Copper Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Copper Sulfate: A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Strontium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Krypton Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Barium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Tin Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.CeruloplasminPhosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Mercury Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Cerium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Hafnium: Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Gold Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Lead Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Lutetium: Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.Rhenium: Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome: An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bromine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Subdural Effusion: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Ruthenium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Selenium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.TritiumNostoc commune: A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Metal Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsMetallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Azurin: A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Iodohippuric Acid: An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression in patients with lymphoma. (1/245)

Lym-1, a monoclonal antibody that preferentially targets malignant lymphocytes, has induced therapeutic responses and prolonged survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma when labeled with 1311. Radiometal-labeled antibodies provide higher tumor radiation doses than corresponding 1311 antibodies. 67Cu has an exceptional combination of properties desirable for radioimmunotherapy, including gamma and beta emissions for imaging and therapy, respectively, a biocompatible half-time and absence of pathways contributing to myelotoxicity. The radioimmunoconjugate, 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1, has been shown to be efficacious in nude mice bearing human Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) xenografts. Based on these results, a clinical study of the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in patients with lymphoma was initiated. METHODS: Eleven patients with advanced stage 3 or 4 lymphoma were given a preload dose of unmodified Lym-1, then an imaging dose of 126-533 MBq (3.4-14.4 mCi) 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. Total Lym-1 ranged from 25 to 70 mg dependent on the specific activity of the radioimmunoconjugate and was infused at a rate of 0.5-1 mg/min. Imaging, physical examination, including caliper measurement of superficial tumors, and analysis of blood, urine and fecal samples were performed for a period of 6-13 d after infusion to assess pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression. RESULTS: In 7 patients, in whom superficial tumors had been accurately measured, tumors regressed from 18% to 75% (mean 48%) within several days of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 infusion. The uptake and biological half-time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors were greater than those of normal tissues, except the mean liver half-time exceeded the mean tumor half-time. The mean tumor-to-marrow radiation ratio was 32:1, tumor-to-total body was 24:1 and tumor-to-liver was 1.5:1. Images were of very good quality; tumors and normal organs were readily identified. Mild and transient Lym-1 toxicity occurred in 6 patients; 1 patient developed a human antimouse antibody. There were no significant changes in blood counts or serum chemistries indicative of radiation toxicity. CONCLUSION: Because of the long residence time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors, high therapeutic ratios were achieved and, remarkably, numerous tumor regressions were observed after imaging doses. The results indicate considerable therapeutic potential for 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1.  (+info)

67Cu-versus 131I-labeled Lym-1 antibody: comparative pharmacokinetics and dosimetry in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (2/245)

Antilymphoma mouse monoclonal antibody (MoAb) Lym-1, labeled with 67Cu or 131I, has demonstrated promising results in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for lymphoma. Although 131I has played a central role in RIT thus far, some properties of 67Cu are preferable. A subset of our patients received both 67Cu- and 131I-labeled Lym-1, allowing a comparative evaluation of the two radiopharmaceuticals administered to a matched population of patients. Four patients with B-lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that had progressed despite standard therapy entered trials of 67Cu- and 131I-labeled Lym-1, which were injected 3-26 days apart. Lym-1 was conjugated to 6-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,7,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N ',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid (BAT) via 2-iminothiolane (2IT) and radiolabeled with 67Cu to prepare 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1; 131I-Lym-1 was preparred by the chloramine-T reaction. Planar imaging was used to quantitate 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 or 131I-Lym-1 in organs and tumors daily for 3 days or longer. 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 exhibited higher peak concentration in 92% (12 of 13) of tumors and a longer biological half-time in every tumor than 131I-Lym-1. The mean tumor concentration (%ID/g) of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 was 1.7, 2.2, and 2.8 times that of 131I-Lym-1 at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively. The mean biological half-times of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 in tumor were 8.8 and 2.3 days, respectively. Consequently, the mean tumor radiation dose delivered by 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 was twice that of 131I-Lym-1, 2.8 (range 0.8-6.7), and 1.4 (range 0.4-35) Gy/GBq, respectively. 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 delivered a lower marrow radiation dose than 131I-Lym-1; hence, the tumor:marrow therapeutic indices were 29 and 9.7, respectively. Radiation doses from 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 to normal tissues were similar except for liver, which received a higher dose from 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1. Images obtained with 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 were superior. Radiation dosimetry data for 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 agreed with corresponding data from the larger populations of patients from which the matched population for the current study was drawn. In conclusion, 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 given to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients in close temporal proximity to 131I-Lym-1 exhibited greater uptake and longer retention in tumor, resulting in higher radiation dose and therapeutic index than 131I-Lym-1. These as well as other factors suggest that 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 may be superior to 131I-Lym-1 for RIT.  (+info)

Practical determination of patient-specific marrow dose using radioactivity concentration in blood and body. (3/245)

Accurate determination of red marrow radiation is important because myelotoxicity is often dose limiting in radioimmunotherapy. The S-value methodology assumes a fixed red marrow mass as defined by the standard Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) mathematic phantom. Substantial error can be introduced in marrow radiation estimates because red marrow mass varies from patient to patient. In this work we describe a patient-specific marrow dosimetry methodology that does not require an explicit estimate of marrow mass. METHODS: Photon radiation to marrow from all sources can be considered as the total body to marrow. Based on photon radiation from body and electron radiation from blood, a patient-specific marrow dose can be determined by counting blood and total body radioactivity and measuring body weight. RESULTS: The deviation in marrow dose calculation using total body to represent all photon radiation was 3.9% in 66 patients administered 131I-labeled antibodies and was 9.1% in 18 patients administered 67Cu-labeled antibodies. The differences between this patient-specific approach and estimates based on standard anatomy were considerable, ranging from -35% to 88%. The differences were greater when patients' weights differed substantially from the MIRD reference man phantom. CONCLUSION: For radiopharmaceuticals that do not bind marrow, patient-specific marrow dosimetry can be independent of the actual marrow mass of a patient. Patient-specific marrow dosimetry can be determined using radioactivity concentration in blood and body.  (+info)

Targeting superficial bladder cancer by the intravesical administration of copper-67-labeled anti-MUC1 mucin monoclonal antibody C595. (4/245)

PURPOSE: More effective intravesical agents are required to limit the recurrence and progression of superficial bladder cancer. This study assessed the ability of copper-67 ((67)Cu)-C595 murine antimucin monoclonal antibody to bind selectively to superficial bladder tumors when administered intravesically, with a view to its development for therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Approximately 20 MBq of (67)Cu-C595 monoclonal antibody was administered intravesically to 16 patients with a clinical indication of superficial bladder cancer. After 1 hour, the bladder was drained and irrigated. Tissue uptake was assessed by imaging and by the assay of tumor and normal tissues obtained by endoscopic resection. RESULTS: Tumor was correctly identified in the images of 12 of 15 patients who were subsequently found to have tumors. Assay of biopsy samples at 2 hours showed a mean tumor uptake of 59.4% of the injected dose per kilogram (SD = 48.0), with a tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 14.6:1 (SD = 20). After 24 hours (n = 5), this decreased to 4.3% of the injected dose per kilogram (SD = 2.9), with a tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 1.8:1 (SD = 0.8). CONCLUSION: This study indicates a promising method for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Although the mean initial tumor uptake was high, effective therapy of bladder tumors will require an increased retention of the cytotoxic radionuclide in tumor tissue.  (+info)

CopA: An Escherichia coli Cu(I)-translocating P-type ATPase. (5/245)

The copA gene product, a putative copper-translocating P-type ATPase, has been shown to be involved in copper resistance in Escherichia coli. The copA gene was disrupted by insertion of a kanamycin gene through homologous recombination. The mutant strain was more sensitive to copper salts but not to salts of other metals, suggesting a role in copper homeostasis. The copper-sensitive phenotype could be rescued by complementation by a plasmid carrying copA from E. coli or copB from Enterococcus hirae. Expression of copA was induced by salts of copper or silver but not zinc or cobalt. Everted membrane vesicles from cells expressing copA exhibited ATP-coupled accumulation of copper, presumably as Cu(I). The results indicate that CopA is a Cu(I)-translocating efflux pump that is similar to the copper pumps related to Menkes and Wilson diseases and provides a useful prokaryotic model for these human diseases.  (+info)

Performance of a 62Zn/62Cu generator in clinical trials of PET perfusion agent 62Cu-PTSM. (6/245)

