Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.

Determination of the lipophilicity of active anticonvulsant N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (1/415)

The lipophilicities of fourteen anticonvulsant active N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [I-XIV] have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and acetic acid as the solvent system. The RM value of each compound decreased linearly with increasing concentration of methanol. The partition coefficients (log P) of the amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RM and log P enabled clog P values to be calculated. It was found that the anticonvulsant activity of amides [I-XIV] can be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity.  (+info)

Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives. (2/415)

A series of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives were prepared and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold (scMet) assays and for neurotoxicity (TOX). Most interesting were the anticonvulsant results of S-(+)-2-amino-1-butanol derivative VIII, which displayed anti-MES activity with a protective index (TD50/ED50) of 4.55 corresponding with that for phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate.  (+info)

Functional GABAA receptor heterogeneity of acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. (3/415)

CA1 pyramidal cells were voltage clamped, and GABA was applied to individual cells with a modified U-tube, rapid drug application system. With Vh = -50 mV, inward currents elicited by 10 microM GABA were inhibited by GABAA receptor (GABAR) antagonists and were baclofen insensitive, suggesting that GABA actions on isolated CA1 pyramidal cells were GABAR mediated. GABA concentration-response curves averaged from all cells were fitted best with a two-site equation, indicating the presence of at least two GABA binding sites, a higher-affinity site (EC50-1 = 11.0 microM) and a lower-affinity site (EC50-2 = 334.2 microM), on two or more populations of cells. The effects of GABAR allosteric modulators on peak concentration-dependent GABAR currents were complex and included monophasic (loreclezole) or multiphasic (diazepam) enhancement, mixed enhancement/inhibition (DMCM, zolpidem) or multiphasic inhibition (zinc). Monophasic (70% of cells) or biphasic (30% of cells) enhancement of GABAR currents by diazepam suggested three different sites on GABARs (EC50-1 =1.8 nM; EC50-2 = 75.8 nM; EC50-3 = 275.9 nM) revealing GABAR heterogeneity. The imidazopyridine zolpidem enhanced GABAR currents in 70% of cells with an EC50 = 222.5 nM, suggesting a predominance of moderate affinity alpha2 (or alpha3-) subtype-containing BZ Type IIA receptors. A small fraction of cells (10%) had a high affinity for zolpidem, something that is suggestive of alpha1 subtype-containing BZ Type I receptors. The remaining 30% of cells were insensitive to or inhibited by zolpidem, suggesting the presence of alpha5 subtype-containing BZ Type IIB receptors. Whether BZ Type I and Type II receptors coexist could not be determined. The beta-carboline methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) inhibited GABAR currents in all cells at midnanomolar concentrations, but in addition, potentiated GABAR currents in some cells at low nanomolar concentrations, characterizing two groups of cells, the latter likely due to functional assembly of alpha5betaxgamma2GABARs. In all cells, GABAR currents were moderately sensitive (EC50 = 9 microM) to loreclezole, consistent with a relatively greater beta3 subtype, than beta1 subtype, subunit mRNA expression. Two populations of cells were identified based on their sensitivities to zinc(IC50 = 28 and 182 microM), suggesting the presence of at least two GABAR isoforms including alpha5beta3gamma2 GABARs. Consistent with the heterogeneity of expression of GABAR subunit mRNA and protein in the hippocampus and based on their differential responses to GABA and to allosteric modulators, distinct populations of CA1 pyramidal cells likely express multiple, functional GABAR isoforms.  (+info)

Mapping quantitative trait loci for seizure response to a GABAA receptor inverse agonist in mice. (4/415)

To define the genetic contributions affecting individual differences in seizure threshold, a beta carboline [methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM)]-induced model of generalized seizures was genetically dissected in mice. beta-CCM is a GABAA receptor inverse agonist and convulsant. By measuring the latency to generalized seizures after beta-CCM administration to A/J and C57BL6/J mice and their progeny, we estimated a heritability of 0.28 +/- 0.10. A genome wide screen in an F2 population of these parental strains (n = 273) mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on proximal chromosome 7 [logarithm of the likelihood for linkage (LOD) = 3.71] and distal chromosome 10 (LOD = 4.29) for seizure susceptibility, explaining approximately 22 and 25%, respectively, of the genetic variance for this seizure trait. The best fitting logistic regression model suggests that the A/J allele at each locus increases the likelihood of seizures approximately threefold. In a subsequent backcross population (n = 223), we mapped QTLs on distal chromosome 4 (LOD = 2.88) and confirmed the distal chromosome 10 QTLs (LOD = 4.36). In the backcross, the C57BL/6J allele of the chromosome 10 QTL decreases the risk of seizures approximately twofold. These QTLs may ultimately lead to the identification of genes influencing individual differences in seizure threshold in mice and the discovery of novel anticonvulsant agents. The colocalization on distal chromosome 10 of a beta-CCM susceptibility QTL and a QTL for open field ambulation and vertical movement suggests the existence of a single, pleiotropic locus, which we have named Exq1.  (+info)

