Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The motion of air currents.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (1/141)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic transport of fatty acids in rat enterocytes: role of binding to fatty acid-binding protein. (2/141)

The intracellular movement of fatty acids is thought to be facilitated through codiffusion with fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). This facilitation may occur by decreasing binding to immobile membranes, leading to faster cytoplasmic diffusion. The aims of this study were to measure the intracellular transport of 12-N-methyl-(7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol)aminostearate (NBD-stearate) in villus rat enterocytes and to determine 1) the mechanism of its cytoplasmic transport and 2) if its transport rate correlated with the known variation of FABP binding capacity along the length of the small intestine. Two-dimensional laser photobleaching was used to measure the movement of a fluorescent fatty acid NBD-stearate in enterocytes isolated from different segments of rat intestine. The fraction of NBD-stearate found in the cytostol of enterocytes was determined by differential centrifugation. Cytoplasmic transport of NBD-stearate occurred solely by diffusion and not by convection. Diffusion was homogeneous (nondirectional), consistent with isotropic diffusion. The diffusion rate varied with location along the intestine, correlating with the local FABP concentration and measured cytosolic binding. We conclude that cytoplasmic proteins like FABP promote the intracellular transport of fatty acids by enhancing their diffusive flux. We suggest that facilitation is not specific for a particular cell type but occurs in a variety of cells that transport fatty acids and may contain different types of FABP.  (+info)

Clothing convective heat exchange--proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. (3/141)

Convection is an important determinant for both sensible and evaporative heat exchange. Heat transfer by convection for normal boundary conditions is readily described by simple power functions. Clothing affects convection in various ways and existing characterisation of clothing by its static insulation values produces inaccurate prediction of sensible heat exchange, eventually leading to erroneous risk assessment. The present paper reviews various methods for evaluation of clothing convective (sensible) heat exchange. Based on available data, two equations are proposed for determination of the reduction of the total insulation values obtained under static, still wind conditions as a consequence of wind and walking effects. The equations apply from 0 to 1.84 clo, from 0.2 to 3 m/s and for walking speeds up to 1.2 m/s. The equations are incorporated in ISO 7933 to provide a more realistic and accurate prediction of sensible heat transfer through clothing.  (+info)

The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing. (4/141)

This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press; Havenith, G., Holmer, I., den Hartog, E. and Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing evaporative heat resistance: proposal for improved representation in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press] to provide a practical suggestion for improving existing clothing models so that they can account for the effects of wind and human movement. The proposed method is presented and described in the form of a BASIC computer program. Analytical methods (for example ISO 7933) for the assessment of the thermal strain caused by human exposure to hot environments require a mathematical quantification of the thermal properties of clothing. These effects are usually considered in terms of 'dry' thermal insulation and vapour resistance. This simple 'model' of clothing can account for the insulation properties of clothing which reduce heat loss (or gain) between the body and the environment and, for example, the resistance to the transfer of evaporated sweat from the skin, which is important for cooling the body in a hot environment. When a clothed person is exposed to wind, however, and when the person is active, there is a potentially significant limitation in the simple model of clothing presented above. Heat and mass transfer can take place between the microclimate (within clothing and next to the skin surface) and the external environment. The method described in this paper 'corrects' static values of clothing properties to provide dynamic values that take account of wind and human movement. It therefore allows a more complete representation of the effects of clothing on the heat strain of workers.  (+info)

Efficacy of two methods for reducing postbypass afterdrop. (5/141)

