A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.
Ceruloplasmin is a blue copper-containing protein primarily synthesized in the liver, functioning as a ferroxidase enzyme involved in iron homeostasis and contributing to copper transportation in the body.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Inborn errors of metal metabolism refer to genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the transportation, storage, or utilization of essential metals, leading to imbalances that can cause toxicity or deficiency and subsequent impairment of normal physiological processes.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
Phenanthrolines are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing two aromatic hydrocarbon rings fused with a third ring consisting of nitrogen atoms, which have been used in the development of various pharmaceutical and chemical research applications, including as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents, enzyme inhibitors, and chelators.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
An ethylenediamine derivative used as stabilizer for EPOXY RESINS, as ampholyte for ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING and as chelating agent for copper in HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 1.10.3.3.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Cu(II) inhibition of the proton translocation machinery of the influenza A virus M2 protein. (1/7019)

The homotetrameric M2 integral membrane protein of influenza virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. An essential histidine residue (His-37) in the M2 transmembrane domain is believed to play an important role in the conduction mechanism of this channel. Also, this residue is believed to form hydrogen-bonded interactions with the ammonium group of the anti-viral compound, amantadine. A molecular model of this channel suggests that the imidazole side chains of His-37 from symmetry-related monomers of the homotetrameric pore converge to form a coordination site for transition metals. Thus, membrane currents of oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing the M2 protein were recorded when the solution bathing the oocytes contained various transition metals. Membrane currents were strongly and reversibly inhibited by Cu2+ with biphasic reaction kinetics. The biphasic inhibition curves may be explained by a two-site model involving a fast-binding peripheral site with low specificity for divalent metal ions, as well as a high affinity site (Kdiss approximately 2 microM) that lies deep within the pore and shows rather slow-binding kinetics (kon = 18.6 +/- 0.9 M-1 s-1). The pH dependence of the interaction with the high affinity Cu2+-binding site parallels the pH dependence of inhibition by amantadine, which has previously been ascribed to protonation of His-37. The voltage dependence of the inhibition at the high affinity site indicates that the binding site lies within the transmembrane region of the pore. Furthermore, the inhibition by Cu2+ could be prevented by prior application of the reversible blocker of M2 channel activity, BL-1743, providing further support for the location of the site within the pore region of M2. Finally, substitutions of His-37 by alanine or glycine eliminated the high affinity site and resulted in membrane currents that were only partially inhibited at millimolar concentrations of Cu2+. Binding of Cu2+ to the high affinity site resulted in an approximately equal inhibition of both inward and outward currents. The wild-type protein showed very high specificity for Cu2+ and was only partially inhibited by 1 mM Ni2+, Pt2+, and Zn2+. These data are discussed in terms of the functional role of His-37 in the mechanism of proton translocation through the channel.  (+info)

Internal electron transfer between hemes and Cu(II) bound at cysteine beta93 promotes methemoglobin reduction by carbon monoxide. (2/7019)

Previous studies showed that CO/H2O oxidation provides electrons to drive the reduction of oxidized hemoglobin (metHb). We report here that Cu(II) addition accelerates the rate of metHb beta chain reduction by CO by a factor of about 1000. A mechanism whereby electron transfer occurs via an internal pathway coupling CO/H2O oxidation to Fe(III) and Cu(II) reduction is suggested by the observation that the copper-induced rate enhancement is inhibited by blocking Cys-beta93 with N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, this internal electron-transfer pathway is more readily established at low Cu(II) concentrations in Hb Deer Lodge (beta2His --> Arg) and other species lacking His-beta2 than in Hb A0. This difference is consistent with preferential binding of Cu(II) in Hb A0 to a high affinity site involving His-beta2, which is ineffective in promoting electron exchange between Cu(II) and the beta heme iron. Effective electron transfer is thus affected by Hb type but is not governed by the R left arrow over right arrow T conformational equilibrium. The beta hemes in Cu(II)-metHb are reduced under CO at rates close to those observed for cytochrome c oxidase, where heme and copper are present together in the oxygen-binding site and where internal electron transfer also occurs.  (+info)

Negligible amount of copper in hepatic L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. (3/7019)

During the purification of L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a protohemoprotein from rat liver, both copper and heme contents of the preparations were found to be progressively increased as purification proceeded. However, the greater part of copper was removed in the late stages of the purification giving a copper to heme ratio less than 0.4. The small amounts of copper could further be reduced by one-half, by a mild treatment of enzyme with chelators such as ethylenedi aminetetraacetate, without any accompanying decrease in enzymatic activity. Since the turnover number of these enzyme preparations expressed per mol of enzyme-bound heme, 200 to 277 min-1 at 25 degrees, were either comparable to or slightly higher than those reported with homogeneous enzyme preparations, the heme in the preparation was considered to be of fully active L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and, therefore, such a small ratio of copper to heme, 0.1 to 0.3, indicated that copper is not a constituent of L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase of rat liver. The findings were thus inconsistent with the results of Brady et al. (Brady, F. O., Monaco, M. E. Forman, H. J. Schutz, G., and Feigelson, P. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7915-7922), who found that L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase contained 2 g atoms of copper and 2 mol of heme/mol of enzyme. Possible reasons for this discrepancy have been discussed.  (+info)

Characterisation of copper-binding to the second sub-domain of the Menkes protein ATPase (MNKr2). (4/7019)

The Menkes ATPase (MNK) has an essential role in the translocation of copper across cellular membranes. In a complementary manner, the intracellular concentration of copper regulates the activity and cellular location of the ATPase through its six homologous amino-terminal domains. The roles of the six amino-terminal domains in the activation and cellular trafficking processes are unknown. Understanding the role of these domains relies on the development of an understanding of their metal-binding properties and structural properties. The second conserved sub-domain of MNK was over-expressed, purified and its copper-binding properties characterised. Reconstitution studies demonstrate that copper binds to MNKr2 as Cu(I) with a stoichiometry of one copper per domain. This is the first direct evidence of copper-binding to the MNK amino-terminal repeats. Circular dichroism studies suggest that the binding or loss of copper to MNKr2 does not cause substantial changes to the secondary structure of the protein.  (+info)

Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom. (5/7019)

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (6/7019)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

The pro-phenoloxidase of coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor, larvae was activated during cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions. (7/7019)

To characterize the proteins involved in cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions, we induced the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction in vitro with the hemolymph of larvae of the coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor. The 72 kDa protein was specifically enriched in the residues of cell clump/cell adhesion and was purified to homogeneity. A cDNA clone for the 72 kDa protein was isolated. We found that the 72 kDa protein was an activated phenoloxidase from Tenebrio pro-phenoloxidase. We suggest that activated phenoloxidase is involved in the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction as well as in the synthesis of melanin.  (+info)

Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins. (8/7019)

Cryptocyanin, a copper-free hexameric protein in crab (Cancer magister) hemolymph, has been characterized and the amino acid sequence has been deduced from its cDNA. It is markedly similar in sequence, size, and structure to hemocyanin, the copper-containing oxygen-transport protein found in many arthropods. Cryptocyanin does not bind oxygen, however, and lacks three of the six highly conserved copper-binding histidine residues of hemocyanin. Cryptocyanin has no phenoloxidase activity, although a phenoloxidase is present in the hemolymph. The concentration of cryptocyanin in the hemolymph is closely coordinated with the molt cycle and reaches levels higher than hemocyanin during premolt. Cryptocyanin resembles insect hexamerins in the lack of copper, molt cycle patterns of biosynthesis, and potential contributions to the new exoskeleton. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence similarities between cryptocyanin and other members of the hemocyanin gene family shows that cryptocyanin is closely associated with crustacean hemocyanins and suggests that cryptocyanin arose as a result of a hemocyanin gene duplication. The presence of both hemocyanin and cryptocyanin in one animal provides an example of how insect hexamerins might have evolved from hemocyanin. Our results suggest that multiple members of the hemocyanin gene family-hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, phenoloxidase, and hexamerins-may participate in two vital functions of molting animals, oxygen binding and molting. Cryptocyanin may provide important molecular data to further investigate evolutionary relationships among all molting animals.  (+info)

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO₄. It is a common salt of copper and is often found as a blue crystalline powder. Copper sulfate is used in various applications, including as a fungicide, algicide, and in some industrial processes.

In medical terms, copper sulfate has been historically used as an emetic (a substance that causes vomiting) to treat poisoning. However, its use for this purpose is not common in modern medicine due to the availability of safer and more effective emetics. Copper sulfate can be harmful or fatal if swallowed, and it can cause burns and irritation to the skin and eyes. Therefore, it should be handled with care and kept out of reach of children and pets.

Ceruloplasmin is a protein found in blood plasma that binds and transports copper ions. It plays a crucial role in copper metabolism, including the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is necessary for the incorporation of iron into transferrin, another protein responsible for transporting iron throughout the body. Ceruloplasmin also acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder characterized by abnormal copper accumulation in various organs.

Cation transport proteins are a type of membrane protein that facilitate the movement of cations (positively charged ions) across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ion balance and electrical excitability within cells, as well as in various physiological processes such as nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and signal transduction.

There are several types of cation transport proteins, including:

1. Ion channels: These are specialized protein structures that form a pore or channel through the membrane, allowing ions to pass through rapidly and selectively. They can be either voltage-gated or ligand-gated, meaning they open in response to changes in electrical potential or binding of specific molecules, respectively.

2. Ion pumps: These are active transport proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move ions against their electrochemical gradient, effectively pumping them from one side of the membrane to the other. Examples include the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) and calcium pumps (Ca2+ ATPase).

3. Ion exchangers: These are antiporter proteins that facilitate the exchange of one ion for another across the membrane, maintaining electroneutrality. For example, the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) moves a proton into the cell in exchange for a sodium ion being moved out.

4. Symporters: These are cotransporter proteins that move two or more ions together in the same direction, often coupled with the transport of a solute molecule. An example is the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), which facilitates glucose uptake into cells by coupling its movement with that of sodium ions.

Collectively, cation transport proteins help maintain ion homeostasis and contribute to various cellular functions, including electrical signaling, enzyme regulation, and metabolic processes. Dysfunction in these proteins can lead to a range of diseases, such as neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and kidney dysfunction.

Hepatolenticular degeneration, also known as Wilson's disease, is a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism. It is characterized by the accumulation of copper in various organs, particularly the liver and brain. This leads to progressive damage and impairment of their functions.

The medical definition of Hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease) is:

A genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the ATP7B gene, resulting in impaired biliary excretion of copper and its accumulation within hepatocytes. This causes liver damage, which can manifest as acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fulminant hepatic failure. Additionally, excess copper is released into the bloodstream and deposited in various tissues, including the basal ganglia of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, dysarthria, and behavioral changes. Other features include Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper deposition in the cornea), splenomegaly, and hemolytic anemia. Early diagnosis and treatment with copper-chelating agents can significantly improve outcomes and prevent complications.

Menkes kinky hair syndrome, also known as Menkes disease or Steely hair syndrome, is a rare X-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays an essential role in the body's ability to absorb and utilize copper, which is necessary for various enzymes involved in vital functions such as energy production, antioxidant activity, connective tissue synthesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis.

