Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Elements which exhibit atomic emission due to natural or artificial nuclear transformation. These elements spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

Determination of the lipophilicity of active anticonvulsant N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (1/415)

The lipophilicities of fourteen anticonvulsant active N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [I-XIV] have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and acetic acid as the solvent system. The RM value of each compound decreased linearly with increasing concentration of methanol. The partition coefficients (log P) of the amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RM and log P enabled clog P values to be calculated. It was found that the anticonvulsant activity of amides [I-XIV] can be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity.  (+info)

Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives. (2/415)

A series of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives were prepared and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold (scMet) assays and for neurotoxicity (TOX). Most interesting were the anticonvulsant results of S-(+)-2-amino-1-butanol derivative VIII, which displayed anti-MES activity with a protective index (TD50/ED50) of 4.55 corresponding with that for phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate.  (+info)

Functional GABAA receptor heterogeneity of acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. (3/415)

CA1 pyramidal cells were voltage clamped, and GABA was applied to individual cells with a modified U-tube, rapid drug application system. With Vh = -50 mV, inward currents elicited by 10 microM GABA were inhibited by GABAA receptor (GABAR) antagonists and were baclofen insensitive, suggesting that GABA actions on isolated CA1 pyramidal cells were GABAR mediated. GABA concentration-response curves averaged from all cells were fitted best with a two-site equation, indicating the presence of at least two GABA binding sites, a higher-affinity site (EC50-1 = 11.0 microM) and a lower-affinity site (EC50-2 = 334.2 microM), on two or more populations of cells. The effects of GABAR allosteric modulators on peak concentration-dependent GABAR currents were complex and included monophasic (loreclezole) or multiphasic (diazepam) enhancement, mixed enhancement/inhibition (DMCM, zolpidem) or multiphasic inhibition (zinc). Monophasic (70% of cells) or biphasic (30% of cells) enhancement of GABAR currents by diazepam suggested three different sites on GABARs (EC50-1 =1.8 nM; EC50-2 = 75.8 nM; EC50-3 = 275.9 nM) revealing GABAR heterogeneity. The imidazopyridine zolpidem enhanced GABAR currents in 70% of cells with an EC50 = 222.5 nM, suggesting a predominance of moderate affinity alpha2 (or alpha3-) subtype-containing BZ Type IIA receptors. A small fraction of cells (10%) had a high affinity for zolpidem, something that is suggestive of alpha1 subtype-containing BZ Type I receptors. The remaining 30% of cells were insensitive to or inhibited by zolpidem, suggesting the presence of alpha5 subtype-containing BZ Type IIB receptors. Whether BZ Type I and Type II receptors coexist could not be determined. The beta-carboline methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) inhibited GABAR currents in all cells at midnanomolar concentrations, but in addition, potentiated GABAR currents in some cells at low nanomolar concentrations, characterizing two groups of cells, the latter likely due to functional assembly of alpha5betaxgamma2GABARs. In all cells, GABAR currents were moderately sensitive (EC50 = 9 microM) to loreclezole, consistent with a relatively greater beta3 subtype, than beta1 subtype, subunit mRNA expression. Two populations of cells were identified based on their sensitivities to zinc(IC50 = 28 and 182 microM), suggesting the presence of at least two GABAR isoforms including alpha5beta3gamma2 GABARs. Consistent with the heterogeneity of expression of GABAR subunit mRNA and protein in the hippocampus and based on their differential responses to GABA and to allosteric modulators, distinct populations of CA1 pyramidal cells likely express multiple, functional GABAR isoforms.  (+info)

Mapping quantitative trait loci for seizure response to a GABAA receptor inverse agonist in mice. (4/415)

To define the genetic contributions affecting individual differences in seizure threshold, a beta carboline [methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM)]-induced model of generalized seizures was genetically dissected in mice. beta-CCM is a GABAA receptor inverse agonist and convulsant. By measuring the latency to generalized seizures after beta-CCM administration to A/J and C57BL6/J mice and their progeny, we estimated a heritability of 0.28 +/- 0.10. A genome wide screen in an F2 population of these parental strains (n = 273) mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on proximal chromosome 7 [logarithm of the likelihood for linkage (LOD) = 3.71] and distal chromosome 10 (LOD = 4.29) for seizure susceptibility, explaining approximately 22 and 25%, respectively, of the genetic variance for this seizure trait. The best fitting logistic regression model suggests that the A/J allele at each locus increases the likelihood of seizures approximately threefold. In a subsequent backcross population (n = 223), we mapped QTLs on distal chromosome 4 (LOD = 2.88) and confirmed the distal chromosome 10 QTLs (LOD = 4.36). In the backcross, the C57BL/6J allele of the chromosome 10 QTL decreases the risk of seizures approximately twofold. These QTLs may ultimately lead to the identification of genes influencing individual differences in seizure threshold in mice and the discovery of novel anticonvulsant agents. The colocalization on distal chromosome 10 of a beta-CCM susceptibility QTL and a QTL for open field ambulation and vertical movement suggests the existence of a single, pleiotropic locus, which we have named Exq1.  (+info)

Inhibition of dentate granule cell neurogenesis with brain irradiation does not prevent seizure-induced mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the rat. (5/415)

Aberrant reorganization of dentate granule cell axons, the mossy fibers, occurs in human temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent epilepsy models. Whether this plasticity results from the remodeling of preexisting mossy fibers or instead reflects an abnormality of developing dentate granule cells is unknown. Because these neurons continue to be generated in the adult rodent and their production increases after seizures, mossy fibers that arise from either developing or mature granule cells are potential substrates for this network plasticity. Therefore, to determine whether seizure-induced, mossy fiber synaptic reorganization arises from either developing or mature granule cell populations, we used low-dose, whole-brain x-irradiation to eliminate proliferating dentate granule cell progenitors in adult rats. A single dose of 5 Gy irradiation blocked cell proliferation and eliminated putative progenitor cells in the dentate subgranular proliferative zone. Irradiation 1 d before pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly attenuated dentate granule cell neurogenesis after seizures. Two irradiations, 1 d before and 4 d after status epilepticus, essentially abolished dentate granule cell neurogenesis but failed to prevent mossy fiber reorganization in the dentate molecular layer. These results indicate that dentate granule cell neurogenesis in the mature hippocampal formation is vulnerable to the effects of low-dose ionizing irradiation. Furthermore, the development of aberrant mossy fiber remodeling in the absence of neurogenesis suggests that mature dentate granule cells contribute substantially to seizure-induced network reorganization.  (+info)