The 62Zn/62Cu PET generator can be inexpensively produced and distributed from a single production site operating under typical good manufacturing practice guidelines. It therefore has the potential to greatly facilitate development of clinically practical PET. We report generator performance in a study in which 62Cu-pyruvaldehyde-bis(n4-methylthiosemicarbazone (PTSM) myocardial perfusion imaging is compared with 99mTc-sestamibi in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The 62Zn/62Cu generator is an improved version of a previously reported system that employs automated synthesis of 62Cu-PTSM. With this approach, the cumbersome step of 18C purification has been eliminated. METHODS: The 62Zn (9.3 h half-life) parent isotope is prepared by proton bombardment of natural copper at 33 MeV. A typical target irradiated with 37.5 microA/h is delivered by 12:00 PM on the day it is to be processed. Purified 62Zn obtained from the target is loaded onto the generator column in 2 mol/L HCl. The generator is eluted using an internal three-channel peristaltic pump, which delivers 2.25 mL eluant (1.8 mol/L NaCl, 0.2 mol/L HCl) through the generator column to elute the 62Cu in 40 s. The same pump simultaneously pumps an equal volume of buffer (0.4 mol/L NaOAc) and 1 mL ligand solution (2 ppm PTSM, 2% EtOH) passing it through a septum into a 35-cc syringe preloaded with 28 mL sterile water. This solution is thoroughly mixed by agitation of the syringe and injected as a bolus through a 0.2 microm filter. The generator is eluted twice before shipping, providing quality assurance samples, and shipped to the clinical site by overnight delivery. Complete quality assurance testing is performed the evening before the generator reaches the clinical site. RESULTS: A total of 34 generators have been produced and shipped to 2 clinical sites for a phase III Food and Drug Administration study. The load activity on the generators at 8:00 AM the day of clinical use was 1.7+/-0.2 GBq (46.7+/-5.6 mCi), and yield was 72%+/-16%. Breakthrough of 62Zn was undetectable by high-purity germanium spectroscopy for all units. Radiochemical purity was 95.4%+/-2.4%. Volume delivered, pH, sterility, and bacterial endotoxin tests yielded passing results on all generators. The entire process of generator production, from target receipt to generator shipment, took less than 6 h and cost approximately $1000, including shipping charges and cyclotron cost. A total of 68 patients were injected with 2 62Cu-PTSM doses, with a mean injected activity of 0.8+/-0.2 GBq (20.5+/-5.3 mCi) with no adverse side effects. CONCLUSION: Results of this work confirm that the 62Zn/62Cu generator is an easily produced, transportable, and inexpensive source of PET radiopharmaceuticals, which can expand the field of clinical PET imaging by providing radiopharmaceuticals to sites not associated with cyclotrons.  (+info)

High-resolution microPET imaging of carcinoembryonic antigen-positive xenografts by using a copper-64-labeled engineered antibody fragment. (7/245)

Rapid imaging by antitumor antibodies has been limited by the prolonged targeting kinetics and clearance of labeled whole antibodies. Genetically engineered fragments with rapid access and high retention in tumor tissue combined with rapid blood clearance are suitable for labeling with short-lived radionuclides, including positron-emitting isotopes for positron-emission tomography (PET). An engineered fragment was developed from the high-affinity anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody T84.66. This single-chain variable fragment (Fv)-C(H)3, or minibody, was produced as a bivalent 80 kDa dimer. The macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N", N"'-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was conjugated to the anti-CEA minibody for labeling with copper-64, a positron-emitting radionuclide (t(1/2) = 12.7 h). In vivo distribution was evaluated in athymic mice bearing paired LS174T human colon carcinoma (CEA positive) and C6 rat glioma (CEA negative) xenografts. Five hours after injection with (64)Cu-DOTA-minibody, microPET imaging showed high uptake in CEA-positive tumor (17.9% injected dose per gram +/- 3.79) compared with control tumor (6.0% injected dose per gram +/- 1.0). In addition, significant uptake was seen in liver, with low uptake in other tissues. Average target/background ratios relative to neighboring tissue were 3-4:1. Engineered antibody fragments labeled with positron-emitting isotopes such as copper-64 provide a new class of agents for PET imaging of tumors.  (+info)

Gastrointestinal uptake and distribution of copper in rainbow trout. (8/245)

A single dose of radioactive copper ((64)Cu or new Cu) was infused into the stomach of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to model dietary copper (Cu) uptake under conditions of a normal nutritional dose and optimum environmental temperature (16 degrees C, 0.117 microg Cu g(-)(1 )body mass). The distribution of new Cu to the gut and internal organs occurred in two phases: rapid uptake by the gut tissues (almost complete by 24 h post-infusion) followed by slower uptake by the internal organs. By 72 h, 60 % of the dose had been excreted, 19 % was still retained in the gut tissue, 10 % remained in the lumen and 12 % had been absorbed across the gut and partitioned amongst the internal organs. A reduction in water temperature of 10 degrees C (to 6 degrees C) significantly retarded components of new Cu distribution (movement of the bolus along the gut and excretion); nonetheless, by 72 h, the fraction absorbed by all the internal organs was similar to that at 16 degrees C. An increase in water temperature of 3 degrees C (to 19 degrees C) caused a pronounced increase in internal organ uptake by 24 h to approximately double the uptake occurring at 16 degrees C. The uptake of new Cu by the gut tissue had a low temperature coefficient (Q(10)<1) consistent with simple diffusion, while the temperature coefficient for transfer of new Cu from gut tissue to the internal organs was high (Q(10)>2), consistent with facilitated transport. Internally, the liver and gall bladder (including bile) were the target organs for dietary Cu partitioning since they were the only organs that concentrated new Cu from the plasma. Individual tissues differed in terms of the exchange of their background Cu pools with new Cu. The background Cu in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract (excluding stomach) exchanged 45-94 % with new Cu from the gut lumen, while tissues such as the stomach, gills, kidney, carcass and fat had 5-7 % exchangeable background Cu. The liver, heart, spleen, ovary, bile and plasma had only 0.2-0.8 % exchangeable background Cu. The gastrointestinal tissues appear to act as a homeostatic organ, regulating the absorption of nutritional (non-toxic) doses of Cu (0. 117 microg g(-)(1 )body mass day(-)(1)) by the internal organs. Within the dose range we used and at optimal temperature (16 degrees C), the new Cu content of the gut tissues fluctuated, but absorption of new Cu by the internal organs remained relatively constant. For example, predosing the fish with non-radioactive Cu caused new Cu absorption by the gut tissues to double and decreased new Cu excretion from 38 to 1.5 %, but had no effect on new Cu uptake by the internal organs. Feeding fish after application of the normal liquid dose of new Cu also had no effect on new Cu uptake by the internal organs, even though the presence of food in the digestive tract reduced the binding of new Cu to the gut tissues and assisted with the excretion of new Cu. The gut was therefore able to regulate new Cu internalization at this dosage. Higher new Cu doses (10, 100 and 1000 times the normal dose), however, evoked regurgitation and increased new Cu excretion within 4 h of application but did not elevate new Cu levels in gut tissue beyond a threshold of approximately 40 microg of new Cu. Only at the highest dose (1000 times the normal dose, 192 microg g(-)(1 )body mass), equivalent to toxic concentrations in the daily diet (7000 microg Cu g(-)(1 )dry mass food), was the buffering capacity of the gut overwhelmed, resulting in an increase in internal new Cu uptake.  (+info)

