Convulsants: Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Ethosuximide: An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.Pentylenetetrazole: A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Premature Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsBemegride: A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.IndiaAmines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Pistacia: A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Animal DiseasesLaboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

Determination of the lipophilicity of active anticonvulsant N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (1/415)

The lipophilicities of fourteen anticonvulsant active N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [I-XIV] have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and acetic acid as the solvent system. The RM value of each compound decreased linearly with increasing concentration of methanol. The partition coefficients (log P) of the amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RM and log P enabled clog P values to be calculated. It was found that the anticonvulsant activity of amides [I-XIV] can be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity.  (+info)

Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives. (2/415)

A series of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives were prepared and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold (scMet) assays and for neurotoxicity (TOX). Most interesting were the anticonvulsant results of S-(+)-2-amino-1-butanol derivative VIII, which displayed anti-MES activity with a protective index (TD50/ED50) of 4.55 corresponding with that for phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate.  (+info)

Functional GABAA receptor heterogeneity of acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. (3/415)

CA1 pyramidal cells were voltage clamped, and GABA was applied to individual cells with a modified U-tube, rapid drug application system. With Vh = -50 mV, inward currents elicited by 10 microM GABA were inhibited by GABAA receptor (GABAR) antagonists and were baclofen insensitive, suggesting that GABA actions on isolated CA1 pyramidal cells were GABAR mediated. GABA concentration-response curves averaged from all cells were fitted best with a two-site equation, indicating the presence of at least two GABA binding sites, a higher-affinity site (EC50-1 = 11.0 microM) and a lower-affinity site (EC50-2 = 334.2 microM), on two or more populations of cells. The effects of GABAR allosteric modulators on peak concentration-dependent GABAR currents were complex and included monophasic (loreclezole) or multiphasic (diazepam) enhancement, mixed enhancement/inhibition (DMCM, zolpidem) or multiphasic inhibition (zinc). Monophasic (70% of cells) or biphasic (30% of cells) enhancement of GABAR currents by diazepam suggested three different sites on GABARs (EC50-1 =1.8 nM; EC50-2 = 75.8 nM; EC50-3 = 275.9 nM) revealing GABAR heterogeneity. The imidazopyridine zolpidem enhanced GABAR currents in 70% of cells with an EC50 = 222.5 nM, suggesting a predominance of moderate affinity alpha2 (or alpha3-) subtype-containing BZ Type IIA receptors. A small fraction of cells (10%) had a high affinity for zolpidem, something that is suggestive of alpha1 subtype-containing BZ Type I receptors. The remaining 30% of cells were insensitive to or inhibited by zolpidem, suggesting the presence of alpha5 subtype-containing BZ Type IIB receptors. Whether BZ Type I and Type II receptors coexist could not be determined. The beta-carboline methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) inhibited GABAR currents in all cells at midnanomolar concentrations, but in addition, potentiated GABAR currents in some cells at low nanomolar concentrations, characterizing two groups of cells, the latter likely due to functional assembly of alpha5betaxgamma2GABARs. In all cells, GABAR currents were moderately sensitive (EC50 = 9 microM) to loreclezole, consistent with a relatively greater beta3 subtype, than beta1 subtype, subunit mRNA expression. Two populations of cells were identified based on their sensitivities to zinc(IC50 = 28 and 182 microM), suggesting the presence of at least two GABAR isoforms including alpha5beta3gamma2 GABARs. Consistent with the heterogeneity of expression of GABAR subunit mRNA and protein in the hippocampus and based on their differential responses to GABA and to allosteric modulators, distinct populations of CA1 pyramidal cells likely express multiple, functional GABAR isoforms.  (+info)

Mapping quantitative trait loci for seizure response to a GABAA receptor inverse agonist in mice. (4/415)

To define the genetic contributions affecting individual differences in seizure threshold, a beta carboline [methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM)]-induced model of generalized seizures was genetically dissected in mice. beta-CCM is a GABAA receptor inverse agonist and convulsant. By measuring the latency to generalized seizures after beta-CCM administration to A/J and C57BL6/J mice and their progeny, we estimated a heritability of 0.28 +/- 0.10. A genome wide screen in an F2 population of these parental strains (n = 273) mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on proximal chromosome 7 [logarithm of the likelihood for linkage (LOD) = 3.71] and distal chromosome 10 (LOD = 4.29) for seizure susceptibility, explaining approximately 22 and 25%, respectively, of the genetic variance for this seizure trait. The best fitting logistic regression model suggests that the A/J allele at each locus increases the likelihood of seizures approximately threefold. In a subsequent backcross population (n = 223), we mapped QTLs on distal chromosome 4 (LOD = 2.88) and confirmed the distal chromosome 10 QTLs (LOD = 4.36). In the backcross, the C57BL/6J allele of the chromosome 10 QTL decreases the risk of seizures approximately twofold. These QTLs may ultimately lead to the identification of genes influencing individual differences in seizure threshold in mice and the discovery of novel anticonvulsant agents. The colocalization on distal chromosome 10 of a beta-CCM susceptibility QTL and a QTL for open field ambulation and vertical movement suggests the existence of a single, pleiotropic locus, which we have named Exq1.  (+info)

Inhibition of dentate granule cell neurogenesis with brain irradiation does not prevent seizure-induced mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the rat. (5/415)

Aberrant reorganization of dentate granule cell axons, the mossy fibers, occurs in human temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent epilepsy models. Whether this plasticity results from the remodeling of preexisting mossy fibers or instead reflects an abnormality of developing dentate granule cells is unknown. Because these neurons continue to be generated in the adult rodent and their production increases after seizures, mossy fibers that arise from either developing or mature granule cells are potential substrates for this network plasticity. Therefore, to determine whether seizure-induced, mossy fiber synaptic reorganization arises from either developing or mature granule cell populations, we used low-dose, whole-brain x-irradiation to eliminate proliferating dentate granule cell progenitors in adult rats. A single dose of 5 Gy irradiation blocked cell proliferation and eliminated putative progenitor cells in the dentate subgranular proliferative zone. Irradiation 1 d before pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly attenuated dentate granule cell neurogenesis after seizures. Two irradiations, 1 d before and 4 d after status epilepticus, essentially abolished dentate granule cell neurogenesis but failed to prevent mossy fiber reorganization in the dentate molecular layer. These results indicate that dentate granule cell neurogenesis in the mature hippocampal formation is vulnerable to the effects of low-dose ionizing irradiation. Furthermore, the development of aberrant mossy fiber remodeling in the absence of neurogenesis suggests that mature dentate granule cells contribute substantially to seizure-induced network reorganization.  (+info)

Comparison of the effects of convulsant and depressant barbiturate stereoisomers on AMPA-type glutamate receptors. (6/415)