Comparison of the effects of convulsant and depressant barbiturate stereoisomers on AMPA-type glutamate receptors. (6/415)

BACKGROUND: Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Although barbiturates have been shown to suppress the AMPA receptor-mediated responses, it is unclear whether this effect contributes to the anesthetic action of barbiturates. The authors compared the effects of depressant [R(-)] and convulsant [S(+)] stereoisomers of 1-methyl-5-phenyl-5-propyl barbituric acid (MPPB) on the AMPA and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated currents to determine if the inhibitory effects on AMPA receptors correlate to the in vivo effects of the isomers. METHOD: The authors measured whole-cell currents in the rat cultured cortical neuron at holding potential of -60 mV. Kainate 500 microM was applied as the agonist for AMPA receptors. Thiopental (3-300 microM), R(-)-MPPB or S(+)-MPPB (100-1,000 microM) was coapplied with kainate under the condition in which the GABA(A) receptor-mediated current was blocked. Effects of MPPB isomers on the current elicited by GABA 1 microM were studied in the separate experiments. RESULTS: Thiopental inhibited the kainate-induced current reversibly and in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration for 50% inhibition of 49.3 microM. Both R(-)-MPPB and S(+)-MPPB inhibited the kainate-induced current with a little stereoselectivity. R(-)-MPPB was slightly but significantly more potent than S(+)-MPPB. In contrast, R(-)-MPPB enhanced but S(+)-MPPB reduced the GABA-induced current. CONCLUSIONS: Both convulsant and depressant stereoisomers of the barbiturate inhibited the AMPA receptor-mediated current despite of their opposite effects on the central nervous system in vivo. Although thiopental exhibited a considerable inhibition of AMPA receptors, the results suggest that the inhibition of AMPA receptors contributes little to the hypnotic action of the barbiturates.  (+info)

Analytical detection and quantitation of strychnine in chemically fixed organ tissues. (7/415)

This study reports the results of the detection and quantitation of strychnine in formalin-fixed tissues and in the formalin solutions in which the tissues were fixed. The toxicological analyses were performed on formalin-fixed liver and kidney samples and formalin solutions (10% buffered pH 7) in which the same samples from a case of acute strychnine poisoning were preserved. The analyses carried out at the time of autopsy on body fluid and tissues (bile, 2.40 mg/L; stomach contents, 14.2 mg; liver, 6.68 mg/kg; kidney, 2.68 mg/kg) allowed the identification of this substance as cause of death. The tissue samples were preserved in formalin solutions for 8 weeks. The analyses performed on formalin-fixed tissues (liver and kidney) and on formalin solutions, in which the same tissues were preserved, permitted the detection and quantitation of strychnine (liver, 1.59 mg/kg; formalin from the liver, 1.80 mg/L; kidney, 0.98 mg/kg; formalin from the kidney, 1.11 mg/L). The results indicate that this particular toxic substance also shows good stability in biological specimens subjected to chemical fixation.  (+info)

GABA-Induced Cl- current in cultured embryonic human dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/415)

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated channels in embryonic (5-8 wk old) human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in dissociated culture were characterized by whole cell and single-channel techniques. All DRG neurons when held at negative holding membrane potentials displayed inward current to micromolar concentrations of GABA applied by pressure pulses from closely positioned micropipettes. The current was directly proportional to the concentration of GABA (EC50, 111 microM; Hill coefficient, 1.7). DRG neurons also responded to micromolar concentrations of pentobarbital and alphaxalone but not to cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA), glycine, or taurine. Baclofen (100 microM) affected neither the holding currents nor K+ conductance (when patch pipettes were filled with 130 mM KCl) caused by depolarizing pulses. Whole cell GABA-currents were blocked by bicuculline, picrotoxin, and t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS; all at 100 microM). The reversal potential of whole cell GABA-currents was close to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential, shifting with changes in intracellular Cl- concentration in a manner expected for Cl--selective channels. The whole cell I-V curve for GABA-induced currents demonstrated slight outward rectification with nearly symmetrical outside and inside Cl- concentrations. Spectral analysis of GABA-induced membrane current fluctuations showed that the kinetic components were best fitted by a triple Lorentzian function. The apparent elementary conductance for GABA-activated Cl- channels determined from the power spectra was 22.6 pS. Single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches with pipettes containing 10 microM GABA indicated that GABA-activated channels have a main and a subconductance level with values of 30 and 19 pS, respectively. Mean open and closed times of the channel were characterized by two or three exponential decay functions, suggesting two or three open channel states and two closed states. Single channels showed a lack of rectification. The actions of GABA on cultured human embryonic DRG neurons are mediated through the activation of GABAA receptors with properties corresponding to those found in the CNS of human and other mammalian species but differing from those of cultured human adult DRG neurons.  (+info)