Improved bifunctional chelating agents (BFC) are required for copper-64 radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under mild conditions to yield stable, target-specific imaging agents. Four different bifunctional chelating agents (BFC) were evaluated for Fab (Fragment antigen binding) conjugation and radiolabelling with copper-64. Two DOTA- (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and two NOTA- (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) derivatives bearing a p-benzyl-isothiocyanate group were conjugated to Fab-trastuzumab - which targets the HER2/neu receptor - and the average number of chelators attached ranged from 2.4 to 4.3 macrocycles per Fab. Labelling of the immunoconjugate with copper-64 was achieved in high radiochemical yields after 45 min at 37 °C, and the radiochemical purity of each (64)Cu-BFC-Fab-trastuzumab reached 97% after purification. The affinity of each (64)Cu-BFC-Fab-trastuzumab ranged between 10 and 50 nM as evaluated by in vitro saturation assays using
Ethylene cross-bridged cyclam with two acetate pendant arms, ECB-TE2A, is known to form the most kinetically stable 64Cu complexes. However, its usefulness as a bifunctional chelator is limited because of its harsh radiolabeling conditions. Herein, we report new cross-bridged cyclam chelator for the development of ultrastable 64Cu-radiolabeled bioconjugates. Propylene cross-bridged TE2A (PCB-TE2A) was successfully synthesized in an efficient way. The Cu(II) complex of PCB-TE2A exhibited much higher kinetic stability than ECB-TE2A in acid decomplexation studies, and also showed high resistance to reduction-mediated demetalation. Furthermore, the quantitative radiolabeling of PCB-TE2A with 64Cu was achieved under milder conditions compared to ECB-TE2A. Biodistribution studies strongly indicate that the 64Cu complexes of PCB-TE2A cleared out rapidly from the body with minimum decomplexation. © 2012 American Chemical Society. ...
Copper-64 has been shown to dissociate from TETA and TETA-conjugates and to undergo transchelation to superoxide dismutase in rat liver in biodistribution and metabolism studies (7 , 20 , 21 , 27) . The cross-bridged cyclam, CB-TE2A, has demonstrated improved in vitro kinetic stability as well as a reduction of in vivo transchelation (25 , 27 , 38) . These studies suggest that CB-TE2A is an enhanced chelator compared with TETA for labeling 64Cu for in vivo imaging and therapy.. Similar binding affinities for SSTr prepared from AR42J tumor membranes were determined for 64Cu-TETA-Y3-TATE and 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE (Fig. 3)⇓ . However, there was a significant difference in the Bmax values measured for the TETA (192 fmol/mg) and CB-TE2A (1551 fmol/mg) conjugates. This might be attributed to a broader specificity for 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE binding to SSTr than for 64Cu-TETA-Y3-TATE. Although AR42J tumors express SSTr2, these tumor cells have also been shown to express SSTr1, SSTr3, and SSTr5 (31) . ...
Most thought that her fight with Pennington, whom Tate coached on season 18 of The Ultimate Fighter, would see Tate make a statement on her way back to another title shot, perhaps against the winner of Nunes and Rousey. It didnt turn out to be the case.. Tate looked out of sorts and not on her game as a hungry Pennington outworked and pretty much dominated the former champion in every aspect of the fight, on the feet in particular, with an effective jab throughout, in the clinch including a few standing guillotine attempts, one almost ending the fight and on the ground where she was able to neutralize Tates submission attempts.. It was not the Miesha Tate that we all expected to see and the judges scored it 30-27, 30-27 and 29-28 for a unanimous decision in favor of Pennington, who looks to have a bright future in the Womens Bantamweight Division.. Pennington paid tribute to her former TUF coach after the fight "To get against Miesha, I love Miesha, shes someone I look up to," she said. ...
Synthesis of [3(5)]Adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-Tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane, by Oxidative C--N Cleavage of [3(6)]Adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-Tetraazatricyclo[7.7.3.3(5,13)]docosane and Crystal Structure of the Tetraprotonated Bromide Salt of [3(5)]Adamanzane.. Springborg, Johan; Pretzmann, Ulla; Nielsen, Bente; Olsen, Carl Erik; S tofte, Inger ...
Voss SD, Smith SV, DiBartolo N, McIntosh LJ, Cyr EM, Bonab AA, Dearling JL, Carter EA, Fischman AJ, Treves ST, Gillies SD, Sargeson AM, Huston JS, Packard AB. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of neuroblastoma and melanoma with 64Cu-SarAr immunoconjugates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 30; 104(44):17489-93 ...
Férédétate de sodium is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Férédétate de sodium is available on the Drugs.com website.
Seattle Seahawks general manager John Schneider had some interesting things to say about receiver Golden Tate, who did not live up to his potential in his rookie season, finishing with just 21 catches for 227 yards. Schneider said that he has high expectations for the Notre Dame product moving forward, and believes he can develop into a consistent playmaker.. Tate failed to get on the field on a regular basis because of his struggles with route running and picking up the intricacies of a pro-style offense. But during practices last year, he showed the most ability out of any receiver to consistently make plays deep down the field.. "I think Golden is a very talented player," Schneider said. "I think he recognized that he needs to improve as a route runner, and with his preparation. He was a young guy that never had spring ball, and was just out there just playing on pure ability.. "And so for him to come into camp and have all this stuff thrown at him, different route combinations and all that, ...
Make your very own text performance, inspired by text found around you with this Tate Kids activity. Get ideas for your own art and words project or homework activity.
Richard Dorment learnt nothing new from Tate Britains show about art iconoclasm - plus theres pernicious drivel in the catalogue essays.
Lyrics to Dark Money by Geoff Tate: Its getting stronger / Cant wait any longer / They woke the beast from sleeping / Now how the
Get information from Which? Elderly Care about RNIB Tate House including contact details, care specialisms and how to pay for care.
Wilson was harried for much of the day by the multiple looks from the Jets defense. But the Seattle rookie responded with key throws, hitting Tate on the opening drive, then connecting with Rice early in the fourth quarter to give Seattle (6-4) a two-score advantage. Tate added a TD pass on a reverse to Rice later in the fourth quarter ...
Köp handgjorda glasögon och solglasögon för män och kvinnor från 1298 kr, inklusive slipade glas. Kostnadsfri leverans och retur. Prova 4 bågar hemma kostnadsfritt.
Ah, Neil, what a champ. Loved by many, our first metal frame is a real classic, in the purest sense of the word. Youll want to hold on to this one for years to come.
Ah, Neil, what a champ. Loved by many, our first metal frame is a real classic, in the purest sense of the word. Youll want to hold on to this one for years to come.
This collection celebrates the art of lounging. It takes inspiration from the 60s design revolution, which embodied a creative and laid-back state of mind.
This paper explores how the format of the seminar as used in contemporary art education is changing and the social, economic and political reasons for these changes
New N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone derivatives: Synthesis, characterization, structural properties, DNA interactions and antiproliferative activity
Tumor hypoxia (low tissue oxygenation) is an adverse condition of the solid tumor environment, associated with malignant progression, radiotherapy resistance, and poor prognosis. One method to detect tumor hypoxia is by positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [64Cu][Cu-diacetyl-bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone)] ([64Cu][Cu(ATSM)]), as demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. In addition, emerging studies suggest using [64Cu][Cu(ATSM)] for molecular radiotherapy, mainly due to the release of therapeutic Auger electrons from copper-64, making [64Cu][Cu(ATSM)] a
In this study, tumor sub-volumes were defined based on a DPBC strategy of FDG and 64Cu-ATSM PET, and the overlap between these sub-volumes was analyzed.. Two cut-off values for FDG uptake were explored, and 64Cu-ATSM uptake was analyzed by sub-volumes based on two different time-points for image acquisition. We observed an overlap between all 64Cu-ATSM and FDG sub-volumes. However, the degree of overlap varied between cases.. Our results showed that a fairly large part of the hypoxic sub-volume as defined by 64Cu-ATSM was not included in a boost volume based on FDG uptake with the chosen thresholds. However, the hypoxic sub-volume did not encompass the FDG uptake either, and it therefore seems attractive to include both tracers in RT planning considering their association to treatment outcome and prognosis.. The Cu24 sub-volume was predominantly included in the BTV consisting of FDG (FDG40 or FDG50) and Cu3. This result suggests that the temporal variations of 64Cu-ATSM uptake might be taken ...
Tate & Lyle has anoounced that it is in the final stages of discussions with Syral SAS on the disposal of certain businesses including the starch business. A full copy of the anouncement is below:. Tate & Lyle announces that it is at an advanced stage of exclusive discussions with Syral SAS (a subsidiary of Tereos of France) which may lead to the disposal of its interest in certain of the facilities of its Food & Industrial Ingredients, Europe division ("TALFIIE"), and that it has today begun the consultation process with the European and local works councils and other employee representatives.. Tate & Lyle announced on 25 October 2006 that it was exploring the possibility of the full or partial disposal of TALFIIE. The TALFIIE operations that are subject to the ongoing discussions ("the Target Businesses") announced today are those in the UK, Belgium, France, Spain and Italy.. Tate & Lyles operations in Koog, The Netherlands (the main site in Western Europe for corn-based value added starch ...
