A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Determination of the lipophilicity of active anticonvulsant N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (1/415)The lipophilicities of fourteen anticonvulsant active N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [I-XIV] have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and acetic acid as the solvent system. The RM value of each compound decreased linearly with increasing concentration of methanol. The partition coefficients (log P) of the amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RM and log P enabled clog P values to be calculated. It was found that the anticonvulsant activity of amides [I-XIV] can be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity. (+info)
Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives. (2/415)A series of 1,2-aminoalkanol derivatives were prepared and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold (scMet) assays and for neurotoxicity (TOX). Most interesting were the anticonvulsant results of S-(+)-2-amino-1-butanol derivative VIII, which displayed anti-MES activity with a protective index (TD50/ED50) of 4.55 corresponding with that for phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate. (+info)
Functional GABAA receptor heterogeneity of acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. (3/415)CA1 pyramidal cells were voltage clamped, and GABA was applied to individual cells with a modified U-tube, rapid drug application system. With Vh = -50 mV, inward currents elicited by 10 microM GABA were inhibited by GABAA receptor (GABAR) antagonists and were baclofen insensitive, suggesting that GABA actions on isolated CA1 pyramidal cells were GABAR mediated. GABA concentration-response curves averaged from all cells were fitted best with a two-site equation, indicating the presence of at least two GABA binding sites, a higher-affinity site (EC50-1 = 11.0 microM) and a lower-affinity site (EC50-2 = 334.2 microM), on two or more populations of cells. The effects of GABAR allosteric modulators on peak concentration-dependent GABAR currents were complex and included monophasic (loreclezole) or multiphasic (diazepam) enhancement, mixed enhancement/inhibition (DMCM, zolpidem) or multiphasic inhibition (zinc). Monophasic (70% of cells) or biphasic (30% of cells) enhancement of GABAR currents by diazepam suggested three different sites on GABARs (EC50-1 =1.8 nM; EC50-2 = 75.8 nM; EC50-3 = 275.9 nM) revealing GABAR heterogeneity. The imidazopyridine zolpidem enhanced GABAR currents in 70% of cells with an EC50 = 222.5 nM, suggesting a predominance of moderate affinity alpha2 (or alpha3-) subtype-containing BZ Type IIA receptors. A small fraction of cells (10%) had a high affinity for zolpidem, something that is suggestive of alpha1 subtype-containing BZ Type I receptors. The remaining 30% of cells were insensitive to or inhibited by zolpidem, suggesting the presence of alpha5 subtype-containing BZ Type IIB receptors. Whether BZ Type I and Type II receptors coexist could not be determined. The beta-carboline methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) inhibited GABAR currents in all cells at midnanomolar concentrations, but in addition, potentiated GABAR currents in some cells at low nanomolar concentrations, characterizing two groups of cells, the latter likely due to functional assembly of alpha5betaxgamma2GABARs. In all cells, GABAR currents were moderately sensitive (EC50 = 9 microM) to loreclezole, consistent with a relatively greater beta3 subtype, than beta1 subtype, subunit mRNA expression. Two populations of cells were identified based on their sensitivities to zinc(IC50 = 28 and 182 microM), suggesting the presence of at least two GABAR isoforms including alpha5beta3gamma2 GABARs. Consistent with the heterogeneity of expression of GABAR subunit mRNA and protein in the hippocampus and based on their differential responses to GABA and to allosteric modulators, distinct populations of CA1 pyramidal cells likely express multiple, functional GABAR isoforms. (+info)
Mapping quantitative trait loci for seizure response to a GABAA receptor inverse agonist in mice. (4/415)To define the genetic contributions affecting individual differences in seizure threshold, a beta carboline [methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM)]-induced model of generalized seizures was genetically dissected in mice. beta-CCM is a GABAA receptor inverse agonist and convulsant. By measuring the latency to generalized seizures after beta-CCM administration to A/J and C57BL6/J mice and their progeny, we estimated a heritability of 0.28 +/- 0.10. A genome wide screen in an F2 population of these parental strains (n = 273) mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on proximal chromosome 7 [logarithm of the likelihood for linkage (LOD) = 3.71] and distal chromosome 10 (LOD = 4.29) for seizure susceptibility, explaining approximately 22 and 25%, respectively, of the genetic variance for this seizure trait. The best fitting logistic regression model suggests that the A/J allele at each locus increases the likelihood of seizures approximately threefold. In a subsequent backcross population (n = 223), we mapped QTLs on distal chromosome 4 (LOD = 2.88) and confirmed the distal chromosome 10 QTLs (LOD = 4.36). In the backcross, the C57BL/6J allele of the chromosome 10 QTL decreases the risk of seizures approximately twofold. These QTLs may ultimately lead to the identification of genes influencing individual differences in seizure threshold in mice and the discovery of novel anticonvulsant agents. The colocalization on distal chromosome 10 of a beta-CCM susceptibility QTL and a QTL for open field ambulation and vertical movement suggests the existence of a single, pleiotropic locus, which we have named Exq1. (+info)
Inhibition of dentate granule cell neurogenesis with brain irradiation does not prevent seizure-induced mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the rat. (5/415)Aberrant reorganization of dentate granule cell axons, the mossy fibers, occurs in human temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent epilepsy models. Whether this plasticity results from the remodeling of preexisting mossy fibers or instead reflects an abnormality of developing dentate granule cells is unknown. Because these neurons continue to be generated in the adult rodent and their production increases after seizures, mossy fibers that arise from either developing or mature granule cells are potential substrates for this network plasticity. Therefore, to determine whether seizure-induced, mossy fiber synaptic reorganization arises from either developing or mature granule cell populations, we used low-dose, whole-brain x-irradiation to eliminate proliferating dentate granule cell progenitors in adult rats. A single dose of 5 Gy irradiation blocked cell proliferation and eliminated putative progenitor cells in the dentate subgranular proliferative zone. Irradiation 1 d before pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly attenuated dentate granule cell neurogenesis after seizures. Two irradiations, 1 d before and 4 d after status epilepticus, essentially abolished dentate granule cell neurogenesis but failed to prevent mossy fiber reorganization in the dentate molecular layer. These results indicate that dentate granule cell neurogenesis in the mature hippocampal formation is vulnerable to the effects of low-dose ionizing irradiation. Furthermore, the development of aberrant mossy fiber remodeling in the absence of neurogenesis suggests that mature dentate granule cells contribute substantially to seizure-induced network reorganization. (+info)
Comparison of the effects of convulsant and depressant barbiturate stereoisomers on AMPA-type glutamate receptors. (6/415)BACKGROUND: Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Although barbiturates have been shown to suppress the AMPA receptor-mediated responses, it is unclear whether this effect contributes to the anesthetic action of barbiturates. The authors compared the effects of depressant [R(-)] and convulsant [S(+)] stereoisomers of 1-methyl-5-phenyl-5-propyl barbituric acid (MPPB) on the AMPA and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated currents to determine if the inhibitory effects on AMPA receptors correlate to the in vivo effects of the isomers. METHOD: The authors measured whole-cell currents in the rat cultured cortical neuron at holding potential of -60 mV. Kainate 500 microM was applied as the agonist for AMPA receptors. Thiopental (3-300 microM), R(-)-MPPB or S(+)-MPPB (100-1,000 microM) was coapplied with kainate under the condition in which the GABA(A) receptor-mediated current was blocked. Effects of MPPB isomers on the current elicited by GABA 1 microM were studied in the separate experiments. RESULTS: Thiopental inhibited the kainate-induced current reversibly and in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration for 50% inhibition of 49.3 microM. Both R(-)-MPPB and S(+)-MPPB inhibited the kainate-induced current with a little stereoselectivity. R(-)-MPPB was slightly but significantly more potent than S(+)-MPPB. In contrast, R(-)-MPPB enhanced but S(+)-MPPB reduced the GABA-induced current. CONCLUSIONS: Both convulsant and depressant stereoisomers of the barbiturate inhibited the AMPA receptor-mediated current despite of their opposite effects on the central nervous system in vivo. Although thiopental exhibited a considerable inhibition of AMPA receptors, the results suggest that the inhibition of AMPA receptors contributes little to the hypnotic action of the barbiturates. (+info)