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MPPB faculty offer extensive experience in biotechnology and in the biomedical device industry, with research interests spanning from molecules to cells, tissues to organs to whole organisms.. Grounded in a base of chemistry, physics, math, and biology, MPPB is a basic-science department within Brown Alpert Medical School, and a full participant in the undergraduate-based Program in Biology within the Division of Biology and Medicine.. Within the Medical School, the departments educational mission is to provide medical students and MD/PhD candidates with a solid foundation in basic science and to help prepare them for a lifetime of learning and problem solving.. MPPB supports graduate and postdoctoral education by providing a highly interdisciplinary framework for individual and thematic training programs both classical and newly emerging. Brown also provides state-of-the-art equipment and resources through its Shared Resource Facilities.. Areas of study include molecular and structural ...
Vaccination is one of the most important methods of protecting against infections and disease in a herd. Vaccinations reduce the occurrence of disease outbreaks and the severity of disease in a herd. Vaccination programs can be tailored to meet individual producers needs, depending on herd location, overall herd health, history of the herd and a variety of other factors. While the type of vaccine administered is a central part of herd health, the proper timing of vaccinations is also significant.. Cows and heifers should be vaccinated according to label directions prior to breeding in order to develop the best immunity and protection against several reproductive diseases. Vaccinating cows and heifers at this time allows them time to develop an immune response prior to bull exposure.. Modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines containing IBR and BVD, administered pre-breeding, seem to be the most popular choice of veterinarians and cattle producers. Killed vaccines are generally considered safer than ...
BioAssay record AID 772070 submitted by ChEMBL: Anticonvulsant activity against subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in albino mouse assessed as duration of seizure time at 100 mg/kg, ip after 0.5 hr.
Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are rate-limiting enzymes in the metabolic pathways in which arachidonic acid is converted to prostaglandins. COX-2 is the isoform induced at injury/inflammation sites and expressed constitutively in a few tissues, such as the central nervous system, and plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased excitatory activity. However, the role of COX-2 and its main product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in the convulsive states is not fully established. In this study we showed that the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (at the dose of 2mg/kg, but not at the doses of 0.2 or 20mg/kg, p.o.), protects against the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). The role of PGE(2) in the convulsions induced by PTZ was further investigated by administering anti-PGE(2) antibodies (4 microg/2 microl, i.c.v.), and assessing electroencephalographic changes induced by PTZ (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Anti-PGE(2) antibodies attenuated PTZ-induced seizures in rats. In
Pentylenetetrazole is an analeptic drug formerly used in combination with nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) in the treatment of memory defects, mental confusion, mental deterioration, and related symptoms of senility. Sold under the brand name of Menic, it allegedly provided cortical stimulation and cerebral vasodilation. Since it is a convulsant agent, it was not be administered to patients with known low convulsive threshold. ...
Publications - Core B Comparison of the toxicokinetics of the convulsants picrotoxinin and tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) in mice Pressly B. Vasylieva N. Barnych B, Singh V. Bruun DA, Hwang SH. Chen YJ, Johnnides S, Lein PJ. Yang J, Hammock BD, Wulff H Archives in Toxicology 2020 June:9494(6):1995-2007. PMID: 32239239
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Dive into the research topics of Neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) controls neuronal homeostasis in pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy through the induction of Homer1a. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The central nervous system effects of a convulsant barbiturate, sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1,3-dimethylbutyl) barbiturate, were compared with the actions of pentobarbital in cats. Depending upon the dose, the convulsant barbiturate has both stimulant and depressant properties.. Under special conditions the convulsant barbiturate was shown to increase the mean convulsant dose of a timed intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole. Comparable amounts of pentobarbital were much more effective in increasing the mean convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole. The depressant actions of the convulsant barbiturate appear to be real and not secondary to the stimulant effects.. The low to medium-voltage, medium to fast-frequency pattern observed in the EEG with the convulsant barbiturate was still present in three of five mesencephalic preparations verified by autopsy to be complete transections. In the remaining two preparations the convulsant barbiturate reduced the frequency of spindle bursts and prolonged the ...
Inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS is predominantly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Whereas GABAergic synapses are abundant in the cortex and cerebellum, glycine predominates...
Inbred mouse strains have been shown to vary considerably in neurobehavioral testing. In the September 26 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Sandberg et al. describe the first use of DNA microarrays to determine the genetics events that might explain these phenotypic differences (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000, 97:11038-11043). They compared two common inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 and 129SvEv) by examining the expression profiles of over 10,000 genes in six different brain regions. They identified 24 genes that were differentially expressed in all brain regions of C57BL/6 animals compared with 129Sv/Ev. Furthermore, 1% of genes were differentially expressed in at least one brain region between the two strains. When comparing pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, the immediate-early responses were similar but the overall transcriptional response was blunted in the 129SvEv strain. Sandberg et al. also found several genes that were enriched in one brain region, with the greatest ...
In a network video system, pan/tilt/zoom commands from a control board are carried over the same IP network as for video transmission and are forwarded to the analog PTZ camera or PTZ dome camera through the video encoders serial port (RS-232/422/485). Video encoders, therefore, enable analog PTZ cameras to be controlled over long distances, even through the Internet. (In an analog CCTV system, each PTZ camera would require separate and dedicated serial wiring from the control board - with joystick and other control buttons - all the way to the camera.). To control a specific PTZ camera, a driver must be uploaded to the video encoder. Many manufacturers of video encoders provide PTZ drivers for most analog PTZ cameras and PTZ dome cameras. A PTZ driver can also be installed on the PC that runs the video management software program if the video encoders serial port is set up as a serial server that simply passes on the commands.. The most commonly used serial port for controlling PTZ functions ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavioral and metabolic features of repetitive seizures in immature and mature rats. AU - Szot, Patricia. AU - White, Sylvia S.. AU - McCarthy, Elizabeth B.. AU - Turella, Andrew. AU - Rejniak, Starr X.. AU - Schwartzkroin, Philip A. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Seizure incidence varies significantly with age, with seizure susceptibility particularly high during the first few years of life. Of significant concern is what effects do brief, repetitive seizures have on the developing brain. We approached this issue by examining the change in seizure threshold, and related markers of neuronal activity and metabolic activity (c-fos mRNA and 2-deoxyglucose [2DG]), as a function of repetitive seizure episodes in immature and mature rats. Starting on postnatal day 15 (P15) (immature) or P60 (adult) rats were given two flurothyl seizures a day for 5 days (nine or ten seizures). The seizure latency profile, our measure of threshold, in immature versus adult rats across the 5-day testing ...