The main features of Menkes kinky hair syndrome include:

1. Kinky or steely hypopigmented hair: The hair is often sparse, brittle, and has a characteristic steel wool appearance due to abnormal keratin formation caused by copper deficiency.
2. Neurological symptoms: These may include developmental delays, seizures, hypotonia (low muscle tone), and progressive neurodegeneration leading to severe intellectual disability.
3. Connective tissue abnormalities: Loose skin, joint laxity, hernias, and fragile blood vessels are common features of the condition.
4. Growth failure: Affected individuals often have poor growth and weight gain.
5. Other symptoms: Menkes kinky hair syndrome can also cause gastrointestinal problems, cardiovascular issues, and temperature regulation difficulties.

The onset of symptoms typically occurs within the first few months of life, with most affected children not surviving beyond early childhood due to the severity of their neurological impairments. However, some milder forms of the disorder have been reported, which may allow for a longer lifespan and less severe symptoms.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Copper radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element copper. These isotopes have an unstable nucleus and emit radiation as they decay over time. Copper has several radioisotopes, including copper-64, copper-67, and copper-60, among others. These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as diagnostic imaging, therapy, and research. For example, copper-64 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help diagnose diseases like cancer, while copper-67 is used in targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment. The use of radioisotopes in medicine requires careful handling and regulation due to their radiation hazards.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

Inborn errors of metal metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the way the body processes and handles certain metallic elements. These disorders can result in an accumulation or deficiency of specific metals, leading to various clinical manifestations. Examples of such conditions include:

1. Wilson's disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the ATP7B gene, which results in abnormal copper metabolism and accumulation in various organs, particularly the liver and brain.
2. Menkes disease: An X-linked recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the ATP7A gene, leading to impaired copper transport and deficiency, affecting the brain, bones, and connective tissue.
3. Hemochromatosis: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by excessive iron absorption and deposition in various organs, causing damage to the liver, heart, and pancreas.
4. Acrodermatitis enteropathica: A rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the SLC39A4 gene, resulting in zinc deficiency and affecting the skin, gastrointestinal system, and immune function.
5. Disturbances in manganese metabolism: Rare genetic disorders that can lead to either manganese accumulation or deficiency, causing neurological symptoms.

These conditions often require specialized medical management, including dietary modifications, chelation therapy, and/or supplementation to maintain appropriate metal homeostasis and prevent organ damage.

Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins found in the cells of many organisms, including humans. They play important roles in various biological processes such as:

1. Metal homeostasis and detoxification: MTs can bind to various heavy metals like zinc, copper, cadmium, and mercury with high affinity. This binding helps regulate the concentration of these metals within cells and protects against metal toxicity.
2. Oxidative stress protection: Due to their high cysteine content, MTs act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, thus protecting cells from oxidative damage.
3. Immune response regulation: MTs are involved in the modulation of immune cell function and inflammatory responses. They can influence the activation and proliferation of immune cells, as well as the production of cytokines and chemokines.
4. Development and differentiation: MTs have been implicated in cell growth, differentiation, and embryonic development, particularly in tissues with high rates of metal turnover, such as the liver and kidneys.
5. Neuroprotection: In the brain, MTs play a role in protecting neurons from oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and heavy metal toxicity. They have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

There are four main isoforms of metallothioneins (MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4) in humans, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions.

Azurin is a small protein with a blue copper center, which is involved in electron transfer reactions. It is produced by the bacterium *Pseudomonas aeruginosa*, and has been studied for its potential role in wound healing and as an anticancer agent. The name "azurin" comes from the fact that this protein has a bright blue color due to its copper ion content.

Medical Definition:

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2-) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This essential antioxidant defense mechanism helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced during normal metabolic processes and can lead to oxidative stress when their levels become too high.

There are three main types of superoxide dismutase found in different cellular locations:
1. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD or SOD1) - Present mainly in the cytoplasm of cells.
2. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) - Located within the mitochondrial matrix.
3. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD or SOD3) - Found in the extracellular spaces, such as blood vessels and connective tissues.

Imbalances in SOD levels or activity have been linked to various pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and aging-related disorders.

Trace elements are essential minerals that the body needs in very small or tiny amounts, usually less than 100 milligrams per day, for various biological processes. These include elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, selenium, and iodine. They are vital for maintaining good health and proper functioning of the human body, but they are required in such minute quantities that even a slight excess or deficiency can lead to significant health issues.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Chelating agents are substances that can bind and form stable complexes with certain metal ions, preventing them from participating in chemical reactions. In medicine, chelating agents are used to remove toxic or excessive amounts of metal ions from the body. For example, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a commonly used chelating agent that can bind with heavy metals such as lead and mercury, helping to eliminate them from the body and reduce their toxic effects. Other chelating agents include dimercaprol (BAL), penicillamine, and deferoxamine. These agents are used to treat metal poisoning, including lead poisoning, iron overload, and copper toxicity.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

Metalloproteins are proteins that contain one or more metal ions as a cofactor, which is required for their biological activity. These metal ions play crucial roles in the catalytic function, structural stability, and electron transfer processes of metalloproteins. The types of metals involved can include iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, calcium, or manganese, among others. Examples of metalloproteins are hemoglobin (contains heme-bound iron), cytochrome c (contains heme-bound iron and functions in electron transfer), and carbonic anhydrase (contains zinc and catalyzes the conversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate).

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction releases energy, which is used to drive various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, transport of ions across membranes, and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.

ATPases are classified into several types based on their structure, function, and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. P-type ATPases: These ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate during the reaction cycle and are involved in the transport of ions across membranes, such as the sodium-potassium pump and calcium pumps.
2. F-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria, and are responsible for generating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP.
3. V-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in vacuolar membranes and endomembranes, and are involved in acidification of intracellular compartments.
4. A-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in the plasma membrane and are involved in various functions such as cell signaling and ion transport.

Overall, ATPases play a crucial role in maintaining the energy balance of cells and regulating various physiological processes.

