrin from meconium and its bearing on the conversion of coproporphyrin to ...
more infohttp://journals.co.za/content/m_samj/45/1/AJA20785135_44313

reagents-immunoassay-toxicology-porphyrin-derivative-coproporphyrinreagents-immunoassay-toxicology-porphyrin-derivative-coproporphyrin

Coproporphyrin is moderately water soluble, thus it is excreted both in feces and in urine. High levels of coproporphyrin are ... Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Toxicology, Porphyrin Derivative, Coproporphyrin. CLICK FOR ADVANCED ... Entry Terms : "Coproporphyrin Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Toxicology, Porphyrin Derivative, ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Toxicology, Porphyrin Derivative, Coproporphyrin. Definition : Immunoassay reagents ...
more infohttp://www.medicalproductguide.com/term/5785/reagents-immunoassay-toxicology-porphyrin-derivative-coproporphyrin

Pigment metabolism. II. Determinations of bilirubin and carotinoids in the plasma and of coproporphyrin in the urine and faeces...Pigment metabolism. II. Determinations of bilirubin and carotinoids in the plasma and of coproporphyrin in the urine and faeces...

4) That there is a definite rise in the concentration of coproporphyrin in the faeces and urine. Such a rise, however, does not ... Determinations of bilirubin and carotinoids in the plasma and of coproporphyrin in the urine and faeces of cattle ... Determinations of bilirubin and carotinoids in the plasma and of coproporphyrin in the urine and faeces of cattle ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/59383

ivd-test-reagent-kits-immunoassay-toxicology-porphyrin-derivative-coproporphyrinivd-test-reagent-kits-immunoassay-toxicology-porphyrin-derivative-coproporphyrin

Coproporphyrin is moderately water soluble, thus it is excreted both in feces and in urine. High levels of coproporphyrin are ... Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Toxicology, Porphyrin Derivative, Coproporphyrin. CLICK FOR ADVANCED ... Entry Terms : "Coproporphyrin Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Toxicology, Porphyrin Derivative, ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Toxicology, Porphyrin Derivative, Coproporphyrin. Definition : Immunoassay reagents ...
more infohttp://productguide.ophthalmologymanagement.com/specialities/term/ivd-test-reagent-kits-immunoassay-toxicology-porphyrin-derivative-coproporphyrin/5785?op=resources&key=ajax&per_page=

Urinary elimination of coproporphyrins is dependent on ABCC2 polymorphisms and represents a potential biomarker of MRP2...Urinary elimination of coproporphyrins is dependent on ABCC2 polymorphisms and represents a potential biomarker of MRP2...

Most of the coproporphyrins are returned to the blood, presumably via MRP3, which is upregulated in Mrp2−/− mice [, ], or by ... Coproporphyrins are then excreted predominantly in bile, via MRP2. As MRP2 has a higher affinity for isomer I than for isomer ... The remaining coproporphyrins (three times as much isomer III as isomer I) are excreted then in the urine via MRP2. The ... Urinary elimination of coproporphyrins is dependent on ABCC2 polymorphisms and represents a potential biomarker of MRP2 ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=62331

Arthrobacter ramosus - WikipediaArthrobacter ramosus - Wikipedia

Arthrobacter ramosus produces coproporphyrin III. Yamamoto, T; Maruta, K; Watanabe, H; Yamashita, H; Kubota, M; Fukuda, S; ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthrobacter_ramosus

Knorr pyrrole synthesis - WikipediaKnorr pyrrole synthesis - Wikipedia

A synthesis of coproporphyrin III". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 1430-1440. doi:10.1039/JR9580001430. Paine, John ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knorr_pyrrole_synthesis

Porphyrins blood test: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaPorphyrins blood test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Coproporphyrin level: ,2 mcg/dL (,30 nmol/L). *Protoporphyrin level: 16 to 60 mcg/dL (0.28 to 1.07 µmol/L) ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm

Cutaneous Porphyria: Background, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyCutaneous Porphyria: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

Porphyria is a predominantly inherited metabolic disorder, resulting from a deficiency of an enzyme in the heme production pathway, and overproduction of toxic heme precursors. Eight different enzymes are involved in the pathway, and deficiencies of the second to eighth enzyme result in a family of disorders with various, and often overlappin...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/957765-overview

Renale und enterale Elimination der Koproporphyrin-Isomeren bei Rotor-Syndrom | SpringerLinkRenale und enterale Elimination der Koproporphyrin-Isomeren bei Rotor-Syndrom | SpringerLink

... and isomer III coproporphyrin excretion of a Rotors syndrome patient and his family were determined. The proprositu ... The proprositus showed increased urinary total coproporphyrin excretion (248 µg/24 h) and a shift of the coproporphyrin isomer ... The coproporphyrin isomer I/III relation is shifted towards isomer I. Phenotypically normal relatives with normal bilirubin ... Urinary and fecal total, isomer I, and isomer III coproporphyrin excretion of a Rotors syndrome patient and his family were ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01738109

Free Laboratory Science Flashcards about Urinalysis Ch 8 & 9Free Laboratory Science Flashcards about Urinalysis Ch 8 & 9

coproporphyrins, uroporphryins, and ALA. overflow type of disorders are caused by. errors of metabolism, serum exceeding ... uroporphryins, coproporphyrins, protoporoyhins. what porphyrin compounds exhibit fluorescence. rules out prophobilinogin and ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-1232265

Search of: MRPS2 - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: MRPS2 - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Urinary coproporphyrins (I/I+III)ratio. *ABCC2 polymorphisms. 40. All. 18 Years to 85 Years (Adult, Older Adult). NCT00746044. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=MRPS2

Porphyrins blood test | Health Encyclopedia | FloridaHealthFinder.govPorphyrins blood test | Health Encyclopedia | FloridaHealthFinder.gov

Protoporphyrin levels; Porphyrins - total; Coproporphyrin levels; PROTO test. How the Test is Performed. A blood sample is ...
more infohttp://www.floridahealthfinder.gov/healthencyclopedia/Health%20Illustrated%20Encyclopedia/1/003372.aspx

Trypsin-Like ImmunoreactivityTrypsin-Like Immunoreactivity

Coproporphyrin, Fecal. ... System eliminates the guesswork of Ventricular Restoration ... SVR System is a comprehensive ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Trypsin-Like-Immunoreactivity-24865-1/

Phenolphthalein, FecalPhenolphthalein, Fecal

Coproporphyrin, Fecal. 11. Electrolyte & Osmolality Profile, Fecal. ... Immersion Oils are the standard - the ones ... Cargille ...
more infohttp://bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Phenolphthalein--Fecal-24130-1/

Porphyrins urine test: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaPorphyrins urine test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood.
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003614.htm

KEGG PATHWAY: liv00860KEGG PATHWAY: liv00860

Deery E, Schroeder S, Lawrence AD, Taylor SL, Seyedarabi A, Waterman J, Wilson KS, Brown D, Geeves MA, Howard MJ, Pickersgill RW, Warren ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?pathway+liv00860

Pigments, Biological - DrugBankPigments, Biological - DrugBank

Coproporphyrin I. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. target. DB03886. Biopterin. Sepiapterin reductase. target. DB03886. Biopterin ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT000332
  • This enzyme defect results in overproduction of the non-physiological and pathogenic porphyrin isomers, uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I. The predominant clinical characteristics of CEP include bullous cutaneous photosensitivity to visible light from early infancy, progressive photomutilation and chronic haemolytic anaemia. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, preclinical evaluations were conducted to characterize the suitability of coproporphyrins (CPs) I and III as markers of hepatic OATP functional activity. (aspetjournals.org)