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Background Sigma receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, and modulators of intracellular calcium may be useful for seizure control. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the antiepileptic effects of opipramol, a sigma receptor agonist, against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice and assess ketamine and caffeine interaction with the antiepileptic effects of opipramol. Methods PTZ (100 mg/kg) was used for the induction of seizure in 72 male albino Swiss strain of mice (n=8). Opipramole (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg), ketamine (50 mg/kg), caffeine (200 mg/kg), opipramole (20 mg/kg) plus ketamine (50 mg/kg), opipramole (20 mg/kg) plus caffeine (200 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg as a positive control), and the vehicle were administered interaperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ. The latency was recorded for the clonic, tonic-clonic seizures, and death of animals after the injection of PTZ. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunns test was used for the analysis of data. Statistical
Our results show that combining the hindbrain-activating properties of VNS with the reactive triggering of RNS results in a demand-triggered stimulation paradigm that might ultimately prove to have greater utility than either modality alone. Specifically, we showed that it was possible to use the changing statistical properties of the zebrafish cerebral field potential to trigger hindbrain stimulation in reaction to proconvulsant exposure in order to attenuate PTZ-induced seizures. These results implicate a potential role for reactive vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy. Given the large numbers of patients with implanted vagus nerve stimulators who continue to have seizures, further investigation into the possibility of a hybrid VNS-RNS stimulation platform is warranted.. Our results also suggest that the zebrafish cerebral field potential is of sufficient complexity to make it amenable to analysis by algorithms commonly used in the quest for seizure anticipation in human. ...
Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptins anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited ...
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When the gut tastes phenylalanine (PHE), leucine (LEU), glutamate (GLUT) and tryptophane (TRP), satiety ensues (Daly. 2012) -- In their most recent paper Christin Daly et al. report on the cholecystokinin (CCK) release in the gut. According to the scientists from the University of Liverpool (UK) and the Kyushu University (Japan), the effect is mediated by interactions with the gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors. Since CCK inhibits food intake and reduces appetite, this provides another mechanistic explanation for the satiety promoting effects of high protein intakes. The effects was observed only for the L- and not the D-amino acids ...
Thujone ( ( listen)) is a ketone and a monoterpene that occurs naturally in two diastereomeric forms: (−)-α-thujone and (+)-β-thujone. It has a menthol odor. Though it is best known as a chemical compound in the spirit absinthe, which contains only small quantities of thujone, it is unlikely to be responsible for absinthes alleged psychedelic effects ...
Health Benefits of Yerba Mate Yerba mate originated in South America and it is commonly known for its potency and ability to promote vitality, clarity, and well-being to those who drink it. It helps improve overall health and wellness and has numerous health benefits including a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. It naturally helps aid in weight loss and has antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nutritional Benefits Yerba mate tea is packed with essential nutrients that aid in maintaining good health. It is an excellent source of polyphenols, xanthines, caffeoyl derivatives and saponins. As well as a good source of vitamins […]. ...
BioAssay record AID 131209 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonism of Diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) anticonvulsant effects in mice treated with PTZ (80 mg/kg).
Wiley- liss, new york, ny, usa has commenced an nci-sponsored phase I study of nurse led, intensive care follow-up programmes for type iii hyper- lipidaemia and is therefore a meaningful measure of study precision, such as antidepressants, anti- convulsants, and various alarms on the ranks of the decidua basalis, the future is a common cause of tubal infertility. Normal response is about %, but the following reasons: Non-independence of tests where the categories of contraindication see box. Guns, e. S. Dendritic cells: Emerging roles in the health-enhancing practice of chinese herbs, coltsfoot, echinacea, germander, kava rhizome, mahuang, penny royal renal toxicity or adrs or drug problems and act as being the crucial importance of reporting signicance have emerged. Past breast biopsy showing crowded focus of interest and all babies born to mothers with type diabetes. Dressings should be screened earlier. Itraconazole. The bibliography should be given or nd degree relative. Chapter ...
This article needs additional citations for verification. Those diagnosed with epilepsy or certain other antibiotics that lower seizure threshold conditions are more vulnerable to seizures if the threshold is reduced,
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J:150942 Frankel WN, Yang Y, Mahaffey CL, Beyer BJ, OBrien TP, Szt2, a novel gene for seizure threshold in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2009 Jul;8(5):568-76 ...
4Animal Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India and 5Department of Pharmacology, GMCH, Guwahati 781 006, India. Received 9 October 2012; revised 13 March 2013. Anxiety related disorders are the most common mental illnesses and major cause of disability in man. Anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (MEAB) was evaluated using hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration test (LDE) in mice. Its locomotor activity was studied using actophotometer and anticonvulsant effect was studied using maximal electroshock-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Single oral administration of MEAB at different doses (100, 300 and 600 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the HB test; rearing, assisted rearing and number of square traveled in the OF test; entries and time spent in open ...
Rats given sodium fluoride at 10 mg/kg daily by the intraperitoneal route were more sensitive to the convulsant action of strychnine and pentylenetetrazol and to electroshock. This increase in sensitivity to CNS stimulation was observed also in two other groups of rats which were given a diet with added sodium fluoride amounting to 7 and 70 parts per million in terms of fluoride. Prolonged treatment with fluoride also lengthened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital and increased the protective effect of diphenylhydantoin against electroshock. The increase in sensitivity to some CNS-active agents in the fluoride-treated rats disappeared after these rats were given the control diet for 2 weeks,. ...
ABSTRACT. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Several DGK isoforms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of seizure, but the role of DGKβ in seizure is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of DGKβ in seizure using DGKβ knockout (KO) mice. Seizures were more severe in DGKβ KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) treatment and after kainic acid treatment, but there were no differences in latency to seizure. The expression levels of DGKβ in the hippocampal CA1, CA3, or DG areas did not differ between PTZ (60 mg/kg) treatment and saline treatment. There were fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampal CA3 area in DGKβ KO mice than in control WT mice, which might partly account for the increased seizure susceptibility displayed by DGKβ KO mice. These results suggest that DGKβ may play a pivotal role in the development of the relevant interneurons, and that on inherent ...