BACKGROUND: Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Although barbiturates have been shown to suppress the AMPA receptor-mediated responses, it is unclear whether this effect contributes to the anesthetic action of barbiturates. The authors compared the effects of depressant [R(-)] and convulsant [S(+)] stereoisomers of 1-methyl-5-phenyl-5-propyl barbituric acid (MPPB) on the AMPA and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated currents to determine if the inhibitory effects on AMPA receptors correlate to the in vivo effects of the isomers. METHOD: The authors measured whole-cell currents in the rat cultured cortical neuron at holding potential of -60 mV. Kainate 500 microM was applied as the agonist for AMPA receptors. Thiopental (3-300 microM), R(-)-MPPB or S(+)-MPPB (100-1,000 microM) was coapplied with kainate under the condition in which the GABA(A) receptor-mediated current was blocked. Effects of MPPB isomers on the current elicited by GABA 1 microM were studied in the separate experiments. RESULTS: Thiopental inhibited the kainate-induced current reversibly and in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration for 50% inhibition of 49.3 microM. Both R(-)-MPPB and S(+)-MPPB inhibited the kainate-induced current with a little stereoselectivity. R(-)-MPPB was slightly but significantly more potent than S(+)-MPPB. In contrast, R(-)-MPPB enhanced but S(+)-MPPB reduced the GABA-induced current. CONCLUSIONS: Both convulsant and depressant stereoisomers of the barbiturate inhibited the AMPA receptor-mediated current despite of their opposite effects on the central nervous system in vivo. Although thiopental exhibited a considerable inhibition of AMPA receptors, the results suggest that the inhibition of AMPA receptors contributes little to the hypnotic action of the barbiturates.  (+info)

Analytical detection and quantitation of strychnine in chemically fixed organ tissues. (7/415)

This study reports the results of the detection and quantitation of strychnine in formalin-fixed tissues and in the formalin solutions in which the tissues were fixed. The toxicological analyses were performed on formalin-fixed liver and kidney samples and formalin solutions (10% buffered pH 7) in which the same samples from a case of acute strychnine poisoning were preserved. The analyses carried out at the time of autopsy on body fluid and tissues (bile, 2.40 mg/L; stomach contents, 14.2 mg; liver, 6.68 mg/kg; kidney, 2.68 mg/kg) allowed the identification of this substance as cause of death. The tissue samples were preserved in formalin solutions for 8 weeks. The analyses performed on formalin-fixed tissues (liver and kidney) and on formalin solutions, in which the same tissues were preserved, permitted the detection and quantitation of strychnine (liver, 1.59 mg/kg; formalin from the liver, 1.80 mg/L; kidney, 0.98 mg/kg; formalin from the kidney, 1.11 mg/L). The results indicate that this particular toxic substance also shows good stability in biological specimens subjected to chemical fixation.  (+info)

GABA-Induced Cl- current in cultured embryonic human dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/415)

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated channels in embryonic (5-8 wk old) human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in dissociated culture were characterized by whole cell and single-channel techniques. All DRG neurons when held at negative holding membrane potentials displayed inward current to micromolar concentrations of GABA applied by pressure pulses from closely positioned micropipettes. The current was directly proportional to the concentration of GABA (EC50, 111 microM; Hill coefficient, 1.7). DRG neurons also responded to micromolar concentrations of pentobarbital and alphaxalone but not to cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA), glycine, or taurine. Baclofen (100 microM) affected neither the holding currents nor K+ conductance (when patch pipettes were filled with 130 mM KCl) caused by depolarizing pulses. Whole cell GABA-currents were blocked by bicuculline, picrotoxin, and t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS; all at 100 microM). The reversal potential of whole cell GABA-currents was close to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential, shifting with changes in intracellular Cl- concentration in a manner expected for Cl--selective channels. The whole cell I-V curve for GABA-induced currents demonstrated slight outward rectification with nearly symmetrical outside and inside Cl- concentrations. Spectral analysis of GABA-induced membrane current fluctuations showed that the kinetic components were best fitted by a triple Lorentzian function. The apparent elementary conductance for GABA-activated Cl- channels determined from the power spectra was 22.6 pS. Single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches with pipettes containing 10 microM GABA indicated that GABA-activated channels have a main and a subconductance level with values of 30 and 19 pS, respectively. Mean open and closed times of the channel were characterized by two or three exponential decay functions, suggesting two or three open channel states and two closed states. Single channels showed a lack of rectification. The actions of GABA on cultured human embryonic DRG neurons are mediated through the activation of GABAA receptors with properties corresponding to those found in the CNS of human and other mammalian species but differing from those of cultured human adult DRG neurons.  (+info)

*Convulsant

A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant. These drugs ... Some convulsants such as pentetrazol and flurothyl were previously used in shock therapy in psychiatric medicine, as an ... Convulsants are also widely used in scientific research, for instance in the testing of new anticonvulsant drugs. Convulsions ... Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate ...

*Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant

... is an avant-garde jazz trio led by Mr. Bungle bassist Trevor Dunn with guitarist Mary Halvorson ...

*Dejerine-Roussy syndrome

Anti-convulsants reduce neuronal hyperexcitability, effectively targeting Dejerine-Roussy syndrome. Gabapentin and pregabalin ... Newer pharmaceuticals include anti-convulsants and Kampo medicine. Pain treatments are most commonly administered via oral ... are the most common anti-convulsants. They have significant efficacy in treatment of peripheral and central neuropathic pain. ...

*Flurothyl

"A convulsant agent for psychiatric use. Flurothyl (Indoklon)". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 196 (1): ... Flurothyl was at one time studied in psychiatric medicine for shock therapy, in a similar manner to other convulsant drugs such ... New York: Raven Press, 1979 "A convulsant agent for psychiatric use. Flurothyl (Indoklon)". JAMA: The Journal of the American ... "Hexafluorodiethyl ether (Indoklon) - Its use as a convulsant in psychiatric treatment". J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 1958 (126): 530-534 ...

*Picrotoxin

... also acts as a convulsant. In larger doses, it has been found to induce clonic seizures or cardiac dysrhythmias, ... Due to its interactions with the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, picrotoxin acts as a stimulant and convulsant. It mainly ...

*Pericine

It may also have convulsant effects. Pericine has been prepared in the laboratory by total synthesis. Conolidine Arens, H.; ...

*Salla disease

Anti-convulsant medication may control seizure episodes. Physical therapists can assist an affected individual to build muscle ...

*Nonsynaptic plasticity

These neurons become highly sensitized to convulsant agents. It has been shown that seizures early in life can predispose one ...

*Translocator protein

Sedative yet also convulsant and anxiogenic in mice. Peptides Anthralin - 16kDa polypeptide, binds to both TSPO receptor and ...

*FG-7142

It has anorectic, anxiogenic and pro-convulsant effects. It also increases release of acetylcholine and noradrenaline, and ...