Laccase is an enzyme (specifically, a type of oxidoreductase) that is widely distributed in plants, fungi, and bacteria. It catalyzes the oxidation of various phenolic compounds, including polyphenols, methoxy-substituted phenols, aromatic amines, and some inorganic ions, while reducing molecular oxygen to water. This enzyme plays a crucial role in lignin degradation, as well as in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds and in the synthesis of various pigments and polymers. The medical relevance of laccase is linked to its potential applications in bioremediation, biofuel production, and biotechnology.

Phenanthrolines are a class of compounds that contain a phenanthrene core with two amine groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms. They are known for their ability to form complexes with metal ions and have been widely used in the field of medicinal chemistry as building blocks for pharmaceuticals, particularly in the development of antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and quinine. Additionally, phenanthrolines have also been explored for their potential use in cancer therapy due to their ability to interfere with DNA replication and transcription. However, it's important to note that specific medical uses and applications of phenanthrolines will depend on the particular compound and its properties.

Plastocyanin is a small, copper-containing protein that plays a crucial role in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. It functions as an electron carrier, facilitating the movement of electrons between two key protein complexes (cytochrome b6f and photosystem I) located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. Plastocyanin is a soluble protein found in the lumen of the thylakoids, and its copper ion serves as the site for electron transfer. The oxidized form of plastocyanin accepts an electron from cytochrome b6f and then donates it to photosystem I, helping to maintain the flow of electrons during light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis.

Deficiency diseases are a group of medical conditions that occur when an individual's diet lacks essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. These diseases develop because the body needs these nutrients to function correctly, and without them, various bodily functions can become impaired, leading to disease.

Deficiency diseases can manifest in many different ways, depending on which nutrient is lacking. For example:

* Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.
* Vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy, a condition characterized by fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.
* Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children, a disease that leads to weakened bones and skeletal deformities.
* Iron deficiency can result in anemia, a condition in which the blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.

Preventing deficiency diseases involves eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups. In some cases, supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate nutrient intake, especially for individuals who have restricted diets or medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.

Trientine is not a medical condition, it's a medication. The medical definition of Trientine is:

A chelating agent used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder characterized by excessive accumulation of copper in various organs, particularly the liver and brain. Trientine works by binding to copper in the body and promoting its excretion through the urine, thereby helping to reduce copper levels and alleviate symptoms associated with Wilson's disease. It is available as an oral medication and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Electron Transport Complex IV is also known as Cytochrome c oxidase. It is the last complex in the electron transport chain, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells. This complex contains 13 subunits, two heme groups (a and a3), and three copper centers (A, B, and C).

In the electron transport chain, Complex IV receives electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to molecular oxygen, reducing it to water. This process is accompanied by the pumping of protons across the membrane, contributing to the generation of a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis via ATP synthase (Complex V). The overall reaction catalyzed by Complex IV can be summarized as follows:

4e- + 4H+ + O2 → 2H2O

Defects in Cytochrome c oxidase can lead to various diseases, including mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and neurodegenerative disorders.

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy, also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy, is a technique used to investigate materials with unpaired electrons. It is based on the principle of absorption of energy by the unpaired electrons when they are exposed to an external magnetic field and microwave radiation.

In this technique, a sample is placed in a magnetic field and microwave radiation is applied. The unpaired electrons in the sample absorb energy and change their spin state when the energy of the microwaves matches the energy difference between the spin states. This absorption of energy is recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, producing an ESR spectrum.

ESR spectroscopy can provide information about the number, type, and behavior of unpaired electrons in a sample, as well as the local environment around the electron. It is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to study materials such as free radicals, transition metal ions, and defects in solids.

Ascorbate oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to dehydroascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen. This reaction also results in the production of water and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. Ascorbate oxidase plays a significant role in regulating the levels of ascorbic acid in plants, where it is primarily found. It belongs to the family of copper-containing oxidoreductases. The enzyme's active site contains two copper ions that facilitate the electron transfer during the catalytic process. Ascorbate oxidase is not considered essential for human health since humans do not produce ascorbic acid and must obtain it through dietary sources.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

Molecular chaperones are a group of proteins that assist in the proper folding and assembly of other protein molecules, helping them achieve their native conformation. They play a crucial role in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, which can lead to the formation of toxic species associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones are also involved in protein transport across membranes, degradation of misfolded proteins, and protection of cells under stress conditions. Their function is generally non-catalytic and ATP-dependent, and they often interact with their client proteins in a transient manner.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