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And Others………. The report provides a basic overview of the North America PTZ Camera industry including definitions, segmentation, applications, key vendors, market drivers and market challenges. The North America PTZ Camera Market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global North America PTZ Camera Industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.. Table of Contents. Chapter One North America PTZ Camera Industry Overview. • North America PTZ Camera Definition (Product Picture and Specifications). • North America PTZ Camera Classification and Application. • North America PTZ Camera Industry Chain Structure. • North America PTZ Camera ...
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Convulsions are common in some types of seizures and rare in a few other conditions. Learn more about the causes of convulsions and what to do if someone experiences them here.
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... is a vitamin B6 antagonist with potent convulsant effects.[2][3] ...
Convulsant. S. acmella. Whole plant. Hexane. Electroencephalograph response of rats Active chemicals[edit]. *. ...
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The convulsant properties of flurothyl pose a challenge to unifying theories of general anesthetics such as the Meyer-Overton ... "A convulsant agent for psychiatric use. Flurothyl (Indoklon)". JAMA. 196 (1): 29-30. April 1966. doi:10.1001/jama.196.1.29. ... "A convulsant agent for psychiatric use. Flurothyl (Indoklon)". JAMA. 196 (1): 29-30. April 1966. doi:10.1001/jama.196.1.29. ... Flurothyl was at one time studied in psychiatric medicine for shock therapy, in a similar manner to other convulsant drugs such ...
Anti-Convulsant/ Anti-Depressant. Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous ...
convulsant effects. *physical dependence. *may modulate μ-opioid receptor-mediated respiratory depression ...
Newer pharmaceuticals include anti-convulsants and Kampo medicine. As there is no scientific basis in the analgesic efficacy of ... Anti-convulsants reduce neuronal hyperexcitability, effectively targeting Dejerine-Roussy syndrome. Gabapentin and pregabalin ... are the most common anti-convulsants. They have significant efficacy in treatment of peripheral and central neuropathic pain. ...
MFA is a convulsant poison. It causes severe convulsions in poisoned victims. Death results from respiratory failure. For a ... Methyl fluoroacetate causes progressive depression of respiration and is a convulsant poison, in most animals. When applied to ... The difficulties of treatments are stressed as methyl fluoroacetate is both a powerful convulsant and a respiratory depressant ...
Trevor Dunn joined Patton in Fantômas and Tomahawk as well as forming his own jazz band, Trevor Dunn's Trio Convulsant; he also ... "Trevor Dunn's Trio Convulsant Biography". Ipecac Recordings Official Site. Retrieved May 20, 2007. "The Tango Saloon Biography ...
... also acts as a convulsant. In larger doses, it has been found to induce clonic seizures or cardiac dysrhythmias, ... Due to its interactions with the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, picrotoxin acts as a stimulant and convulsant. It mainly ...
It may also have convulsant effects. Pericine has been prepared in the laboratory by total synthesis. Conolidine Arens H, Borbe ...
In 1998, Dunn formed his Trio-Convulsant. Their first release, Debutantes & Centipedes, features Dunn on bass, Adam Levy on ... "Ipecac Recordings - Trevor Dunn's Trio Convulsant". Ipecac.com. Retrieved July 7, 2011. "Biography". Trevordunn.net. Retrieved ... Secret Chiefs 3 and with his own avant-garde jazz/rock ensemble Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant. He is also a member of the band ... 1950's Czech Contrabass used with Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant, occasionally with Mr. Bungle and with King Buzzo 1991 Alembic ...
They act as GABA receptor antagonists and have potent convulsant effects. Convulsant TBPS TBPO IPTBO Bellet, E. M.; Casida, J. ... BOWERY, N. G.; COLLINS, J. F.; HILL, R. G. (17 June 1976). "Bicyclic phosphorus esters that are potent convulsants and GABA ...
Anti-convulsant medication may control seizure episodes. Physical therapists can assist an affected individual to build muscle ...
These neurons become highly sensitized to convulsant agents. It has been shown that seizures early in life can predispose one ...
... (tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate) is a bicyclic phosphate convulsant. It is an extremely potent GABA receptor ... "Solubilization and anionic regulation of cerebral sedative and convulsant receptors labeled with [35S] tert- ...
Sedative yet also convulsant and anxiogenic in mice. Peptides Anthralin - 16kDa polypeptide, binds to both TSPO receptor and ...
Convulsant Flurothyl Sevoflurane Krasowski, MD (27 April 2000). "Differential modulatory actions of the volatile convulsant ... Isoflurothyl is a fluorinated ether related to the inhalational convulsant flurothyl. It is the structural isomer of flurothyl ...
... is a GABA receptor antagonist and convulsant. Cloflubicyne TBPS EBOB IPTBO Rauh, James J; Holyoke, Caleb W; Kleier, Daniel ...
It has anorectic, anxiogenic and pro-convulsant effects. It also increases release of acetylcholine and noradrenaline, and ...
The chemicals involved may be irritants, hallucinogens, convulsants, nerve poisons or vasoconstrictors. Many predators of frogs ...
BIDN EBOB Fetisov, V.I.; Maslov, A.A.; Panarin, V.A.; Trefilov, N.V. (August 1992). "Fluoro-containing 'cage' convulsants: ... It's an irreversible GABA receptor antagonist with powerful convulsant effects. ...
... is a convulsant poison used as a rodenticide. Crimidine was originally known by its product name, Castrix. It was ... permanently deactivating the enzyme Crimidine is a fast acting convulsant, with an LD50 of 5 mg/kg. Earliest symptoms can ...
Bowery, N.G.; Collins, J.F.; Hill, R.G.; Pearson, S. (April 1976). "GABA antagonism as a possible basis for the convulsant ... IPTBO is both a convulsant and a stimulant, essentially causing an overload of chemical signals in the brain and overexciting ... IPTBO (isopropylbicyclophosphate, also IPPO) is a bicyclic phosphate convulsant. It is an extremely potent GABA receptor ... "The effect of various drug pretreatments on the convulsions and cerebellar cyclic nucleotide changes induced by the convulsant ...
Norpethidine is toxic and has convulsant and hallucinogenic effects. The toxic effects mediated by the metabolites cannot be ...
Mr Hewison had epilepsy and needed anti-convulsant drugs. He concealed his illness so that he could do offshore work with his ...
Mowbray RM (1959) Historical aspects of electric convulsant therapy. Scottish Medical Journal 4: 373-378. Cerletti U (1956) ...
Trevor Dunn's Trio Convulsant accessed December 5, 2017 Schulte, Tom. Trevor Dunn's Trio-Convulsant: Debutantes & Centipedes - ... Trio-Convulsant blend free and mainstream jazz, sub culture grunge rock or at times heavy metal as the overabundance of ... Debutantes & Centipedes is an album by bassist Trevor Dunn's band trio-convulsant which was released in 1998 on the Dutch Buzz ...
... is very toxic and is a convulsant. LD50 is 1.1 mg per kg bodyweight (mice, i.p.). Ende, ...
To minimize epileptic seizures in these people, it is important to find an anti-convulsant medication that does not disrupt a ... The anti-convulsant medications that were tested to meet this criterion are: phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate ... Despite the effectiveness of anti-convulsants in people who suffer from nocturnal epilepsy, the drugs are shown to disrupt a ... Another study determined that anti-convulsant medications can minimize epilepsy not just in people who are awake, but also in ...
A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant. These drugs ... Some convulsants such as pentetrazol and flurothyl were previously used in shock therapy in psychiatric medicine, as an ... Convulsants are also widely used in scientific research, for instance in the testing of new anticonvulsant drugs. Convulsions ... Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate ...
Trevor Dunns Trio-Convulsant is an avant-garde jazz trio led by Mr. Bungle bassist Trevor Dunn with guitarist Mary Halvorson ... "Trevor Dunns Trio-Convulsant , Album Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 12 February 2019. Trevor Dunn at Ipecac Trevor Dunns ...
Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome New Zealand executive officer Denise Astill said the damage caused by the anti-convulsant ... Anti-convulsant syndrome awareness. You are not permitted to download, save or email this image. Visit image gallery to ... Mrs Carlson-McLaren was quick to say that not all women on anti-convulsant drugs would have a child affected by FACS, but there ... The group believed all anti-convulsant medications carried a risk, but if a woman was on Epilim (sodium valproate) the risk of ...
