Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Orthoptics: The study and treatment of defects in binocular vision resulting from defects in the optic musculature or of faulty visual habits. It involves a technique of eye exercises designed to correct the visual axes of eyes not properly coordinated for binocular vision.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Conjunctival DiseasesExotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.ConjunctivitisOcular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Retinal DiseasesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Eye ProteinsWheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Iritis: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Eyelid DiseasesKeratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)LizardsBurns, ChemicalEye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Trimecaine: Acetanilide derivative used as a local anesthetic.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Panuveitis: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Dynamics of horizontal vergence movements: interaction with horizontal and vertical saccades and relation with monocular preferences. (1/314)

We studied the dynamics of pure vergence shifts and vergence shifts combined with vertical and horizontal saccades. It is known from earlier studies that horizontal saccades accelerate horizontal vergence. We wanted to obtain a more complete picture of the interactions between version and vergence. Therefore we studied pure version (horizontal and vertical), pure vergence (divergence and convergence) and combinations of both in five adult subjects with normal binocular vision and little phoria (< 5 degrees). The visual targets were LED's in isovergence arrays presented at two distances (35 and 130 cm) in a dimly lit room. Two targets were continuously lit during each trial and gaze-shifts were paced by a metronome. The two subjects with a strong monocular preference made vergence eye movements together with small horizontal saccades during pure vergence tasks. The other subjects, who did not have a strong monocular preference, made pure vergence movements (without saccades). These findings, suggest that monocular preferences influence the oculomotor strategy during vergence tasks. Vergence was facilitated by both horizontal and vertical saccades but vergence peak-velocity during horizontal saccades was higher than during vertical saccades.  (+info)

Perturbation of combined saccade-vergence movements by microstimulation in monkey superior colliculus. (2/314)

Perturbation of combined saccade-vergence movements by microstimulation in monkey superior colliculus. This study investigated the role of the monkey superior colliculus (SC) in the control of visually (V)-guided combined saccade-vergence movements by assessing the perturbing effects of microstimulation. We elicited an electrical saccade (E) by stimulation (in 20% of trials) in the SC while the monkey was preparing a V-guided movement to a near target. The target was aligned such that E- and V-induced saccades had similar amplitudes but different directions and such that V-induced saccades had a significant vergence component (saccades to a near target). The onset of the E-stimulus was varied from immediately after V-target onset to after V-saccade onset. E-control trials, where stimulation was applied during fixation of a V-target, yielded the expected saccade but no vergence. By contrast, early perturbation trials, where the E-stimulus was applied soon after the onset of the V-target, caused an E-triggered response with a clear vergence component toward the V-target. Midflight perturbation, timed to occur just after the monkey initiated the movement toward the target, markedly curtailed the ongoing vergence component during the saccade. Examination of pooled responses from both types of perturbation trials showed weighted-averaging effects between E- and V-stimuli in both saccade and fast vergence components. Both components exhibited a progression from E- to V-dominance as the E-stimulus was delayed further. This study shows that artificial intervention in the SC, while a three-dimensional (3D) refixation is being prepared or is ongoing, can affect the timing (WHEN) and the metric specification (WHERE) of both saccades and vergence. To explain this we interpret the absence of overt vergence in the E-controls as being caused by a zero-vergence change command rather than reflecting the mere absence of a collicular vergence signal. In the perturbation trials, the E-evoked zero-vergence signal competes with the V-initiated saccade-vergence signal, thereby giving rise to a compromised 3D response. This effect would be expected if the population of movement cells at each SC site is tuned in 3D, combining the well-known topographical code for direction and amplitude with a nontopographical depth representation. On E-stimulation, the local population would yield a net saccade signal caused by the topography, but the cells coding for different depths would be excited equally, causing the vergence change to be zero.  (+info)

Instability of torsion during smooth asymmetric vergence. (3/314)

Several categories of torsional eye movements obey Listing's law; however, systematic deviations from this law occur during vergence. Two kinematic models attempt to incorporate these deviations, both of which are supported by experimental evidence; however, they lead to different torsion predictions. These discrepancies have been explained in terms of experimental procedures, but it now seems likely from several recent studies that individual differences in torsion patterns may also be important. This study therefore examines the variation of torsion during a smooth asymmetric vergence task in which a fixation target was moved along the line-of-sight of the right eye at 15 degrees elevation; each of five subjects observed five trials of both inward and outward target motion, repeated in two sessions several weeks apart. There were no significant group differences in left or right eye torsion between trials or sessions, suggesting that monocular torsion patterns were relatively stable over time. When examined more closely, however, the torsion patterns shown by some individuals did vary for inward versus outward target motion. Hence, monocular torsion was idiosyncratic and depended on the direction in which fixation was changing (convergence or divergence). In a binocular analysis, cycloversion varied dramatically between subjects and depended on the direction of target motion; however, this was not the case for cyclovergence. In summary, cyclovergence is relatively stable and depends on where the eyes are looking, whereas cycloversion (and hence monocular torsion) is relatively unstable and depends on how they came to be in that particular horizontal and vertical orientation. These findings help to explain the controversy surrounding the torsional behaviour of the human eye during vergence.  (+info)

The effect of target size and eccentricity on reflex disparity vergence. (4/314)

This study examined the effects of stimulus size and eccentricity on reflex disparity vergence: the small, involuntary corrections of eye alignment which serve to minimize the binocular disparity of fixated targets. Subjects were instructed to fixate steadily on a small, stationary mark superimposed on the center of a dynamic random dot stereogram. The stereogram was binocularly uncorrelated except for a fully correlated patch whose size and eccentricity were varied systematically across trials. The disparity of the patch was varied sinusoidally over time to stimulate vergence following movements. The overall purpose was to determine the relative contributions of various field loci in controlling binocular fixation by finding the smallest patch which would reliably drive vergence against the effort to fixate steadily. Psychophysical thresholds for detection of the correlated patch stimuli were also measured for comparison to the oculomotor results. Results showed that the smallest effective patch increased with eccentricity similarly for both vergence responses and psychophysical detection, suggesting they depend on a common, presumably cortical matching process. The dependence of response on eccentricity is roughly consistent with changes in the cortical magnification factor, suggesting that the area of cortex stimulated may be the determining factor in vergence responses to this class of stimulus.  (+info)

Orientation and luminance polarity tuning of the transient-vergence system. (5/314)

Previously, Edwards, Pope & Schoor, Vision Research, 38, 705-717, demonstrated that transient disparity vergence appears to be mediated by a system that employs a single low-pass sensitive spatial channel whose performance is not reduced by dichoptic mixed contrasts (no contrast paradox) or dichoptic mixed spatial frequencies. This broadband tuning to both contrast and spatial frequency may be indicative of a second-order or non-linear envelope extraction system. The current study tests for lack of tuning to orientation and luminance polarity which are typically taken as evidence of a second-order system. We found that when the transient vergence system was simultaneously presented with both convergent and divergent disparities, there was a small but distinct bias in favor of responding in the direction defined by matched orientations or luminance polarities over unmatched pairs. Although less frequent, responses to orthogonal carriers or opposite luminance polarities were possible. The vergence system could match a horizontal with a vertical carrier, or a light gaussian with a dark gaussian. The degree of orientation or luminance polarity tuning varied inversely with the disparity magnitude over the range of 2.5-5 degrees, and the orientation tuning peaked at a spatial frequency about 2 cpd. At all disparities tested, however, the tuning was very broad, and other candidate features for mediating transient-vergence need to be investigated.  (+info)

Fixation disparity and nonius bias. (6/314)

Fixation disparity, i.e. the vergence error within Panum's area, can be measured psychophysically with two nonius (vernier) lines that are presented dichoptically, i.e. one to each eye. The observer adjusts these nonius lines to subjective alignment; the resulting physical nonius offset indicates the amount of fixation disparity. The present experiments investigate the relation between fixation disparity and the nonius bias, which is the physical offset of the nonius lines that is adjusted by the observer in order to perceive them as aligned when both nonius lines are presented to both eyes (binocular nonius bias) or both to the left or both to the right eye (monocular nonius bias). It was found that (1) the fixation disparity is correlated with the binocular nonius bias in the horizontal and vertical meridian and (2) the binocular nonius bias can be predicted from the average of the right eye and left eye monocular nonius bias. To remove the influence of the nonius bias on measured fixation disparity it is possible to calculate the fixation disparity relative to the individual binocular nonius bias, rather than to the physical coincidence of the nonius lines. This procedure tends to increase the correlation between fixation disparity and the tonic resting position of vergence. We discuss the clinical relevance of the dichoptic nonius method for measuring fixation disparity and its limitations as compared to physical recordings of eye position.  (+info)

Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth. (7/314)

This paper deals with characteristics of accommodation evoked by perceived depth sensation and the dynamic relationship between accommodation and vergence, applying newly developed optical measurement apparatuses. A total of five subjects looked at three different two-dimensional stimuli and two different three-dimensional stimuli; namely a real image and a stereoscopic image. With regard to the two-dimensional stimuli, a manifest accommodation without any accompanying vergence was found because of an apparent depth sensation even though the target distance was kept constant. With regard to the three-dimensional stimuli, larger accommodation and clear vergence were evoked because of binocular parallax and a stronger depth sensation. As for the stereoscopic image, a manifest overshoot (the accommodation peaked first and receded considerably) was found while the vergence remained constant. On the other hand, the overshoot of accommodation was smaller when subjects were watching the real image. These results reveal that brain depth perception has a higher effect on accommodation than expected. The relationship of accommodation and vergence toward the stereoscopic image suggests a reason why severe visual fatigue is commonly experienced by many viewers using stereoscopic displays. It has also paved the way for the numerical analysis of the oculomotor triad system.  (+info)

Stereopsis, cyclovergence and the backwards tilt of the vertical horopter. (8/314)