*Crimidine

... is a convulsant poison used as a rodenticide. Crimidine was originally known by its product name, Castrix. It was ... Crimidine is a fast acting convulsant, with an LD50 of 5mg/kg. Earliest symptoms can develop within 20-40 minutes. These ...

*Pethidine

Norpethidine is toxic and has convulsant and hallucinogenic effects. The toxic effects mediated by the metabolites cannot be ...

*Hewison v Meridian Shipping Services Pte

Mr Hewison had epilepsy and needed anti-convulsant drugs. He concealed his illness so that he could do offshore work with his ...

*History of electroconvulsive therapy in the United Kingdom

Mowbray RM (1959) Historical aspects of electric convulsant therapy. Scottish Medical Journal 4: 373-378. Cerletti U (1956) ...

*Debutantes & Centipedes

Trevor Dunn's Trio Convulsant accessed December 5, 2017 Schulte, Tom. Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant: Debutantes & Centipedes - ... Trio-Convulsant blend free and mainstream jazz, sub culture grunge rock or at times heavy metal as the overabundance of ... Debutantes & Centipedes is an album by bassist Trevor Dunn's band trio-convulsant which was released in 2004 on the Dutch Buzz ...

*Nocturnal epilepsy

To minimize epileptic seizures in these people, it is important to find an anti-convulsant medication that does not disrupt a ... The anti-convulsant medications that were tested to meet this criteria are: phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate ... Despite the effectiveness of anti-convulsants in people who suffer from nocturnal epilepsy, the drugs are shown to disrupt a ... Another study determined that anti-convulsant medications can minimize epilepsy not just in people who are awake, but also in ...

*Alstonine

Costa-Campos L, Iwu M, Elisabetsky E (August 2004). "Lack of pro-convulsant activity of the antipsychotic alkaloid alstonine". ... Also unlike clozapine, alstonine lacks pro-convulsant activity in mice. Elisabetsky, E; Costa-Campos, L (March 2006). "The ...

*Treatment of bipolar disorder

Various other anti-convulsants have been tested in bipolar disorder, but there is little evidence of their effectiveness. Other ... Each anti-convulsant agent has a unique side-effect profile. Valproic acid can frequently cause sedation or gastrointestinal ... Valproic acid, or valproate, was one of the first anti-convulsants tested for use in bipolar disorder. It has proven to be ... A number of anti-convulsant drugs are used as mood stabilizers, and the suspected mechanism is related to the theory that mania ...

*Anisatin

I. The isolation and characterization of a convulsant principle: anisatin". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 74 (13): ...

*Chorea

... may also be caused by drugs (commonly levodopa, anti-convulsants and anti-psychotics). Other acquired causes include ...

*Ethosuximide

Coulter DA, Huguenard JR, Prince DA (August 1990). "Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on ... they showed that anticonvulsant succinimides did this and that the pro-convulsant ones did not.[7] The first part was supported ...

*Sister Phantom Owl Fish

Trevor Dunn's Trio Convulsant accessed December 5, 2017 Westergaard, Sean. Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant: Sister Phantom Owl ... Sister Phantom Owl Fish is an album by bassist Trevor Dunn's band trio-convulsant which was released in 2004 on the Ipecac ...

*Medicare (United States)

... anti-convulsant, anti-depressants, immuno-suppressant, and HIV and AIDS drugs). The plans can also specify with CMS approval at ...

*Pentylenetetrazol

They found that in vivo convulsant potency was strongly correlated to in vitro affinity to the picrotoxin binding site on the ... published a report analyzing pentylenetetrazol and several structurally related convulsant drugs. ... correlation with convulsant potency". European Journal of Pharmacology. 78 (3): 353-6. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(82)90037-1. PMID ... "Convulsant potencies of tetrazoles are highly correlated with actions on GABA / benzodiazepine / picrotoxin receptor complexes ...