... in renewable energy Copper nanoparticle Erosion corrosion of copper water tubes Cold water pitting of copper tube List ... Copper motor rotor project; Copper Development Association; "Copper.org: Copper Motor Rotor Project". Archived from the ... 340 μg of copper for 1-3 years old, 440 μg of copper for 4-8 years old, 700 μg of copper for 9-13 years old, 890 μg of copper ... these include copper(II) acetate, copper(II) nitrate, and copper(II) carbonate. Copper(II) sulfate forms a blue crystalline ...
The copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi) is a North American species of freshwater fish in the family Catostomidae. It is found ... The copper redhorse is one of seven species of the genus Moxostoma (family Catostomidae) occurring in Canada. Its discovery has ... The copper redhorse occurs primarily in medium-sized rivers where water temperatures exceed 20 °C in summer. Spawning occurs in ... High quality copper redhorse habitat is in decline. Its apparent extirpation from the Yamaska and Noire rivers is closely ...
"Ultratop.be - Live - Throwing Copper" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved June 1, 2020. "Ultratop.be - Live - Throwing Copper" ( ... "Charts.nz - Live - Throwing Copper". Hung Medien. Retrieved June 1, 2020. "Norwegiancharts.com - Live - Throwing Copper". Hung ... Throwing Copper". Hung Medien. Retrieved June 1, 2020. "Austriancharts.at - Live - Throwing Copper" (in German). Hung Medien. ... Throwing Copper is the third studio album by American alternative rock band Live, released on April 26, 1994, on former MCA ...
In laboratory, copper benzoate can be made by combining aqueous solutions of potassium benzoate with copper sulfate. Copper ... Copper(II) benzoates exists in at least two structural forms, depending on the degree of hydration. As of copper(II) acetate, ... Because copper emits blue in a flame, this salt has found some use as a source of blue light in fireworks. ... Copper benzoate made from sodium benzoate for use in fireworks may result in strong yellow dilution of the flame unless the ...
... may refer to: List of copper alloys Sumitomo copper affair in the mid-1990s United Copper affair in 1907 ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Copper manipulation. If an internal link led you here, you ...
In electronics, the term copper pour refers to an area on a printed circuit board filled with copper (the metal used to make ... A distinctive feature of copper pour is the backoff (or stand-off) - a certain distance between the copper pour and any tracks ... Many early PCBs have a "hatched copper pour", sometimes called a "cherry pie lattice". While solid copper pour provides better ... A copper pour therefore looks like it flows around other components, with the exception of pads which are connected to the ...
... were an American women-only vocal group. They formed in the late 1990s, and released three albums. They disbanded ...
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. Copper or The Copper may also refer to: Copper (color), the ... Oregon Copper Mine Gulch, California Copper Mountains, Arizona Copper Peak, Michigan Copper Country, an area in the Upper ... a brew kettle for making beer Native copper, a naturally occurring mineral consisting of pure copper Wash copper or just copper ... Copper Lake (disambiguation) Copper, Oregon (disambiguation) Copper, Jackson County, Oregon, a submerged town Copper Salmon ...
... is prepared by reacting sodium naproxen with a copper(II) salt such as copper(II) sulfate. 2 C 14 H 13 NaO 3 + ... Copper naproxen is a chemical complex of copper2+ chelated with the anti-inflammatory drug naproxen. Copper complexes of NSAIDs ... Copper naproxen can by found as a monohydrate, and it can form complexes with other organic molecules such as nicotinyl alcohol ... Sorenson, John R.J. (1989), 6 Copper Complexes Offer a Physiological Approach to Treatment of Chronic Diseases, Progress in ...
... may refer to : Copper(II) phosphate, cupric salt of phosphoric acid Copper(I) phosphate, cuprous salt of ... copper uranyl phosphates Andrewsite, a discredited copper/iron phosphate, now known to be a mixture Arthurite, a mixed copper/ ... a basic copper phosphate Libethenite, a rare basic copper phosphate Sampleite, a copper phosphate mineral with sodium, calcium ... Copper phosphide This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Copper phosphate. If an internal link led ...
Annealing by short circuit Copper cable certification Copper sulfide Copper-clad aluminium wire Copper-clad steel Galvanization ... Copper.org. 2010-08-25. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-06-01. Davis, Joseph R., Copper and copper ... Copper/Brass/Bronze Products Handbook, CDA Publication 601/0, Copper Development Association The International Annealed Copper ... phosphorus may be added to copper. For certain applications, copper alloy conductors are preferred instead of pure copper, ...
... (tungsten-copper, CuW, or WCu) is a mixture of copper and tungsten. As copper and tungsten are not mutually ... Commonly used copper tungsten mixtures contains 10-50 wt.% of copper, the remaining portion being mostly tungsten. The typical ... "Copper Tungsten Supplier - Bar - Plate - Sheet - Wire , Eagle Alloys Corporation". (Use dmy dates from October 2023, Copper ... "Properties of Copper Tungsten". "Home - Credo Reference". "Copper Tungsten Alloy". chinatungsten.com. Retrieved 29 March 2019. ...
"Sugar: Copper Blue". Q. No. 72. September 1992. p. 83. Ransom, Kevin (October 29, 1992). "Sugar: Copper Blue". Rolling Stone. ... "Copper Blue - Sugar". AllMusic. Retrieved November 28, 2005. Kot, Greg (September 3, 1992). "Sugar: Copper Blue (Rykodisc)". ... "Bob Mould's Sugar Remasters Copper Blue". Antimusic.com. Retrieved September 9, 2012. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Copper Blue/ ... Copper Blue is the debut studio album by American alternative rock band Sugar. It was voted 1992 Album of the Year by the NME. ...
"Copper Kettle" (also known as "Get you a Copper Kettle", "In the pale moonlight") is a song composed by Albert Frank Beddoe and ... "Copper Kettle", off his absurdly underappreciated album Self Portrait... "Bob Dylan - Copper Kettle Lyrics". musiXmatch. 2022- ... Copper Kettle was written in 1953 as part of my opera Go Lightly Stranger. A. F. Beddoe, Staten Island, N.Y. "Gillian Welch + ... Enjoyable lyrics and simple melody turned "Copper Kettle" into a popular folk song. Joan Baez, recorded in Joan Baez in Concert ...