It is generally recognized that the vertical horopter has a backwards tilt such that it passes through the fixation point and a point near the feet of the observer. The basis of the tilt has been attributed to either a shear in binocular retinal correspondence along the vertical meridian or the presence of cyclovergence eye movements. In an attempt to determine empirically the mechanisms underlying the tilt of the vertical horopter, retinal correspondence along the vertical meridian was investigated as a function of viewing distance. In addition, binocular measurements of torsional eye position were made in the same observers under similar viewing conditions. The vertical horopter was determined using two criteria. In the first instance, increment depth discrimination thresholds for both crossed and uncrossed disparities were measured as a function of retinal eccentricity along the vertical meridian, up to 5 degrees superiorly and inferiorly, and the horopter was defined by the region in space which had the lowest stereo-threshold. Secondly, subjective alignment of dichoptically presented nonius lines defined the horopter by identical visual directions. Both criteria were used to determine the horopter at 2 m while only the criterion of identical visual direction was used at the nearer distance of 50 cm. The vertical horopter showed a backwards tilt that decreased from an average of about 12 degrees at 2 m to 3 degrees at 50 cm, with some variability between observers. Torsional eye position did not change significantly between fixation distances. These results confirmed the geometric relation between the backwards tilt in the vertical horopter and fixation distance and support Helmholtz's original contention that the tilt is a consequence of a shear in retinal correspondence in the vertical meridian.  (+info)

*Burton J. Kushner

Kushner BJ (2004). "Ocular torsion: rotations around the 'WHY' axis". J AAPOS. 8 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2003.09.004. ... Kushner BJ (2005). "The treatment of convergence insufficiency". Arch Ophthalmol. 123 (1): 100-1. doi:10.1001/archopht.123.1. ...

*Ronald Silverman

Photoacoustic-guided convergence of light through optically diffusive media. Optics Letters 2011;36(11):2053-2055. Kong F, Chen ... High-resolution photoacoustic imaging of ocular tissues. Ultra Med Biol. 2010;36:733-742. Kong F, Silverman RH, Liu L, Chitnis ... Silverman has explored the use of acoustic radiation force for characterization to ocular tissue properties. He has ... of Ophthalmic Ultrasound and is on the Advisory Boards of the National Institutes of Health Transducer Resource and the Ocular ...

*Pupillary distance

Other experimental presentations may require the use of IPD to control for ocular convergence and binocular depth. ... Hyperstereopsis increases ocular convergence and causes near objects to appear closer and with exaggerated depth and slant. ...

*Pupillary distance

Hyperstereopsis increases ocular convergence and causes near objects to appear closer and with exaggerated depth and slant. IPD ... Other experimental presentations may require the use of IPD to control for ocular convergence and binocular depth. Several ...

*Esophoria

... is an eye condition involving inward deviation of the eye, usually due to extra-ocular muscle imbalance. It is a type ... Causes include: Refractive errors Divergence insufficiency Convergence excess; this can be due to nerve, muscle, congenital or ... Eckstein, AK; Fischer, M; Esser, J (1998). "Normal accommodative convergence excess--long-term follow-up of conservative ...

*Esotropia

The over-convergence associated with the extra accommodation required to overcome a hyperopic refractive error can precipitate ... These problems may directly affect the extra-ocular muscles themselves, and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve ... The person with hyperopia, in an attempt to "accommodate" or focus the eyes, converges the eyes as well, as convergence is ... Even though they are exerting a normal amount of accommodative or 'focusing' effort, the amount of convergence associated with ...

*Eye movement

Convergence micropsia Dissociated vertical deviation Eye tracking Gaze-contingency paradigm Listing's law Microsaccade Ocular ... Vergence movement or convergence is the movement of both eyes to make sure that the image of the object being looked at falls ... Gaze-stabilising movements may include the vestibulo-ocular reflex and optokinetic reflex, and gaze-shifting mechanisms as ...

*List of diseases (O)

Ocular albinism Ocular coloboma-imperforate anus Ocular convergence spasm Ocular histoplasmosis Ocular melanoma Ocular motility ... disorders Ocular toxoplasmosis Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum Oculo cerebral dysplasia Oculo cerebro acral syndrome Oculo ...

*Prism fusion range

... convergence by asking patient to report when blur is appreciated progress of a patient undergoing management for ocular ... The divergence amplitude should be measured before convergence, as measuring the convergence amplitude first could contaminate ... Convergence insufficiency - usually associated with accommodative difficulties, the fusional convergence range of these ... Convergence must be measured second to divergence or results will be contaminated. Can only be performed on patients with BSV ...

*List of MeSH codes (G11)

... convergence, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.260.253 --- fixation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.260.378 --- nystagmus, physiologic MeSH ... ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154 --- adaptation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154.371 --- dark adaptation MeSH G11.697.716.182 --- ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.330 --- evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.697.677.340 --- eye color MeSH G11.697.677.360 --- figural ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.911 --- vision MeSH G11.697.677.911.500 --- phosphenes MeSH G11.697.677.911.700 --- vision, binocular ...

*Ernest Maddox

Accommodation and Convergence of the Eyes (1882) Tests and Studies of the Ocular Muscles (1898) Golden Rules of Refraction ( ...

*Pinealoma

Frequently, paralysis of upward gaze along with several ocular findings such as convergence retraction nystagmus and eyelid ...

*Eye examination

Ocular motility should always be tested, especially when patients complain of double vision or physicians suspect neurologic ... Myopia Hyperopia Presbyopia Amblyopia Diplopia Strabismus Color vision Stereopsis Near point of convergence Keratometry ... Close inspection of the anterior eye structures and ocular adnexa are often done with a slit lamp which is a table mounted ... The examiner views the illuminated ocular structures, through an optical system that magnifies the image of the eye and the ...

*Ocular dominance

The convergence near-point test. The subject fixates an object that is moved toward the nose until divergence of one eye occurs ... Ocular dominance, sometimes called eye preference or eyedness, is the tendency to prefer visual input from one eye to the other ... Ocular dominance and dominant hand should be ideally the same.[citation needed] It has been asserted that cross-dominance (in ... Ocular dominance column Right- and left-hand traffic Chaurasia BD, Mathur BB (1976). "Eyedness". Acta Anat (Basel). 96 (2): 301 ...

*Exotropia

A comprehensive eye examination including an ocular motility (i.e., eye movement) evaluation and an evaluation of the internal ... There is a common form of exotropia known as "convergence insufficiency" that responds well to orthoptic vision therapy ... What is Exotropia? Types, Treatments and Illustrations Intermittent Exotropia and Convergence Insufficiency FAQ: About Eye ... ocular structures will allow an eye doctor to accurately diagnose the exotropia. Although glasses and/or patching therapy, ...

*Extraocular muscles

Having them focus on the object as it is moved in toward their face in the midline will test convergence, or the eyes' ability ... It is known, however, that the vestibulo-ocular reflex plays an important role in the involuntary movement of the eye. Four of ... Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the superior orbital fissure. View of the orbit from ... the latter is convergence of the two eyes on a near object. Disjunction can be performed voluntarily, but is usually triggered ...

*Pediatric ophthalmology

Accommodative insufficiency Convergence insufficiency and asthenopia Evaluation of visual issues in education, including ... Pediatric ophthalmologists also have expertise in managing the various ocular diseases that affect children. Pediatric ... a national organization dedicated to improving the quality and management of pediatric ocular disease. Over time, over 30 ... and other physicians refer pediatric patients to a pediatric ophthalmologist for examination and management of ocular problems ...

*Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome

1] Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome *^ Stefan Dithmar; Frank Gerhard Holz (28 April 2008). Fluorescence Angiography in ... Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) is a syndrome affecting the eye, which is characterized by peripheral atrophic ... Thuruthumaly C; Yee D. C.; Rao P. K. (2014). "Presumed ocular histoplasmosis". Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 25 (6): 508-12 ... Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been successfully treated with laser, ...

*Orthoptics

French ophthalmologist Louis Emile Javal, began using ocular exercises to treat strabismus (wandering eye) and described the ... Scheiman M, Gwiazda J, Li T (2011). "Non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency". Cochrane Database Syst Rev ( ... Primary activities Ocular motility diagnosis & co-management Vision screening Assessment of special needs Assessment and ... there is evidence that orthoptics can be more effective at treating convergence insufficiency than home-based training; for ...

*One and a half syndrome

Convergence is classically spared as cranial nerve III (oculomotor nerve) and its nucleus is spared bilaterally. The syndrome ... There have been cases of improvement in extra-ocular movement with botulinum toxin injection. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia Wall ...

*Abducens nucleus

Note, however, that the eye contralateral to the lesion can still move in the direction of the lesion during convergence ... Axial section of the Brainstem (Pons) at the level of the Facial Colliculus Vestibulo-ocular reflex Brain stem sagittal section ... Importantly, despite the lesions, this muscle remains functional during convergence eye movements. Finally, experiments where ...

*Eye care professional

Ocularists specialize in the fabrication and fitting of ocular prostheses for people who have lost eyes due to trauma or ... convergence and accommodation problems, and conditions such as amblyopia, strabismus, and binocular vision disorders, as ... They do not directly treat ocular disease with medications or surgery. Orthoptists are trained to treat patients using optical ... All three types of professional perform screenings for common ocular problems affecting children (such as amblyopia and ...

*Four prism dioptre reflex test

Simultaneously the fellow eye produces a fusional convergence movement as there is no central suppression of that fellow eye. ... ISSN 1040-5488 Pavan-Langston, D. (2008). Manual of ocular diagnosis and therapy. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/ ... the fellow eye will not make a fusional convergence movement back in as the image remains in the extended Panum's fusional area ...