*Brunfelsamidine

... is a poisonous plant derivative found in several plants from the Brunfelsia family, which has convulsant and ... 1985). "Brunfelsamidine: a novel convulsant from the medicinal plant Brunfelsia grandiflora". Tetrahedron Letters. 26 (22): ...
MPPB faculty offer extensive experience in biotechnology and in the biomedical device industry, with research interests spanning from molecules to cells, tissues to organs to whole organisms.. Grounded in a base of chemistry, physics, math, and biology, MPPB is a basic-science department within Brown Alpert Medical School, and a full participant in the undergraduate-based Program in Biology within the Division of Biology and Medicine.. Within the Medical School, the departments educational mission is to provide medical students and MD/PhD candidates with a solid foundation in basic science and to help prepare them for a lifetime of learning and problem solving.. MPPB supports graduate and postdoctoral education by providing a highly interdisciplinary framework for individual and thematic training programs both classical and newly emerging. Brown also provides state-of-the-art equipment and resources through its Shared Resource Facilities.. Areas of study include molecular and structural ...
BioAssay record AID 772070 submitted by ChEMBL: Anticonvulsant activity against subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in albino mouse assessed as duration of seizure time at 100 mg/kg, ip after 0.5 hr.
Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are rate-limiting enzymes in the metabolic pathways in which arachidonic acid is converted to prostaglandins. COX-2 is the isoform induced at injury/inflammation sites and expressed constitutively in a few tissues, such as the central nervous system, and plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased excitatory activity. However, the role of COX-2 and its main product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in the convulsive states is not fully established. In this study we showed that the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (at the dose of 2mg/kg, but not at the doses of 0.2 or 20mg/kg, p.o.), protects against the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). The role of PGE(2) in the convulsions induced by PTZ was further investigated by administering anti-PGE(2) antibodies (4 microg/2 microl, i.c.v.), and assessing electroencephalographic changes induced by PTZ (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Anti-PGE(2) antibodies attenuated PTZ-induced seizures in rats. In
... is an analeptic drug formerly used in combination with nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) in the treatment of memory defects, mental confusion, mental deterioration, and related symptoms of senility. Sold under the brand name of Menic, it allegedly provided cortical stimulation and cerebral vasodilation. Since it is a convulsant agent, it was not be administered to patients with known low convulsive threshold. ...
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The central nervous system effects of a convulsant barbiturate, sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1,3-dimethylbutyl) barbiturate, were compared with the actions of pentobarbital in cats. Depending upon the dose, the convulsant barbiturate has both stimulant and depressant properties.. Under special conditions the convulsant barbiturate was shown to increase the mean convulsant dose of a timed intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole. Comparable amounts of pentobarbital were much more effective in increasing the mean convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole. The depressant actions of the convulsant barbiturate appear to be real and not secondary to the stimulant effects.. The low to medium-voltage, medium to fast-frequency pattern observed in the EEG with the convulsant barbiturate was still present in three of five mesencephalic preparations verified by autopsy to be complete transections. In the remaining two preparations the convulsant barbiturate reduced the frequency of spindle bursts and prolonged the ...
Inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS is predominantly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Whereas GABAergic synapses are abundant in the cortex and cerebellum, glycine predominates...
Inbred mouse strains have been shown to vary considerably in neurobehavioral testing. In the September 26 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Sandberg et al. describe the first use of DNA microarrays to determine the genetics events that might explain these phenotypic differences (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000, 97:11038-11043). They compared two common inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 and 129SvEv) by examining the expression profiles of over 10,000 genes in six different brain regions. They identified 24 genes that were differentially expressed in all brain regions of C57BL/6 animals compared with 129Sv/Ev. Furthermore, 1% of genes were differentially expressed in at least one brain region between the two strains. When comparing pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, the immediate-early responses were similar but the overall transcriptional response was blunted in the 129SvEv strain. Sandberg et al. also found several genes that were enriched in one brain region, with the greatest ...
In a network video system, pan/tilt/zoom commands from a control board are carried over the same IP network as for video transmission and are forwarded to the analog PTZ camera or PTZ dome camera through the video encoders serial port (RS-232/422/485). Video encoders, therefore, enable analog PTZ cameras to be controlled over long distances, even through the Internet. (In an analog CCTV system, each PTZ camera would require separate and dedicated serial wiring from the control board - with joystick and other control buttons - all the way to the camera.). To control a specific PTZ camera, a driver must be uploaded to the video encoder. Many manufacturers of video encoders provide PTZ drivers for most analog PTZ cameras and PTZ dome cameras. A PTZ driver can also be installed on the PC that runs the video management software program if the video encoders serial port is set up as a serial server that simply passes on the commands.. The most commonly used serial port for controlling PTZ functions ...
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The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Raw Organic Mate - delicious. Shade grown, fairly traded, highest grade and totally fresh. Low heat dried, no smoky flavor, more nutrient dense. Amazing, simply the best mate we have ever come across. Origin - Brazil. |strong||Center| USDA Org
한국 최고의 가격 Source Naturals 예 르바는 표준화 된 추출물 90 탭 메이트 부터 eVitamins.com. 알다 Yerba Mate 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. Yerba Mate 다른 제품으로 Source Naturals 당신의 건강 요구에.
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Our results show that combining the hindbrain-activating properties of VNS with the reactive triggering of RNS results in a demand-triggered stimulation paradigm that might ultimately prove to have greater utility than either modality alone. Specifically, we showed that it was possible to use the changing statistical properties of the zebrafish cerebral field potential to trigger hindbrain stimulation in reaction to proconvulsant exposure in order to attenuate PTZ-induced seizures. These results implicate a potential role for reactive vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy. Given the large numbers of patients with implanted vagus nerve stimulators who continue to have seizures, further investigation into the possibility of a hybrid VNS-RNS stimulation platform is warranted.. Our results also suggest that the zebrafish cerebral field potential is of sufficient complexity to make it amenable to analysis by algorithms commonly used in the quest for seizure anticipation in human. ...
Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptins anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Yerba Mate market provides detailed analysis of Market Overview, Market Drivers, Opportunities, Potential Application. Also Yerba Mate Market research report provides Emerging Market trends, Raw Materials Analysis, Manufacturing Process, regional outlook and comprehensive analysis on different market segments.. Yerba Mate industry drives A strong trend of R&D investments in Food & Beverages industries. Other growth drivers include the need to curtail costs, growth and increased use of shifting commodity prices, strength of private label brands and increased competition from players in Yerba Mate market.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Yerba Mate Market Research [email protected] http://www.360marketupdates.com/10416903. Yerba Mate Market in World, presents critical information and factual data about Yerba Mate Industry, with an overall statistical study of this market on the ...
When the gut "tastes" phenylalanine (PHE), leucine (LEU), glutamate (GLUT) and tryptophane (TRP), satiety ensues (Daly. 2012) -- In their most recent paper Christin Daly et al. report on the cholecystokinin (CCK) release in the gut. According to the scientists from the University of Liverpool (UK) and the Kyushu University (Japan), the effect is mediated by interactions with the gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors. Since CCK inhibits food intake and reduces appetite, this provides another mechanistic explanation for the satiety promoting effects of high protein intakes. The effects was observed only for the L- and not the D-amino acids ...
Changes in cortical extracellular potassium activity ([K+]0), NADH fluorescence, and oxygen consumption were studied in anesthetized cats during pentylenetetrazol seizures. The effects of partial ischemia induced by either hypotension or intermittent carotid artery occlusion on these parameters were investigated. Nonischemic seizures were characterized by gradual generalized decreases in cortical NADH fluorescence and increases in O2 consumption, along with rapid increases in [K+]0, which then usually fell slightly as the ictal discharge continued. Ischemic seizures, on the other hand, were accompanied by complex changes in NADH fluorescence, by smaller delayed maximal increases in O2 consumption that lasted beyond the end of ictal activity, and by more sustained increases in [K+]0. The decay of [K+]0 after the termination of seizures in both nonischemic and moderately ischemic animals was not a monoexponential function: plots of ln delta [K+]0 versus time showed an initial linear decline (of slope M1)