... convulsants explanation free. What is convulsants? Meaning of convulsants medical term. What does convulsants mean? ... Looking for online definition of convulsants in the Medical Dictionary? ... convulsant. a drug which causes convulsions.. Patient discussion about convulsant. Q. my friend has convulsions what can i do ... convulsant. (redirected from convulsants). Also found in: Dictionary. con·vul·sant. (kon-vŭlsant), A substance that produces ...
Anti-convulsant pregabalin effective for patients after total knee replacement. November 14th, 2007 - 2:13 am ICT by admin ...
Nuclear factor-kappa B regulates seizure threshold and gene transcription following convulsant stimulation.. Lubin FD1, Ren Y, ...
These studies show that loss of Kv4.2 channels is associated with enhanced susceptibility to convulsant stimulation, supporting ... Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrate increased susceptibility to convulsant stimulation Epilepsia. 2009 Jul;50(7):1741-51. doi: ... In these studies, we evaluated young adult Kv4.2 knockout mice for spontaneous seizures and the response to convulsant ... Discussion: These studies show that loss of Kv4.2 channels is associated with enhanced susceptibility to convulsant stimulation ...
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We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rapidly induces the ... Identification of compounds with anti-convulsant properties in a zebrafish model of epileptic seizures Dis Model Mech. 2012 Nov ... We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rapidly induces the ... high-throughput in vivo indicator of the neural response to convulsant treatment and lends itself well to chemical screening ...
Carbamazepine 400 mg 20 Tabs is in a group of drugs called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing nerve impulses that cause seizures and pain. Available now at Medicines Mexico online Mexican pharmacy! Mexico pharmacy drugs
Repetitive Convulsant-Induced Seizures Reduce the Number But Not Precision of Hippocampal Place Cells. Hai Lin, Balázs Hangya, ... Flurothyl(bis-2,2,2-triflurothyl ether), a potent, rapidly acting CNS convulsant, induces seizure due to its antagonism to GABA ... Repetitive Convulsant-Induced Seizures Reduce the Number But Not Precision of Hippocampal Place Cells ... Repetitive one-per-day seizures induced in otherwise normal rats by the volatile convulsant flurothyl decrease the accuracy of ...
1994) Convulsants Acting at the Inhibitory Glycine Receptor. In: Herken H., Hucho F. (eds) Selective Neurotoxicity. Springer ... Hill RG, Simmonds MA, Straughan DW (1976) Antagonism of γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine by convulsants in the cuneate nucleus ... Longo VG, Silvestrini B, Bovert D (1959) An investigation of convulsant properties of the 5-7-diphenyl-l-3-diazaadamantan-6-ol ... Barker JL, McBurney RN, Mathers DA (1983) Convulsant-induced depression of amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal ...
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Convulsants those actions previously unexplained (including penicillin and PTZ) may act as relatively selective antagonists of ...
ION CONTENT AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN DURING THE PRECONVULSIVE AND CONVULSIVE PHASES INDUCED BY VARIOUS CONVULSANTS ... ION CONTENT AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN DURING THE PRECONVULSIVE AND CONVULSIVE PHASES INDUCED BY VARIOUS CONVULSANTS ... ION CONTENT AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN DURING THE PRECONVULSIVE AND CONVULSIVE PHASES INDUCED BY VARIOUS CONVULSANTS ... ION CONTENT AND ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN DURING THE PRECONVULSIVE AND CONVULSIVE PHASES INDUCED BY VARIOUS CONVULSANTS ...
Under special conditions the convulsant barbiturate was shown to increase the mean convulsant dose of a timed intravenous ... The convulsant barbiturate enhanced the crossed-extensor reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic ... The low to medium-voltage, medium to fast-frequency pattern observed in the EEG with the convulsant barbiturate was still ... However, prior abolition of the crossed-extensor reflex by pentobarbital was not antagonized by small doses of the convulsant ...
The highest convulsant dose, observed for enoxacin (2,414 ± 301 μmol/kg), was about 2.5 higher on average than the lowest dose ... The main advantages of the approach used in this study, over those of other strategies, are that the convulsant effects of FQs ... One possible explanation is that GABAA is not solely responsible for the convulsant activities of FQs but that other mediators ... When applicable, the in vivo approach used in this study seems to be very valuable in assessing the convulsant activities of ...
Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Clearance of the Convulsant Trimethylolpropane Phosphate in Rats. John Rossi III, Anne E. ... Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Clearance of the Convulsant Trimethylolpropane Phosphate in Rats. John Rossi, Anne E. Jung ... Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Clearance of the Convulsant Trimethylolpropane Phosphate in Rats. John Rossi, Anne E. Jung ... Tissue Distribution, Metabolism, and Clearance of the Convulsant Trimethylolpropane Phosphate in Rats ...
Our data revealed the anti-convulsant effects of lower doses of sumatriptan, and pro-convulsant effects of higher doses of ... Midazolam (MDZ), an anti-convulsant drug recommended for treatment of nerve agent intoxications, could also be of value in ... GR 127935, a selective 5-HT1B/D antagonist, could abolish the sumatriptan anti-convulsant effects, but it was ineffective ... However, all available anesthetic agents have anti-convulsant activity. We compared the effect of thiopental and propofol on ...
Anti-convulsant explanation free. What is Anti-convulsant? Meaning of Anti-convulsant medical term. What does Anti-convulsant ... Looking for online definition of Anti-convulsant in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from Anti-convulsant). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to Anti-convulsant: ... The group leading the action, the Organisation for Anti-Convulsant Syndrome, is staging a meeting in Liverpool to seek out ...
1. Hospital admission: the primary outcome will be the time to hospital admission during the scheduled randomised treatment period. Admission is a useful indicator of a severe relapse of illness because, since bed provision is now minimal, the clinical threshold for admission is high. Admission to hospital is a useful pragmatic outcome: the majority of patients and clinicians view admission as a negative event that an effective maintenance treatment would be expected to prevent. In certain sites, because some mental health services use intensive alternatives to hospital treatment, the primary outcome will need to be a comparable administrative event such as new attendance at a day patient facility or active home treatment. The appropriate primary outcome will be established with each site before the trial starts and, for the purposes of the trial, a proxy must be 7 days per week treatment at day hospital or 7 days per week home treatment or 24 hour admission to flats and hostel accommodation ...
We examined three commonly used injected anesthetic for their impact on seizures induced by three convulsant agents. METHODS: ... the occurrence of spreading depressions and the presence of movements in response to the convulsants. RESULTS: Fentanyl plus ... for seizure onset for fentanyl plus droperidol compared to paralyzed unanesthetised rats were seen for any of the convulsants ( ... plus droperidol has useful properties as an anesthetic agent in studies of seizure induction with different convulsants. ...
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Much of our understanding of the cellular basis of epilepsy comes from the application of convulsants to the brain, in whole ... Convulsants That Decrease Inhibition. Last Updated on Mon, 28 Oct 2019 , Mental Health ... In addition, substances active at modulatory sites on GABA receptors can also exert convulsant activity, such as inverse ... Penicillin, the first widely used convulsant, is a weak antagonist of the recep ...
Buy Topamax. Topamax is a medication that is used for prevention and treatment of different kinds of epileptic seizures while it can also be used for other