BACKGROUND: Afterdrop, defined as the precipitous reduction in core temperature after cardiopulmonary bypass, results from redistribution of body heat to inadequately warmed peripheral tissues. The authors tested two methods of ameliorating afterdrop: (1) forced-air warming of peripheral tissues and (2) nitroprusside-induced vasodilation. METHODS: Patients were cooled during cardiopulmonary bypass to approximately 32 degrees C and subsequently rewarmed to a nasopharyngeal temperature near 37 degrees C and a rectal temperature near 36 degrees C. Patients in the forced-air protocol (n = 20) were assigned randomly to forced-air warming or passive insulation on the legs. Active heating started with rewarming while undergoing bypass and was continued for the remainder of surgery. Patients in the nitroprusside protocol (n = 30) were assigned randomly to either a control group or sodium nitroprusside administration. Pump flow during rewarming was maintained at 2.5 l x m(-2) x min(-1) in the control patients and at 3.0 l x m(-2) x min(-1) in those assigned to sodium nitroprusside. Sodium nitroprusside was titrated to maintain a mean arterial pressure near 60 mm Hg. In all cases, a nasopharyngeal probe evaluated core (trunk and head) temperature and heat content. Peripheral compartment (arm and leg) temperature and heat content were estimated using fourth-order regressions and integration over volume from 18 intramuscular needle thermocouples, nine skin temperatures, and "deep" hand and foot temperature. RESULTS: In patients warmed with forced air, peripheral tissue temperature was higher at the end of warming and remained higher until the end of surgery. The core temperature afterdrop was reduced from 1.2+/-0.2 degrees C to 0.5+/-0.2 degrees C by forced-air warming. The duration of afterdrop also was reduced, from 50+/-11 to 27+/-14 min. In the nitroprusside group, a rectal temperature of 36 degrees C was reached after 30+/-7 min of rewarming. This was only slightly faster than the 40+/-13 min necessary in the control group. The afterdrop was 0.8+/-0.3 degrees C with nitroprusside and lasted 34+/-10 min which was similar to the 1.1+/-0.3 degrees C afterdrop that lasted 44+/-13 min in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous warming reduced the core temperature afterdrop by 60%. However, heat-balance data indicate that this reduction resulted primarily because forced-air heating prevented the typical decrease in body heat content after discontinuation of bypass, rather than by reducing redistribution. Nitroprusside administration slightly increased peripheral tissue temperature and heat content at the end of rewarming. However, the core-to-peripheral temperature gradient was low in both groups. Consequently, there was little redistribution in either case.  (+info)

Influence of convection on small molecule clearances in online hemodiafiltration. (6/141)

BACKGROUND: Dialysis efficacy is mostly influenced by dialyzer clearance. Urea clearance may be estimated in vitro by total ion clearance, which can be obtained by conductivity measurements. We have previously used this approach to assess in vitro clearances in a system mimicking predilutional and postdilutional online hemodiafiltration with a wide range of QD, QB, and ultrafiltration rates. Our current study elaborates on a formula that allows the prediction of the influence of ultrafiltration on small molecule clearances, and validates the mathematical approach both experimentally in vitro and clinically in vivo data. METHODS: Two conductivimeters in the dialysate side of an E-2008 Fresenius machine were used. HF80 and HF40 polysulfone dialyzers were used; reverse osmosis water and dialysate were used for blood and dialysate compartments, respectively. Study conditions included QB of 300 and 400 mL/min and QD of 500 and 590 mL/min, with a range of ultrafiltration rate from 0 to 400 mL/min in postdilutional hemodiafiltration and to 590 mL/min in predilutional hemodiafiltration. Urea clearances were determined in the in vivo studies, which included 0, 50, 100, and 150 mL/min ultrafiltration rates. RESULTS: The ultrafiltration rate and clearance were significantly correlated (R > 0.9, P < 0.001) and fitted a linear model (P < 0.001) in all of the experimental conditions. The following formula fitted the experimental points with an error <2% for both postdilutional and predilutional online diafiltration in vitro, respectively. K = K0 + [(QB - K0)/(QB)] x ultrafiltration rateK = K0 + [((QD x QB)/(QB + QD) - K0)/QD] x ultrafiltration rate where K is the clearance; K0 is the clearance with nil ultrafiltration rate; QD is the total dialysate produced (in commercial HDF, QD = QDi + Qinf). Since weight loss was maintained at 0, ultrafiltration rate = infusion flow. QB is the "blood" line flow. The formula was also verified in vivo in clinical postdilutional hemodiafiltration with a QB taking into account the cellular and water compartments. DISCUSSION: In vitro, by simply determining the clearance in conventional dialysis, the total clearance for any ultrafiltration rate may be estimated in both predilutional and postdilutional online diafiltration with an error of less than 2%. The same applies to in vivo postdilutional hemodiafiltration when the formula takes into account the cellular and water composition of blood.  (+info)