Analytical detection and quantitation of strychnine in chemically fixed organ tissues. (7/415)This study reports the results of the detection and quantitation of strychnine in formalin-fixed tissues and in the formalin solutions in which the tissues were fixed. The toxicological analyses were performed on formalin-fixed liver and kidney samples and formalin solutions (10% buffered pH 7) in which the same samples from a case of acute strychnine poisoning were preserved. The analyses carried out at the time of autopsy on body fluid and tissues (bile, 2.40 mg/L; stomach contents, 14.2 mg; liver, 6.68 mg/kg; kidney, 2.68 mg/kg) allowed the identification of this substance as cause of death. The tissue samples were preserved in formalin solutions for 8 weeks. The analyses performed on formalin-fixed tissues (liver and kidney) and on formalin solutions, in which the same tissues were preserved, permitted the detection and quantitation of strychnine (liver, 1.59 mg/kg; formalin from the liver, 1.80 mg/L; kidney, 0.98 mg/kg; formalin from the kidney, 1.11 mg/L). The results indicate that this particular toxic substance also shows good stability in biological specimens subjected to chemical fixation. (+info)
GABA-Induced Cl- current in cultured embryonic human dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/415)gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated channels in embryonic (5-8 wk old) human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in dissociated culture were characterized by whole cell and single-channel techniques. All DRG neurons when held at negative holding membrane potentials displayed inward current to micromolar concentrations of GABA applied by pressure pulses from closely positioned micropipettes. The current was directly proportional to the concentration of GABA (EC50, 111 microM; Hill coefficient, 1.7). DRG neurons also responded to micromolar concentrations of pentobarbital and alphaxalone but not to cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA), glycine, or taurine. Baclofen (100 microM) affected neither the holding currents nor K+ conductance (when patch pipettes were filled with 130 mM KCl) caused by depolarizing pulses. Whole cell GABA-currents were blocked by bicuculline, picrotoxin, and t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS; all at 100 microM). The reversal potential of whole cell GABA-currents was close to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential, shifting with changes in intracellular Cl- concentration in a manner expected for Cl--selective channels. The whole cell I-V curve for GABA-induced currents demonstrated slight outward rectification with nearly symmetrical outside and inside Cl- concentrations. Spectral analysis of GABA-induced membrane current fluctuations showed that the kinetic components were best fitted by a triple Lorentzian function. The apparent elementary conductance for GABA-activated Cl- channels determined from the power spectra was 22.6 pS. Single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches with pipettes containing 10 microM GABA indicated that GABA-activated channels have a main and a subconductance level with values of 30 and 19 pS, respectively. Mean open and closed times of the channel were characterized by two or three exponential decay functions, suggesting two or three open channel states and two closed states. Single channels showed a lack of rectification. The actions of GABA on cultured human embryonic DRG neurons are mediated through the activation of GABAA receptors with properties corresponding to those found in the CNS of human and other mammalian species but differing from those of cultured human adult DRG neurons. (+info)
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Welcome to MPPB | Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology
MPPB faculty offer extensive experience in biotechnology and in the biomedical device industry, with research interests spanning from molecules to cells, tissues to organs to whole organisms.. Grounded in a base of chemistry, physics, math, and biology, MPPB is a basic-science department within Brown Alpert Medical School, and a full participant in the undergraduate-based Program in Biology within the Division of Biology and Medicine.. Within the Medical School, the departments educational mission is to provide medical students and MD/PhD candidates with a solid foundation in basic science and to help prepare them for a lifetime of learning and problem solving.. MPPB supports graduate and postdoctoral education by providing a highly interdisciplinary framework for individual and thematic training programs both classical and newly emerging. Brown also provides state-of-the-art equipment and resources through its Shared Resource Facilities.. Areas of study include molecular and structural ...
AID 772070 - Anticonvulsant activity against subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in albino mouse assessed as...