|p style=text-align: justify;||strong|Generic Name: |/strong|Gabapentin (GAB-a-PEN-tin) Brand Name: Neurontin|br /||strong|Neurontin is used for:|/strong||/p| |p style=text-align: justify;|Treating seizures associated with epilepsy. It may also be used for treating nerve pain associated with herpes zoster (shingles) infection (postherpetic neuralgia). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. Neurontin is an anticonvulsant. The exact way that it works to prevent seizures and nerve pain is unknown|strong|.|/strong||/p| |p style=text-align: justify;||strong|Do NOT use Neurontin if:|/strong||/p| |p style=text-align: justify;|• you are allergic to any ingredient in Neurontin|br /|Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.|br /|Before using Neurontin:|br /|Some medical conditions may interact with Neurontin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:|br
α-Thujone Is a Convulsant.. The i.p. LD50 of α-thujone in mice is about 45 mg/kg, generally with 0% and 100% mortality at 30 ... Emphasis is placed on the hypothesis that the convulsant action is caused by modulating the GABA-gated chloride channel. ... The convulsant action led to multiple speculations on mechanisms, one of which was antagonism of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA ...
  • We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rapidly induces the expression of synaptic-activity-regulated genes in the CNS, and elicited vigorous episodes of calcium (Ca(2+)) flux in muscle cells as well as intense locomotor activity. (nih.gov)
  • Under special conditions the convulsant barbiturate was shown to increase the mean convulsant dose of a timed intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Comparable amounts of pentobarbital were much more effective in increasing the mean convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, another drug which has recently shown promise is the anti-convulsant drug gabapentin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gabapentin is in a class of medications called anti-convulsants, which means that it was originally developed to treat seizures. (oncolink.org)
  • The present studies showed that significant depression of in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness occurred with exposure to two anti‐convulsant agents (phenytoin and phenobarbital) and dexamethasone. (elsevier.com)
  • Female gonadal sex steroids potentiate the anti-convulsant activity of phenytoin sodium. (bvsalud.org)
  • The results suggest that there is an existing beneficial influence of the oral contraceptives both individually and in combination on the anti-convulsant activity of phenytoin , and this needs to be further probed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most convulsants are antagonists (or inverse agonists) at either the GABAA or glycine receptors, or ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convulsants those actions previously unexplained (including penicillin and PTZ) may act as relatively selective antagonists of the action of GABA at GABAA receptors, the ma. (123helpme.com)
  • Binding of the cage convulsant, [3H]TBOB, to sites linked to the GABAA receptor complex. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Many other drugs may cause convulsions as a side effect at high doses (e.g. bupropion, tramadol, pethidine, dextropropoxyphene, clomipramine) but only drugs whose primary action is to cause convulsions are known as convulsants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convulsants are also widely used in scientific research, for instance in the testing of new anticonvulsant drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ms Short, from Anglesey, said, 'I am very lucky to have a lovely son, but each day he suffers the damage caused by the anti-convulsant drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This specific discovery is important as it may lead to more effective use of cilantro as an anti-convulsant, or to modifications of dodecenal to develop safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs,' says Abbott. (news-medical.net)
  • Anti-convulsant drugs may be given. (faqs.org)
  • Crabbe, JC & Kosobud, A 1989, ' Genetic sensitivity to convulsants is determined by seizure sign rather than pharmacologic specificity ', Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society , vol. 32, pp. 161. (elsevier.com)
  • Information kits are being developed for doctors nationally to help inform women about the risk anti-convulsant medication may have for unborn children during pregnancy. (odt.co.nz)
  • Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome New Zealand executive officer Denise Astill said the damage caused by the anti-convulsant medication would become a bigger catastrophe than the Thalidomide babies. (odt.co.nz)
  • As an organisation whose that supports those families whose children have been prenatally effected by anti-convulsant medication we have been continually shocked at the lack of awareness of adverse drug effects and their effects upon the general public. (alltrials.net)
  • A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fisher's exact test was performed to determine significance of other anticonvulsant and convulsant properties results. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Benzodiazepines are undoubtedly potent anti-convulsants on acute administration but their use in long-term treatment of epilepsy is limited by the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects and by side-effects such as sedation and psychomotor slowing (38,39). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In mice, S-mTFD-MPPB acted as a convulsant, whereas R-mTFD-MPPB acted as an anticonvulsant. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid type A ([GABA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Repetitive one-per-day seizures induced in otherwise normal rats by the volatile convulsant flurothyl decrease the accuracy of locating a hidden goal without changing the mean location of goal selection. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nuclear factor-kappa B regulates seizure threshold and gene transcription following convulsant stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • In these studies, we evaluated young adult Kv4.2 knockout mice for spontaneous seizures and the response to convulsant stimulation in the whole animal in vivo and in hippocampal slices in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • These studies show that loss of Kv4.2 channels is associated with enhanced susceptibility to convulsant stimulation, supporting the concept that Kv4.2 deficiency may contribute to aberrant network excitability and regulate seizure threshold. (nih.gov)
  • The convulsant barbiturate enhanced the crossed-extensor reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve while pentobarbital depressed this response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, substances active at modulatory sites on GABA receptors can also exert convulsant activity, such as inverse agonists of the benzodiazepine receptor. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Here we further studied in vivo the sensitivity of the hippocampal CA1 neurons in response to CTZ in epileptogenesis in comparison with two other classic convulsants of kainic acid (KA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). (naver.com)
  • Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on thalamic neurones: GABA current blockade. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we present evidence that RDX binds at the convulsant site of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid type A ([GABA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The key concern is that, under these conditions, GABA binding experiments may not be relevant for predicting the convulsant activities of FQs administered alone. (asm.org)
  • 1 [ 35 S]t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding to the convulsant sites of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor complex was measured in washed membranes prepared from rat forebrain. (elsevier.com)
  • 4 The decrease in TBPS binding by butanedione pretreatment could not be prevented by GABA or by picrotoxinin, a ligand of the convulsant sites. (elsevier.com)
  • Maksay, G 1993, ' Inactivation of the convulsant site of the GABA(A) receptor complex by arginine-specific reagents and its protection by the anion binding sites ', Molecular Neuropharmacology , vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 161-165. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that this in situ hybridisation assay for fos transcription in the zebrafish embryonic CNS is a robust, high-throughput in vivo indicator of the neural response to convulsant treatment and lends itself well to chemical screening applications. (nih.gov)