Contaminant dispersion in the vicinity of a worker in a uniform velocity field. (7/141)

The transportation of gaseous contaminant from a low and moderate low impulse (momentum<1 m s(-1)) source to the breathing zone was studied in a uniform air stream flow. Results of the effects of the direction and the velocity of principal air flow, convection due to a human body, arm movement of a human being and the type of source on the concentration profiles are presented. Three important results were obtained. Firstly, for a given low and moderate impulse low impulse contaminant source in the near field of a worker, his/her orientation relative to the principal air flow direction is the most important factor in reducing occupational exposure, with an air velocity of about 0.3 m s(-1). Secondly, the effect of convection resulting from body heat on air flow was lower than expected. Thirdly, arm movements influence contaminant dispersion, and should be included when models assessing exposure are developed. The present data can also be used to validate existing computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models.  (+info)

Monitoring response to convection-enhanced taxol delivery in brain tumor patients using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. (8/141)

Convection-enhanced drug delivery (CEDD) is a novel approach to enhance the delivery of drugs directly into brain tumors. We have used diffusion-weighted MRI (DWMRI) to monitor the effects of intratumoral CEDD in three brain tumor patients treated with Taxol. Clear changes in the images and the water diffusion parameters were observed shortly after the initiation of treatment. Initially, a bright area corresponding to decreased diffusion appeared, followed by the appearance of a dark area of increased diffusion within the bright area. The time to appearance of the dark area varied among the patients, suggesting different response rates. In this work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using DWMRI as a noninvasive tool to achieve unique early tissue characterization not attainable by other conventional imaging methods.  (+info)

The evaporation rate and internal convective flows of a sessile droplet with a pinned contact line were formulated and investigated numerically. We developed and analyzed a unified numerical model that includes the effects of temperature, droplet volume, and contact angle on evaporation rate and internal flows. The temperature gradient on the air/liquid interface causes an internal flow due to Marangoni stress, which provides good convective mixing within the droplet, depending upon Marangoni number. As the droplet volume decreases, the thermal gradient becomes smaller and the Marangoni flow becomes negligible. Simultaneously, as the droplet height decreases, evaporation-induced flow creates a large jet-like flow radially toward the contact line. For a droplet containing suspended particles, this jet-like convective flow carries particles toward the contact line and deposits them on the surface, forming the so-called coffee ring stain. In addition, we reported a simple polynomial correlation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Finite element computational procedure for convective flow of nanofluids in an annulus. AU - Uddin, M. J.. AU - Rahman, M. M.. PY - 2018/6. Y1 - 2018/6. N2 - In the present study, the detailed procedures of Galerkin weighted residual technique of finite element method (FEM) for solving two-dimensional incompressible natural convective flow of nanofluids using nonhomogeneous dynamic model are discussed for the first time. The physical domain is discretized by using unstructured triangular elements. The governing partial differential equations of nanofluids are made dimensionless using the suitable transformation of variables for weak formulations. The method of weighted residuals is used for obtaining the approximate solutions. This approach typically leads to a sparse and indefinite matrix that is difficult to solve efficiently. The formation of an indefinite matrix is avoided in the present work by introducing an artificial compressibility term in the continuity equation. ...
Convection-enhanced delivery permits the direct homogeneous delivery of small- and large-molecular-weight putative therapeutics to the nervous system in a manner that bypasses the blood-nervous system barrier. The development of co-infused surrogate imaging tracers (for computed tomography and MRI) allows for the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of infusate distribution during convective delivery. Real-time image monitoring of convective distribution of therapeutic agents insures that targeted structures/nervous system regions are adequately perfused, enhances safety, informs efficacy (or lack thereof) of putative agents, and provides critical information regarding the properties of convection-enhanced delivery in normal and various pathologic tissue states ...