The first of many Negro League franchises to try and fail in Cleveland, OH was the Cleveland Tate Stars (named after owner George Tate). They played in the Negro National League in 1922 and finished last at 17-29. Candy Jim Taylor managed and played third base for the club. Following a dispute between team owner Tate and NNL president Rube Foster and Tates sacking of manager Taylor, the Tate Stars played the first part of the 1923 season as an associate team of the Eastern Colored League during the first part of the 1923 season. They were opposed in Cleveland by the short-lived Cleveland Nationals, and some of their players were raided by NNL teams, but they rejoined the NNL as an associate team in July following the demise of the Toledo franchise, and went 7-14. Second baseman Claude "Hooks" Johnson was the player-manager. In 1924 they were replaced in the city by the Cleveland Browns. Sources: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hierarchically porous, and Cu- and Zn-containing γ-AlOOH mesostrands as adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. AU - Li, Xia. AU - Shenashen, Mohamed A.. AU - Wang, Xiupeng. AU - Ito, Atsuo. AU - Taniguchi, Akiyoshi. AU - Ei-Safty, Sherif A.. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Alum is the only licensed adjuvant by Food and Drug Administration of USA used in many human vaccines and has excellent safety record in clinical applications. However, alum hardly induces T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses that are required for anti-tumor immunity. In the present study, we fabricated hierarchical copper- and zinc- buds dressing γ-AlOOH mesostrands (Cu- and Zn-AMSs) with randomly wrinkled morphology, mesoscale void- or cave-like pockets, high-exposed surface coverage sites, and positive charge streams in saline. We confirmed that Cu- and Zn-AMSs promoted intracellular uptake of model cancer antigen (ovalbumin, OVA) by THP-1-differentiated macrophage-like cells in vitro. Moreover, Cu- and ...
This Saturday, Miesha Tate puts her Strikeforce bantamweight title on the line against sassy armbar-savant Ronda Rousey, in the first major MMA event to be headlined by two women since Carano vs. Cyborg. Will Tates experience and wrestling win the day, or will "Rowdy Ronda" continue her phenomenal rise? Check out these stunning promo photos from our buddies at Showtime and let us know what you think in the comments section. And dont forget to come back to CagePotato.com on Saturday night starting at 10 p.m. ET to join our liveblog of the Strikeforce: Tate vs. Rousey main card broadcast on Showtime!. ...
Get used to it, Denard?. Ill try to figure out some more stuff after the replay at 8 but for now, things I noticed. They are mostly about offensive skill position players, because Im a person.. Denard! Denard! Denard! Disclaimer: It was all ones versus twos and whatnot, so Denard took the starting offense against a motley collection of walk-ons and Tate took a bunch of freshmen up against the first team defense. The playing field was far from level. That said, holy crap. Robinson looks like a quarterback now. A running quarterback with rudimentary passing abilities, but a quarterback. There were zone reads and screens and rollout passes and a number of zippy seams that hit players between the numbers. When the offense broke down, Robinson made the concept of pursuit angles humorous. Putting him on the edge, as suggested by the coaches clinic tea leaves, puts the defense in a bind. His throws were all on a line but they were accurate aside from a couple mediocre bubble screens. There were ...
Last week I (finally) discovered the oh so anticipated new building of the Tate Modern, which opened to the public on June 17. Under the slogan Art Changes We Change, the museum managed its transformation very successfully and convinced the skeptics of the need for an extension in order to reach this ideal of an ultimate…
Tate & Lyle announces that it has entered into a pre-financing agreement with the Jamaican government for the supply of raw sugar. The agreement requires the supply of 100,000 tonnes of raw sugar to...
Explore the Panasonic CU-3S27KKZ Aero Series - Multi Split - Panasonic AERO Series The AERO SLIM design features sleek lines and graceful curves while the lustrous pearl finishing and chrome escutcheon exude a sense of luxury.
Tento dokument informuje používateľov distribúcie Debian o hlavných zmenách vo verzii 9 (kódové označenie „stretch"). Poznámky k vydaniu poskytujú informácie o tom ako bezpečne aktualizovať systém z predošlého vydania 8 (kódové označenie jessie) na aktuálne vydanie a informujú používateľov o známych potenciálnych problémoch, s ktorými by sa mohli stretnúť počas aktualizácie. Najnovšia verzia tohto dokumentu je vždy dostupná na https://www.debian.org/releases/stretch/releasenotes. Ak si nie ste istý či čítate aktuálnu verziu, skontrolujte dátum na prvej stránke a uistite sa, že čítate aktuálnu verziu. ...
Im over Harvin already. I was just as excited as everyone when Seattle got him, but Hurtvin is costing this team potential players. When it comes time to sign some other big name players - one that actually contributed to this great campaign, and Im looking at RW, Sherman, and ET, there are gonna be holes left by their departure because of the cost of bringing Percy on board. Im tired of getting excited to see him play. He probably re-aggravated his hip trying to play against his old team that got rid of him - and who knows when well see him again. Dude is a hell of a ballplayer, but hes made of glass inside out. Im happy with Tate, Baldwin, and Kearse as our wide receivers, theyre cheap, and can be very reliable when called upon. Tate is a young star, and hes going to be playing for someone else next season. When theres so little to gamble, this front office is awesome with their late round picks. When they hemorrhage high picks on players that dont pan out (Hi, James Carpenter, and ...
The Small-Animal Imaging Facility is committed to supporting the Institutes cutting-edge research with state-of-the-art imaging capabilities and expertise.
There isn ??t much chitchat between Will Helm and Tate Ryder: these two young and hot guys are much more skilled with their body language, which is wh
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regional myocardial perfusion assessed with generator-produced copper- 62-PTSM and PET. AU - Herrero, Pilar. AU - Hartman, Judy J.. AU - Green, Mark A.. AU - Anderson, Carolyn J.. AU - Welch, Michael J.. AU - Markham, Joanne. AU - Bergmann, Steven R.. PY - 1996/8/1. Y1 - 1996/8/1. N2 - We have previously demonstrated that myocardial perfusion can be estimated accurately in experimental animals with the generator-produced positron-emitting tracer, 62Cu-pyruvaldehyde bis (N4-methylthio- semicarbazone)(62Cu-PTSM) and PET. This study evaluated the feasibility of quantifying regional myocardial blood flow using 62Cu-PTSM and PET in human subjects. Methods: Regional perfusion was estimated using a previously described and validated two-compartment model from dynamic PET scans obtained after an intravenous bolus of 62Cu-PTSM in 10 healthy volunteers and in 6 patients with coronary artery disease at rest; and in 9 of the volunteers and 4 of the patients after administration of ...
Species-linked diamine triacetic acids of the formula ##STR1## wherein T is an organic species containing at least one amine, hydroxyl, or thiol functional group, L is the residue of at least one of those functional groups and R is a two or more atom long covalent bridge, are disclosed. Methods for their preparation, for the preparation of metal chelates from them and for the use of the chelates are also disclosed. In a preferred embodiment, the metal ions employed in the formation of the chelates are rare earth metal ions capable of forming fluorescent chelates which can in turn be employed in fluoroassay techniques.
Pimonidazole immunofluorescence and64Cu-ATSM autoradiography. Pimonidazole immunofluorescence (A and C) and 64Cu-ATSM photoluminescence autoradiography (B and D
Four new neutral copper azido polymers, Cu-4(N-3)(8)(L-1)(2)](n) (1), Cu-4(N-3)(8)(L-2)(2)](n) (2), Cu-4(N-3)(8)(L-3)(2)](n) (3), and Cu-9(N-3)(18)(L-4)(4)](n) (4) L1-4 are formed in situ by reacting pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde with 22-(methylamino)ethyl]pyridine (mapy, L-1), N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (N,N-dmen, L-2), N,N-diethylethylenediamine (N,N-deen, L-3), and N,N,2,2-tetramethylpropanediamine (N,N,2,2-tmpn, L-4)], have been synthesized by using 0.5 mol equiv of the chelating tridentate ligands with Cu-(NO3)(2)center dot 3H(2)O and an excess of NaN3. Single-crystal X-ray structures show that the basic unit of these complexes, especially 1-3, contains very similar Cu-4(II) building blocks. The overall structure of 3 is two-dimensional, while the other three complexes are one-dimensional in nature. Complex 1 represents a unique example containing hemiaminal ether arrested by copper(R). Complexes 1 and 2 have a rare bridging azido pathway: both end-on and end-to-end bridging azides between a ...
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RFID Tate Large Coin Pocket Bifold by Fossil at Zappos.com. Read Fossil RFID Tate Large Coin Pocket Bifold product reviews, or select the size, width, and color of your choice.
... software free downloads. Sharon Tate Autopsy Photos shareware, freeware, demos: Photos for Grandma by XemiComputers Ltd, Sort Photos by Sort Photos Inc, YA Photos Date Stamper by Yarriva Systems etc...
Tate played Odile, a witch who exerts a mysterious power over a landowner, played by Niven, and his wife, played by Kerr. Although she did not have as many lines as the other actors, Tates performance was considered crucial to the film, and she was required, more than the other cast members, to set an ethereal tone. Niven described her as a "great discovery," and Kerr said that with "a reasonable amount of luck" Tate would be a great success.[1] In interviews Tate commented on her good fortune in working with such professionals in her first film and said that she had learned a lot about acting simply by watching Kerr at work. Much of the filming took place in France, and Sebring returned to Los Angeles to fulfill his business obligations. After filming, Tate remained in London where she immersed herself in the fashion world and nightclubs. Around this time she met Roman Polanski ...
Connect and collaborate with David Tate at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, with research interests in Cognitive and neuroimaging effects of HIV infection, on Mendeley.
Ace & Tate is an Amsterdam designed eyewear brand.Jeroen W. Mantel has been shooting their campaigns for several seasons now.The brand is known for its quir