Health Benefits of Yerba Mate Yerba mate originated in South America and it is commonly known for its potency and ability to promote vitality, clarity, and well-being to those who drink it. It helps improve overall health and wellness and has numerous health benefits including a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. It naturally helps aid in weight loss and has antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nutritional Benefits Yerba mate tea is packed with essential nutrients that aid in maintaining good health. It is an excellent source of polyphenols, xanthines, caffeoyl derivatives and saponins. As well as a good source of vitamins […]. ...
BioAssay record AID 131209 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonism of Diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) anticonvulsant effects in mice treated with PTZ (80 mg/kg).
This article needs additional citations for verification. Those diagnosed with epilepsy or certain other antibiotics that lower seizure threshold conditions are more vulnerable to seizures if the threshold is reduced,
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J:150942 Frankel WN, Yang Y, Mahaffey CL, Beyer BJ, OBrien TP, Szt2, a novel gene for seizure threshold in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2009 Jul;8(5):568-76 ...
4Animal Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India and 5Department of Pharmacology, GMCH, Guwahati 781 006, India. Received 9 October 2012; revised 13 March 2013. Anxiety related disorders are the most common mental illnesses and major cause of disability in man. Anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (MEAB) was evaluated using hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration test (LDE) in mice. Its locomotor activity was studied using actophotometer and anticonvulsant effect was studied using maximal electroshock-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Single oral administration of MEAB at different doses (100, 300 and 600 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the HB test; rearing, assisted rearing and number of square traveled in the OF test; entries and time spent in open ...
ABSTRACT. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Several DGK isoforms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of seizure, but the role of DGKβ in seizure is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of DGKβ in seizure using DGKβ knockout (KO) mice. Seizures were more severe in DGKβ KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) treatment and after kainic acid treatment, but there were no differences in latency to seizure. The expression levels of DGKβ in the hippocampal CA1, CA3, or DG areas did not differ between PTZ (60 mg/kg) treatment and saline treatment. There were fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampal CA3 area in DGKβ KO mice than in control WT mice, which might partly account for the increased seizure susceptibility displayed by DGKβ KO mice. These results suggest that DGKβ may play a pivotal role in the development of the relevant interneurons, and that on inherent ...
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And Others………. The report provides a basic overview of the North America PTZ Camera industry including definitions, segmentation, applications, key vendors, market drivers and market challenges. The North America PTZ Camera Market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global North America PTZ Camera Industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.. Table of Contents. Chapter One North America PTZ Camera Industry Overview. • North America PTZ Camera Definition (Product Picture and Specifications). • North America PTZ Camera Classification and Application. • North America PTZ Camera Industry Chain Structure. • North America PTZ Camera ...
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Teas from across the globe are becoming more and more popular in the U.S. One relative newcomer, yerba mate, is attracting fans for its allegedly jitter-free caffeine boost and high antioxidant
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Background and Objective: Copper is one of the main micronutrients of body which plays a key role as a cofactor in the function of metabolic enzymes. Previous studies have shown that copper sulfate () inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP) in slices of hippocampal CA1 region. Whereas LTP is involved in learning and epilepsy, it seems that copper effects on LTP could be associated with its effects on epilepsy and seizure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Materials and Methods: The effect of various doses of CuSO4 (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), saline (as a control group) or sodium valproate (50, 150 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) on seizure parameters induced by PTZ (100 mg/kg i.p.) was evaluated in NMRI mice. Twenty minutes after injection of saline or , PTZ (100 mg/kg) was injected to induce seizures in animals and seizure parameters were recorded. Results: Comparison of the effect of , saline or sodium valproate on seizure
1. in order to examine the effects of corticosterone in the anxiety response, the effect of acute, subchronic and chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration were studied using two animal models to study using two animal models to study anxiolytic effects of drugs: the elevated plus-maze and the blockade of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced clonic convulsion.2. the results obtained with the plus-maze showed an increase in the percentage of open arm entries and time spent in the open arms after acute treatment with the CORT. These results may be interpreted as an anxiolytic effect of corticosterone. Three days of vehicle treatment followed by an acute CORT administration, produced results that should also indicate anxiolytic effect of the corticosteroid. No effect was seen after 14 days of vehicle treatment followed by an acute CORT injection. Subchronic or chronic CORT treatment did not produce results different from controls. CORT treatment did not affect the PTZ-induced clonic convulsion.3. in ...
Anticonvulsant activity of N-(p-aminobenzoyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-methylquinoline (NMQ), a newly synthesized ameltolide analogue, was investigated with regards to efficacy, lethality and neurotoxicity in mice. In vivo microdialysis experiments on freely moving rats were also performed in search for the possible effect of NMQ on cortical amino acid neurotransmitters. Similar to ameltolide, intraperitoneally given NMQ exerted it protective effect exclusively in maximal electroshock seizure (MES), but not in pentylenetetrazole test. However, in comparison with ameltolide which exhibited the median effective dose (ED50) of 1.08 mg/kg body weight (B.W.), NMQ was less effective (ED50 = 77.62 mg/kg B.W.). Based on the finding that no lethality was observed in mice being given NMQ up to 1000 mg/kg B.W. while the median lethality dose (LD50) of ameltolide was observed at 63 mg/kg B.W., NMQ appeared to be superior to ameltolide with regards to safety. The median neurotoxic dose (TD50) from the rotarod test was
In this study we show for the first time that the protective activity of progesterone in the PTZ seizure test can be blocked by the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Our results are consistent with two recent studies demonstrating that the anxiolytic (Bitran et al., 1995) and anesthetic (Korneyev and Costa, 1996) effects of progesterone can also be attenuated by 5α-reductase inhibition.. As observed previously by others (Selye, 1942; Craig, 1966), progesterone exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity against PTZ-induced seizures. This anticonvulsant activity was more prolonged (Fig. 3) than the anticonvulsant effect of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone (see Fig. 7 in Kokate et al., 1994), consistent with the possibility that progesterone can act as a depot for an active metabolite. Indeed, the anticonvulsant effect of progesterone in the PTZ test was blocked by finasteride in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that it must be activated by 5α-reduction. A critical control to ...
About 1% of our population suffers from various forms of epilepsies, but present therapy options for juvenile and adult epilepsies are less than ideal. Tolerance to some drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines) develops rapidly, side-effects of anticonvulsant therapy may be disturbing, and many patients respond only partially to therapy. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs. To date, the anticonvulsant potential of new drugs is characterized in a first step in vitro and in a second step always in vivo. At present over 50 animal models are available. Seizures that phenomenologically resemble convulsions in humans are elicited in animals (mostly rats or mice) either physically, by maximal electroshock or auditory stimulation, or chemically. Currently, the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and the pentylentetrazol (PTZ) tests are the most widely used models. Seizure models are also used in toxicological testing, to rule out unwanted proconvulsant or epileptogenic side-effects of other, unrelated ...
Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptins anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited ...
Coffee and yerba mate have both been claimed to be rich in a variety of vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Its true that they contain them, but do they contain enough to affect acne? Not even close. The basic nutrients are never why you should drink coffee anyway; for acne, antioxidants are the attraction.. A cup of coffee contains magnesium, manganese and potassium, but only at levels of 2%, 3%, and 3% of the RDA respectively. Similarly, yerba mate tea contains B-vitamins, vitamin C, manganese, zinc, and potassium. Its said to contain 7 out of the 9 essential amino acids. Once again, however, yerba mate has the nutrients but not enough of them.. A more significant phenomenon for acne is the inhibition of nutrient absorption. Coffee can block iron absorption through the gut by 70%, and vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 by smaller amounts. Does the effect occur in yerba mate tea? Possibly, because caffeine is the culprit.. Caffeine is also a potent diuretic, and in response to the increase in blood ...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY (CHEMO SHOCK) OF N-1(SUBSTITUTED-N-4[(4-OXO-3-PHENYL-3, 4-DIHYDRO-QUINAZOLINE-2-YLMETHYL) SEMICARBAZONES
Yerba mate is a central nervous system stimulant containing caffeine, but it also contains a number of other nutrients, including antioxidants, amino acids, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals. The chemical compounds and nutrients in yerba mate tea affect your metabolism to make your body use carbohydrates more efficiently. This means youll get more energy from the food you eat. Youll also burn more of the calories your body has stored in fat cells as fuel when you drink coffee with yerba mate regularly. Regular yerba mate consumption also helps keep lactic acid from building up in your muscles so you can decrease post workout soreness and cut your recovery time.Yerba mate has stimulant qualities to help you feel full sooner after you begin eating, and it slows your digestion so that your stomach stays full longer. Combining yerba mate with a healthy diet and regular exercise can help boost your metabolism to burn more calories, and it can help you eat less by curbing your appetite ...