BioAssay record AID 772070 submitted by ChEMBL: Anticonvulsant activity against subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in albino mouse assessed as duration of seizure time at 100 mg/kg, ip after 0.5 hr.
Cyclooxygenase-2/PGE2 pathway facilitates pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. - Semantic Scholar
Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are rate-limiting enzymes in the metabolic pathways in which arachidonic acid is converted to prostaglandins. COX-2 is the isoform induced at injury/inflammation sites and expressed constitutively in a few tissues, such as the central nervous system, and plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased excitatory activity. However, the role of COX-2 and its main product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in the convulsive states is not fully established. In this study we showed that the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (at the dose of 2mg/kg, but not at the doses of 0.2 or 20mg/kg, p.o.), protects against the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). The role of PGE(2) in the convulsions induced by PTZ was further investigated by administering anti-PGE(2) antibodies (4 microg/2 microl, i.c.v.), and assessing electroencephalographic changes induced by PTZ (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Anti-PGE(2) antibodies attenuated PTZ-induced seizures in rats. In
Pentylenetetrazole is an analeptic drug formerly used in combination with nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) in the treatment of memory defects, mental confusion, mental deterioration, and related symptoms of senility. Sold under the brand name of Menic, it allegedly provided cortical stimulation and cerebral vasodilation. Since it is a convulsant agent, it was not be administered to patients with known low convulsive threshold. ...
Publications - Core B | School of Veterinary Medicine
Publications - Core B Comparison of the toxicokinetics of the convulsants picrotoxinin and tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) in mice Pressly B. Vasylieva N. Barnych B, Singh V. Bruun DA, Hwang SH. Chen YJ, Johnnides S, Lein PJ. Yang J, Hammock BD, Wulff H Archives in Toxicology 2020 June:9494(6):1995-2007. PMID: 32239239
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The central nervous system effects of a convulsant barbiturate, sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1,3-dimethylbutyl) barbiturate, were compared with the actions of pentobarbital in cats. Depending upon the dose, the convulsant barbiturate has both stimulant and depressant properties.. Under special conditions the convulsant barbiturate was shown to increase the mean convulsant dose of a timed intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole. Comparable amounts of pentobarbital were much more effective in increasing the mean convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole. The depressant actions of the convulsant barbiturate appear to be real and not secondary to the stimulant effects.. The low to medium-voltage, medium to fast-frequency pattern observed in the EEG with the convulsant barbiturate was still present in three of five mesencephalic preparations verified by autopsy to be complete transections. In the remaining two preparations the convulsant barbiturate reduced the frequency of spindle bursts and prolonged the ...
Convulsants Acting at the Inhibitory Glycine Receptor | Springer for Research & Development
Inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS is predominantly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Whereas GABAergic synapses are abundant in the cortex and cerebellum, glycine predominates...
Gene expression profiles of mouse brains | Genome Biology | Full Text
Inbred mouse strains have been shown to vary considerably in neurobehavioral testing. In the September 26 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Sandberg et al. describe the first use of DNA microarrays to determine the genetics events that might explain these phenotypic differences (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000, 97:11038-11043). They compared two common inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 and 129SvEv) by examining the expression profiles of over 10,000 genes in six different brain regions. They identified 24 genes that were differentially expressed in all brain regions of C57BL/6 animals compared with 129Sv/Ev. Furthermore, 1% of genes were differentially expressed in at least one brain region between the two strains. When comparing pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, the immediate-early responses were similar but the overall transcriptional response was blunted in the 129SvEv strain. Sandberg et al. also found several genes that were enriched in one brain region, with the greatest ...
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In a network video system, pan/tilt/zoom commands from a control board are carried over the same IP network as for video transmission and are forwarded to the analog PTZ camera or PTZ dome camera through the video encoders serial port (RS-232/422/485). Video encoders, therefore, enable analog PTZ cameras to be controlled over long distances, even through the Internet. (In an analog CCTV system, each PTZ camera would require separate and dedicated serial wiring from the control board - with joystick and other control buttons - all the way to the camera.). To control a specific PTZ camera, a driver must be uploaded to the video encoder. Many manufacturers of video encoders provide PTZ drivers for most analog PTZ cameras and PTZ dome cameras. A PTZ driver can also be installed on the PC that runs the video management software program if the video encoders serial port is set up as a serial server that simply passes on the commands.. The most commonly used serial port for controlling PTZ functions ...