Define Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits. Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits synonyms, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits pronunciation, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits translation, English dictionary definition of Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits. Jean Baptiste Camille 1796-1875. French artist of the Barbizon school whose landscape paintings influenced the impressionists. n Jean Baptiste Camille ....
Some are intimidated by convection ovens but there really isnt any need. Convection ovens are as simple to use as a regular oven. The thing that scares people is that the recipe states to cook at a certain temperature for a certain amount of time but with a convection oven those numbers arent accurate. Almost all convection ovens have an offset function built it that allows you to input the temperature and time your recipe calls for and it will adjust it automatically. This takes all of the guesswork out of it and makes the conversion problem a non issue.. If you happen to have a convection oven that doesnt have a built in offset function its fairly easy to adjust recipes yourself. The simplest way is to follow the exact same instructions but simply reduce the temperature by 25 degrees. This should work quite well for most convection ovens. Alternately, if youd like to speed up the process, you can leave the temperature at what is specified in the recipe and adjust the time instead. By ...
SADANA BROTHERS - is one of the best manufacturer,supplier & exporter of Gas Convection Apparatus (Ventilation Apparatus, Convection Box) from New Delhi. We provide best quality of Gas Convection Apparatus (Ventilation Apparatus, Convection Box) all over India
This paper describes a novel technique that allows separation and quantification of different sources of convection in the high‐latitude ionosphere. To represent the ionospheric convection electric field, we use the Spherical Elementary Convection Systems representation. We demonstrate how this technique can separate and quantify the contributions from different magnetospheric source regions to the overall ionospheric convection pattern. The technique is in particular useful for distinguishing the contributions of high‐latitude reconnection associated with lobe cells from the low‐latitude reconnection associated with Dungey two‐cell circulation. The results from the current paper are utilized in a companion paper (Reistad et al., 2019, to quantify how the dipole tilt angle influences lobe convection cells. We also describe a relation bridging other representations of the ionospheric convection electric field or potential to the Spherical Elementary ...
Porewater flowlines in the bed of a small Michigan USA river were shown to be altered by Chara hummocks, sea lamprey nests, and beaver dams. Altered flow lines followed expected in-bed convective and underflow patterns predicted from published models. The greater density and shape of Chara hummocks caused upwellings into the hummocks, possibly being of benefit to the plants through contact with higher levels of dissolved substances contained in the cooler, deeper porewater. Streamwater downwelling into the more permeable sea lamprey nests may provide a continuous supply of well-oxygenated water, enhancing egg survival. Convective flow patterns beneath beaver dams, as well as beneath other bed surface features, may function to temporarily store dissolved streamwater substances, altering downstream transport rates, and may function to bring porewater/streamwater to the surface, affecting distributions of surface dwelling organisms.. ...
Best Budget: BLACK+DECKER 4-Slice Toaster Oven with Natural Convection. Cuisinart 1800 W 6-Slice Brushed Silver Toaster Oven and Air Fryer, Best Toaster Oven: 7. You dont need a big, hefty kitchen appliance, like a wall oven, to do the heavy lifting in the kitchen. LARGE FAMILY SIZE: Extra guests, or just extra hungry? These rapid cook ovens can accommodate a standard 13 x 18 sheet pan when used in convection mode. From chicken nuggets to roasted veggies and everything in between, the Cusinart delivered. Cuisinart combined steam and convection cooking to create this convection steam oven, which can cook recipes up to 40% faster than a conventional oven. It may surprise you to learn that some of the best air fryers arent dedicated air fryers, but countertop ovens with air frying functionality. requiresAAA battery required, not included, Built-in catalytic converter enables ventless operation - no hood needed, Features impingement and microwave cooking technology, Fat and oil Free 2-in-1 Air ...
Liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) is very corrosive to steels. To mitigate structural corrosion of LBE systems, active oxygen control technique is developed. To enhance the speed of oxygen transport in liquid LBE, natural convection has been proposed. This paper numerically analyzes the oxygen transport in a natural convection induced LBE enclosure. Different temperature boundary conditions are added to the container. Both laminar and turbulent LBE flows which are distinguished by strength of flow measured are analyzed. Three laminar cases: (a) heated from the bottom and cooled from the top of the container; (b) heated from the sidewalls and cooled from the top of the container; (c) one sidewall heated and the opposite wall cooled, and one fully turbulent case with one sidewall heated and the opposite sidewall cooled are chosen. Oxidization in near wall areas and formation of oxide layers on container surfaces are considered. In each case, the characteristic velocity and oxygen diffusion time are
Article Entropy generation for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation inside a porous enclosure. Entropy generation problem for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation in a vertical porous enclosure, submitted to a uniform hot wa...
A method and system, together with corresponding apparatus and components, and corresponding kits, for use in performing topical wound therapy by using topical negative pressure (TNP) in combination with one or more hollow fiber catheters. In one embodiment, the method provides hollow fiber catheters for the removal of fluid or fluid components from the wound area by ultrafiltration. In another embodiment the hollow fiber catheters are connected to an infusion pump and used to deliver therapeutic fluids to the wound area. In yet another embodiment, a first set of hollow fiber catheters is connected to a vacuum pump and a second set is connected to an infusion pump to simultaneously remove excess tissue fluid and deliver therapeutic fluid to the wound site.
The suns core temperature is around 20,000,000 °K, yet it is not what determines the characteristic electromagnetic radiation emission from the sun, because most of this intense core radiation is absorbed by a layer of negative hydrogen ions outside the suns core called the convection layer. Heat from the core interior passes through the radiative zone, and then accumulates in this convection zone. Once here, currents circulate so that heat is passed to the photosphere at the surface of the sun and the cooler plasma flows back down to carry more energy to the photosphere. The convection process allows heat to be released from surface with gas, much like boiling water releases heat from the waters surface in steam. In the particle view, photons are essentially bouncing around in the region between the core and the photosphere, losing energy and traveling through the convection zone to the photosphere. These photons are then radiated with gases which are still a very high 5760 °K. Because the ...
What is a microwave-convection oven Installed frequently in recreational vehicles, it is a combination of a regular convection oven with a microwave. Users are able to use the quick interior cooking of microwaves combined with the surface browning of hot air. Convection cooking allows for the interior cooking of a traditional oven, just hotter and faster. Convection oven technology uses a fan to force air movement and heat up the full interior of the microwave to cook food from the inside out. Thats why you can use convection microwaves to bake and roast things that would otherwise be cooked too quickly (and not thoroughly) with just a regular microwave. The…. ...
Using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) we investigate the ionospheric convection response to magnetospheric substorms. Substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, and were then binned according to the magnetic latitude of their onset. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection patterns for each onset-latitude bin was then performed using radar data for the interval 60 min before onset to 90 min after. It is found that lower onset-latitude substorms are associated with generally more enhanced convection than the higher latitude substorms, although they suffer from a significant localised reduction of the flow in the midnight sector during the expansion phase. Higher-latitude substorms are associated with a significant and rapid increase in the nightside convection following substorm onset, with all onset-latitude bins showing an enhancement over ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of temperature-dependent solubility on the onset of thermosolutal convection in a horizontal porous layer. AU - Pritchard, David. AU - Richardson, Chris N.. PY - 2007/1/31. Y1 - 2007/1/31. N2 - We consider the onset of thermosolutal (double-diffusive) convection of a binary fluid in a horizontal porous layer subject to fixed temperatures and chemical equilibrium on the bounding surfaces, in the case when the solubility of the dissolved component depends on temperature. We use a linear stability analysis to investigate how the dissolution or precipitation of this component affects the onset of convection and the selection of an unstable wavenumber; we extend this analysis using a Galerkin method to predict the structure of the initial bifurcation and compare our analytical results with numerical integration of the full nonlinear equations. We find that the reactive term may be stabilizing or destabilizing, with subtle effects particularly when the thermal gradient is ...