Yerba mate is a central nervous system stimulant containing caffeine, but it also contains a number of other nutrients, including antioxidants, amino acids, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals. The chemical compounds and nutrients in yerba mate tea affect your metabolism to make your body use carbohydrates more efficiently. This means youll get more energy from the food you eat. Youll also burn more of the calories your body has stored in fat cells as fuel when you drink coffee with yerba mate regularly. Regular yerba mate consumption also helps keep lactic acid from building up in your muscles so you can decrease post workout soreness and cut your recovery time.Yerba mate has stimulant qualities to help you feel full sooner after you begin eating, and it slows your digestion so that your stomach stays full longer. Combining yerba mate with a healthy diet and regular exercise can help boost your metabolism to burn more calories, and it can help you eat less by curbing your appetite ...
I had mentioned in past newsletters about the unfortunate passing of our rancher in Paraguay a while back. Jack Carson was more than just a yerba mate supplier, he was a good man. He was truly the glue that held things together down there. After much effort, we determined the resulting situation at the ranch was not conducive to achieving our business goals while adhering to our core principles. As a result, we embarked on a journey to once again locate a high quality product from a reliable supplier who embraces the ideals we do. This journey took us out of Paraguay and over to Argentina where we found a local rancher with an exceptional yerba mate who could produce according to our specifications (large leaf cut, minimal sticks/stems). This product is not pure Wild Harvest as it is not grown in the forest, but it is shade grown and certified organic. Additionally, were proud to be partnering with a rancher who embraces sustainability and actively participates in reforestation programs. We ...
This is the place for anticonvulsant definition. You find here anticonvulsant meaning, synonyms of anticonvulsant and images for anticonvulsant
Yerba Mate Herbal Tea by Blooms - Vitamin KingYerba Mate is often used as a tea substitute as it is a natural source of caffeine. It is also a diuretic, and may be used in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. ... Mate should be avoided in cases of hypertension, hyperacidity and peptic ulcer . ...
What is the difference between Seizure and Convulsion? Convulsions are a major symptom of seizures among many other symptoms and it is not a must for seizures..
Argos, her littermate, used to have relatively minor seizures. We treated that holistically. Nikki has never had an episode but shes been through two
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Is Convulsion a common side effect of Zoloft? View Convulsion Zoloft side effect risks. Female, 23 years of age, weighting 180.0 lb, was diagnosed with depression and took Zoloft . Patient was hospitalized and became disabled.
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The anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, were investigated using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure models. We also studied the effect of thymoquinone on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, locomotor activity, and motor coordination. In PTZ-induced seizure, the intraperitoneally injection of thymoquinone with doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg, prolonged the…
A novel series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing 4-aminobenzenesul-fonamide and α-amides branched valproic acid or 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid moieties were synthesized and screened for their anticonvulsant activities in mice maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test. The activity experimental study showed that 2,2-dipropyl-N1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)malonamide (18b) had the lowest median effective dose (ED50) of 16.36 mg/kg in MES test, and 2,2-dimethyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide (12c) had the lowest ED50 of 22.50 mg/kg in scPTZ test, which resulted in the protective indexe (PI) of 24.8 and 20.4, respectively. These promising data suggest the new compounds have good potential as new class of anticonvulsant agents with high effectiveness and low toxicity for the treatment of epilepsy.
Epilepsy Tonic Clonic Seizure, Epilepsy Tonic Clonic Seizure
Sudden loss of consciousness
Tonic (rigid) phase
Clonic (convulsion) phase
Post ictal confusion
A series of new pyrimidine-triazine hybrids (4a-t) was designed and synthesized, from which potent anticonvulsant agents were identified. Most of the compounds exhibited promising anticonvulsant activity against the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) tests, along with minimal motor impairment with higher safety compared to the standard drugs, phenytoin and carbamazepine. In the series, 5-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4o) and 5-(6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4s) emerged as most potent anticonvulsant agents with median doses of 22 ...
Synthesis of N-{5-Aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl}methyl-4-methoxyaniline Derivatives and Their Anticonvulsant Activity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
As noted in the Introduction, the role of NO in epileptogenesis is unclear. NO has been suggested to be both an anticonvulsant and a proconvulsant in animals (9, 10, 12-16). These inconsistencies may be due to the fact that although these studies measured the effects of NOS inhibitors, they did not actually measure NO production. The advantage of the current L-band EPR study is that we can make direct NO measurements by detecting it as the (DETC)2-Fe-NO complex in the brain of living mice. We were able to confirm that NO levels are elevated in tonic and clonic convulsions.. Both the in vivo and ex vivo EPR measurements confirmed that more NO was produced in the tonic than in the clonic convulsions, perhaps indicating that NO levels were proportional to the intensity of the convulsion. These results suggest that NO works as a proconvulsant. However, in the presence of NOS inhibitors, both L-NNA and 3Br-7NI suppressed the transition from clonic to tonic convulsion at high PTZ doses, while the ...
Yerba mate(Ilex paraguarensis) is a tea from South America, Argentina, Southern Brazil area. It has been consumed by the residents of these countries for centuries.The Guaranir Indians called this the
Critical Evaluation of P2X7 Receptor Antagonists in Selected Seizure Models. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Simultaneous toxicities in a child on multiple anticonvulsants.: It is rare to develop simultaneous toxicities while on anticonvulsants. This article presents a
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Title:Design, Synthesis, Anticonvulsant Activity, Preclinical Study and Pharmacokinetic Performance of N-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin- 2-yl] methyl}, 2-[(2-isopropyl-5-methyl) 1-cyclo Hexylidene] Hydrazinecarboxamide. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Meena K. Yadav and Laxmi Tripathi *. Affiliation:Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow 227101, Uttar Pradesh, Moradabad Educational Trust Group of Institutions, Faculty of Pharmacy, Moradabad 244001, Uttar Pradesh. Keywords:Anticonvulsant activity, computational study, neurotoxicity, pharmacokinetic performance, preclinical (in-vivo) studies, quinazolinone derivative.. Abstract:Background: N-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl] methyl}, 2-[(2- isopropyl-5-methyl) 1-cyclohexylidene] hydrazinecarboxamide QS11 was designed by computational study. It possessed essential pharmacophoric features for anticonvulsant activity and showed good docking with iGluRs (Kainate) glutamate receptor. Methods: QSAR and ...
The antiepileptic potential of thymoquinone (TQ) was studied in mice by using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure (MES)-induced convulsion models. In this investigation, the combined treatment of TQ and sodium valproate (SVP) was also studied. The aim of this part was to minimize SVPinduced hepatotoxic implications, by reducing its antiepileptic dose. TQ in both PTZ- and MES- models increased SVP potency. The experiments dealing with the effects of TQ on the ED50 of SVP revealed that TQ reduced the ED50 of SVP in both the models. However, this potentiation of SVP antiepileptic response was relatively more significant in PTZ model at both 50 and 100 mg/kg doses of TQ. Although very well tolerated and effective, SVP is well known for its hapatotoxic implications. In the experiment dealing with subacute treatment, SVP (1300-1500mg/kg/day in drinking water) for 21 days, produced hepatotoxicity in mice, characterized by elevated serum ALT and AST, reduced levels of non protein
Scientifically known as Ilex paraguariensis, yerba mate is a plant that has been used in the traditional health practices and social rituals of South American tribes for centuries. Its leaves are dried to make a tea-like drink that is one of the most popular beverages in South America. Yerba mate tea is sometimes sweetened or combined with milk or fruit juices, and can be enjoyed hot or cold. This herbal drink has become increasingly popular around the world, including the United States, as an alternative to coffee and true tea (Camellia sinensis), such as black and green tea. Yerba mate is world-renowned for its stimulating, reinvigorating effects.**. Yerba mate features the xanthine compounds theobromine and theophylline, as well as a notable amount of caffeine. Other natural phytochemicals present include polyphenols, flavonoids, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Because of these nutrients, the herb supplies considerable free-radical-fighting antioxidant activity.**. Historically utilized ...
PrPC - found naturally in healthy brain and decreased in several diseases such us diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and human rapid progressive dementia (RPD) CJD - has long been thought to be neuroprotective, so the IBEC researchers hypothesized that an explanation for seizure symptoms in these neurodegenerative diseases could be associated with the loss of function of PrPC.. "We performed a comparative analysis of seizure susceptibility using mice with six different genetic backgrounds and several in vitro experiments," says José Antonio del Río, who leads the Molecular and Cellular Neurobiotechnology group at IBEC. "We indeed demonstrated that mice lacking PrPC showed an increased susceptibility to epileptic episodes leading to cell death in the hippocampal region, supporting the notion that the protein is involved in neuroprotection against seizures, and that it actively participates in the increased epileptic response observed in mice, independently of the genetic ...