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Closed-loop neural stimulation for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in zebrafish | Disease Models & Mechanisms
Our results show that combining the hindbrain-activating properties of VNS with the reactive triggering of RNS results in a demand-triggered stimulation paradigm that might ultimately prove to have greater utility than either modality alone. Specifically, we showed that it was possible to use the changing statistical properties of the zebrafish cerebral field potential to trigger hindbrain stimulation in reaction to proconvulsant exposure in order to attenuate PTZ-induced seizures. These results implicate a potential role for reactive vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy. Given the large numbers of patients with implanted vagus nerve stimulators who continue to have seizures, further investigation into the possibility of a hybrid VNS-RNS stimulation platform is warranted.. Our results also suggest that the zebrafish cerebral field potential is of sufficient complexity to make it amenable to analysis by algorithms commonly used in the quest for seizure anticipation in human. ...
JCI - Leptin inhibits 4-aminopyridine- and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in...
Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptins anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited ...
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Effects of ischemia on the removal of extracellular potassium in cat cortex during pentylenetetrazol seizures. - Semantic...
Changes in cortical extracellular potassium activity ([K+]0), NADH fluorescence, and oxygen consumption were studied in anesthetized cats during pentylenetetrazol seizures. The effects of partial ischemia induced by either hypotension or intermittent carotid artery occlusion on these parameters were investigated. Nonischemic seizures were characterized by gradual generalized decreases in cortical NADH fluorescence and increases in O2 consumption, along with rapid increases in [K+]0, which then usually fell slightly as the ictal discharge continued. Ischemic seizures, on the other hand, were accompanied by complex changes in NADH fluorescence, by smaller delayed maximal increases in O2 consumption that lasted beyond the end of ictal activity, and by more sustained increases in [K+]0. The decay of [K+]0 after the termination of seizures in both nonischemic and moderately ischemic animals was not a monoexponential function: plots of ln delta [K+]0 versus time showed an initial linear decline (of slope M1)
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J:150942 Frankel WN, Yang Y, Mahaffey CL, Beyer BJ, OBrien TP, Szt2, a novel gene for seizure threshold in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2009 Jul;8(5):568-76 ...
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4Animal Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India and 5Department of Pharmacology, GMCH, Guwahati 781 006, India. Received 9 October 2012; revised 13 March 2013. Anxiety related disorders are the most common mental illnesses and major cause of disability in man. Anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (MEAB) was evaluated using hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration test (LDE) in mice. Its locomotor activity was studied using actophotometer and anticonvulsant effect was studied using maximal electroshock-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Single oral administration of MEAB at different doses (100, 300 and 600 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the HB test; rearing, assisted rearing and number of square traveled in the OF test; entries and time spent in open ...
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Rats given sodium fluoride at 10 mg/kg daily by the intraperitoneal route were more sensitive to the convulsant action of strychnine and pentylenetetrazol and to electroshock. This increase in sensitivity to CNS stimulation was observed also in two other groups of rats which were given a diet with added sodium fluoride amounting to 7 and 70 parts per million in terms of fluoride. Prolonged treatment with fluoride also lengthened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital and increased the protective effect of diphenylhydantoin against electroshock. The increase in sensitivity to some CNS-active agents in the fluoride-treated rats disappeared after these rats were given the control diet for 2 weeks,. ...
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ABSTRACT. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Several DGK isoforms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of seizure, but the role of DGKβ in seizure is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of DGKβ in seizure using DGKβ knockout (KO) mice. Seizures were more severe in DGKβ KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) treatment and after kainic acid treatment, but there were no differences in latency to seizure. The expression levels of DGKβ in the hippocampal CA1, CA3, or DG areas did not differ between PTZ (60 mg/kg) treatment and saline treatment. There were fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampal CA3 area in DGKβ KO mice than in control WT mice, which might partly account for the increased seizure susceptibility displayed by DGKβ KO mice. These results suggest that DGKβ may play a pivotal role in the development of the relevant interneurons, and that on inherent ...