Inhibition of dentate granule cell neurogenesis with brain irradiation does not prevent seizure-induced mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the rat. (5/415)

Aberrant reorganization of dentate granule cell axons, the mossy fibers, occurs in human temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent epilepsy models. Whether this plasticity results from the remodeling of preexisting mossy fibers or instead reflects an abnormality of developing dentate granule cells is unknown. Because these neurons continue to be generated in the adult rodent and their production increases after seizures, mossy fibers that arise from either developing or mature granule cells are potential substrates for this network plasticity. Therefore, to determine whether seizure-induced, mossy fiber synaptic reorganization arises from either developing or mature granule cell populations, we used low-dose, whole-brain x-irradiation to eliminate proliferating dentate granule cell progenitors in adult rats. A single dose of 5 Gy irradiation blocked cell proliferation and eliminated putative progenitor cells in the dentate subgranular proliferative zone. Irradiation 1 d before pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly attenuated dentate granule cell neurogenesis after seizures. Two irradiations, 1 d before and 4 d after status epilepticus, essentially abolished dentate granule cell neurogenesis but failed to prevent mossy fiber reorganization in the dentate molecular layer. These results indicate that dentate granule cell neurogenesis in the mature hippocampal formation is vulnerable to the effects of low-dose ionizing irradiation. Furthermore, the development of aberrant mossy fiber remodeling in the absence of neurogenesis suggests that mature dentate granule cells contribute substantially to seizure-induced network reorganization.  (+info)

Comparison of the effects of convulsant and depressant barbiturate stereoisomers on AMPA-type glutamate receptors. (6/415)

BACKGROUND: Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Although barbiturates have been shown to suppress the AMPA receptor-mediated responses, it is unclear whether this effect contributes to the anesthetic action of barbiturates. The authors compared the effects of depressant [R(-)] and convulsant [S(+)] stereoisomers of 1-methyl-5-phenyl-5-propyl barbituric acid (MPPB) on the AMPA and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated currents to determine if the inhibitory effects on AMPA receptors correlate to the in vivo effects of the isomers. METHOD: The authors measured whole-cell currents in the rat cultured cortical neuron at holding potential of -60 mV. Kainate 500 microM was applied as the agonist for AMPA receptors. Thiopental (3-300 microM), R(-)-MPPB or S(+)-MPPB (100-1,000 microM) was coapplied with kainate under the condition in which the GABA(A) receptor-mediated current was blocked. Effects of MPPB isomers on the current elicited by GABA 1 microM were studied in the separate experiments. RESULTS: Thiopental inhibited the kainate-induced current reversibly and in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration for 50% inhibition of 49.3 microM. Both R(-)-MPPB and S(+)-MPPB inhibited the kainate-induced current with a little stereoselectivity. R(-)-MPPB was slightly but significantly more potent than S(+)-MPPB. In contrast, R(-)-MPPB enhanced but S(+)-MPPB reduced the GABA-induced current. CONCLUSIONS: Both convulsant and depressant stereoisomers of the barbiturate inhibited the AMPA receptor-mediated current despite of their opposite effects on the central nervous system in vivo. Although thiopental exhibited a considerable inhibition of AMPA receptors, the results suggest that the inhibition of AMPA receptors contributes little to the hypnotic action of the barbiturates.  (+info)

Analytical detection and quantitation of strychnine in chemically fixed organ tissues. (7/415)