Taxus wallichiana Zucc. (Himalayan Yew) is often used in northern areas of Pakistan for the treatment of pyrexia, acute pains and epilepsy. We have investigated certain pharmacological activities of the methanol leaf extract against convulsion, nociception and pyrexia induced in rodents. The aim was to justify and explore its folk uses in these pathological conditions, on scientific basis. The studies were carried out using acetic acid-induced nociception and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice, while formalin test and yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Significant analgesic (67.77 and 74.29%) effect was found in acetic acid-induced model at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Crude extract exhibited significant (P | 0.05) inhibition of the formalin noxious stimulation on both early and late phases of pain by the extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg doses). In case of yeast-induced pyrexia model, 200 mg/kg dose showed very significant (P | 0.01) inhibition while 50 and 100 mg/kg dose caused a
Principle: Meritt and Putnam developed the MES test and discovered the anticonvulsive effect of Diphenyl hydantoin using this test in 1938. Phenytoins subsequent success in the clinical management of generalized tonic clonic seizures provided the...
Diazepam is an anticonvulsant drug used to decrease convulsive activity and to reduce the brain damage caused by prolonged seizure activity. Without the use of pyridostigmine pretreatment, experimental animals died quickly after superlethal doses of nerve agents despite conventional therapy. With pyridostigmine pretreatment (followed by conventional therapy) animals survived superlethal doses of soman, but had prolonged periods of seizure activity before recovery. They later had performance decrements and anatomic lesions in their brains. The administration of diazepam with other standard therapy to soman-poisoned animals pretreated with pyridostigmine reduced the seizure activity and its sequelae. Current military doctrine is to administer diazepam with other therapy (three MARK Is) at the onset of severe effects from a nerve agent, whether or not seizure activity is among those effects. Each military person carries one autoinjector containing 10 mg of diazepam for his buddy to administer to ...
Antioxidant effects in vivo of ISO on pilocarpine-induced seizures. Post hoc comparisons showed that pilocarpine significantly increased LP levels in rat hippocampus when compared to the control group [p,0.0001]. Pretreatment with ISO at dose of 1.0 mg/kg protected against the increase of LP levels caused by pilocarpine in rat hippocampus (Table 3).. Post hoc comparisons showed that pilocarpine significantly increased RS levels in rat hippocampus when compared to the control group [p,0.0001]. Pretreatment with ISO at the dose of 1.0 mg/kg protected against the increase of RS levels caused by pilocarpine in rat hippocampus. ISO alone did not alter LP and RS levels when compared to the control group (Table 3).. Post hoc comparisons revealed that pilocarpine no altered CAT activity [p,0.0001]. The increase of CAT activity induced by ISO (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was observed in rat hippocampus treated with pilocarpine when compared to the control group (Table 3) [p,0.0001]. CAT activity remained increased ...
The most common medical neurologic emergency in childhood, status epilepticus (SE) is a serious and often life-threatening medical emergency.The definition, pathophysiology, classification, risk factors, and outcome of status epilepticus in children
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Bengzon J, Kokaia Z, Elmér E, Nanobashvili A, Kokaia M, Lindvall O. Apoptosis and proliferation of dentate gyrus neurons after single and intermittent limbic seizures ...
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Our data are the first to our knowledge to show that CBD can reduce both acoustically and hyperthermia-induced seizure severity in AS model mice. As such, our findings suggest that CBD might attenuate seizures in individuals with AS, which expands the therapeutic spectrum of the antiepileptic effects of CBD (17, 19, 23, 27-32). The fact that neither acute nor chronic post-kindling CBD treatment affected the flurothyl- or hyperthermia-induced seizure threshold in AS model mice suggests that further evaluation of CBD using additional models of epilepsy is required to reveal the full antiepileptic potential of CBD in AS treatment. The context-dependent antiepileptic effects of CBD suggest that different seizure models can engage distinct mechanisms for seizure initiation and propagation. And, relevant to human use, such a finding indicates that CBD might be beneficial for some types of seizures and not others, depending on the circuits engaged and/or at what stage of epilepsy intervention ...
Delayed first-line benzodiazepine treatment is independently associated with major adverse outcomes in children with status epilepticus (SE), according to a JAMA Neurology study. The results raise the question as to whether poor outcomes could, in part, be prevented by earlier administration of treatment.. Patients in the status epilepticus study were admitted with refractory convulsive SE to 11 pediatric tertiary hospitals in the United States and stratified into two groups - those who received timely first-line benzodiazepine (i.e., given within less than 10 minutes of seizure onset); and those who received treatment within 10 or more minutes.. The status epilepticus study associated an untimely treatment with a higher frequency of death, use of continuous infusions, longer convulsion duration, and more frequent hypotension. These findings may change the perception of acute seizure and status epilepticus treatment, tentatively converting it into an extremely time-sensitive emergency that is ...
Synonyms for status epilepticus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for status epilepticus. 1 word related to status epilepticus: epilepsy. What are synonyms for status epilepticus?
There seems to be a different type of tea for every flavor and use you could imagine. Theyre good hot or cold and with a little stevia or honey they taste great. My favorite part is that unlike coffee, you can drink tea all day long with little to no bad side effects. In fact, with some teas its almost like the more you drink the better it is for you (without being excessive).. This morning I made my first cup of bulletproof yerba mate and it was delicious. It had a creamy almost milky texture to it. The flavor was much better to me than coffee, but Ive never been a big fan of the coffee flavor. So if youve stayed away from bulletproof coffee because you hate the flavor of coffee, definitely give this a try.. To anyone who is switching over from BPC, realize that its not going to be the mega rush feeling youre used too. Its going to be more like a smooth ride up and a smooth ride down. Just keep in mind how much healthier it is for you over coffee and experiment with different ...
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版absence seizure是什么意思,absence seizure的用法,absence seizure翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Seizure susceptibility to lidocaine was investigated in rats which had received repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock). In the first experiment three groups of rats received an ECS daily for 18 days,...
Thanks James! :). Yeah, I had a friend whos having it for the third (!!!) time. There is an increased risk of dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock if its your second/third/fourth time too.. Hmm…benzodiazepines raise the seizure threshold when youre TAKING it but when youre in WITHDRAWAL, it *reduces* the seizure threshold e.g. you get seizures a lot easier.. Oh I get what you mean now, were both saying the same thing, I meant to say when a person is in withdrawals from long term heavy benzodiazepine use, the seizure threshold is lower and thats why I got so many seizures (its such a strange an unpleasant feeling - you dread the tremors and "mental hiccups" that precipitates the seizures).. I didnt quit benzos cold turkey by choice! :). It was a shitty rehab centre (pardon the French) run by the government with no concept of patient safety. I was the first polydrug user (benzos, meth, heroin, ketamine, research chems etc) theyve EVER seen (most people are in there for ...
This study shows that limbic seizures that are relatively resistant to AED treatment (Reynolds, 1987; Hauser and Hesdorffer, 1990; Loscher, 1997) induce mdr1 mRNA to a large extent in limbic areas. This increase appears to be specific, becausemrp1, a different P-gp involved in MDR (Zaman et al., 1994), was unchanged. Mdr1 mRNA overexpression in kainate-injected mice was transient but outlasted their acute seizures by several hours, suggesting that ongoing epileptic activity may result in sustained increase of this protein.. This was confirmed by measuring mdr1 mRNA levels in epileptic tissue from spontaneously epileptic rats. Thus, in these animals mdr1 mRNA expression was enhanced 3 months after the acute SE both in the hippocampus, where seizures were initially triggered, and in the entorhinal cortex, an area involved in seizure generalization and spread (Fountain et al., 1998). These findings clearly indicate that spontaneously recurring limbic seizures are associated with elevated levels of ...
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Positron lifetime measurements were carried out on [Fe xZn1− x(ptz)6](BF4)2single crystals in the temperature range of 72-300 K. Complementary Doppler broadening spectra were also recorded at room...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in the proconvulsant actions of pyrethroid insecticides. AU - Devaud, L. L.. AU - Murray, Thomas F.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - It has been demonstrated previously that select Type II pyrethroids are potent proconvulsants in the rat and that the proconvulsant actions of deltamethrin are blocked by administration of PK 11195, an antagonist of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PTBR). The present investigation has extended these findings to include various Type I pyrethroids as proconvulsants. Additionally, the proconvulsant activity of cismethrin was reversed by administration of PK 11195. Pyrethroid displacement of specific [3H]Ro5-4864 binding to rat brain membranes was investigated to further define the interaction of pyrethroids with the PTBR. Both Type I and Type II pyrethroids potently inhibited [3H]Ro5-4864 binding with affinities ranging from nanomolar to micromolar. The ED50 values for the proconvulsant ...