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Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome New Zealand executive officer Denise Astill said the damage caused by the anti-convulsant ... Anti-convulsant syndrome awareness. You are not permitted to download, save or email this image. Visit image gallery to ... Mrs Carlson-McLaren was quick to say that not all women on anti-convulsant drugs would have a child affected by FACS, but there ... The group believed all anti-convulsant medications carried a risk, but if a woman was on Epilim (sodium valproate) the risk of ...
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Repetitive Convulsant-Induced Seizures Reduce the Number But Not Precision of Hippocampal Place Cells | Journal of Neuroscience
Repetitive Convulsant-Induced Seizures Reduce the Number But Not Precision of Hippocampal Place Cells. Hai Lin, Balázs Hangya, ... Flurothyl(bis-2,2,2-triflurothyl ether), a potent, rapidly acting CNS convulsant, induces seizure due to its antagonism to GABA ... Repetitive Convulsant-Induced Seizures Reduce the Number But Not Precision of Hippocampal Place Cells ... Repetitive one-per-day seizures induced in otherwise normal rats by the volatile convulsant flurothyl decrease the accuracy of ...
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1994) Convulsants Acting at the Inhibitory Glycine Receptor. In: Herken H., Hucho F. (eds) Selective Neurotoxicity. Springer ... Hill RG, Simmonds MA, Straughan DW (1976) Antagonism of γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine by convulsants in the cuneate nucleus ... Longo VG, Silvestrini B, Bovert D (1959) An investigation of convulsant properties of the 5-7-diphenyl-l-3-diazaadamantan-6-ol ... Barker JL, McBurney RN, Mathers DA (1983) Convulsant-induced depression of amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal ...
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The highest convulsant dose, observed for enoxacin (2,414 ± 301 μmol/kg), was about 2.5 higher on average than the lowest dose ... The main advantages of the approach used in this study, over those of other strategies, are that the convulsant effects of FQs ... One possible explanation is that GABAA is not solely responsible for the convulsant activities of FQs but that other mediators ... When applicable, the in vivo approach used in this study seems to be very valuable in assessing the convulsant activities of ...
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Our data revealed the anti-convulsant effects of lower doses of sumatriptan, and pro-convulsant effects of higher doses of ... Midazolam (MDZ), an anti-convulsant drug recommended for treatment of nerve agent intoxications, could also be of value in ... GR 127935, a selective 5-HT1B/D antagonist, could abolish the sumatriptan anti-convulsant effects, but it was ineffective ... However, all available anesthetic agents have anti-convulsant activity. We compared the effect of thiopental and propofol on ...