An area of convection has persisted near 12.9S 161.1E, approximately 640 nautical miles north-northwest of Noumea, New Caledonia.. The main image here shows the area of convection 36 hours ago, when it was located farther east. The image of the globe shows the systems current location.. Animated METSAT imagery depicts a developing low-level circulation center (LLCC) with flaring deep convection located primarily over the western periphery of the disturbance.. An ASCAT pass shows 10 to 15 knot winds near the center of the tight, but elongated, LLCC.. The system is located in a region of strong, vertical wind which is limiting development at this time.. ...
Conduction Convection Radiation Worksheet. 20 Conduction Convection Radiation Worksheet. Worksheets Convection Conduction Radiation Worksheet
This item is also known as a Convection Box or a Ventilation Apparatus. Use it for demonstrating the phenomenon of convection in air and the principle of room ventilation. It consists of an enameled metal box 4″ (100 mm) W x 8″ (200 mm) L x 4″ (100 mm) H, having a sliding glass door and 2 glass chimneys. When the included tea light candle is placed under 1 chimney and a smoldering tape or parchment paper is placed underneath the other chimney, the flow pattern of smoke dramatically illustrates the formation of convection currents. Tape or parchment paper are not supplied ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Turbulent convection at high Rayleigh numbers and aspect ratio 4. AU - Niemela, J. J.. AU - Sreenivasan, K. R.. PY - 2006/6/25. Y1 - 2006/6/25. N2 - We report measurements of the Nusselt number, Nu, in turbulent thermal convection in a cylindrical container of aspect ratio 4. The highest Rayleigh number achieved was Ra = 2 × 1013. Except for the last half a decade or so of Ra, experimental conditions obey the Boussinesq approximation accurately. For these conditions, the data show that the log Nu-log Ra slope saturates at a value close to 1/3, as observed previously by us in experiments with smaller aspect ratios. The increasing slope over the last half a decade of Ra is inconclusive because the corresponding conditions are non-Boussinesq. Finally, we report a modified scaling relation between the plume advection frequency and Ra that collapses data for different aspect ratios.. AB - We report measurements of the Nusselt number, Nu, in turbulent thermal convection in a ...
The most common heating technology for contemporary vaporizers is convection and conduction. But what does this mean and what are the pros and cons of each? Read on to find out.... In terms of dry herb convection vaporizing the oils are extracted from hot air passing through the load. Think of your convection oven
This article is a review of the Breville Smart Oven Air Fryer Pro, Convection Oven Just by quick browsing through Amazon, you can find hundreds of convection ovens. If youre making an upgrade to a convection oven, or youre looking for a way to fully replace your kitchen oven - youre in the right place. … Read more. ...
An analysis is made of natural convection mass transfer in a ternary gas mixture adjacent to a vertical plate. The main feature of the analysis is the proper mathematical description of the buoyancy force and of the boundary conditions. With regard to the latter, account is taken of the selective impermeability of the plate to certain components of the mixture. The governing boundary layer equations are shown to admit a similarity solution, and a numerical scheme for solving the similarity equations and boundary conditions is outlined. The general formulation is specialized to the case of sublimation from a solid, vertically oriented naphthalene plate situated in a humid air environment. Solutions were obtained for temperature levels corresponding to those encountered in practice and for relative humidities of water vapor between zero and one. It was found that the mass transfer results were unaffected by the presence of humidity, and this finding gives license to the utilization of the ...