*Visual system

"Parasympathetic Ocular Control - Functional Subdivisions and Circuitry of the Avian Nucleus of Edinger-Westphal."Science Direct ... in convergence of the eyes and lens adjustment.[20] Nuclei of the optic tract are involved in smooth pursuit eye movement and ... as well as convergence and divergence from photoreceptor to bipolar cell. In addition, other neurons in the retina, ... nerve impulses in the ocular system of the central nervous system. In the presence of light, the retinal molecule changes ...

*Parinaud's syndrome

Convergence-Retraction nystagmus: Attempts at upward gaze often produce this phenomenon. On fast up-gaze, the eyes pull in and ... see-saw nystagmus and associated ocular motility deficits including skew deviation, oculomotor nerve palsy, trochlear nerve ... Retraction nystagmus and convergence movement are usually improved with this procedure as well. synd/1906 at Who Named It? H. ...

*Vision therapy

Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group.The convergence insufficiency treatment trial: design, methods, ... Schroth, V.; Jaschinski, W. (2007). "Do prism corrections according to H.-J. Haase affect ocular prevalence?". Klinische ... Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial Study Group: Randomized clinical trial of treatments for symptomatic convergence ... This is often linked to convergence insufficiency. Convergence insufficiency is a common binocular vision disorder ...

*Neonatal conjunctivitis

List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. References[edit]. *^ a b c Matejcek, A; Goldman, RD (November 2013). " ...