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- METHODS AND RESULTS: By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid type A ([GABA. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Here, we present evidence that RDX binds at the convulsant site of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid type A ([GABA. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Convulsants those actions previously unexplained (including penicillin and PTZ) may act as relatively selective antagonists of the action of GABA at GABAA receptors, the ma. (123helpme.com)
- The key concern is that, under these conditions, GABA binding experiments may not be relevant for predicting the convulsant activities of FQs administered alone. (asm.org)
- They act as GABA receptor antagonists and have potent convulsant effects. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, substances active at modulatory sites on GABA receptors can also exert convulsant activity, such as inverse agonists of the benzodiazepine receptor. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
- 1 [ 35 S]t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding to the convulsant sites of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor complex was measured in washed membranes prepared from rat forebrain. (elsevier.com)
- 4 The decrease in TBPS binding by butanedione pretreatment could not be prevented by GABA or by picrotoxinin, a ligand of the convulsant sites. (elsevier.com)
- Maksay, G 1993, ' Inactivation of the convulsant site of the GABA(A) receptor complex by arginine-specific reagents and its protection by the anion binding sites ', Molecular Neuropharmacology , vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 161-165. (elsevier.com)
- Information kits are being developed for doctors nationally to help inform women about the risk anti-convulsant medication may have for unborn children during pregnancy. (odt.co.nz)
- Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome New Zealand executive officer Denise Astill said the damage caused by the anti-convulsant medication would become a bigger catastrophe than the Thalidomide babies. (odt.co.nz)
- As an organisation whose that supports those families whose children have been prenatally effected by anti-convulsant medication we have been continually shocked at the lack of awareness of adverse drug effects and their effects upon the general public. (alltrials.net)
- Under special conditions the convulsant barbiturate was shown to increase the mean convulsant dose of a timed intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole. (aspetjournals.org)
- Comparable amounts of pentobarbital were much more effective in increasing the mean convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole. (aspetjournals.org)
- Crabbe, JJ & Kosobud, A 1989, ' Genetic sensitivity to convulsants is determined by seizure sign rather than pharmacologic specificity ', Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society , vol. 32, pp. 161. (elsevier.com)
- Here we further studied in vivo the sensitivity of the hippocampal CA1 neurons in response to CTZ in epileptogenesis in comparison with two other classic convulsants of kainic acid (KA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). (naver.com)
- Methods: Cholinergic convulsant sensitivity was examined in alcohol-naive Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) and-Resistant (WSR) mice. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusions: These results suggest that differences in cholinergic activity and postsynaptic sensitivity to cholinergic convulsants may be associated with ethanol withdrawal severity and implicate cholinergic mechanisms in alcohol withdrawal. (elsevier.com)
- Specifically, WSP mice may have lower sensitivity to cholinergic convulsants compared with WSR because of postsynaptic receptor desensitization brought on by higher activity of cholinergic neurons. (elsevier.com)
- Mark, GP & Finn, DA 2002, ' The relationship between hippocampal acetylcholine release and cholinergic convulsant sensitivity in withdrawal seizure-prone and withdrawal seizure-resistant selected mouse lines ', Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research , vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1141-1152. (elsevier.com)
- the treatment of members with diabetic neuropathy or neuropathic pain who failed to adequately respond to conventional treatments including three or more of the following groups of agents: anti-convulsants (e.g., pregabalin), anti-depressants (e.g., amitriptyline, and duloxetine), opioids (e.g., morphine sulphate and tramadol), and other pharmacological agents (e.g., capsaicin and isosorbide dinitrate spray). (aetna.com)
- Toxopyrimidine is a vitamin B 6 antagonist with potent convulsant effects. (wikipedia.org)
- Barker JL, McBurney RN, Mathers DA (1983) Convulsant-induced depression of amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal neurones studied under voltage clamp. (springer.com)
- A] receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Effects of anesthetic agents on seizure-induction with intra-cortical injection of convulsants. (ox.ac.uk)
- CONCLUSION: Fentanyl plus droperidol has useful properties as an anesthetic agent in studies of seizure induction with different convulsants. (ox.ac.uk)
- Binding of the cage convulsant, [3H]TBOB, to sites linked to the GABAA receptor complex. (muscimol.xyz)
- Depending upon the dose, the convulsant barbiturate has both stimulant and depressant properties. (aspetjournals.org)
- The depressant actions of the convulsant barbiturate appear to be real and not secondary to the stimulant effects. (aspetjournals.org)
- Simple observations of an intact animal given the convulsant barbiturate offer no clue to primary depressant effects. (aspetjournals.org)