Moments before it was revealed he had won Season 2 of The X Factor and a $5 million recording contract, Tate Stevens nerves almost got the best of him....
Frank Lee Tate DC is a Chiropractor who practices in Danville, VA. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
Maybe the T-shirt alone wasnt enough to raise the red flags, but it was certainly the most obvious homage after a string of less-blatant connections between the Drapers and Tate, which Ive culled-with help from ye old internets, namely Reddit and Warming Glow-for you below:. - In "The Crash," Sally Draper was spotted reading Rosemarys Baby, which was later adapted to film by Tates husband, director Roman Polanski. - We also learned in "The Crash" that Megan often "paid" for Sally to watch Gene and Bobby with stylish attire that Betty didnt approve of, like mini-skirts and go go boots. Another Manson Family murder victim, Rosemary La Bianca, was a successful boutique owner, and shes been described as popular with her teenage step-daughters because she introduced them to more current fashion than their mother did.. - The rising violence that weve witnessed in Mad Mens New York is representative of similar patterns throughout the country as a whole, and it embodies the apocalyptic Helter ...
Moments before it was revealed he had won Season 2 of The X Factor and a $5 million recording contract, Tate Stevens nerves almost got the best of him.Leading up to that moment, I wanted to throw up because it was so intense, the country singer told reporters backstage after his win. This whole thing has been stressful. I am really emotionally shocked. Read More >Other Links From TVGuide.com Simon CowellL.A. ReidSusan BoyleThe X FactorCarly Rose SonenclarTate Stevens
Normally food copper is metabolized by the liver and channeled into safe pathways such as being incorporated in to ceruloplasmin. [...] When we administer inorganic copper orally labeled with 64Cu, we see a fraction of the label appear in the blood in 1-2 hours, too soon to be processed by the liver. [...] We believe this fraction of 64Cu-labeled inorganic copper is bypassing the liver, is therefore not incorporated safely into ceruloplasmin, contributes directly to the nonceruloplasmin free copper pool, and represents what is happening to at least a portion of the inorganic copper ingested in drinking water or copper supplements."[32] ...
interested was about a reliable download SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by step Guide to for an essay waste. 64)Cu-labeled Lexington AvenueSuite nuclear YorkNY10170420 Lexington AvenueSuite important YorkNew York101702013-09-17T12:00:00100000Dakoy Capital Markets, LLC corresponds download SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows (Version sector services to our institutions. download SPSS Survival PhD of clinical distributors of late 42nd St. Dual-labeled 46 Iron Workers 46We have Black Iron Lathing members to languages in New York City.
If Whitman decides to retain Groce, he will be the dumbest smart person in the room. Its clear the man cant coach, even the casual fan can see that. As for the "best recruiting class in years"....I find this statement, which we hear over and over again, laughable at best. One borderline four/five star guy in Tilmon (who if you watch his film is not an immediate impact guy, hes raw and needs development), and three other guys all ranked outside the consensus top 100. Thats not any better than what Groce has recruited in previous years really. Tilmon will end up being ranked about where JCL was and we see what Groce has done with him (Leron Black to for that matter). And the other guys are ranked below guys like DJW and Jordan. Do people really think this is going to put us over the top? If so, you are ignoring five years of data staring you in the face. ...
Ministerul Sănătăţii a transmis Direcţiilor de Sănătate Publică să ceară unităţilor sanitare din subordine un estimat al necesarului de citostatice pentru 3, respectiv 12 luni. Pe baza acestor raportări, se vor organiza achizițiile de medicamente, pentru evitarea situațiilor în care pacienții riscă să rămână fără tratament.. Purtătorul de cuvânt al Direcției de Sănătate Publică Mureș, Gabriela Uifălean, a precizat că spitalele din județ au solicitat aproape toate medicamentele de pe listă:. ...
B LONDON.- /B The pioneering British photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) will be the subject of a major retrospective at a href=http://www.
Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in volup tate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupid atat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Lorem ipsum sint occaecat cupid atat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. ...
Az-ica) Arts pro-grams for young peo-ple may be un-der wide-spread duress, but ap-par-ently not in the Chick-a-saw Nation in Ok-la-homa, where a sum-mer arts academy pro-vides train-ing and en-cour-age-ment for com-posers ages 8 to 18. Some re-sults of the pro-grams sixth in-stall-ment, in 2009, are doc-u-mented on this CD of 16 string-quar-tet com-po-si-tions by 11 teenagers. (The discs ti-tle, Osh-tali, means "to quar-ter" in Chick-a-saw.) All are per-formed with ut-ter com-mit-ment by the bar-rier-break-ing string quar-tet Ethel, and Jerod Impichchaachaaha Tate served as a com-poser-men-tor. These de-vel-op-ing com-posers dont write in-vert-ible coun-ter-point or dou-ble fugues, but they do all have some-thing to ex-press in tones, and with the help of their mu-si-cal guides, theyve fig-ured out how to put across their ideas co-gently. Some pieces are stronger than oth-ers, but each is an im-pres-sive achieve-ment. Why would this CD in-ter-est you as a mu-sic lover, apart from the fact ...
Beginning at the end When people start talking about enjambment and line endings, I always shut them up. This is not something to talk about, this is a private matter, its up to the poet. (Tate n.d.)
Serving Crittenden, Desoto, Fayette, Lauderdale, Shelby, Tate, Tipton, and Tunica counties in AR, MS, and TN Improving the quality of life for Mid-Southerners by mobilizing and aligning community resources to address priority issues uwmidsouth.org ...
Serving Crittenden, Desoto, Fayette, Lauderdale, Shelby, Tate, Tipton, and Tunica counties in AR, MS, and TN Improving the quality of life for Mid-Southerners by mobilizing and aligning community resources to address priority issues uwmidsouth.org ...
Tate Gisslen, Manuel Alvarez, Casey Wells, Man-Ting Soo, Donna S Lambers, Christine L Knox, Jareen K Meinzen-Derr, Claire A Chougnet, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur ...
In Zusammenarbeit mit Du Pont Tate & Lyle und bioamberTM ist mit den coracon® GreenProducts eine Produktlinie entstanden, die neue Maßstäbe setzt.
Beckett provides you latest pricing on 2012 Topps UFC Bloodlines Jumbo Fight Mat Relics Printing Plates Black #JFMRMT Miesha Tate
Включает в себя все предметы из набора «Chosen Larva» и доступ к просмотру лиги WH Overgaming Challenge #2. ...
Ravenous Fiend Loading Screen - jest to ekran ładowania zestawu Lifestealera o nazwie "Trappings of the Ravenous Fiend Set".
The particle usually comes from the radioactive decay of an atom of a radioisotope, an isotope of an element which is ... Beginning in 1908, luminous paint containing a mixture of radium and copper-doped zinc sulfide was used to paint watch faces ... Radium was used in luminous paint until the 1960s, when it was replaced with the other radioisotopes above due to health ... Phosphors containing silver-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu) yield blue-green light; copper and manganese-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu ...
Dearling, Jason L.; Lewis, Jason S.; Mullen, Gregory E.; Welch, Michael J.; Blower, Philip J. (20 April 2014). "Copper bis( ... They have also been identified as potential ligands for radioisotope delivery, with selectivity towards hypoxic tissues, ... "In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity of Copper Bis(thiosemicarbazone) Complexes". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 56 (3): ... "Studies on the Mechanism of Hypoxic Selectivity in Copper Bis(Thiosemicarbazone) Radiopharmaceuticals". Journal of Medicinal ...
The zinc core is coated with a thin layer of copper to give the appearance of a copper coin. In 1994, 33,200 tonnes (36,600 ... 65 Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72 Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours ... n 30Zn + e− → n 29Cu The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with mass number higher than 66 is beta decay (β−), ... Zinc ores were used to make the zinc-copper alloy brass thousands of years prior to the discovery of zinc as a separate element ...
Copper: Copper anemia in infants results from infants with a poor diet and can cause heart disease. Metal ions are often used ... 99mTc is the most commonly used radioisotope agent for imaging purposes. It has a short half-life, emits only gamma ray photons ... Gold, Silver, Copper: Phosphine ligand compounds containing gold, silver, and copper have anti-cancer properties. Lanthanum: ... Examples of specific types of toxic metals include: Copper: copper toxicity usually presents itself as a side effect of low ...
... radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher ... During electrorefining of copper and nickel, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum group metals as well as ... The radioisotope iridium-192 is one of the two most important sources of energy for use in industrial γ-radiography for non- ... At least 34 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in mass number from 164 to 199. 192Ir, which falls between the ...
He engage his research in copper-nickel alloys after introducing the lattice dynamical method to evalulate the Cu29/Ni28 alloys ... Electrochemical Analysis lab and radio-isotope production labs etc. In 1983, he successfully oversaw the PARR-III reactor went ...
... death due to tumor burden occurred within 20 days weeks while animals with a dose greater than 6 mCi of the radioisotope tumor ... Copper is essential in the human body as both a catalyst and as part of enzymes. Copper is mainly involved in redox reactions ... Toxic levels of copper can lead to organ failure and premature death. 64Cu is used to study whole body retention of copper in ... Furthermore, copper(I) exists as a strong complex in aqueous solution and is not often seen. Copper(II) forms mononuclear ...