This study reports the results of the detection and quantitation of strychnine in formalin-fixed tissues and in the formalin solutions in which the tissues were fixed. The toxicological analyses were performed on formalin-fixed liver and kidney samples and formalin solutions (10% buffered pH 7) in which the same samples from a case of acute strychnine poisoning were preserved. The analyses carried out at the time of autopsy on body fluid and tissues (bile, 2.40 mg/L; stomach contents, 14.2 mg; liver, 6.68 mg/kg; kidney, 2.68 mg/kg) allowed the identification of this substance as cause of death. The tissue samples were preserved in formalin solutions for 8 weeks. The analyses performed on formalin-fixed tissues (liver and kidney) and on formalin solutions, in which the same tissues were preserved, permitted the detection and quantitation of strychnine (liver, 1.59 mg/kg; formalin from the liver, 1.80 mg/L; kidney, 0.98 mg/kg; formalin from the kidney, 1.11 mg/L). The results indicate that this particular toxic substance also shows good stability in biological specimens subjected to chemical fixation.  (+info)

GABA-Induced Cl- current in cultured embryonic human dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/415)

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated channels in embryonic (5-8 wk old) human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in dissociated culture were characterized by whole cell and single-channel techniques. All DRG neurons when held at negative holding membrane potentials displayed inward current to micromolar concentrations of GABA applied by pressure pulses from closely positioned micropipettes. The current was directly proportional to the concentration of GABA (EC50, 111 microM; Hill coefficient, 1.7). DRG neurons also responded to micromolar concentrations of pentobarbital and alphaxalone but not to cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA), glycine, or taurine. Baclofen (100 microM) affected neither the holding currents nor K+ conductance (when patch pipettes were filled with 130 mM KCl) caused by depolarizing pulses. Whole cell GABA-currents were blocked by bicuculline, picrotoxin, and t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS; all at 100 microM). The reversal potential of whole cell GABA-currents was close to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential, shifting with changes in intracellular Cl- concentration in a manner expected for Cl--selective channels. The whole cell I-V curve for GABA-induced currents demonstrated slight outward rectification with nearly symmetrical outside and inside Cl- concentrations. Spectral analysis of GABA-induced membrane current fluctuations showed that the kinetic components were best fitted by a triple Lorentzian function. The apparent elementary conductance for GABA-activated Cl- channels determined from the power spectra was 22.6 pS. Single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches with pipettes containing 10 microM GABA indicated that GABA-activated channels have a main and a subconductance level with values of 30 and 19 pS, respectively. Mean open and closed times of the channel were characterized by two or three exponential decay functions, suggesting two or three open channel states and two closed states. Single channels showed a lack of rectification. The actions of GABA on cultured human embryonic DRG neurons are mediated through the activation of GABAA receptors with properties corresponding to those found in the CNS of human and other mammalian species but differing from those of cultured human adult DRG neurons.  (+info)

Convulsants are substances or agents that can cause seizures or convulsions. These can be medications, toxins, or illnesses that lower the seizure threshold and lead to abnormal electrical activity in the brain, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions and relaxation. Examples of convulsants include bromides, strychnine, organophosphate pesticides, certain antibiotics (such as penicillin or cephalosporins), and alcohol withdrawal. It is important to note that some medications used to treat seizures can also have convulsant properties at higher doses or in overdose situations.

Flurothyl, also known as Nelson's fluid or induction agent, is a chemical compound with the formula C5H4F6O. It is a colorless liquid that is volatile and has a sweetish odor. In medicine, it was historically used as a rapid-acting inhalational general anesthetic, but its use has been largely discontinued due to safety concerns, including the risk of seizures and cardiac arrest. Flurothyl works by sensitizing the brain to carbon dioxide, leading to a loss of consciousness. It is still used in research settings to study seizure disorders and anesthetic mechanisms.

Ethosuximide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants or anti-seizure medications. It is primarily used to treat absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, which are a type of seizure characterized by brief, sudden lapses in consciousness.

Ethosuximide works by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. It does this by inhibiting the formation of sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize the electrical impulses and reduce the likelihood of seizure activity.

Like all medications, ethosuximide can have side effects, including stomach upset, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any bothersome or persistent side effects promptly. Ethosuximide may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting ethosuximide therapy.

Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is not primarily considered a medical treatment, but rather a research compound used in neuroscience and neurology to study seizure activity and chemically induce seizures in animals for experimental purposes. It is classified as a proconvulsant agent. Medically, it has been used in the past as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use is now largely historical due to the availability of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

In a medical or scientific context, Pentylenetetrazole can be defined as:

A chemical compound with the formula C6H5N5O2, which is used in research to investigate seizure activity and induce convulsions in animals. It acts as a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist and can lower the seizure threshold. Historically, it has been used as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use for this purpose is now limited due to the development of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

Strychnine is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter-tasting crystalline alkaloid that is derived from the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree, native to India and Southeast Asia. It is primarily used in the manufacture of pesticides and rodenticides due to its high toxicity to insects and mammals.

Medically, strychnine has been used in the past as a stimulant and a treatment for various conditions such as asthma, heart failure, and neurological disorders. However, its use in modern medicine is extremely rare due to its narrow therapeutic index and high toxicity.

Strychnine works by blocking inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, leading to increased muscle contractions, stiffness, and convulsions. Ingestion of even small amounts can cause severe symptoms such as muscle spasms, rigidity, seizures, and respiratory failure, which can be fatal if left untreated.

It is important to note that strychnine has no legitimate medical use in humans and its possession and use are highly regulated due to its high toxicity and potential for abuse.

Picrotoxin is a toxic, white, crystalline compound that is derived from the seeds of the Asian plant Anamirta cocculus (also known as Colchicum luteum or C. autummale). It is composed of two stereoisomers, picrotin and strychnine, in a 1:2 ratio.

Medically, picrotoxin has been used as an antidote for barbiturate overdose and as a stimulant to the respiratory center in cases of respiratory depression caused by various drugs or conditions. However, its use is limited due to its narrow therapeutic index and potential for causing seizures and other adverse effects.

Picrotoxin works as a non-competitive antagonist at GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors in the central nervous system, blocking the inhibitory effects of GABA and increasing neuronal excitability. This property also makes it a convulsant agent and explains its use as a research tool to study seizure mechanisms and as an insecticide.

It is important to note that picrotoxin should only be used under medical supervision, and its handling requires appropriate precautions due to its high toxicity.