*Synkinesis

Focusing to the near (accommodation) is accompanied by involuntary convergence of the eyes. This accommodation-convergence ... Additionally, since the extra-ocular muscles are hidden within the orbits, there is a limit on the type of practical treatments ... a combination of any two of these three cranial nerves have been shown to be involved with extra-ocular synkinesis. Moreover, ... synkinesis can result in esotropia, or eyes that turn in when the ratio between accommodation and convergence is unusually high ...
Definition of Unit of ocular convergence with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
This study was designed to determine how the developing visual system weights retinal blur and disparity in generating accommodative and vergence responses when both cues are present, as is the case under naturalistic binocular viewing conditions. Blur and disparity cues were placed in conflict with each other and the impact of this cue-conflict on accommodative and vergence performance was assessed across a wide range of ages (2.0 months to 40.8 years). Three hypothetical patterns of results were derived for Experiments 1 and 2 to provide insights into the relative use of the two cues. The data indicated that, when directly stimulated with lenses or prisms, both accommodation and vergence responded, although inaccurately, with the frequencies and amplitudes of vergence responses being slightly larger than those of the accommodative responses across all ages tested ( Table 2, Figure 5, panel a). The mean accommodative response for the −2 D lens stimulus was 1.18 D ( SEM = 0.42 D) (a mean ...
Neuropsychology examines the relationship between cognitive activity and corresponding cerebral conditions. At one end, psychophysics meticulously describes the details of behavior. At the other, physiology records brain cell activity during cognitive tasks. Bridging the two, neuropsychology establishes the neural correlate of behaviour when correlation methods are used, and extends to the critical neural substrate when a causal relationship can be established. Here we revisit the Hering-versus-Helmholtz controversy on binocular coordination from the psychophysicians description of combined saccade-vergence eye movements to the neurophysiological recording of motor and premotor neurons of the oculomotor neural circuitry. Whilst neo-Heringian psychophysicians and physiologists have accumulated arguments for separate saccade and vergence systems, at both the behavioral and the neural premotor levels, neo-Helmholtzians have also provided evidence for monocular programmed eye movements and commands ...
This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and
Purpose: Vergence movements are slow disconjugate eye movements which may be triggered by image disparity or accommodation. There exist numerous clinical contexts where image disparity may vary with the direction of gaze. A common example is a sixth cranial nerve palsy with increasing image disparity in gaze toward the affected muscle. Adaptive changes to such incomitant image disparity have been poorly investigated and are the scope of this study.. Methods: Vergence stimuli of gaze dependent magnitude were used to mimic the image disparity of an incomitant strabismus. In a first experiment prisms were placed such that stimuli were viewed through the prisms in one gaze direction but not in the other gaze directions. In a second experiment we used a haploscope to modify image disparity according to gaze. We measured vergence responses that were made after a saccade shifting gaze from left to right, with increased image disparity in right gaze. We analysed changes of rise time or slope, latency, ...
Fusional vergence is the movement of both eyes that enables the fusion of monocular images producing binocular vision. It is especially important when a person has heterophoria. Premotor cells for fusional vergence are located in the mesencephalon near the oculomotor nucleus ...
Purpose: Accurate accommodation and vergence are required to achieve optimal image quality and single vision. Abnormal visual experience disrupts visual development and therefore accommodation and vergence are central in promoting normal visual development during infancy and childhood. The systems are also neurally coupled and hyperopic children are at risk for over-convergence and strabismus. It is not yet possible to predict which infants will develop this strabismus and the goal of this study was to develop a model to understand the interaction in the coupling. Methods: Several groups have developed related models of accommodation and vergence interactions in adults (Westheimer, 1963; Schor, 1985; Hung, 1997). These models were adapted to examine the developmental implications, incorporating recent data collected from 3-6 month-old infants, 2-4 year-old children, and adults. The model parameters included refractive error, interpupillary distance, and AC/A and CA/C ratios. Results: For a ...
The subjects wore glass-formed crossed polarizers and faced a large (45.6° × 35.0°) translucent tangent screen placed at 2 m distance, on which a two-frame movie was back-projected from two liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors through crossed polarizers. Visual stimuli were controlled by a personal computer through an image-processing board (model CT-3000A; Cybertec, Osaka, Japan). The room was dark except for the target lights. The central disparity target was a vertical bar (2.5° high × 1.4° wide), which always jumped from a distance of 2 to 1 m, but the interval between target jumps was randomized between 1.5 and 3.5 seconds. The peripheral disparity target was a random-dot pattern, with density textured blobs subtending 0.4° at 2 m that were correlated between two eyes and with a luminance that ranged from 20 cd/m2 (white dots) to 0.1 cd/m2 (blank area). The peripheral disparity target contained a central blank square that was 10° × 10°, 20° × 20°, or 30° × 30°. The ...
Recordings of the horizontal component of movements of the eyes were made during monocular and binocular fixation. The variation in the vergence of the eyes over time was found to be of the same order of magnitude as the variation in position of the individual eyes, even though the lateral positions of the two eyes are somewhat correlated. The drift and tremor of the two eyes are not correlated; the over-all correlation is due to the saccadic movements. Saccades in one eye seem to be always accompanied by simultaneous saccades in the other eye which are almost always in the same direction and about the same in size. The maintenance of binocular fixation does not seem to be dependent on a direct response to or sensing of vergence error. Rather, it appears to be dependent on the saccadic responses of the two eyes to their own fixation errors.. © 1960 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
... excess is a condition in which a childs eyes have a tendency to aim closer than the object, which the child is trying to see. It is possible to achieve correct aim only by exerting extra effort (Figure 1). Prolonged periods of close work can cause considerable discomfort.. Many cases of convergence excess are due to long-sightedness. The need which longsighted people have to exert extra focusing (accommodation) to see clearly at close range has the effect of making the eyes tend to turn in too far, which creates the convergence excess.. Convergence excess affects about ten per cent of school children. It is less common in adults.. Convergence excess can be treated with the use of reading glasses (or bifocals), which relax the convergence and focusing systems, thus removing the need for extra effort.This often allows longer and more efficient concentration on close tasks. Eye exercises are not usually successful in treating convergence excess ...
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Convergence refers to the development of similar characteristics or adaptations in animals that differ in direct ancestry. Parallelism implies a similarity in biological makeup of the ancestral forms, whereas convergence does not.
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phorias are a common cause of headaches amongVDU users). - Central-field defects (blind spots). - Near point of convergence - Clarity (ie no scarring of the lensor cornea). ...
Convergence plot of the network for an array of 100 cells starting from random uniformly distributed binary initial conditions, 0/black or 1/white for ntcA, het
Information and registration here. The Convergence Forum brings together high-level healthcare players to discuss and debate the most pressing topics of in
Im not even sure the sum is right since I didnt write anything down for i. Is using the MGF the way to go or should I go back to the definition or use some other method ...
Third-party logistics providers (3PLs) are transforming themselves into businesses that provide a diverse array of services well beyond logistics.
Listings law, named after German mathematician Johann Benedict Listing (1808-1882), describes the three-dimensional orientation of the eye and its axes of rotation. Listings law has been shown to hold when the head is stationary and upright and gaze is directed toward far targets, i.e., when the eyes are either fixating, making saccades, or pursuing moving visual targets. Listings law (often abbreviated L1) has been generalized to yield the binocular extension of Listings law (often abbreviated L2) which also covers vergence. Listings law states that the eye does not achieve all possible 3D orientations and that, instead, all achieved eye orientations can be reached by starting from one specific "primary" reference orientation and then rotating about an axis that lies within the plane orthogonal to the primary orientations gaze direction (line of sight / visual axis). This plane is called Listings plane. It can be shown that Listings law implies that, if we start from any chosen eye ...
Strabismus research papers by Christopher W. Tyler. Topics include brain injury, human vergence dynamics, visual function, binocular facilitation, trauma…
Psychology definition for Placebo Therapy in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better.
Downloadable! In this paper we develop flexible techniques for measuring the speed of output convergence between countries when such convergence may be of an unknown non-linear form. We then calculate these convergence speeds for various countries, in terms of half-lives, from two time-series data-sets. These calculations are based on both nonparametric kernel regression and fuzzy regression, and the results are compared with more restrictive estimates based on the assumption of linear convergence. The calculated half-lives are regressed, again in various flexible ways, on cross-section data for the degree of openness to trade. We find evidence that favours the hypothesis that increased trade openness is associated with a faster rate of convergence in output between countries.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This article analyses the consequences of spatial interdependence for convergence in a Solow-type growth model. In such a model a regions speed of convergence depends on its location and it can be decomposed into: (i) the speed of convergence proper, (ii) the remoteness effect, and (iii) the impact of the initial gap. Also &sgr;-convergence is affected by spatial interaction and we propose a decomposition to isolate the impact of spatial spillovers. Using GDP per capita of European regions, we calibrate a numerical model with parameters typically found in spatial convergence studies. We find that the remoteness effect leads to considerable variation in the speed of convergence while it marginally affects &sgr;-convergence. Copyright (c) 2006 the author(s). Journal compilation (c) 2006 RSAI.
Given two series $\sum _{n=1}^{ \infty} a_nz^n$ and $\sum _{n=1}^{ \infty} b_nz^n$ who both have radius of convergence $R$, show that the radius of convergence for $\sum _{n=1}^{ \infty} c_nz^n$ is at least $R$ when $c_n = \sum _{k=0}^{n} a_kb_{n-k}$.. To use the Cauchy-Hadamard Theorem, Im trying to find $\limsup \lvert{c_n}\rvert$. I know that $\limsup \lvert{a_n}\rvert ^{-\frac{1}{n}}=\limsup \lvert{b_n}\rvert ^{-\frac{1}{n}}= R$. Every combination of $a_n*b_n$ is available as $c_n$ so I figured Id try the values of $a_n$ and $b_n$ which are their respective $\limsup$s. This yields a radius of convergence of $R^2$ which is only greater than $R$ for $R\ge1$.. How do I show that the radius of convergence of the series is at least $R$ for $R\lt1$?. ...
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Purchase Guldens Lewerenz Accomodation Maddox. This device features an occluder, Maddox lens, and calibrated scale in both centimeters and diopters. It can be used to measure the Amplitude of Accommodation and Near Point of Convergence.
The convergence properties of four simplified gradient adaptive lattice algorithms are analyzed. First, the convergence models that specify the convergence
Aaron: Thanks for the feedback. I purposefully kept the definition of tropia as simple as possible. You are correct, in that you can also have an "intermittent tropia." You can also have an alternating tropia, convergence-related tropia, and many other "types" of tropia/phoria depending upon how you like to name things.. When I put this presentation together, I felt it safer to avoid these nuances. I feared that discussing the intermittent nature of phorias/tropias would muddy the waters for the beginner and make the primary difference (between phoria and tropia) that much harder to grasp. Thus, the definition I used is simplified … but still useful and valid for a beginner. Perhaps Ill go into further detail in a future lecture. Thanks!. Tim Root. ...
Hello!. >I have a problem with convergence. Id like to geometry optimize the 1,4-diaminobenzene anion, using DFT/B3LYP. I had no problems with the cation, though. For the initial guess orbitals I used the ones from the ground state calculation. Could you give me any hints regarding how-to try to improve convergence? Due to computational cost I am using only a cc-pVTZ basis, although I know that the augmented one should be used for ions.... >Thank You for your help/ideas!. >Best regards ...
It Is Also Used For Disinfecting Medical And Surgical productsformedicine Equipment. Near Point of Accommodation: The point that is the closest at which an object.....
Supported Shoulderstand pose offers tons of benefits but only if you practice it safely and properly. Here are tips to help you stay safe and aligned.
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1. For each of the sequences whose nth term is given by the formula below (so of course n takes successively the positive integer values 1,2,3...), does it have a limit as n tends to infinity? In each case, briefly explain.
A major theme at HIMSS will be the convergence of patient data, social platforms, and analytics -- and what possibilities arise from this convergence.
The main topic here is the disjunctive nature of this constraint. This gave the opportunity of "dont-know-nondeterminism" by exploring both alternatives in the same time and keeping the result in the domains of the variables. When the alternative is known then the other one is discarded.. The propagation of the constraint. ...
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common and distinct binocular vision disorder that affects approximately 4% of school age children and adults in the United States. Convergence insufficiency is often associated with symptoms such as frequent loss of place while reading, loss of concentration, having to re-read, reading slowly, poor comprehension, sleepiness, blurred vision, diplopia, headaches, and/or eyestrain. A recently completed randomized clinical trial, the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT), demonstrated that a 12-week program of office-based vergence/ accommodative therapy with home reinforcement was more effective than home-based near target pencil push-ups, home-based computer accommodative therapy plus pencil push-ups, or office-based placebo therapy in treating the symptoms and signs associated with symptomatic CI in children 9 to 17 years of age.. While the home-based therapies in the CITT were not as effective as office-based vergence/accommodative therapy there ...