Copper (29Cu) has two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu, along with 27 radioisotopes. The most stable of these is 67Cu with a half ... ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9. Application of Copper radioisotopes in Medicine (Review Paper): Pejman Rowshanfarzad; Mahsheed Sabet; ... Copper offers a relatively large number of radioisotopes that are potentially suitable for use in nuclear medicine. There is a ... Unstable copper isotopes with atomic masses below 63 tend to undergo β+ decay, while isotopes with atomic masses above 65 tend ...
Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum ... Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72. Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours.[ ... The zinc core is coated with a thin layer of copper to give the appearance of a copper coin. In 1994, 33,200 tonnes (36,600 ... 442-501 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, ...
In 1920-1921 George de Hevesy measured self-diffusion using radioisotopes. He studied self-diffusion of radioactive isotopes of ... Robert Boyle demonstrated diffusion in solids in the 17th century by penetration of Zinc into a copper coin. Nevertheless, ...
... chromium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.256 --- cobalt radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.270 --- copper radioisotopes MeSH D01.496 ... calcium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.123.328 --- carbon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.156.300 --- cerium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... cobalt radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.360.400 --- gallium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.381.550 --- gold radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.532.500 --- mercury radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.586.520 --- nitrogen radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ...
"5 Year Copper Prices and Copper Price Charts - InvestmentMine". InfoMine. Retrieved 2 May 2015. "Copper Theft Threatens U.S. ... TV screens and in radio isotopes. Demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as computers and mobile phones became more ... "Copper prices London". Retrieved 3 July 2010. "Historical Copper Prices, Copper Prices History". Dow-futures.net. 22 January ... It was also noticed that a copper price bubble was occurring at the same time as the oil bubble. Copper traded at about $2,500 ...
At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. The most stable of these is 68 Ge ... Some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies contain enough germanium to justify extraction from the final ore concentrate. An unusual ... While it is produced mainly from sphalerite, it is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. Another source of germanium is ... While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61 Ge and 64 Ge decay by β+ delayed proton emission. 84 Ge through ...
Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum ... While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61. Ge. and 64. Ge. decay by β+. delayed proton emission.[46] 84. ... At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. The most stable of these is 68. Ge ... While it is produced mainly from sphalerite, it is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. Another source of germanium is ...
Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. 199 Hg and 201 Hg are the most often studied NMR- ... Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese, copper and zinc are reluctant to form amalgams. ... There are seven stable isotopes of mercury with 202 Hg being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes are ... Several other countries are believed to have unrecorded production of mercury from copper electrowinning processes and by ...
The most stable radioisotopes are 101Rh with a half-life of 3.3 years, 102Rh with a half-life of 207 days, 102mRh with a half- ... In 2007, rhodium cost approximately eight times more than gold, 450 times more than silver, and 27,250 times more than copper ... Twenty other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 92.926 u (93Rh) to 116.925 u (117Rh). Most ... However, the extraction is complex and expensive, and the presence of rhodium radioisotopes requires a period of cooling ...
For example, in its complex with copper(II), DTPA binds in a hexadentate manner utilizing the three amine centres and three of ... Technetium-99m is chelated with DTPA for ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scans and radioisotope renography nuclear medicine scans. ... Pechurova Crystal structure of copper (II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate monohydrate Journal of Structural Chemistry, 1973, ...
Type T (copper-constantan) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the −200 to 350 °C range. Often used as a differential ... In a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, the radioactive decay of transuranic elements as a heat source has been used to ... Type-T thermocouples have a sensitivity of about 43 µV/°C. Note that copper has a much higher thermal conductivity than the ... For such cases, a number of thermocouple leads will be brought to a common reference block (a large block of copper) containing ...
Copper in solders forms intermetallic compounds. Supersaturated (by about 1%) solution of copper in tin may be employed to ... Radioisotopes undergoing alpha decay are a concern due to their tendency to cause soft errors. Polonium-210 is especially ... Lead-tin solder layers on copper leads can form copper-tin intermetallic layers; the solder alloy is then locally depleted of ... Cu3Sn - common on solder-copper interface, forms preferentially when excess of copper is available, more thermally stable than ...
Other sources may also include beta decay from cobalt-60 and electron capture from copper-60. Nickel-61 is the only stable ... 26 radioisotopes have been characterised with the most stable being 59 Ni with a half-life of 76,000 years, 63 Ni with a half- ... Possible sources include electron capture from copper-58 and EC + p from zinc-59. Nickel-59 is a long-lived cosmogenic ... Possible sources include beta decay from cobalt-64, and electron capture from copper-64 Nickel-78 is the element's heaviest ...
Deposited hot particles of radioactive fallout and bioaccumulated radioisotopes can be reintroduced into the atmosphere by ... Coal combustion produces emissions containing aluminium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, selenium, and ...
Bronze is mostly copper (12% tin), while addition of phosphorus gives phosphor bronze. Bell metal is also a copper-tin alloy, ... Apart from 126Sn, with a half-life of 230,000 years, all the radioisotopes have a half-life of less than a year. The ... Because copper is often the major metal in such coins, sometimes including zinc, these could be called bronze and/or brass ... Copper cooking vessels such as saucepans and frying pans are frequently lined with a thin plating of tin, since the combination ...
The factory there extracted the non-ferrous metals copper and lead from their ores, as well as processing silver and gold. By ... a radioisotope with a half life of about 140 days), thought to be produced via radioactive decay of naturally occurring ... Tin was the plant's main product, other metals produced included with silver, cadmium, lead, copper, antimony, bismuth, indium ...
The radioisotope continually decays, emitting radiation particles which strike molecules of the phosphor, exciting them to emit ... Radium paint used zinc sulfide phosphor, usually trace metal doped with an activator, such as copper (for green light), silver ... blue-green), and more rarely copper-magnesium (for yellow-orange light). The phosphor degrades relatively fast and the dials ...
The activation of a number of test target elements such as sulfur, copper, tantalum, and gold have been used to determine the ... Salted bomb Table of nuclides Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes from the International Atomic Energy Agency Neeb, Karl ... as a result of production of neutron-rich radioisotopes. Some atoms require more than one neutron to become unstable, which ... is usually determined by measuring the gamma-ray emissions of aluminium or copper neutron activation targets. Aluminium can ...
Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... In this 1871 version, copper, silver, and gold were placed twice, once as part of group IB, and once as part of a "group VIII" ... All of the alkali metals except lithium and caesium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope: sodium-22 and sodium-24 ...
... Artor Niccoli Asabella,1 Giuseppe Lucio Cascini,2 ... F. Szelecsényi, G. F. Steyn, K. Suzuki et al., "Application of Zn+p reactions for production of copper radioisotopes for ... A. Niccoli Asabella, G. L. Cascini, C. Altini, D. Paparella, A. Notaristefano, and G. Rubini, "The copper radioisotopes: a ... D. W. McCarthy, L. A. Bass, P. D. Cutler et al., "High purity production and potential applications of copper-60 and copper-61 ...
"Copper Radioisotopes" by people in this website by year, and whether "Copper Radioisotopes" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Copper Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Copper Radioisotopes" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Copper Radioisotopes". ...
Combining Nanoscale Properties with Radioisotopes for Enhanced Molecular Imaging ... Click chemistry (copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition). PET/MRI. Macrophage detection in aortic aneurysms. [45]. ... Click chemistry (copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition). PET/MRI. Biodistribution studies. [43]. ... Iron Oxide Nanoradiomaterials: Combining Nanoscale Properties with Radioisotopes for Enhanced Molecular Imaging. Table 1. ...
Tens of millions of nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year, and demand for radioisotopes is increasing rapidly ... the use of radioisotopes for diagnostics, radiation therapy, radiopharmaceuticals and other beneficial medical uses of nuclear ... Copper-64 (13 h):. Used to study genetic diseases affecting copper metabolism, such as Wilsons and Menkes diseases, for PET ... The global radioisotope market was valued at $9.6 billion in 2016, with medical radioisotopes accounting for about 80% of this ...
... copper, molybdenum; The other transition metals and zinc; The metalloids: arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and boron; The ... new metal contaminants; The radioactive metals; Radioisotopes; The catalytic metals; The electronic metals; Germanium; Tantalum ...