Steady natural convection heat transfer has been studied in porous wall, solar collector systems. The boundary conditions were: two isothermal walls at different temperatures, two horizontal bounding adiabatic walls, and either uniform or nonuniform heat generating porous layer without vents. The aspect ratio A was from 0.5 to 1.4. The Rayleigh number varied from 103 to 108 . The Darcy number was from 10−8 to 10−2 but the detailed studies were carried out only for 10−4 , an optimum value. The results are presented in terms of thermal parameters (θ, θmax , Nu) as a function of Ra and other nondimensional parameters (A=H/L, B=1/L, F=d/L, kr ). The isotherms and streamlines within the system are also produced. The overall results indicate that geometrical parameters are the most important parameters affecting the system performance.. ...
Provides a single-source resource all cylinder heat transfer correlations Presents an exhaustive treatment of natural convection from cylinders including
ORCID:, Kadir, A, Leonard, HJ and Jouri, W 2019, Finite volume numerical simulation of three dimensional natural convection in a gold water nanofluid inclined prismatic solar direct absorber enclosure with the Tiwari-Das volume fraction model , in: IIER 767th International Conference on Recent Innovations in Engineering and Technology (ICRIET 2019), 10-11 December 2019, Doha, Qatar. (In Press) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Laminar flow natural convection from the open vertical cylinder with uniform heat flux at the wall. AU - Hetherington, H. J.. AU - Patten, Tom. PY - 1976/10. Y1 - 1976/10. N2 - A solution is obtained for fully developed flow of a constant-property fluid, with the lowest temperature equal to the fluid bulk temperature. This is satisfactory only for low values of Rayleigh number, up to about 20, that is, for relatively long cylinders. A second solution has in addition a thermal entry region, for application to shorter cylinders, to the point where the entry region fills the cylinder. This solution has not yet been made mathematically exact. Nusselt numbers up to the terminal point, at Rayleigh number of about 16000, are identical with those for the finite difference result of Dyer {6}. © 1976.. AB - A solution is obtained for fully developed flow of a constant-property fluid, with the lowest temperature equal to the fluid bulk temperature. This is satisfactory only for low values ...
Introducing Esco Isotherm- world class laboratory incubators for thermal appliations that prefers natural convection design to minimize disturbance to the items being culture such as bacteria culture and Coliform determination among many others.
The composition field in front of a growing lamellar eutectic was determined numerically, both with and without a lateral convective flow. By minimization of the interfacial undercooling it was found...
Convection, process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid such as air or water. Natural convection results from the tendency of most fluids to expand when heated-i.e., to become less dense and to rise as a result of the increased buoyancy. Circulation caused by this effect
Convective systems dominate the vertical transport of aerosols and trace gases. The most recent in situ aerosol measurements presented here show that the concentrations of primary aerosols including sea salt and black carbon drop by factors of 10 to 10,000 from the surface to the upper troposphere. In this study we show that the default convective transport scheme in the National Science Foundation/Department of Energy Community Earth System Model results in a high bias of 10-1,000 times the measured aerosol mass for black carbon and sea salt in the middle and upper troposphere. A modified transport scheme, which considers aerosol activation from entrained air above the cloud base and aerosol‐cloud interaction associated with convection, dramatically improves model agreement with in situ measurements suggesting that deep convection can efficiently remove primary aerosols. We suggest that models that fail to consider secondary activation may overestimate black carbons radiative forcing by a ...
A framework is introduced to investigate the indirect effect of aerosol loading on tropical deep convection using three-dimensional limited-domain idealized cloud-system-resolving model simulations coupled with large-scale dynamics over fixed sea surface temperature. The large-scale circulation is parameterized using the spectral weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation that utilizes the dominant balance between adiabatic cooling and diabatic heating in the tropics. The aerosol loading effect is examined by varying the number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) available to form cloud droplets in the two-moment bulk microphysics scheme over a wide range of environments from 30 to 5000 cm(-3). The radiative heating is held at a constant prescribed rate in order to isolate the microphysical effects. Analyses are performed over the period after equilibrium is achieved between convection and the large-scale environment. Mean precipitation is found to decrease modestly and monotonically when the ...