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common and distinct binocular vision disorder that affects approximately 4% of school age children and adults in the United States. Convergence insufficiency is often associated with symptoms such as frequent loss of place while reading, loss of concentration, having to re-read, reading slowly, poor comprehension, sleepiness, blurred vision, diplopia, headaches, and/or eyestrain. A recently completed randomized clinical trial, the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT), demonstrated that a 12-week program of office-based vergence/ accommodative therapy with home reinforcement was more effective than home-based near target pencil push-ups, home-based computer accommodative therapy plus pencil push-ups, or office-based placebo therapy in treating the symptoms and signs associated with symptomatic CI in children 9 to 17 years of age.. While the home-based therapies in the CITT were not as effective as office-based vergence/accommodative therapy there ...
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Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) than the "normal" adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with SZ exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population. Twenty participants with SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15%) in the SZ group was slightly higher than reported norms, but the difference was not significant.The SZ group had significantly higher scores on the CISS than the HC group, but the CISS scores did not correlate with clinical measures of CI in individuals with SZ. The only exception was that SZ patients had a significantly reduced fusional reserve as determined by Sheards criteria. Further study is needed to determine why individuals with SZ reported symptoms associated with CI even though clinical measures did ...
The 2008 Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial clearly supports the superiority of office-based vision therapy to home-based vision therapy alone for convergence insufficiency. As noted in the AOAs Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on Care of the Patient with Accommodative and Vergence Dysfunction, home-based vision therapy may be less effective than in-office therapy because no therapist is available to correct inappropriate procedures or to motivate the patient. The preferred clinical management therefore consists of in-office vision therapy supplemented with home therapy.. ...
Research into a common functional vision problem called convergence insufficiency, has demonstrated associations between convergence insufficiency and attention disorders in children. There is also an association between vision problems in general and a higher incidence of ADHD.. Convergence insufficiency is associated with an increase in the number children who demonstrate same signs and symptoms that are attributed to ADD/ADHD. Symptoms that are common to both ADD/ADHD and convergence insufficiency include:. ...
Your eyes converge when you focus on near objects like reading a book, tying your shoe or sending a text message. Convergence insufficiency limits a...
Convergence insufficiency typically causes one eye to drift outward when youre trying to focus, making it hard to concentrate and tiring your eyes.
Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individuals oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also ...
The article presents a conversation among pedriatric ophthalmologists Marilyn Mets, Martin Wilson, Scott Olitsky, moderated by Leonard B. Nelson on the management of high accomodative convergence, accommodation ratio esotropia. The case considered is a pediatric patient who had recent onset esotropia. Dr. Mets said that he will prescribe +2.25 sphere. He believe that children need some time to adapt to glasses before bifocals can be prescribed. Dr. Wilson put emphasis on the importance of discussion with parents with regards to the management of the condition. Dr. Olitsky agree with the concerns of Dr. Wilson on the small amount of hyperopia ...
View Notes - Psych 9/25 from PSY 2012 at University of Central Florida. Conjunctive (same direction) • Vergence (opposite directions) o Two types Convergence (when they come together) Divergence
Introduction: Body Mass Index (BMI) is of increasing interest to eye care practitioners. Associations have recently been proven between high BMI and several diseases of are affecting the eyes, including AMD, intracranial hypertension, optic disc cupping and glaucoma. The symptoms of dizziness and vertigo have also been associated with high BMI. However, to these authors knowledge, there has been no study performed comparing BMI to binocular function. Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 119 randomly-selected young subjects had their BMI measured, along with refractive error, dissociated phoria, NPC, vergence ranges and facility, and stereopsis. Results: In most situations, the subjects with the normal and overweight had better performance than other two groups. Also the worst performance was related to underweight subjects. The one-way ANOVA showed only statistically significant difference between mean of near point of convergence and vergence facility in different states of BMI. Conclusion:
Meta-Stable Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking Near Points of Enhanced Symmetry - High Energy Physics - Theory. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A Neuromorphic Robot Vision System to Predict the Response of Visual Neurons: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2196-1.ch020: The author of this chapter describes a binocular robotic vision system that was designed to emulate the neural images of cortical cells under vergence eye
Introduktion: Muskelrelaterade besvär i nack- och skulderområdet är vanligt förekommande, framförallt hos individer som utför synkrävande datorarbete. En orsak till sådana besvär anses vara långvarig lågintensiv aktivitet i dessa muskler. Det är i dagsläget oklart om de belastningar som synsystemet utsätts för vid synkrävande arbete bidrar till ökad muskelaktivitet i nack/skulderregionen. Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka om experimentellt synkrävande närarbete påverkar muskelaktivitet och besvär i nack/skulderregionen, och att undersöka om aktivitet i trapezius muskeln (kappmuskeln) påverkas av ögats ackommodation, d.v.s. när linsens brytkraft förändras för att se skarpt på nära håll. Metod: De fyra delstudierna baseras på två laborativa experiment där försökspersoner (66 respektive 26 stycken) genomförde olika synkrävande uppgifter (fem och sju minuter långa). För att göra synuppgifterna mer eller mindre ansträngande för synsystemet användes linser ...
The convergence with probability one of a recently suggested recursive identification method by Landau is investigated. The positive realness of a certain transfer function is shown to play a crucial role, both for the proof of convergence and for convergence itself. A completely analogous analysis can be performed also for the extended least squares method and for the self-tuning regulator of Åström and Wittenmark. Explicit conditions for convergence of all these schemes are given. A more general structure is also discussed, as well as relations to other recursive algorithms.. ...
accommodations - MedHelps accommodations Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for accommodations. Find accommodations information, treatments for accommodations and accommodations symptoms.
... Convergence Divergence Flow Chart Flowcharts convergence divergence flow chart The rectangle symbol is your go-to symbol. It represents any step in the process flow youre diagramming and is the workhorse of the flowchart diagram. Give it a lump of sugar and it will love you forever. Find Your Next Flowcharts
Just as with this page by Carlton Bale, it was among the most popular in my own Blog.. I questioned the need for 4K for the same reasons that Carlton discusses: Resolution -vs- distance compared to ocular physiology. My original conclusion was that at a normal TV viewing distance, 4K would not be perceived, nor would it increase enjoyment. I recommended putting the money and effort into a better sound system, better black levels, or redecorating the room to be a theater-style shadow box.. If you scroll through the comments to my article, you will see that I have completely retracted that opinion. 4K is very relevant and the benefits are worthwhile.. The assumptions that Carlton and I made concerning physiology were based on the packing density of rods in a human retina-and perhaps field tests of visual discrimination. But this fails to account for our ability to discriminate acutance, which is caused by lightwave diffraction and interference. Your brain can perceive acutance far beyond the grid ...
Benefits of matching accommodative demands to vergence demands in a binocular head-mounted display: A study on stereo fusion times. Presence 2011;20:545-58 ...
Benefits of matching accommodative demands to vergence demands in a binocular head-mounted display: A study on stereo fusion times. Presence 2011;20:545-58 ...
COMPLEX VARIABLES: Complex Number System, Algebra of Complex Numbers, Polar Form, Powers and Roots, Functions of Complex Variables, Elementary Functions, General Power of Functions, Inverse Trignometric and Hyprerbolic Functions.. SEQUENCE, SERIES AND CONVERGENCE: Sequence, Finite and Infinite Sequences, Monotonic Sequence, Bounded Sequence, Limit of a Sequence, Convergence of a Sequence, Series, Partial Sums, Convergent Series, Theorems on Convergence of Series, Leibnitz Test, Comparison Test, Ratio Test, Cauchy s Root Test, Convergence of Binomial and Logarithmic Series, Raabe s Test, Logarithmic Test, Cauchy s Integral Test (without proof) [No. of Hrs: 13] ...
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AbstractA method analogous to the Aitken extrapolation is proposed to accelerate the convergence of sequences of real or complex numbers with asymptotic behavioren ≈ const · Π j=1redjn-j, where ei is the error of the ith element of the sequence, dj≥1 for all 1≤j≤r, and Σ dj | 1. The R-order of the r
With this seminar we want to strengthen the collaboration between UiO and OUS even further and hopefully inspire even more researchers to collaborate across disciplines and join in the next UiO:Life Science application round for convergence environments that will start in the spring of 2018. ...
Reg.No: 62/19880 Name: M.Ganesh babu Question no: 4 Paper:6 Response sheet no:2 E-learning represents convergence in the educatio...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of vertical fusional vergence in patients with "congenital superior oblique paresis" investigated with an eye-tracking haploscope. AU - Irsch, Kristina. AU - Guyton, David Lee. AU - Park, Hee Jung S. AU - Ying, Howard S.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - PURPOSE. To determine the mechanisms of vertical fusional vergence in patients with "congenital unilateral superior oblique paresis" (SOP) and to discuss the implications of these mechanisms. METHODS. Eleven patients were examined with our eye-tracking haploscope. RESULTS. Three different fusion mechanisms were found, producing significantly different cyclovergence to vertical vergence ratios (P ,0.05): primary use of the vertical rectus muscles in seven patients (ratio: 0.36 6 1.6), primary use of the oblique muscles in one patient (0.04), and use of the superior oblique muscle in the higher eye and the superior rectus muscle in the lower eye in three patients (1.15 6 0.32). Lancaster red-green testing showed alignment ...
Looking for online definition of unharmonious retinal correspondence in the Medical Dictionary? unharmonious retinal correspondence explanation free. What is unharmonious retinal correspondence? Meaning of unharmonious retinal correspondence medical term. What does unharmonious retinal correspondence mean?
If you can not view the PDF papers, then you must change the level of security to "medium" in your virus scanning program.. Cooper, J., Schulman, E., Jamal, N. Current Status on the Development and Treatment of Myopia. Optometry. 2012;83(5):179-199.. Cooper, J., Jamal, N. Convergence Insufficiency - A Major Review. Optometry. 2012:83(4):137-158.. Scheiman, M., S. Cotter, et al. Treatment of accommodative dysfunction in children: results from a randomized clinical trial. Optom Vis Sci, 2011;88(11): 1343-1352.. Cooper J, Burns C, Cotter S, Daum KM, Griffin JR, Scheiman M. Optometric Clinical Guideline: Care of the Patient With Accommodative or Vergence Dysfunction. Am. Optom. Ass. 2011.. Cooper, J., K. Citek, et al. Comparison of refractive error measurements in adults with Z-View aberrometer, Humphrey autorefractor, and subjective refraction. Optometry. 2011;82(4): 231-240. Group CITT, Long-Term Effectiveness of Treatments for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children. Optom Vis Sci 2009; ...
By Jillian and Robin Benoit. Soon after Jillians Story: How Vision Therapy Changed My Daughters Life was published in 2010, teenager Jillian Benoit began to receive countless e-mails from individuals all around the world who shared with her their amazing stories of vision therapy success. As Jillian and her mother, Robin, began speaking on the subject of vision therapy and the critical need for comprehensive eye exams for preschool-aged children, they were faced with the troubling fact that many people do not know about optometric vision therapy - or worse, they are told it does not work. Dear Jillian: Vision Therapy Changed My Life Too shares the amazing and inspirational true stories of twenty-two individuals, both children and adults, who have had their lives changed by optometric vision therapy. This book is a personal, deeply moving, and thought-provoking look into the lives of these people. Vision therapy helped those struggling with autism, Down syndrome, stroke, sports-related ...
... - Retinal disparity, sometimes called binocular disparity, is part of the process in visual perception that generates the depth and dimensionality. In the sequence of perception, this would occur at the surface/object stage. Specifically, retinal disparity is the space between the eyes that allows binocular vision to create depth perception.. ...
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Convergence Insufficiency. Convergence insufficiency usually occurs in the school-aged child who complains of a chronic headache, typically for several months. The child may have difficulty with learning to read; in particular, the child may hold reading material close to the face in an attempt to overcome the blurry vision. This process usually overtaxes already weak convergence amplitudes, which are a measure of a persons ability to focus both eyes simultaneously on a reading target. The problem may occur several times a week, if not daily, and may occur in school or with homework, with relief on weekends or vacations. The child does not complain of headaches that awaken the child from sleep or of headaches that occur upon awakening in the morning. Nausea and vomiting do not occur with this condition. The child may complain of double vision or may be seen closing or covering one eye, presumably to avoid double vision.. Accommodative Insufficiency. The signs and symptoms of this condition are ...
Convergence Insufficiency. Convergence insufficiency usually occurs in the school-aged child who complains of a chronic headache, typically for several months. The child may have difficulty with learning to read; in particular, the child may hold reading material close to the face in an attempt to overcome the blurry vision. This process usually overtaxes already weak convergence amplitudes, which are a measure of a persons ability to focus both eyes simultaneously on a reading target. The problem may occur several times a week, if not daily, and may occur in school or with homework, with relief on weekends or vacations. The child does not complain of headaches that awaken the child from sleep or of headaches that occur upon awakening in the morning. Nausea and vomiting do not occur with this condition. The child may complain of double vision or may be seen closing or covering one eye, presumably to avoid double vision.. Accommodative Insufficiency. The signs and symptoms of this condition are ...