Bicuculline is a pharmacological agent that acts as a competitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors, which are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. By blocking the action of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) at these receptors, bicuculline can increase neuronal excitability and cause convulsions. It is used in research to study the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in various physiological processes and neurological disorders.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant. These drugs ... Some convulsants such as pentetrazol and flurothyl were previously used in shock therapy in psychiatric medicine, as an ... Convulsants are also widely used in scientific research, for instance in the testing of new anticonvulsant drugs. Convulsions ... Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate ...
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The convulsant properties of flurothyl pose a challenge to unifying theories of general anesthetics such as the Meyer-Overton ... "A convulsant agent for psychiatric use. Flurothyl (Indoklon)". JAMA. 196 (1): 29-30. April 1966. doi:10.1001/jama.196.1.29. ... "A convulsant agent for psychiatric use. Flurothyl (Indoklon)". JAMA. 196 (1): 29-30. April 1966. doi:10.1001/jama.196.1.29. ... Flurothyl was at one time studied in psychiatric medicine for shock therapy, in a similar manner to other convulsant drugs such ...
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... also acts as a convulsant. In larger doses, it has been found to induce clonic seizures or cardiac dysrhythmias, ... Due to its interactions with the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, picrotoxin acts as a stimulant and convulsant. It mainly ... Convulsants, Lactones, Epoxides, Chloride channel blockers, Neurotoxins, Plant toxins). ...
It may also have convulsant effects. Pericine has been prepared in the laboratory by total synthesis. Vobasine Isovoacristine ...
In 1998, Dunn formed his Trio-Convulsant. Their first release, Debutantes & Centipedes, features Dunn on bass, Adam Levy on ... "Ipecac Recordings - Trevor Dunn's Trio Convulsant". Ipecac.com. Retrieved July 7, 2011. "Biography". Trevordunn.net. Retrieved ... Secret Chiefs 3 and with his own avant-garde jazz/rock ensemble Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant. He is also a member of the band ... 1950's Czech Contrabass used with Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant, occasionally with Mr. Bungle and with King Buzzo 1991 Alembic ...
They act as GABA receptor antagonists and have potent convulsant effects. Convulsant TBPS TBPO IPTBO Bellet, E. M.; Casida, J. ... BOWERY, N. G.; COLLINS, J. F.; HILL, R. G. (17 June 1976). "Bicyclic phosphorus esters that are potent convulsants and GABA ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Bicyclic phosphates, Convulsants, Neurotoxins, ...
Anti-convulsant medication may control seizure episodes. Physical therapists can assist an affected individual to build muscle ...
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These neurons become highly sensitized to convulsant agents. It has been shown that seizures early in life can predispose one ...
... (tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate) is a bicyclic phosphate convulsant. It is an extremely potent GABA receptor ... Convulsants, Neurotoxins, Tert-butyl compounds, Organothiophosphate esters, Oxygen heterocycles, GABAA receptor negative ... "Solubilization and anionic regulation of cerebral sedative and convulsant receptors labeled with [35S] tert- ...
Sedative yet also convulsant and anxiogenic in mice. Peptides Anthralin - 16kDa polypeptide, binds to both TSPO receptor and ...
Convulsant Flurothyl Sevoflurane Krasowski, MD (27 April 2000). "Differential modulatory actions of the volatile convulsant ... Isoflurothyl is a fluorinated ether related to the inhalational convulsant flurothyl. It is the structural isomer of flurothyl ...
... is a GABA receptor antagonist and convulsant. Cloflubicyne TBPS EBOB IPTBO Rauh, James J; Holyoke, Caleb W; Kleier, Daniel ... Convulsants, Norbornanes, Cyclopentanes, Nitriles, Organofluorides, Trifluoromethyl compounds, GABAA receptor negative ...
It has anorectic, anxiogenic and pro-convulsant effects. It also increases release of acetylcholine and noradrenaline, and ... Convulsants, GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulators, Nootropics, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
The chemicals involved may be irritants, hallucinogens, convulsants, nerve poisons or vasoconstrictors. Many predators of frogs ...
BIDN EBOB Fetisov, V.I.; Maslov, A.A.; Panarin, V.A.; Trefilov, N.V. (August 1992). "Fluoro-containing 'cage' convulsants: ... It's an irreversible GABA receptor antagonist with powerful convulsant effects. ... Convulsants, GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulators, Irreversible antagonists, Norbornanes, Nitriles, Trifluoromethyl ...
... is a convulsant poison used as a rodenticide. Crimidine was originally known by its product name, Castrix. It was ... permanently deactivating the enzyme Crimidine is a fast acting convulsant, with an LD50 of 5 mg/kg. Earliest symptoms can ... Convulsants, Pesticides, Pyrimidines, Chloroarenes, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Chloropyrimidines, Vitamin B6 antagonists ...
Bowery, N.G.; Collins, J.F.; Hill, R.G.; Pearson, S. (April 1976). "GABA antagonism as a possible basis for the convulsant ... IPTBO is both a convulsant and a stimulant, essentially causing an overload of chemical signals in the brain and overexciting ... IPTBO (isopropylbicyclophosphate, also IPPO) is a bicyclic phosphate convulsant. It is an extremely potent GABA receptor ... "The effect of various drug pretreatments on the convulsions and cerebellar cyclic nucleotide changes induced by the convulsant ...