... clinicaltrials.gov Menkes Disease is a genetic disorder affecting the metabolism of copper. Patient with this disease are both ... Copper Radioisotopes. Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights ... Copper histidine is a copper replacement that can be injected directly into the body to avoid absorption through the ... Neurotoxicity of Copper.. Copper is an essential trace metal that is required for several important biological processes, ...
Copper Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Dihydrotestosterone / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug ... 0/Androgen Antagonists; 0/Androgens; 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Antigens, Surface; 0/Copper Radioisotopes; 0/Heterocyclic ...
Absorption of Copper from the Gastrointestinal Tract The Intestinal Absorption of Zinc Cobalt Absorption. Gastrointestinal ... use of radioisotopes to assess intestinal flux of calcium in humans; and calcium and structure of cell membranes. The ... intestinal absorption of zinc, cobalt, and strontium and absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract are underscored. ...
Copper (29Cu) has two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu, along with 27 radioisotopes. The most stable of these is 67Cu with a half ... ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9. Application of Copper radioisotopes in Medicine (Review Paper): Pejman Rowshanfarzad; Mahsheed Sabet; ... Copper offers a relatively large number of radioisotopes that are potentially suitable for use in nuclear medicine. There is a ... Unstable copper isotopes with atomic masses below 63 tend to undergo β+ decay, while isotopes with atomic masses above 65 tend ...
... and TBTAPs suitable for radioactive imaging and therapeutic applications would bear radioisotopes of metals such as copper, ... The cobalt and copper analogs are nonfluorescent. Metal free phthalocyanines are not capable of being rendered reactive or ... Blagrove, R. J., The aggregation of the tetrasodium salt of copper phthalocyanine-4,4,4",4"-tetrasulphonic acid: diffusion ... Radioactive metal complexes of copper 67, technetium 99, cobalt 57, and gallium 67 have been used as radiopharmaceuticals in ...
Fermi and his associates succeeded in producing radioisotopes of sodium, iron, copper, gold, and numerous other elements. As a ... RADIOISOTOPE:. An isotope subject to the decay associated with radioactivity. A radioisotope is thus an unstable isotope. ... A radioisotope does not "rot"; it decays by turning into another isotope of the same element-or even into another element ... Yet radioisotopes in general have so many uses, in comparison to stable isotopes, that they are often referred to simply as " ...
Copper is one of the most interesting elements for various biomedical applications. Copper compounds show vast array of ... It also offers a selection of radioisotopes, suitable for nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Quick progress in nanotechnology ... To date, copper has not found many uses in medicine, but number of ongoing research, as well as preclinical and clinical ... Development of copper based drugs, radiopharmaceuticals and medical materials by Paweł Szymański; Tomasz Frączek; Magdalena ...
NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes highlights reliable U.S. Mo-99 production and supply, expansion and R&D advancements in its ... Companys technology expertise being leveraged for commercial production and supply of therapeutic radioisotopes copper-67 (Cu- ... About NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes, LLC (NorthStar) NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes is a nuclear medicine technology company ... high tech radioisotope separation platform indicated for use in producing the widely used medical radioisotope Tc-99m from non- ...
The particle usually comes from the radioactive decay of an atom of a radioisotope, an isotope of an element which is ... Beginning in 1908, luminous paint containing a mixture of radium and copper-doped zinc sulfide was used to paint watch faces ... Radium was used in luminous paint until the 1960s, when it was replaced with the other radioisotopes above due to health ... Phosphors containing silver-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu) yield blue-green light; copper and manganese-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu ...
... functional mapping of the copper binding sites to the various copper proteins and the visualisation of the transfer mechanism. ... Nuclear Medicine is using labelled radio-isotopes for PET/CT and SPECT imaging. These radio-tracers diagnose the metabolic ... functional mapping of the copper binding sites to the various copper proteins and the visualisation of the transfer mechanism. ... Copper is a nutritional metal, recently examined as a radiotracer for hypoxia, owing to its to the oxidising environment. ...
64Cu and 61Cu through irradiation of liquid targets and is important for producing high specific activity radioisotopes with a ... Automated production of copper radioisotopes and preparation of high specific activity [64Cu]Cu-ATSM for PET studies. Appl. ... Conversely, for the production of copper radioisotopes (61Cu and 64Cu) the irradiated natZn or 64Ni liquid target solution is ... Finally, copper is eluted from the column with water into a final collection vial in the form of a copper chloride solution. In ...
Radioisotopes of iodine have been incorporated into a wide variety of radiopharmaceuticals ranging from small, low molecular ... Zhang P, Zhuang R, Guo Z, Su X, Chen X, Zhang X. A highly efficient copper-mediated radioiodination approach using aryl boronic ... Radioisotopes of iodine have been incorporated into a wide variety of radiopharmaceuticals ranging from small, low molecular ... Radiosynthesis of SPECT tracers via a copper mediated 123I iodination of (hetero)aryl boron reagents. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016; ...
For example, radioisotopes of the elements copper, cobalt, gallium, germanium, yttrium, strontium, technetium, indium, ... 2. for the radiodiagnosis and the radiotherapy in the form of their complexes with the radioisotopes of the elements with ... Suitable ions are, for example, the chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), praseodymium( ... Another imaging method with radioisotopes is the positron emission tomography, which uses positron-emitting isotopes, such as, ...
D. W. McPherson et al., Radiolabelling of Proteins with Radioisotopes of Copper Using p-Carboxyalkylphenylglyoxal bis-(4N- ...
Iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules by copper-free click reaction has been reported. ... Such reactions were referred to as "copper-free click chemistry".5 Copper-free click chemistry is based on a very old reaction ... Akeroyd, N.; Postma, T. & Klumperman, B. Copper free click chemistry. Click chemistry for the preparation of advanced ... Copper-Free Click chemistry has various diverse applications:. *Labeling of biomolecules, such as glycans and lipids, ...
Copper-free click chemistry is an alternative approach to click chemistry that proceeds at a lower activation barrier and is ... Iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules by copper-free click reaction has been reported. ... What is Copper-Free Click Chemistry?. Copper-free click chemistry is an alternative approach to click chemistry that proceeds ... Wittigs Copper-Free Click Reaction. Copper-free click chemistry is based on a very old reaction, published in 1961 by Wittig ...
I used the radioisotopes iron-55 and iron-59, manganese-52, and zinc-65 as tracers. At the end of my Ph.D. research I was ... My research dealt with the absorption of the micronutrients iron, manganese, zinc, and copper by tomato plants. ... This unit was charged with utilizing radioisotopes for research in plant nutrition; I imagine that I was one of a mere handful ... My major professor was Perry R. Stout, a pioneer in the then novel application of radioisotopes of physiologically important ...
Preferably the radioisotope will emit in the 10-5,000 kev range, more preferably 50-1,500 kev, most preferably 50-500 kev. ... Copper-67, Phosphorus-32, Phosphorus-33, Yttrium-90, Scandium-47, Samarium-153, Lutetium-177, Rhodium-105, Praseodymium-142, ... Use of radioisotopes with higher energy, beta, or positron emissions would entail use of imaging cameras with the appropriate ... Among the radioisotopes used, gamma-emitters, positron-emitters, x-ray emitters and fluorescence-emitters are suitable for ...
Nuclear reactors; radioisotopes and their applications.. 1.9 Coordination compounds : Nomenclature, isomerism and theories of ... copper, silver and gold. ...
High-grade transvaal chalcopyrite was neutron-irradiated to produce radioisotopes copper- 64, iron-59, and sulfur-35. ... techniques makes possible the study of the initial-stage sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of chalcopyrite and other copper ...
  • They have also been identified as potential ligands for radioisotope delivery, with selectivity towards hypoxic tissues, particularly in the heart and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Copper(II) forms mononuclear complexes that are paramagnetic and prefers ligands of sulfur and nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraazamacrocyclic ligands are the most widely used bifunctional chelators (BFCs) for attaching copper radionuclides to antibodies and peptides due to their relatively high kinetic stability. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the data presented here suggest that neutral or negatively charged Cu(II) complexes of tetraazamacrocyclic ligands with a cyclam backbone (tetradecane) are optimal for copper radiopharmaceutical applications. (elsevier.com)
  • Novel ligands, NBEA, NBPA, NETA, NE3TA, and NE3TA-Bn, were synthesized and evaluated as potential chelators of copper radioisotopes for use in targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging or radiation therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • In recent years specialists have also come from radiology, as dual positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures have become established, increasing the role of accelerators in radioisotope production. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Radiotracer [ 64 Cu]DOTA-ADIBON 3 -Ala-PEG 28 -A20FMDV2, used for positron emission tomography imaging of integrin α v β 6 expressing tumors, has been synthesized via copper-free click chemistry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER2-expressing tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • This article focusses on acute changes in copper trafficking, particularly influx and efflux in brain, and how it is altered in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease compared to normal mice, and highlights the growing opportunity to use positron emission tomography in the study of metallomics at the whole body level in animals and humans. (rsc.org)