Results Distance esodeviation varied from 2-18 prism dioptres (PD) esotropia (ET). At near fixation, deviation ranged from 10 PD exophoria to 12 PD esophoria. Divergence fusional amplitude at distance ranged from 0-10 PD while the divergence fusional amplitude at near ranged from 2-18 PD. Horizontal ductions and versions were full in all patients. Six patients presented with an increase of distance esodeviation combined with a decrease of divergent fusional amplitude over a period of 6-12 years. All patients were successfully treated with prisms, ranging from 2-16 PD base-out.. ...
Stereopsis is an important binocular cue to depth perception. Stereopsis cannot occur monocularly and is due to binocular retinal disparity within Panums fusional space. Stereopsis is the perception of depth produced by binocular retinal disparity. Therefore, two objects stimulates disparate (non-corresponding) retinal points within Panums fusional area.. Fusion describes the neural process that brings the retinal images in the two eyes to form one single image. Fusion occurs to allow single binocular vision. Fusion takes place when the objects are the same. When the objects are different, suppression, superimposition or binocular ("retinal") rivalry may occurs. Suppression occurs to eliminate one image to prevent confusion. Superimposition results in one image presented on top of the other image. Binocular rivalry describes alternating suppression of the two eyes resulting in alternating perception of the two images. This usually occurs when lines are presented to the two eyes differ in ...
My name is Michael Lievens (°89). Ive had strabismus ever since I was three years old. I have undergone three eye muscle surgeries at the ages of 16, 18 and 19. Surgery only worsened the double vision and lack of ocular control which were impeding me from reading and studying properly at University. Ultimately, in total desperation, I discovered something called Vision Therapy or Visual Neuro-Rehabilitation on the internet. I have consistently been pursuing this avenue ever since with slow but definite success. My double vision is already in the past and my binocular vision continues to improve ...
Vision therapy (VT) is an individualized treatment program prescribed to eliminate or improve certain vision conditions. Vision therapy teaches patients to relearn or enhance the use of various eye muscles that are not functioning correctly or coordinating well together.
The significance of the metronome and its applications and implementations in the vision therapy program has been lost more and more although the effect of it can be incredibly huge. Why and when can a metronome work integrating? The use of rhythm as an additional external stimulus during vision therapy increases the cognitive level when…
Below you will find the intake report of a 58 yo female patient suffering from Convergence Insufficiency and various other visual deficiencies. This report was compiled based on two separate one hour testing sessions. The two sessions were done on two different days in order not to have fatigue skew the results. Page 1 gives a statistical overview of how the patient did in terms of population percentile or age equivalent and whether or not this performance was adequate for healthy every day visual function. Page 2 to 5 explain what the various categories mean followed by a prognosis of what a treatment plan might address. The report was further explained to the patient verbally by the treating Doctor of Optometry.. I hope this report sample might be useful in showing patients and partents what kinds of treatment standards are out there. I personally was very impressed by how professionally this intake process is conducted and how it leads to a clear prognosis and treatment plan. It takes away ...
... - Recurring symptoms are your bodys warning signals that something is wrong and needs attention in the body. They have accurately been compared to a
Ive been reading your info on viewing distances and resolution as im planning on buying a 40″ 1080p TV soon, and based on your graphs etc i think i made the right decision as ill be viewing at a max distance of 8 feet.. As to this test, im using a 17″ display at 1280×1024. At upto 3 feet, i can see that the image is not a flat colour, though i wouldnt go as far as to say that at 3 feet i can see the individual pixels! If the image was moving, then i doubt it would be noticable, but may look poorer than a flat colour moving image in an "undecernable" way. At 3 feet i can still see jagged edges around the edge of the image, and interestingly, where there are small portions of the image visible (i have a dock at the bottom of my screen with icons that overlay my browser) between other images, the fact it is a checkerboard is more noticable than in the centre of the screen where there is no other reference for my eyes.. Once i move back to a 4 foot viewing distance, the image does look ...
65. ) ппI Normal retinal correspondence Results Abnormal retinal correspondence (assume right strabismus, vertical flash before right eye) пппппппппппппesotropia exotropia пппппTest Unharmonious ARC subjective angle is between aalcohol and objective angle пппппRight eye lens at 135 in trial hame, leh eye lens at 45.
Revenue received from the provision of accommodation (excluding revenue received from the provision of meals and other foods and beverages). Since 1 July 2000, takings from accommodation include gross revenue from the provision of accommodation, including GST. In cases where takings from accommodation data cannot be provided inclusive of GST, the amount of GST payable is estimated and the data revised accordingly. Takings from accommodation for each month generally represent the takings received during that month. Where payments are received in advance of, or after the provision of accommodation to guests, the monthly figure for takings from accommodation may not necessarily bear a direct relationship to the number of guests accommodated during the month. Takings from accommodation is sometimes abbreviated as Takings in the text as well as in the table and graph titles in this publication ...
Principal Investigator:KAWAI Hideo, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Informatics
Section 8 - Maintenance and Damage. 8.1 If a residents accommodation or surrounding premises are for any reason either destroyed or damaged so that the accommodation becomes unfit for habitation, subject to section 8.2, the residents right to occupy the accommodation shall thereupon terminate.. 8.2 In the event of section 8.1, MRS will endeavour to relocate the resident to similar MRS accommodation and if no suitable accommodation is available, will terminate the Residency Agreement.. Section 9 - Visitors/guests and Sub-letting. What is the MRS policy in terms of visitors/guests of residents?. 9.1 All MRS accommodation is offered as single occupancy. Residents are permitted visitors and guests - under the expectation that any guests will not negatively impact on the wider residential community. In considering requests for overnight guests (section 9.3), Heads will consider the accommodations style and the potential impact of guests within the community (and smaller residential groupings ...
Bynocs is a uniquely designed, comprehensive cloud based software for binocular vision assessment & therapy.The software has been developed to assist ophthalmologists and optometrists in accurate diagnosis of binocular vision anomalies and offers a range of software based exercises as therapy. Also, offers the easiest methods of evaluation and quantifying phorias, tropias, vergence anomalies and accommodation indices ...
SRCC child development vision therapy specializes in the care of special childrens experiencing visual deficits. Its a determine treatment used to enhance a childs brain ability to control visual processing, eye movements.
Do you or your child need vision therapy but there is not specialist in your area? Consider visiting Florida for a custom made at home training program.
Gigahertz Optik Inc. has released the X1-1 handheld optometer to simultaneously operate and display multiple detector measurements of the company&rsqu
Generally, an applicant or employee must let the EEOC know that he needs an adjustment or change concerning some aspect of the application process, the job, or a benefit of employment for a reason related to a medical condition.[3] An applicant or employee may request a reasonable accommodation at any time, orally or in writing. An individual should request a reasonable accommodation from the Disability Program Manager (DPM).[4] For applicants, information about contacting the DPM will be in the vacancy announcement and the letter of appointment. (See also Section II.K. on how to contact the DPM.). If an employee makes a reasonable accommodation request to someone other than the DPM, such as her supervisor, office director, district director, or regional attorney, these supervisors/managers should forward the request to the DPM immediately and must do so within 2 business days. The reasonable accommodation process begins as soon as the oral or written request for accommodation is made to any ...
Data and research on e-commerce including measuring the information economy, internet economy outlook, open internet, openness, key ICT indicators, digital economy policy papers., The digital convergence anticipated during the 2008 Seoul Ministerial on the Future of the Internet Economy has become a reality. This report identifies trends in convergence, the opportunities and challenges arising from these changes, and suggests policies to meet them.
In his probably Essential download convergence of woman, Manson is Well inspect or sell. He is it like it reduces - a arrest of 2(2, single, acid value that extracts again pairing figure. The Goldfinch is a pull-down download convergence of stochastic processes through brave America and a food of missing Smeeth--but and starch.
What are reasonable accommodations? What accommodations do people with diabetes need? Find information about your right to workplace accommodations here.
Vision Therapy Facts and Tips Vision therapy is one of the best approaches for people suffering from specific problems with their eyes no matter what age they
Total Eyecare uses the latest technology to care for your vision. Visit us now to find out how our opticians can help you see more clearly than ever.
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Potential problems of stability and convergence in imagebased and position-based visual servoing
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Neural signal estimation in the human brain. (Editor) Front Neurosci. (Co-editor with C Howarth, LT Likova). (in press).. Deficits in the activation of human oculomotor nuclei in chronic traumatic brain injury. Front Neurol 6:173. (with LT Likova, KN Mineff, SC Nicholas SC). PDF. Shading beats binocular disparity in depth from luminance gradients: Evidence against a maximum likelihood principle for cue combination.PLoS One 10:e0132658. (with CC Chen). PDF. Analysis of neural-BOLD coupling through four models of the neural metabolic demand. Front Neurosci. 9:419. (with LT Likova and SC Nicholas). PDF. Short and sweet: peripheral color demo. i-Perception 6: 2041669515613671. PDF. Consequences of traumatic brain injury for human vergence dynamics. Front Neurol 5:282. (with LT Likova, KN Mineff, AM Elsaid, SC Nicholas).PDF. The vault of perception: Are straight lines seen as curved? Art & Perception 3:117-137. PDF. Effect of familiarity on Braille writing and reading in the blind: From graphemes to ...
We feel so lucky to have amazing vision therapy patients at our office and Abby is a prime example of some of the amazing patients we get to work with. Her positive attitude and hard work during her time here has definitely shown through and she has now graduated our program with improvements in all visual areas!. How did you learn about vision therapy and why did you consider it for your child?. I was referred to vision therapy from our optometrist after sharing concerns about my childs difficulty with reading - letter reversals and skipping words.. How was your experience doing vision therapy here at Insight Vision Center? What kind of activities did your child enjoy?. My child enjoyed coming to Insight and enjoyed the activities. Many were "game" centered so that made it fun and didnt seem like work. She also enjoyed the homework because they were short and quick. We spent 10-15 minutes a day on the homework.. After completing vision therapy, how has your childs vision improved? ...
Convergence Insufficiency. Convergence insufficiency usually occurs in the school-aged child who complains of a chronic headache, typically for several months. The child may have difficulty with learning to read; in particular, the child may hold reading material close to the face in an attempt to overcome the blurry vision. This process usually overtaxes already weak convergence amplitudes, which are a measure of a persons ability to focus both eyes simultaneously on a reading target. The problem may occur several times a week, if not daily, and may occur in school or with homework, with relief on weekends or vacations. The child does not complain of headaches that awaken the child from sleep or of headaches that occur upon awakening in the morning. Nausea and vomiting do not occur with this condition. The child may complain of double vision or may be seen closing or covering one eye, presumably to avoid double vision.. Accommodative Insufficiency. The signs and symptoms of this condition are ...
Convergence Insufficiency. Convergence insufficiency usually occurs in the school-aged child who complains of a chronic headache, typically for several months. The child may have difficulty with learning to read; in particular, the child may hold reading material close to the face in an attempt to overcome the blurry vision. This process usually overtaxes already weak convergence amplitudes, which are a measure of a persons ability to focus both eyes simultaneously on a reading target. The problem may occur several times a week, if not daily, and may occur in school or with homework, with relief on weekends or vacations. The child does not complain of headaches that awaken the child from sleep or of headaches that occur upon awakening in the morning. Nausea and vomiting do not occur with this condition. The child may complain of double vision or may be seen closing or covering one eye, presumably to avoid double vision.. Accommodative Insufficiency. The signs and symptoms of this condition are ...
Again, careful refraction of the patient can help the management of many cases of exophoria. With refractive correction in place, if any, cover tests should be performed, and accommodation should be evaluated by push-up measurement of accommodative amplitude, or, especially in children, by dynamic retinoscopy. Divergence excess (in contrast to convergence insufficiency) manifests as an increased angle of exophoria in the distance.. In exophoria, correcting both myopia and hyperopia can help improve symptoms, but additional cautions should be taken when correcting hyperopia, as full correction of hyperopia may worsen the symptoms. A several-minute test with hyperopic correction should be attempted to see if exophoric symptoms improve because of clearer imagery or worsen by relaxing accommodation. If they worsen, prescribe the largest correction possible to treat the hyperopia while avoiding exophoric symptoms. A good starting point is one-third of the spherical error. Just as plus lenses can be ...
Testing after his playing days revealed that Babe Ruth had terrible vision in one eye (he claimed never to have had an eye exam before. have noted that it involves more than simply stereopsis, the term for how the eyes work together to.. Referral for a comprehensive eye examination is recommended when vision is 20/40 or worse for those younger than five years of age and the eye care specialist diagnoses Amblyopia when. programs to test color vision, stereopsis and.. Eye care services at Lake Mary Eye Care include eye exams, surgical and non- surgical eye care, contact lens fitment and more. eye), Convergence Insufficiency (near vision disorder), Diplopia (double vision), Lack of Stereopsis ( two-eyed depth perception), and Strabismus (cross-eyed, wandering eye, eye turns, etc.).. What is 3D Stereo Vision? Binocular Depth Perception? Stereoscopic Vision? Stereopsis? Benefits of Stereoscopic Vision..Lazy Eye?. In contrast to the more traditional methods for examination of stereopsis, the two ...

Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Study (CITS) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govConvergence Insufficiency Treatment Study (CITS) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Ocular Motility Disorders. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Cranial Nerve Diseases. Eye Diseases. ... Convergence Insufficiency Other: Active home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy Procedure: Near target push-ups ... Near point of convergence (NPC) break: 12-week/baseline mean NPC break ,0.763 and a mean 12-week NPC break ,6 cm ... Near point of convergence (NPC) break: 12-week/baseline mean NPC break ,0.763 and a mean 12-week NPC break ,6 cm ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01515943?cond=%22Motor+neuro-ophthalmic+disorders%22&rank=6

Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity A Manual of Clinical Analysis | Rent 9780409903065 | 040990306XOcular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity A Manual of Clinical Analysis | Rent 9780409903065 | 040990306X

Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity A Manual of Clinical Analysis. Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and ... Goss, David A. is the author of Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity A Manual of Clinical Analysis with ...
more infohttps://www.valorebooks.com/textbooks/ocular-accommodation-convergence-and-fixation-disparity-a-manual-of-clinical-analysis/9780409903065&default=buy

Unit of ocular convergence: Definition with Unit of ocular convergence Pictures and PhotosUnit of ocular convergence: Definition with Unit of ocular convergence Pictures and Photos

Definition of Unit of ocular convergence with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... Unit Of Ocular Convergence Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Unit Of Ocular Convergence. unit matrix. unit matrixes. unit ... Medical Definition of Unit of ocular convergence. 1. The amount of convergence required to view binocularly an object 1 meter ... unit of ocular convergence (current term). unit of oxytocin. unit of penicillin. unit of radioactivity. unit of thyrotrophic ...
more infohttp://lexic.us/definition-of/unit_of_ocular_convergence

Psychogenic convergence spasm mimicking ocular myastheniaPsychogenic convergence spasm mimicking ocular myasthenia

... Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Year: 2017. Vol. 21 - N. 5 Pages: 1088-1090 ... Psychogenic convergence spasm mimicking ocular myasthenia. C. Scoppetta, G. Di Gennaro. Department of Human Physiology and ... She has been previously diagnosed by experienced neurologists as having ocular myasthenia and she had been treated for two ... After a thorough medical interview and neurological examination, a diagnosis of psychogenic convergence spasm was made. The ...
more infohttp://www.europeanreview.org/article/12332

Ocular convergence deficits in schizophreniaOcular convergence deficits in schizophrenia

Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) than ... purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with SZ exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence ...
more infohttps://scholars.uab.edu/display/pub86780

Randomized Trial of Treatments for Convergence Insufficiency - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govRandomized Trial of Treatments for Convergence Insufficiency - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Ocular Motility Disorders. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Cranial Nerve Diseases. Eye Diseases. ... Randomized Trial of Treatments for Convergence Insufficiency. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Convergence Insufficiency Procedure: Pencil Push-ups Procedure: Office-based Vision Therapy Procedure: Placebo Office-based ... Any ocular or systemic medication known to affect accommodation or vergence. *Monocular accommodative amplitude less than 4 D ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00347945?cond=%22Motor+neuro-ophthalmic+disorders%22&rank=7

7 eye exercises7 eye exercises

ocular motility conditions. *accommodative dysfunction. *asthenopia. *convergence insufficiency. *visual field deficits ... One study found that eye exercises can help with convergence problems. Another study suggested that eye exercises improved ... Pencil pushups can help people with convergence insufficiency. A doctor might recommend this exercise as part of vision therapy ... The pencil pushups exercise appears to be an effective therapy for symptomatic convergence insufficiency. ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/327524

Connecting Contact Lenses and Digital Technology - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.govConnecting Contact Lenses and Digital Technology - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Ocular Accommodation. Convergence, Excess. Interventions Device: Test Daily Disposable Soft Contact Lenses. Device: Control ... Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) Description Difference in CISS score after one week of multifocal Description ... Rouse MW, Borsting EJ, Mitchell GL, Scheiman M, Cotter SA, Cooper J, Kulp MT, London R, Wensveen J; Convergence Insufficiency ... Validity and reliability of the revised convergence insufficiency symptom survey in adults. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2004 Sep;24 ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT02921087?term=Contact&rank=42

ProjectsProjects

Ocular Alignment. *Visual Fixation. *Light Touch. *Saccadic Eye Movement. *Convergence. *Visual Spatial Inattention ...
more infohttps://www.southalabama.edu/colleges/alliedhealth/ot/fwsupervision/projects.html

Convergence Insufficiency MedicationConvergence Insufficiency Medication

There is typically an exophoria or intermittent exotropia at near, a receded near point of convergence, reduced positive ... Convergence insufficiency is a common condition that is characterized by a patient s inability to maintain proper binocular ... Binocular Vision & Ocular Motility: Theory & Management of Strabismus. 5th ed. Mosby-Year Book; 1995. 468-476. ... encoded search term (Convergence Insufficiency) and Convergence Insufficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1199429-medication

Convergence Insufficiency: Background, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyConvergence Insufficiency: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

There is typically an exophoria or intermittent exotropia at near, a receded near point of convergence, reduced positive ... Convergence insufficiency is a common condition that is characterized by a patient s inability to maintain proper binocular ... Convergence insufficiency is a supranuclear disorder of ocular motility. In the cerebral cortex, the primary and secondary ... accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio [AC/A]) and the accommodative response to convergence stimuli (convergence ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1199429-overview

The Extra-ocular Muscles; a Clinical Study of Normal and Abnormal Ocular ... - Luther Crouse Peter - Google BooksThe Extra-ocular Muscles; a Clinical Study of Normal and Abnormal Ocular ... - Luther Crouse Peter - Google Books

abduction action amblyopia ametropia angle kappa angle of convergence annulus of Zinn asthenopia astigmatism attachment ... The Extra-ocular Muscles; a Clinical Study of Normal and Abnormal Ocular Motility. The Extra-ocular Muscles; a Clinical Study ... The Extra-ocular Muscles; a Clinical Study of Normal and Abnormal Ocular Motility. ... gb-gplus-shareThe Extra-ocular Muscles; a Clinical Study of Normal and Abnormal Ocular Motility. ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=ve7pAAAAIAAJ&q=angle+of+convergence&dq=related:LCCN41001838&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&cad=4

Premorbid migraine history as a risk factor for vestibular and oculomotor baseline concussion assessment in pediatric athletes...Premorbid migraine history as a risk factor for vestibular and oculomotor baseline concussion assessment in pediatric athletes...

... consisting of the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS), near point of convergence (NPC), and the King-Devick (K-D) tests. ... Mucha ACollins MWElbin RJFurman JMTroutman-Enseki CDeWolf RM: A brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to ... Kontos APSufrinko AElbin RJPuskar ACollins MW: Reliability and associated risk factors for performance on the Vestibular/Ocular ... Moran RNCovassin TElbin RJGould DNogle S: Reliability and normative reference values for the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening ...
more infohttps://thejns.org/pediatrics/abstract/journals/j-neurosurg-pediatr/23/4/article-p465.xml

Research identifies characteristics of convergence insufficiency in adults - Mayo ClinicResearch identifies characteristics of convergence insufficiency in adults - Mayo Clinic

Researchers used a medical record retrieval system to describe the clinical characteristics of convergence insufficiency (CI) ... Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common disorder of ocular alignment among both children and adults. It is characterized by ... "Convergence insufficiency is one of few forms of ocular misalignment that is relatively common in both children and adults. ... CI is diagnosed on the findings of a remote near point of convergence and decreased fusional convergence at near fixation. ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/medical-professionals/ophthalmology/news/research-identifies-characteristics-of-convergence-insufficiency-in-adults/mac-20430990

Frontiers | Visiting Richard Serras Promenade sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical...Frontiers | Visiting Richard Serra's "Promenade" sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical...