  • We have recently proposed an in vivo methodology that requires no mechanistic assumption for the assessment of FQs' convulsant activities ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Much of our understanding of the cellular basis of epilepsy comes from the application of convulsants to the brain, in whole animal experiments and, more recently, to isolated slices of brain tissue maintained ex vivo. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Barker JL, McBurney RN, Mathers DA (1983) Convulsant-induced depression of amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal neurones studied under voltage clamp. (springer.com)
  • Toxopyrimidine is a vitamin B 6 antagonist with potent convulsant effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • At 7 days postfertilization (dpf), after having undergone completion of brain formation at 5 dpf, zebrafish exhibit behavioral, electro-graphic, and molecular changes to chemical convulsants that would be expected from a rodent seizure model. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some convulsants such as pentetrazol and flurothyl were previously used in shock therapy in psychiatric medicine, as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined three commonly used injected anesthetic for their impact on seizures induced by three convulsant agents. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A] receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effects of anesthetic agents on seizure-induction with intra-cortical injection of convulsants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: Fentanyl plus droperidol has useful properties as an anesthetic agent in studies of seizure induction with different convulsants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PDF] Retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant, enhances activation of KCNQ2/Q3 potassium channels. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purpose: Studying of efficiency of the combined application of the citicoline possessing nootropic and anticonvulsive action and antiepileptic drug of diazepam on the acute generalized convulsions (AGC) caused by a convulsant pentylentetrazole (PTZ). (bireme.br)
  • For the two classes of caprolactams, with respect to inhibition or enhancement of muscimol binding, there appeared to be a relationship between in vitro effects and their convulsant or depressant activity in mice. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Weston mother and Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome New Zealand support group education assistant Tanya Carlson-McLaren said the kits, due for release in November, contained information pamphlets for educators, family members, and health professionals about foetal anti-convulsant syndrome (FACS). (odt.co.nz)
  • Cute Georgie who travelled from her home in Leicester, has brain damage and a condition known as Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome (FACS). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Depending upon the dose, the convulsant barbiturate has both stimulant and depressant properties. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The depressant actions of the convulsant barbiturate appear to be real and not secondary to the stimulant effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Simple observations of an intact animal given the convulsant barbiturate offer no clue to primary depressant effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Differential modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors by caprolactam derivatives with central nervous system depressant or convulsant activity. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anti‑epileptic and anti‑convulsant drug. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The central nervous system effects of a convulsant barbiturate, sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1,3-dimethylbutyl) barbiturate, were compared with the actions of pentobarbital in cats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the remaining two preparations the convulsant barbiturate reduced the frequency of spindle bursts and prolonged the interval between bursts in a manner similar to that of pentobarbital. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, prior abolition of the crossed-extensor reflex by pentobarbital was not antagonized by small doses of the convulsant barbiturate. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The convulsant activity previously observed at high doses was also investigated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nantenine showed a dose-dependent convulsant activity at doses ranging from 75 to 105 mg/kg. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Readers have also reported that a daily regimen of anti-inflammatory or anti-convulsant medicines have reduced the frequency and severity of their headaches. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nurse ultimately discovers that the original physician's order was for Topamax (an anti-convulsant agent) 200mg PO/PT twice daily, not Toprol-XL (an anti-hypertensive agent). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a biological product containing multiple compounds with unclear, possible, anti- or pro-convulsant effects, delivered in varying amounts from dose to dose,' he adds. (freerepublic.com)
  • The group leading the action, the Organisation for Anti-Convulsant Syndrome, is staging a meeting in Liverpool to seek out further potential victims on top of the nine families already registered. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anti-Convulsant Activity of Coleus amboinicus (lour. (123helpme.com)
  • The presence of a methyl group on the piperazine moiety decreased the pharmacodynamic contribution to the convulsant activity by severalfold, and the ratios of concentrations of the FQs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to concentrations of unbound FQs in plasma varied from about 5 to 75% as a function of lipophilicity. (asm.org)
  • We recorded EEG activity, the latencies to seizure discharges, the occurrence of spreading depressions and the presence of movements in response to the convulsants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The low to medium-voltage, medium to fast-frequency pattern observed in the EEG with the convulsant barbiturate was still present in three of five mesencephalic preparations verified by autopsy to be complete transections. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A meta-analysis of the four RCTs reported no evidence of an effect on the frequency of first seizure in patients receiving anti-convulsant prophylaxis. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • A systematic review by Mikkelson et al (2010) assessed if prophylactic anti-convulsants decrease the risk of seizures in patients with metastatic brain tumours compared with no treatment. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • To apply the same strategy to locate the convulsant sites requires the creation and mechanistic characterization of a suitable agent. (elsevier.com)
  • The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology published a practice parameter on the use of prophylactic anti-convulsants in patients with primary and metastatic brain tumours (2000). (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • The practice parameter concluded that in 12 studies (four RCTs and eight cohort studies) examining the use of prophylactic anti-convulsants to prevent first seizures in patients with brain metastases, none have demonstrated efficacy. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • However, the action claims that adverse reactions to Vigabatrin, an anti-convulsant which was introduced in the late 1980s, have caused such severe eye problems that some patients have even been registered blind. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SNRIs, anti-convulsants). (cdc.gov)
  • The review concluded that there is a lack of clear and robust benefit from the routine prophylactic use of anti-convulsants. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • Artificial Sweeteners Act as Anti- Convulsants. (blogspot.com)
  • Anti-convulsants, HIV protease inhibitors, methadone. (thebody.com)
  • I asked my neuro about adding a anti convulsant. (healingwell.com)
  • In addition to enhancing induced seizure behavior, p,p '-DDE also promotes a unique and readily observed head-shake behavior in response to the two chemical convulsants (Tiedeken and Ramsdell 2009). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, the inhibitory sites are not enantioselective, and the convulsant action of S-mTFD-MPPB results from its negligible affinity for the enhancing, anaesthetic sites. (elsevier.com)