Naval Medical Research Institute Report 92-73 (Report). Paton, W.D. (March 1967). "Experiments on the convulsant and ...
Norpethidine is toxic and has convulsant and hallucinogenic effects. The toxic effects mediated by the metabolites cannot be ... Convulsants, Ethyl esters, Euphoriants, Glycine receptor antagonists, Kappa-opioid receptor agonists, Local anesthetics, Mu- ...
Mr Hewison had epilepsy and needed anti-convulsant drugs. He concealed his illness so that he could do offshore work with his ...
Mowbray RM (1959) Historical aspects of electric convulsant therapy. Scottish Medical Journal 4: 373-378. Cerletti U (1956) ...
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Costa-Campos L, Iwu M, Elisabetsky E (August 2004). "Lack of pro-convulsant activity of the antipsychotic alkaloid alstonine". ... Also unlike clozapine, alstonine lacks pro-convulsant activity in mice. Ajmalicine Corynanthine Deserpidine Mitragynine ...
Longo VG, Silvestrini B, Bovet D (May 1959). "An investigation of convulsant properties of the 5-7-diphenyl-1-3-diazadamantan-6 ... Sandberg F, Kristianson K (September 1970). "A comparative study of the convulsant effects of strychnos alkaloids". Acta ... due to its convulsant effects. One notorious instance of its use was during the 1904 Olympics marathon, when track-and-field ... Convulsants, Lactams, Indole alkaloids, Avicides, Bitter compounds, Glycine receptor antagonists, Ethers, Nitrogen heterocycles ...
A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant. These drugs ... Some convulsants such as pentetrazol and flurothyl were previously used in shock therapy in psychiatric medicine, as an ... Convulsants are also widely used in scientific research, for instance in the testing of new anticonvulsant drugs. Convulsions ... Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate ...
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Anti-convulsant. Experiments to discern the effects of M. concanensis leaf ethanol extract on the maximal electroshock seizure ... Joy, A. E., Kunhikatta, S. B., and Manikkoth, S. (2013). Anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis ...
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The application of drugs targeting different convulsant mechanisms (4-Aminopyridine, Pentylenetetrazole, Pilocarpine and ... 4-dimensional functional profiling in the convulsant-treated larval zebrafish brain. Winter MJ., Windell D., Metz J., Matthews ... The application of drugs targeting different convulsant mechanisms (4-Aminopyridine, Pentylenetetrazole, Pilocarpine and ...
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Avi Weissman B, Cott J, Hommer D, Paul S, Skolnick P. Electrophysiological and pharmacological actions of the convulsant ... Electrophysiological and pharmacological actions of the convulsant benzodiazepine Ro 5-4864. Ben Avi Weissman, Jerry Cott, ... Electrophysiological and pharmacological actions of the convulsant benzodiazepine Ro 5-4864. / Avi Weissman, Ben; Cott, Jerry; ... Electrophysiological and pharmacological actions of the convulsant benzodiazepine Ro 5-4864. In: European Journal of ...
Figure 11. Chloride Channel Blocking Convulsants. The channel blocking convulsants represent one of the oldest groups of ...
hypnotic, anti-convulsant and anxiolytic effects. N/A. Oyemitan et al., 2013 [66]. ...
Its [a] very powerful anti-convulsant molecule," she elaborated.. She hypothesized that the keto diet could be a way to ...
1990) Convulsants induce interleukin-1β messenger RNA in rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 171:823-827. ... Thus, convulsant and/or excitotoxic stimuli increase the production of IL-1β in microglia-like cells in the hippocampus. In ... Thus, convulsant and/or excitotoxic stimuli increase the production of IL-1β in microglia-like cells in the hippocampus. In ... Thus, we found no histological evidence of neuronal cells loss in the hippocampus after the relatively low convulsant dose of ...
In overdose it is a strong convulsant poison. The antidote is a barbiturate or other strong, anti-convulsant sedative. Anyone ...
Anti-convulsant. - Antibiotics Health Warnings, News & Tips for Biotin:. - Biotin is also Vitamin H.. ...
Seizures: The essential oil is convulsant.. * Epilepsy: The plant can produce attacks on people with epilepsy, because of its ...
bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.. EAGLE FERN (Pteridium sp.); fronds; ... bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.. Blighia sapida (ACKEE); pink raphe1 ... bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isc,quinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.. Stellaria media (CHICKWEED); plant ... Myoporum laetum (no trivial [common] name in U.S.); fruit, esp.leaves; plant contains convulsants. NAKED-LADY LILY (Amaryllis ...
Are you taking anti-convulsants or anti-seizure medications?. Yes. No. Dont Know. ...
Are you taking anti-convulsants or anti-seizure medications?. Yes. No. Dont Know. ...
Anti-convulsant medications to treat pain symptoms *Dosages are lower than those given to prevent seizures *Gabapentin ( ...
This includes sulfa drugs, sleeping pill s, estrogen, anti-convulsants, birth control pills, antacids, quinine, and some ... This includes sulfa drugs, sleeping pills, estrogen, anti-convulsants, birth control pills, antacids, quinine, and some ... This includes sulfa drugs, sleeping pills, estrogen, anti-con vulsants, birth control pills, antacids , quinine, and some ... Supplemental folic acid can interact with anti-convulsant medications such as dilantin, phenytoin , and primidone. It also ...