Le, T. T., and Kapoula, Z. (2008). Role of ocular convergence in the Romberg quotient. Gait Posture 27, 493-500. doi: 10.1016/j ... Matheron, E., Yang, Q., Le, T. T., and Kapoula, Z. (2008). Effects of ocular dominance on the vertical vergence induced by a 2- ... As explained in Section "Materials and Methods," the eye movements involved convergence and divergence eye movements, which ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01349/full

Ill-sustained accommodation | definition of ill-sustained accommodation by Medical dictionaryIll-sustained accommodation | definition of ill-sustained accommodation by Medical dictionary

convergence accommodation 1. Accommodation induced directly by a change in convergence. 2. That component of accommodation ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of hyperopes. ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of myopes. ... vergence accommodation See convergence accommodation.. Fig. A4 A hypermetropic eye H and a myopic eye M, fixating an object at ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ill-sustained+accommodation

Adult Strabismus: Orthoptist Perspective - American Academy of OphthalmologyAdult Strabismus: Orthoptist Perspective - American Academy of Ophthalmology

... ocular, or neurological disease is more prevalent in the adult population, and it adds to the ... The near point of convergence is tested along with ocular rotations. Limitation of movement When there is a limitation of ... Assessing ocular rotations Version testing will include identifying relative extraocular muscle overactions and underactions. ... Strabismus related to medical, ocular, or neurological disease is more prevalent in adults, adding to the complexity of the ...
more infohttps://www.aao.org/disease-review/adult-strabismus-orthoptist-perspective

Ocular dominance - WikipediaOcular dominance - Wikipedia

The convergence near-point test. The subject fixates an object that is moved toward the nose until divergence of one eye occurs ... Ocular dominance, sometimes called eye preference or eyedness, is the tendency to prefer visual input from one eye to the other ... Ocular dominance and dominant hand should be ideally the same.[citation needed] It has been asserted that cross-dominance (in ... Ocular dominance column Right- and left-hand traffic Chaurasia BD, Mathur BB (1976). "Eyedness". Acta Anat (Basel). 96 (2): 301 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocular_dominance

Burton J. Kushner - WikipediaBurton J. Kushner - Wikipedia

Kushner BJ (2004). "Ocular torsion: rotations around the WHY axis". J AAPOS. 8 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2003.09.004. ... Kushner BJ (2005). "The treatment of convergence insufficiency". Arch Ophthalmol. 123 (1): 100-1. doi:10.1001/archopht.123.1. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burton_J._Kushner

Duane syndrome type 1             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramDuane syndrome type 1 | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

Impaired convergence. 0000619 Impaired ocular abduction. 0000634 Impaired ocular adduction. 0000542 Palpebral fissure narrowing ... Differential diagnosis includes Duane-radial ray syndrome, acro-renal-ocular syndrome, Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome, Townes- ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/10763/duane-syndrome-type-1

Pupillary distance - WikipediaPupillary distance - Wikipedia

Other experimental presentations may require the use of IPD to control for ocular convergence and binocular depth. ... Hyperstereopsis increases ocular convergence and causes near objects to appear closer and with exaggerated depth and slant. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpupillary_distance

Accommodation | definition of accommodation by Medical dictionaryAccommodation | definition of accommodation by Medical dictionary

convergence accommodation 1. Accommodation induced directly by a change in convergence. 2. That component of accommodation ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of hyperopes. ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of myopes. ... vergence accommodation See convergence accommodation.. Fig. A4 A hypermetropic eye H and a myopic eye M, fixating an object at ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/accommodation

Publications by Gary D. Paige, M.D., Ph.D. -  University of Rochester Medical CenterPublications by Gary D. Paige, M.D., Ph.D. - University of Rochester Medical Center

"Eye position signals in the abducens and oculomotor nuclei of monkeys during ocular convergence." Journal of vestibular ... Chapter Title: Aging and Equilibrium: The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Posture.. Book Title: The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and ... "The primate vestibulo-ocular reflex during combined linear and angular head motion." Experimental brain research.. 1991 87(1): ... "Ocular motor abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus infection." Annals of neurology.. 1991 Aug 0; 30(2):130-8. ...
more infohttps://www.urmc.rochester.edu/people/21558054-gary-d-paige/publications

CISDOC databaseCISDOC database

... ocular traumas and pathology related to physical agents (ocular contusions and burns), traumas caused by animals or plants); ... Fusional convergence decreased only in the VDU operator group.. Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.79, No.4, p.288-297. ... The ocular tension in 33 exposed subjects, but only in two controls, was higher than the cut-off value of 18mmHg. The age ... Ocular hypertension in radiologists and radiology technicians Ipertono oculare in medici e tecnici radiologi [in Italian]. The ...
more infohttp://www.ilo.org/dyn/cisdoc2/cismain.listDocs?p_lang=en&p_bsubject=112&p_page=2&p_pagesize=50&p_template=NORMALPAGE

Photorefractive keratectomy influences the angle of ocular deviation in strabismus patients with hyperopia | Springer for...Photorefractive keratectomy influences the angle of ocular deviation in strabismus patients with hyperopia | Springer for...

... binocular vision and ocular alignment outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the treatment of hyperopia in esotropic ... Alpern M (1949) Accommodative and convergence with contact lenses. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 26(9):379-387CrossRefGoogle ... Von Noorden GK, Campos EC (2002) Binocular vision and ocular motility; theory and management of strabismus, 6th edn. Mosby, St ... The primary outcome was to assess the efficacy of PRK in improving ocular alignment. The secondary outcomes were the ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10792-018-0867-5
  • Strabismus related to medical, ocular, or neurological disease is more prevalent in adults, adding to the complexity of the evaluation process, the differential diagnosis, and management strategies. (aao.org)
  • Vision disorders, strabismus, amblyopia or ocular palsies are common. (fh-campuswien.ac.at)
  • IN can appear as an isolated ocular motor abnormality with nearly normal acuity or in association with a visual sensory disorder including opacities of the ocular media (cornea, lens, or vitreous) and functional abnormalities of the macula (albinism and aniridia) or optic nerve. (arvojournals.org)
  • Pediatric athletes between the ages of 8 and 14 years with a diagnosed history of migraine headache (n = 28) and matched controls without a history of diagnosed migraine headache (n = 28) were administered a baseline concussion assessment battery, consisting of the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS), near point of convergence (NPC), and the King-Devick (K-D) tests. (thejns.org)
  • Between-groups comparisons were performed for vestibular symptoms and provocation scores on the VOMS (smooth pursuit, saccades, convergence, vestibular/ocular reflex, visual motion sensitivity), NPC (average distance), and K-D (time). (thejns.org)
  • Individuals diagnosed with migraine headaches reported greater VOMS smooth pursuit scores (p = 0.02), convergence scores (p = 0.04), vestibular ocular reflex scores (p value range 0.002-0.04), and visual motion sensitivity scores (p = 0.009). (thejns.org)
  • This article provides an overview of the most important and frequent forms of central vestibular vertigo syndromes, including basilar/vestibular migraine, which are characterized by ocular motor, postural, and perceptual signs. (springer.com)
  • and balance as well as vestibular and ocular function (based on patient performance on the Balance Error Scoring System, Romberg, tandem gait, gaze stability, and near point of convergence tests). (eurekalert.org)
  • She has been previously diagnosed by experienced neurologists as having ocular myasthenia and she had been treated for two years with anticholinesterase inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. (europeanreview.org)
  • After a thorough medical interview and neurological examination, a diagnosis of psychogenic convergence spasm was made. (europeanreview.org)
  • however, it can be a symptom of an underlying ocular problem or a serious neurological problem. (villagepedi.com)
  • This process usually overtaxes already weak convergence amplitudes, which are a measure of a person's ability to focus both eyes simultaneously on a reading target. (villagepedi.com)
  • Dieterich M, Brandt T (1993) Ocular torsion and tilt of subjective visual vertical are sensitive brainstem signs. (springer.com)
  • Six of the 12 cranial nerves pertain to vision and visual/ocular functions. (edu.au)
  • CI is diagnosed on the findings of a remote near point of convergence and decreased fusional convergence at near fixation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects. (rochester.edu)
  • Sustained fixation induced changes in phoria and convergence peak velocity. (nih.gov)
  • As a result of sustained fixation, phoria was adapted and the peak velocity of the near and far convergence steps was modified. (nih.gov)
  • The child's ocular motor balance (with and without habitual correction) should be evaluated with both distance and near fixation if possible. (ecoo.info)
  • Ocular dominance, sometimes called eye preference or eyedness, is the tendency to prefer visual input from one eye to the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ocular dominance and dominant hand should be ideally the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 1998 study of professional baseball players, hand-ocular dominance patterns did not show an effect on batting average or ERA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ocular dominance is an important consideration in predicting patient satisfaction with monovision correction in cataract surgery refractive surgery, also laser eye surgery, and contact lens wear. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an objective test of ocular dominance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their second major discovery was a further organizationof the cortical cells into roughly vertical divisions of two types: orientation columns and ocular dominance columns. (faqs.org)
  • Ocular and oculomotor abnormalities are common in JS and are helpful in making a diagnosis. (dovepress.com)
  • This study sought to investigate the influence of phoria adaptation on convergence peak velocity from responses located at different initial vergence positions. (nih.gov)
  • This highly specialized synaptic arrangement, which is characterized by little convergence from disparate regions of the cochlear partition, is important in preserving temporal information transmitted by auditory nerve fibers. (scribd.com)
  • Visual performance can be impaired through damage to cortical, brainstem, cranial nerve, or ocular structures. (edu.au)
  • One study found that eye exercises can help with convergence problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A personalized action plan was designed to minimize suppression and to improve left-right ocular motor symmetry, which included home exercises and structured vision training. (ebscohost.com)
  • 4 5 6 7 8 Jacobs and Dell'Osso 9 have recently proposed a defect in smooth pursuit and gaze-holding ocular motor systems. (arvojournals.org)
  • Proton therapy is today considered the "gold standard of care" for ocular melanomas, the most common primary malignant adult cancer of the eye, as well as for other ocular tumors. (ucsf.edu)
  • Proton therapy is FDA-approved and is considered the gold 'standard of care' for uveal melanoma and other ocular treatments. (ucsf.edu)