  • The radiotracer approach is given added power by the growing availability of positron emission tomography (PET), which allows positron-emitting radioisotopes to be used to map acute copper trafficking processes across the whole body longitudinally and non-invasively in living humans and animals. (rsc.org)
  • Of the available positron-emitting copper radioisotopes, 64 Cu is the most practical due to its relatively long half life ( t 1/2 = 12.7 h) which offers a relatively large time window (2-3 days) for PET imaging. (rsc.org)
  • As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated successful surface functionalization of the nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol, TRC105 antibody (specific for CD105/endoglin), and 89 Zr (a positron-emitting radioisotope), and enhanced in vivo tumor vasculature-targeted positron emission tomography imaging in 4T1 murine breast tumor-bearing mice. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the photosensitizer is a fluorescent dye and it can bind the radioisotope copper-64, which enables visualization with both fluorescence imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). (researchsea.com)
  • Centers that do not have cyclotrons rely on generator-produced radioisotopes for assessment of regional myocardial perfusion with positron emission tomography (PET). (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to develop and implement an approach to quantify regional myocardial perfusion using copper(II) pyruvaldehyde bis-(N 4 -thiosemicarbazone) (PTSM) labeled with the generator-produced, positron-emitting radionuclide 62 Cu (t 1/2 =9.7 minutes). (elsevier.com)
  • Protein site-specific labeling techniques involve copper-free strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction between dibenzocyclooctyne-fluor 545 (DBCO-fluor 545) and an azide-bearing unnatural amino acid (UAA). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • High purity production and potential applications of copper-60 and copper-61," Nuclear Medicine and Biology , vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 351-358, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Over 40 million nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year, and demand for radioisotopes is increasing at up to 5% annually. (world-nuclear.org)
  • In developed countries (a quarter of the world population) about one person in 50 uses diagnostic nuclear medicine each year, and the frequency of therapy with radioisotopes is about one-tenth of this. (world-nuclear.org)
  • The most common radioisotope used in diagnosis is technetium-99 (Tc-99), with some 40 million procedures per year, accounting for about 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures and 85% of diagnostic scans in nuclear medicine worldwide. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Copper offers a relatively large number of radioisotopes that are potentially suitable for use in nuclear medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work, along with the Wolf group's work to identify radioisotopes that could be used for PET scanning, helped drive acceptance for PET imaging and eventually paved the way for the wider development of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine techniques. (triumf.ca)
  • Ruth has become widely recognized for his expertise and work at the leading edge of radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, from studying the origins and progression of neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease to future-facing personalized medicine and cancer treatment using therapeutic radioisotopes, including alpha-emitting isotopes . (triumf.ca)
  • Apart from nuclear medicine, Ruth has also explored the utility of radioisotopes in solving questions in the biological and physical sciences. (triumf.ca)
  • Technetium-99m is chelated with DTPA for ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scans and radioisotope renography nuclear medicine scans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radioisotope thallium-201 (as the soluble chloride TlCl) is used in small, nontoxic amounts as an agent in a nuclear medicine scan, during one type of nuclear cardiac stress test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weisman, Wong, and coworkers (23 , 24) have synthesized and characterized a series of copper (II) cross-bridged cyclam complexes that demonstrate improved kinetic stability compared with TETA complexes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder whose mutation causes the ATPase that transports copper into bile and ultimately incorporates it into ceruloplasmin to malfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilson's disease is a rare condition in which copper is retained excessively in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • cirrhosis caused by Wilson's disease, in which copper builds up in organs, is treated with medications to remove the copper. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Copper compounds show vast array of biological actions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, biocidal and other. (chemweb.com)
  • Flourine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), iodine 131 ((131)I) methylnorcholestenol, and gallium 67 ((67)Ga) citrate, separately compacted into micro tubes, were inserted subcutaneously into a Wistar rat, and the distribution of the radioisotope compounds was determined with 3D imaging by using the Compton camera after the rat was sacrificed (ex vivo model). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Conversely, reduction of their compounds to the pure metal is easiest for gold, and diminishes through silver to copper 1 . (h2g2.com)
  • Nonradioactive caesium compounds are only mildly toxic, but the pure metal's tendency to react explosively with water means that caesium is considered a hazardous material, and the radioisotopes present a significant health and ecological hazard in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ductile malleable metallic element with atomic number 29 that is a component of various enzymes, is used in its salt forms as an astringent, deodorant, and antifungal, and whose radioisotope is used in brain scans and for diagnosing Wilson disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Copper is malleable and ductile - both easily beaten into shape or drawn out into wires. (h2g2.com)
  • All naturally occurring materials, including air, water, and soil, can be induced (activated) by neutron capture into some amount of radioactivity in varying degrees, as a result of production of neutron-rich radioisotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Well-known examples are uranium and thorium, but also included are naturally occurring long-lived radioisotopes, such as potassium-40. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all, 31 radioisotopes of neodymium have been detected as of 2010[update], with the most stable radioisotopes being the naturally occurring ones: 144Nd (alpha decay with a half-life (t1/2) of 2.29×1015 years) and 150Nd (double beta decay, t1/2 = 7×1018 years, approximately). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many naturally occurring radioisotopes (another 51 or so, for a total of about 339) exhibit still shorter half-lives than 68 million years, but they are made freshly, as daughter products of decay processes of primordial nuclides (for example, radium from uranium) or from ongoing energetic reactions, such as cosmogenic nuclides produced by present bombardment of Earth by cosmic rays (for example, 14C made from nitrogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • NorthStar also announced progress in its multi-pronged expansion efforts to ensure a reliable, domestically produced Mo-99 supply for the U.S. healthcare system, an expanded product portfolio and deployment of its technological expertise in scaling up commercial production for therapeutic radioisotopes copper-67 (Cu-67) and actinium (Ac-225). (businesswire.com)
  • We are applying our development expertise towards commercial-scale production of promising therapeutic radioisotopes such as Cu-67 and Ac-225, which may have potential in treating a range of cancers. (businesswire.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and optimal dosing of intravenous copper chloride and disulfiram in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Di(2-ethylhexyl)-1 H -triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate (DEHT), di( n -butyl)-1 H- 1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate (DBT), and di(methyl)-1 H -triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate (DMT) are covalently attached to azide-functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) via copper free-click reaction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In a separate experiment, indium 111((111)In) chloride and (131)I-methylnorcholestenol were injected into a rat intravenously, and copper 64 ((64)Cu) chloride was administered into the stomach orally just before imaging. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by defects in a gene that encodes an evolutionarily conserved copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7A). (bioportfolio.com)
  • During his tenure, Ruth oversaw the installation of four PET scanners at UBC hospital , as well as the installation of the TRIUMF-type 13 MeV (TR-13) cyclotron at TRIUMF - a cyclotron that to this day provides key radioisotopes for PET scans at the UBC hospital. (triumf.ca)
  • Several issues must be addressed in configuring therapeutic strategies for this disorder: (a) affected infants must be identified and treatment commenced very early in life before irreparable neurodegeneration occurs, (b) the block in intestinal absorption of copper must be bypassed, (c) circulating copper must be delivered to the brain, and (d) copper must be available to enzymes within cells that require it as a cofactor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Radioluminescent paint consists of a mixture of a chemical containing a radioisotope with a radioluminescent chemical (phosphor). (wikipedia.org)