Most anti convulsant drugs work by damping down brain cell electrical activity, in order to stop this build up. The idea is to ... Carbamazepine is now being offered as a more modern alternative to the early anti convulsants. If too high a dose is started ... But this is a delicate balancing act requiring that a doctor be highly educated in the various anti convulsant drugs, ...
For most people with epilepsy, anti-seizure medications, also known as anti-convulsants, can successfully control seizures. ...
Anti-convulsant prophylactic therapy should be initiated prior to BUSULFEX treatment. Caution should be exercised when ...
Tegretol is an anti-convulsant medication that prevents this seizure activity. Dr C was aware that Mr B was taking Tegretol ... In both instances, the dose of anti-convulsants may require temporary reduction. [Continues to discuss lithium - see below.] ... In both instances, the dose of anti-convulsants may require temporary reduction. Lithium prolongs the neuromuscular blockade of ...
  • A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Camphor, and other terpenes given to children with colds can act as convulsants (sympathomimetics, piperazine derivatives, theophylline, antihistamines, etc.) in children who have had febrile seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, we studied whether EEG seizures per se induced IL-1β and microglia changes in the hippocampus using bicuculline as a nonexcitotoxic convulsant agent. (jneurosci.org)
  • But this is a delicate balancing act requiring that a doctor be highly educated in the various anti convulsant drugs, understand the kinds of seizures affecting a particular patient, and work with the patient as a partner in keeping a record of seizures, a regular monitoring of EEGs and also a monitoring of the levels and effects of the drug in the patient's body. (healthy.net)
  • For most people with epilepsy, anti-seizure medications, also known as anti-convulsants, can successfully control seizures. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Physicians may prescribe anti-convulsant drugs to control seizures. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Within this group, epilepsy is refractory in up to 40 % of patients, who have shown para el control de síntomas refractarios en a decrease in the frequency of seizures with the concomitant use of cannabidiol and conventional antiepileptics, with mild síndromes convulsivos side effects such as diarrhea and drowsiness. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are you taking anti-convulsants or anti-seizure medications? (mayo.edu)
  • Several medications originally developed as antidepressants and anti-convulsants are now commonly used to treat pain. (iffgd.org)
  • Many other drugs may cause convulsions as a side effect at high doses (e.g. bupropion, tramadol, pethidine, dextropropoxyphene, clomipramine) but only drugs whose primary action is to cause convulsions are known as convulsants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convulsants are also widely used in scientific research, for instance in the testing of new anticonvulsant drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The application of drugs targeting different convulsant mechanisms (4-Aminopyridine, Pentylenetetrazole, Pilocarpine and Strychnine) resulted in distinct spatiotemporal patterns of activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Most anti convulsant drugs work by damping down brain cell electrical activity, in order to stop this build up. (healthy.net)
  • Anti-seizure properties of potential AEDs can be tested by measuring the ability of drugs to suppress SE initiation, duration, or seizure intensity following administration of convulsant agents. (jle.com)
  • Anti convulsant drugs 2. (slideshare.net)
  • They found trace concentrations of heart medicine, infection fighters, estrogen, anti-convulsants, a mood stabilizer and a tranquilizer. (indypendent.org)
  • 4-dimensional functional profiling in the convulsant-treated larval zebrafish brain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Pro-convulsant and anticholinergic effects were also evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • She had her first seizure at six months of age and began anti-convulsant medication. (iahp.org)
  • Fetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome is caused when the anti-convulsant medicine a woman takes during pregnancy affects the foetus. (oacscharity.org)
  • Calcium can decrease absorption of some antibiotics, biphosphonates (to treat osteoporosis) and anti-convulsants (to treat epilepsy). (hsis.org)
  • The information provided by OACS is to empower so that those taking anti-convulsant medicines can make informed choices about the medication that is used during pregnancy. (oacscharity.org)
  • Depakote was prescribed for bipolar disorder-it is an anti-convulsant also known as valproate semisodium or divalproex sodium. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Some convulsants such as pentetrazol and flurothyl were previously used in shock therapy in psychiatric medicine, as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convulsants like pentylenetetrazol and flurothyl were effective in psychiatric treatment but difficult to administer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tricyclic antidepressants, anti-convulsants and serotonin - noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors are also commonly prescribed for neuropathic pain. (cgh.com.sg)
  • Many other drugs may cause convulsions as a side effect at high doses (e.g. bupropion, tramadol, pethidine, dextropropoxyphene, clomipramine) but only drugs whose primary action is to cause convulsions are known as convulsants. (wikipedia.org)