... is an alloy of copper and tellurium. Tellurium improves the machinability of copper. Tellurium is usually ... Tellurium copper can be used as the electrode in electrical discharge machining (EDM) - the alloy is used to replace copper ... the hardness of the alloy is increased by precipitation of the copper telluride: weissite. Tellurium copper is not suited to ... Copper forms tellurides. These include Cu4Te, Cu2Te (m.p. 1125 °C), and CuTe. A eutectic forms at 71% (mol) Te, (m.p. 340 °C). ...
A wash copper, copper boiler or simply copper is a wash house boiler, generally made of galvanised iron, though the best sorts ... Linen and cotton were placed in the copper and were boiled to whiten them. Clothes were agitated within the copper with a ... Water was always put in the copper before it was lit. In the case of solid fuel, a small shovel of hot coals would be brought ... "The copper which supplied hot water in Victorian and early 1900s houses". Join me in the 1900s. Wikimedia Commons has media ...
Vermont coppers were copper coins issued by the Vermont Republic. The coins were first struck in 1785 and continued to be ... Guth, Ronald J. (1985). America's Copper Coinage 1783-1857. American Numismtic Society. "Vermont Coppers Dies attributed to ... The Copper Coins of Vermont and Those Bearing the Vermont Name. C-4: 1998. ASIN B0006QZJNQ. Doty, Richard G., Eric P. Newman, ... "Vermont Coppers 1785, 1786: Introduction". Coin and Currency Collections in the Department of Special Collections University of ...
The schedule of Copper is slow, new updates appearing once a month. Each page of Copper tells a self-contained story, though ... Copper is a 2002 webcomic by Kazu Kibuishi. Consisting of a series of short stories, Copper has a very irregular schedule, with ... Copper was named one of the best webcomics of 2004 by The Webcomics Examiner, Joe Zabel describing it as "one of the most ... Rating Copper a 9 out of 10, Jiffy Burke of Sequential Tart stated that "each of the full-page, full-color vignettes revealed ...
A copper nanoparticle is a copper based particle 1 to 100 nm in size. Like many other forms of nanoparticles, a copper ... Copper chloride can be reduced using only L-ascorbic acid in a heated aqueous solution to produce stable copper nanoparticles. ... This results in a combination of copper oxide and pure copper nanoparticle clusters, depending on the method used. A more ... while the commercial copper exhibited only a conversion of 43%. Copper nanoparticles that are extremely small and have a high ...
This is a list of copper cartels in the 20th century: Copper Export Association, CEA, 1918-1923 Copper Exporters, Inc., CEI, ... Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2016, All articles lacking in-text citations, Copper cartels, Copper mining). ... 1926-1932 International Copper Cartel, ICC, 1935-1939 (created by the World Copper Agreement) Intergovernmental Council of ... Since 1870, there have been several formal attempts to restrict the copper output and raise, in this form, its price. ...
Copper also ghostwrote two novels about the comics hero the Phantom for Lee Falk. Copper's work has been translated into many ... "Basil Copper obituary". The Guardian. 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2013-04-14. Mike Ashley, "Basil Copper", in David Pringle, ed., St ... The first of Copper's stories published by editor August Derleth was "The House by the Tarn" in Dark Things (1971). Copper went ... Copper's work was also championed by editor Peter Haining. Copper's best-known macabre tales include: "The Academy of Pain", " ...
... is a compound with formula Cu(C7H5O3). It is the copper salt of salicylic acid. A copper(II) monosalicylate ... "Rheological phase synthesis and characterization of copper monosalicylate". Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences. 8 (2 ...
394-. ISBN 978-0-9721522-8-0. [1], Copper Commando, Index [2], Copper Commando - vol. 1, no. 1, August 22, 1942 [3], Copper ... The Copper Commando was the official newspaper of the Victory Labor-Management Committees of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company ... Graham, A. (2009). Copper Commando and the Anaconda Company's wartime production. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 59( ... The editorial offices were located in Butte at the Finlen Hotel, the Copper Commando was an early instance of joint Labor- ...
Draper, Sharon (2006). Copper Sun. New York, New York: Simon Pulse. pp. 302. ISBN 978-1-4169-5348-7. "Copper Sun - My Spirit ... "Copper Sun". Scholastic. Retrieved 2012-03-15. "Copper Sun". Scholastic. Retrieved 2012-03-15. "sharondraper.com". Retrieved ... Copper Sun is a 2006 young adult novel by Coretta Scott King Award-winning author Sharon Draper. It was a National Book Award ... Copper Sun addresses the Transatlantic Slave Trade, slavery in America, and freedom. Amari, a 15-year old girl, is with Kwasi, ...
The walls of the canyon are a copper/green color, which is the origin of the name. The New Spanish arrived in the Copper Canyon ... ISBN 0-292-79808-3 Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Copper Canyon. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Copper Canyon. ( ... Copper Canyon was featured on Season 1 Episode 12, of Man vs. Wild on the Discovery Channel, on Raramuri Tale, The nonfiction ... Copper Canyon (Spanish: Barrancas del Cobre) is a group of six distinct canyons in the Sierra Madre Occidental in the ...
Its products include copper cathode, sulfuric acid, copper rod, bare copper wire, gold, silver, platinum, palladium, selenium, ... Yunnan Copper Company Limited (SZSE: 000878, formerly Yunnan Smelting Plant) is the third largest copper producer in China. It ... In November 2007, Aluminum Corporation of China Limited acquired 49% of total shares of Yunnan Copper Group, Yunnan Copper ... 1b for stake in Yunnan Copper Yunnan Copper Company Limited website (Webarchive template wayback links, Metal companies of ...
... is the 10th largest late-stage copper resource in the world (over 9B pounds copper, 2.1M ounces of gold and 59.4M ounces of ... Cañariaco Norte identified with incentive copper price in the lowest quartile of the top 84 copper projects worldwide (October ... In addition to Cañariaco Norte, the Cañariaco Project includes the Cañariaco Sur deposit (2.2B pounds copper, 1.2M ounces of ... The Company is very pleased to now have Cañariaco Norte included in 4 research reports that compare global copper projects. RFC ...
There are two basic types of copper tubing, soft copper and rigid copper. Copper tubing is joined using flare connection, ... Rigid copper is a popular choice for water lines. Rigid or "Hard" copper tubing is generally referred to as "pipe". Copper " ... rigid copper tubing. It can be joined by any of the three methods used for rigid copper, and it is the only type of copper ... Copper tubing is most often used for heating systems and as a refrigerant line in HVAC systems. Copper tubing is slowly being ...