- Differential modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors by caprolactam derivatives with central nervous system depressant or convulsant activity. (muscimol.xyz)
- For the two classes of caprolactams, with respect to inhibition or enhancement of muscimol binding, there appeared to be a relationship between in vitro effects and their convulsant or depressant activity in mice. (muscimol.xyz)
- Nuclear factor-kappa B regulates seizure threshold and gene transcription following convulsant stimulation. (nih.gov)
- The convulsant barbiturate enhanced the crossed-extensor reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve while pentobarbital depressed this response. (aspetjournals.org)
- The central nervous system effects of a convulsant barbiturate, sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1,3-dimethylbutyl) barbiturate, were compared with the actions of pentobarbital in cats. (aspetjournals.org)
- In the remaining two preparations the convulsant barbiturate reduced the frequency of spindle bursts and prolonged the interval between bursts in a manner similar to that of pentobarbital. (aspetjournals.org)
- However, prior abolition of the crossed-extensor reflex by pentobarbital was not antagonized by small doses of the convulsant barbiturate. (aspetjournals.org)
- The purpose: Studying of efficiency of the combined application of the citicoline possessing nootropic and anticonvulsive action and antiepileptic drug of diazepam on the acute generalized convulsions (AGC) caused by a convulsant pentylentetrazole (PTZ). (bireme.br)
- In rodents, the cholinomimetic convulsant pilocarpine is widely used to induce status epilepticus (SE), followed by hippocampal damage and spontaneous recurrent seizures, resembling temporal lobe epilepsy. (nih.gov)
- Much of our understanding of the cellular basis of epilepsy comes from the application of convulsants to the brain, in whole animal experiments and, more recently, to isolated slices of brain tissue maintained ex vivo. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
- Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anti‑epileptic and anti‑convulsant drug. (readbyqxmd.com)
- We have recently proposed an in vivo methodology that requires no mechanistic assumption for the assessment of FQs' convulsant activities ( 9 ). (asm.org)
- Anti-Convulsant Activity of Coleus amboinicus (lour. (123helpme.com)
- The presence of a methyl group on the piperazine moiety decreased the pharmacodynamic contribution to the convulsant activity by severalfold, and the ratios of concentrations of the FQs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to concentrations of unbound FQs in plasma varied from about 5 to 75% as a function of lipophilicity. (asm.org)
- We recorded EEG activity, the latencies to seizure discharges, the occurrence of spreading depressions and the presence of movements in response to the convulsants. (ox.ac.uk)
- It is a biological product containing multiple compounds with unclear, possible, anti- or pro-convulsant effects, delivered in varying amounts from dose to dose,' he adds. (freerepublic.com)
- Weston mother and Foetal Anti-Convulsant Syndrome New Zealand support group education assistant Tanya Carlson-McLaren said the kits, due for release in November, contained information pamphlets for educators, family members, and health professionals about foetal anti-convulsant syndrome (FACS). (odt.co.nz)
- Newer pharmaceuticals include anti-convulsants and Kampo medicine. (wikipedia.org)
- SNRIs, anti-convulsants). (cdc.gov)
- The review concluded that there is a lack of clear and robust benefit from the routine prophylactic use of anti-convulsants. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
- The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology published a practice parameter on the use of prophylactic anti-convulsants in patients with primary and metastatic brain tumours (2000). (canceraustralia.gov.au)
- The practice parameter concluded that in 12 studies (four RCTs and eight cohort studies) examining the use of prophylactic anti-convulsants to prevent first seizures in patients with brain metastases, none have demonstrated efficacy. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
- A meta-analysis of the four RCTs reported no evidence of an effect on the frequency of first seizure in patients receiving anti-convulsant prophylaxis. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
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- I asked my neuro about adding a anti convulsant. (healingwell.com)
- At 7 days postfertilization (dpf), after having undergone completion of brain formation at 5 dpf, zebrafish exhibit behavioral, electro-graphic, and molecular changes to chemical convulsants that would be expected from a rodent seizure model. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The low to medium-voltage, medium to fast-frequency pattern observed in the EEG with the convulsant barbiturate was still present in three of five mesencephalic preparations verified by autopsy to be complete transections. (aspetjournals.org)
- In addition to enhancing induced seizure behavior, p,p '-DDE also promotes a unique and readily observed head-shake behavior in response to the two chemical convulsants (Tiedeken and Ramsdell 2009). (thefreedictionary.com)
- To our knowledge, this is the first report which demonstrates that not only the specific B6 substrain but also sublines derived from the same substrain may markedly differ in their response to convulsants such as pilocarpine. (nih.gov)
- Fisher's exact test was performed to determine significance of other anticonvulsant and convulsant properties results. (thefreedictionary.com)