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1994) Convulsants Acting at the Inhibitory Glycine Receptor. In: Herken H., Hucho F. (eds) Selective Neurotoxicity. Springer ... Hill RG, Simmonds MA, Straughan DW (1976) Antagonism of γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine by convulsants in the cuneate nucleus ... Longo VG, Silvestrini B, Bovert D (1959) An investigation of convulsant properties of the 5-7-diphenyl-l-3-diazaadamantan-6-ol ... Barker JL, McBurney RN, Mathers DA (1983) Convulsant-induced depression of amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal ...
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Nuclear factor-kappa B regulates seizure threshold and gene transcription following convulsant stimulation.  - PubMed - NCBINuclear factor-kappa B regulates seizure threshold and gene transcription following convulsant stimulation. - PubMed - NCBI

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Repetitive Convulsant-Induced Seizures Reduce the Number But Not Precision of Hippocampal Place Cells | Journal of NeuroscienceRepetitive Convulsant-Induced Seizures Reduce the Number But Not Precision of Hippocampal Place Cells | Journal of Neuroscience

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  • Some convulsants such as pentetrazol and flurothyl were previously used in shock therapy in psychiatric medicine, as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repetitive one-per-day seizures induced in otherwise normal rats by the volatile convulsant flurothyl decrease the accuracy of locating a hidden goal without changing the mean location of goal selection. (jneurosci.org)
  • Much of our understanding of the cellular basis of epilepsy comes from the application of convulsants to the brain, in whole animal experiments and, more recently, to isolated slices of brain tissue maintained ex vivo. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Crabbe, JJ & Kosobud, A 1989, ' Genetic sensitivity to convulsants is determined by seizure sign rather than pharmacologic specificity ', Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society , vol. 32, pp. 161. (elsevier.com)
  • We recorded EEG activity, the latencies to seizure discharges, the occurrence of spreading depressions and the presence of movements in response to the convulsants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition to enhancing induced seizure behavior, p,p '-DDE also promotes a unique and readily observed head-shake behavior in response to the two chemical convulsants (Tiedeken and Ramsdell 2009). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we further studied in vivo the sensitivity of the hippocampal CA1 neurons in response to CTZ in epileptogenesis in comparison with two other classic convulsants of kainic acid (KA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). (naver.com)
  • At 7 days postfertilization (dpf), after having undergone completion of brain formation at 5 dpf, zebrafish exhibit behavioral, electro-graphic, and molecular changes to chemical convulsants that would be expected from a rodent seizure model. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Information kits are being developed for doctors nationally to help inform women about the risk anti-convulsant medication may have for unborn children during pregnancy. (odt.co.nz)