... refers to a thin strip of copper, often backed with adhesive. Copper tape can be found at most hardware and ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Copper tape. "What is Copper Tape? (with picture)". About Mechanics. Retrieved 2023-04- ... Copper tape is used to keep slugs and snails out of certain areas in gardens, potted plants, and trunks of fruit trees, and ... Copper, Adhesive tape, All stub articles, Horticulture stubs). ...
... may refer to: Copper Cove (Antarctica) Copper Cove Subdivision, California This disambiguation page lists articles ...
Copper in renewable energy Copper nanoparticle Erosion corrosion of copper water tubes Cold water pitting of copper tube List ... Copper motor rotor project; Copper Development Association; "Copper.org: Copper Motor Rotor Project". Archived from the ... 340 μg of copper for 1-3 years old, 440 μg of copper for 4-8 years old, 700 μg of copper for 9-13 years old, 890 μg of copper ... these include copper(II) acetate, copper(II) nitrate, and copper(II) carbonate. Copper(II) sulfate forms a blue crystalline ...
The copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi) is a North American species of freshwater fish in the family Catostomidae. It is found ... The copper redhorse is one of seven species of the genus Moxostoma (family Catostomidae) occurring in Canada. Its discovery has ... The copper redhorse occurs primarily in medium-sized rivers where water temperatures exceed 20 °C in summer. Spawning occurs in ... High quality copper redhorse habitat is in decline. Its apparent extirpation from the Yamaska and Noire rivers is closely ...
EPA Lead and Copper Rule. Visit the EPA for more information on the EPA Lead and Copper Rule, including the final rules and the ... Lead and Copper in Drinking Water. Visit EGLEs Lead and Copper in Drinking Water for other reference materials for water ... Lead and Copper Report and Consumer Notice Certificate. All lead and copper samples must be reported to EGLE. Water supplies ... Lead and copper enter drinking water mainly from corrosion of lead and copper containing plumbing materials. The rule ...
Sudden (acute) copper poisoning is rare. However, serious health problems from long-term exposure to copper can occur. Severe ... Medicine to reverse the effect of copper. *Oral fluids to dilute the effect of swallowing copper, but only if the victim does ... Touching large amounts of copper can cause the hair to turn a different color (green). Breathing in copper dust and fumes may ... In poisonings from a long-term buildup of copper in the body, the outcome depends on how much damage there is to the bodys ...
It does show a few slight scratches on the copper. It has never been used for food preparation. Its a great rustic piece!!! ... Vintage Copper and Aluminum Lobster Mold Comes ready to hang anywhere in your Kitchen Measures 10 long and 6 1/2 at the widest ... Vintage Copper Mold with Grapes ad vertisement by BeauliesLostandFound Ad vertisement from shop BeauliesLostandFound ... Copper Bundt Mold ad vertisement by BeauliesLostandFound Ad vertisement from shop BeauliesLostandFound BeauliesLostandFound ...
Typical uses for copper in the 20th century include:. *Decorative detailing: Limited due to the high cost of copper. ... Typical historical uses for copper included:. *Sheathing for ships. *Roofing and flashing: Sheet copper is light and easily ... This patina is a copper carbonate or copper sulfate formed on the surface of the metal when hydrogen sulfide combines with ... Copper roofing fastened with other than copper or brass fasteners will cause the fasteners to corrode. ...
Facts about copper in drinking water and its health effects ... What is copper? Copper is a reddish metal that occurs naturally ... How are people exposed to copper? Copper and its compounds are common in the environment. You may be exposed to copper by ... High levels of copper occur if corrosive water comes in contact with copper plumbing and copper-containing fixtures in the ... How much copper is safe? On the average, drinking water accounts for less than 5% of our daily copper intake. The U.S. ...
Copper(II) nitrate crystals will began to bubble and melt very quickly. After a short period of time, it will begin to glow, ... Formula for copper nitrate?. There are two forms of copper nitrate. Copper (I) nitrate is CuNO3 Copper (II) nitrate is Cu(NO3)2 ... How do you balance the equation silver nitrate plus copper metal equals silver metal plus copper nitrate?. If the copper ... How do you balance the equation silver nitrate plus copper metal equals silver metal plus copper nitrate?. If the copper ...
We review the research and offer our picks for the best copper mattresses. ... Companies make a lot of bold claims about their copper mattresses. ... Copper may also pull heat away from your body. Given that, there may be some truth to copper mattresses feeling cooler than ... If it happens to have copper in it? Great!. We dont suggest opting for a copper mattress if youre searching for a mattress ...
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... copper network is used and accessed by RSPs, as well as whether it remains fit for purpose into the future. ... NZ ComCom reviewing Chorus copper terms The NZ telco regulator is examining the terms by which Chorus copper network is used ... "The final aggregate copper pricing determined by the Commerce Commission on 15 December 2015 was an improvement on the prior ... "Chorus copper network will remain, for some time, the main infrastructure over which fixed-line telecommunications services ...
... foreign companies are resuming a long tradition of prospecting for gold and copper, and have discovered deposits that could ... The Serbian town of Bor, a mining center for over a century and home to one of the largest copper mines in Europe, is at the ... In Serbia, foreign companies are resuming a long tradition of prospecting for gold and copper, and have discovered deposits ... 3 Serbian miners use flashlights in an elevator as they descend into the copper mine. ...
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Discover the Copper Chimney stores in United Kingdom at Westfield ... Copper Chimneys secret spice recipes, that have been passed ... Copper Chimney delivers an authentic and wonderfully unforgettable dining experience.. Using an array of handpicked spices ...
Copper is an antimicrobial material. If used on food surfaces or the food itself, it may reduce the risk of outbreaks of ... Copper kills germs. Copper is a proven antimicrobial material. In 2008, the Environmental Protection Agency said copper alloy ... A copper surface can rapidly kill bacteria and viruses upon contact. While copper surfaces cant completely stem outbreaks such ... Pass it on: Copper is an antimicrobial material. If used on food surfaces or the food itself, it may reduce the risk of ...
Find out more about the boom of copper exploration within the BC mining projects. ... Copper was the leading base metal, contributing 72% of total metal spend, up from $79m to $103m, an increase of 31% year on ... While gold continues to attract the largest spending, investment focus has shifted to copper.. Following two consecutive years ... The 2018 "gold rush" sees a shift to copper. The Golden Triangle of northwestern BC continues to attract exploration activity, ...
Many fire pits are made from copper and stainless steel. ... Copper Fire Pits Copper fire pits have a lustrous finish when ... Since copper is a soft metal, regular maintenance and replacement of the screws, nuts, bolts and rivets on copper fire pits is ... However, copper quickly discolors from weather and the heat and smoke of burning wood, so it will look old and worn after one ... Choosing copper fire pits with stainless steel bases and supports will prevent having to frequently replace conventional steel ...
Here we report that copper is an endogenou … ... their redox-active transition metal counterparts such as copper ... Biochemical studies of the copper-PDE3B interaction establish copper-dependent inhibition of enzyme activity and identify a key ... Using a mouse model of genetic copper misregulation, in combination with pharmacological alterations in copper status and ... Copper regulates cyclic-AMP-dependent lipolysis Nat Chem Biol. 2016 Aug;12(8):586-92. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2098. Epub 2016 Jun ...
Contact Copper Mountain in Frisco on WeddingWire. Browse Venue prices, photos and 19 reviews, with a rating of 4.9 out of 5 ... Copper Mountain. Copper Mountain. Copper Mountain. Copper Mountain. Copper Mountain. Copper Mountain. Copper Mountain. Copper ... Copper Mountain Resort is a venue located in Frisco, Colorado. The snowy Copper Mountain, which the resort is named after, is ... The Copper Mountain Resort consists of a variety of ceremony locations that you can choose from. If you would like to take full ...
Green technology is copper-intensive, driving recent demand, with March the second month on record that Australian copper ore ... "The main lift in prices is at a producer level - such as record copper and iron ore prices. The question is how quickly and how ... Records tumble as iron ore, copper exports boom. Matthew CranstonUnited States correspondent ... ABS head of international statistics Sean Crick said the global drive to build renewable energy had also sent copper demand ...
Reducing copper in cables to beat thieves. With copper theft on the rise due to the value of the metal used in communications ... As BT continues its copper renaissance mission, the operator has claimed it has created a G.fast-enabled C-RAN using a copper- ... BT claims G.fast 1Gbps via fibre-copper mix. BT has revealed the results of its G.fast technology field trial showing combined ... DT and Adtran reckon the future is still copper. With the world talking about the necessity of fibre, Deutsche Telekom and ...
... the metal we call copper has been with us for a very long time. ... Copper and Kids Copper and Kids. Fun Experiments with Copper. * ... Copper Timeline Scroll through the past 11,000 years on this powerful timeline to observe how copper has advanced human ... Copper and Civilization: The Codelco Collection This attractively designed book published by the worlds largest copper mining ... Killing Germs with Copper: Copper is antimicrobial. It kills germs. Most other metals are not. This experiment reveals that ...
... the latest generation of broadband access technology operating over existing copper networks.rnrn ... "What needs to be understood is that even if it is proven to work XG-FAST will not eliminate the need to replace the copper ... The Australian trial will use the latest full duplex (FDX) XG-FAST technology over a range of different copper cabling, ... XG-FAST - a Nokia Bell Labs-developed extension of Nokias G.fast technology - provides multi-gigabit speeds over copper ...
The Great Orme Copper Mine, Wales - the worlds largest prehistoric mine, dating back 4,000 years. (English) ... Mwyngloddiau Copr y Gogarth - Great Orme Copper Mines; Mehefin - June 2023 02.jpg. 3,840 × 2,160; 3.45 MB ...
CNW/ - Copper Mountain Mining Corporation (TSX: CMMC) (the Company or Copper Mountain) announces production results for ... About Copper Mountain Mining Corporation:. Copper Mountains flagship asset is the Copper Mountain mine located in southern ... 9, 2018 /CNW/ - Copper Mountain Mining Corporation (TSX: CMMC) (the "Company" or "Copper Mountain") announces production ... The Copper Mountain mine has a large resource of copper that remains open laterally and at depth. This significant exploration ...
Australian miners believe copper demand is internationally diverse to the extent they could cope if China barred Australian ... Copper was fetching $US3.04 per pound on Tuesday.. BHP and Rio Tintos Escondida copper mine in Chile is one of the worlds ... Coppers stellar run. Copper is considered to have the best prospects of almost any metal in the future given many of the ... Newcrest Mining also produces copper as a byproduct from its Cadia mine in NSW, while Glencore is also a copper producer in ...
The U.S. Copper Industry: Critical to Keeping the U.S. Operational ...
Copper Bistro. PhilaFoodie heads to the new Northern Liberties bistro, Copper Bistro and find Copper "is synonymous with ... Copper Bistro. City Paper visits Northern Liberties Copper Bistro and finds the kitchen a bit hit or miss but with much ... Copper Bistro Deal. Every Wednesday and Thursday Copper Bistro in Northern Liberties is offering a three-course prix fixe deal. ... Copper Bistro. Kirsten Henri heads to Northern Liberties and Copper Bistro, and comes out feeling the way most reviewers have, ...
Read reviews, view photos, see special offers, and contact Copper Creek Ridge directly on The Knot. ... Copper Creek Ridge is a Wedding Venue in Riverside, IA. ... Copper Creek Ridge. Browse Copper Creek Ridge. s pricing PDF ... Copper Creek Ridge is the perfect place to host your wedding located 10 miles south of Iowa City and just 2 miles from the ... Copper Creek Ridge was the perfect wedding venue! It has a more modern vibe and a great outdoor patio/ceremony space. The ...

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