A coupled mechanism for molecular aggregation in a thin water solution film by laser-tweezers is suggested based on (i) simulation of light intensity distribution and (ii) order of magnitude analysis of heat and mass transport induced by Marangoni convection. The analysis suggests that the laser induced temperature distribution develops within 1 ms and Marangoni convection flow commences within 0.01-1 s, which increases by 1-2 orders of magnitude the mass transfer of dissolved molecules into the laser focus where they are trapped and aggregate by attractive van der Waals forces. This mechanism, considered for the particular case of polymer assembly, suggests that it can also be successfully applied for assembling other types of clusters and molecular aggregates from solutions.. ©2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Analytical Solution Of The Diffusion - Convection Equation Over A Finite Domain. Analytical Solution Of The Diffusion - Convection Equation Over A Finite Domain.. ...
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Fig. 1 A sampling of the phenomena discussed at the workshop demonstrates the broad range of spatial-temporal scales involved and the cross-scale interactions. The spatial scale ranges from ,1 to ,100,000 kilometers and the temporal scale covers from , 1 hour to multi-years. (Hagos et al., 2019). From 7-9 May 2019, 90 observational and modeling experts met in Boulder CO, USA to review and document progress, identify outstanding issues, and propose approaches for future integrated process studies in atmospheric convection and air-sea interactions over the tropical oceans, over a broad range of spatio-temporal scales. The workshop on Atmospheric Convection and Air-Sea Interactions over the Tropical Oceans was co-organised and co-sponsored by the U.S. and the International CLIVAR programs.. The workshop identified key areas where progress has been made over the last 30 years, including the understanding of key dynamical processes underlying different flavors of El Nino Southern Oscillation ...
We conducted a model study of ground magnetic signatures of traveling convection vortices (TCVs) that included both the ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with the TCVs and the ground induction effect. We found that the localized conductivity enhancement can cause a significant distortion of the TCV current system and lead to a distortion of the ground magnetic disturbance patterns. The patterns of all three magnetic components are asymmetric, mainly in the E-W direction, and the patterns of the Z component show the strongest asymmetry (20-30%). We also found that the effect of induction currents on ground magnetic signatures of the TCVs is insignificant (less than 5%). The results show that because of the presence of localized conductivity enhancements the polarity and speed of the TCVs can significantly influence the distortion features of ground magnetic patterns. The upward and downward current filaments of a TCV with a clockwise leading convection cell can wrap with each other,
The evolution of a star through the helium flash depends upon uncertain aspects of convection theory. Observations place some constraints on the theory of convection in stellar cores.
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Binding of targetted biomolecules, pathogens or analytes on a reactive surface is commonly used for biodiagnostic systems. However the process is slow and inefficient if one relies only on molecular diffusion to transfer the analytes to the immobilized ligand. A micropump based on a Marangoni convection in a droplet geometry has been designed in order to enhance the kinetics of binding. The droplet is suspended to a heated rod and cooled at its bottom, resulting in a gradient of temperature on the liquid-air interface that drives a Marangoni convection inside the droplet. This type of convection has been verified by an experimental set up. We have then developped a numerical model for the calculation of the kinetics of binding: first, a calculation of the Maragoni flow is performed assuming a steady state convection, second, we solve a coupled system for the the concentration of analytes inside the droplet and the adsorption at the wall. The model shows the efficiency of the convection on the kinectics
Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Natural Convection flow in a partially heated Vertical Annulus, Numerical Heat Transfer- Part A, Taylor & Francis, 2017, ISSN: 0891-6152 , Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 25-45.. Experimental Studies on Natural Convection of Water in a Closed Loop Vertical Annulus, Experimental Heat Transfer, Taylor & Francis, 2017, ISSN: 0891-6152 , Vol. 30, No.1 pp. 25-45.. Experimental Study of Boiling Incipience in a Closed Loop Vertical Annular Thermo-siphon, Applied Thermal Engineering, Elsevier Ltd. 2010 , Vol. 30, Issues 11-12 pp.1333-1340.. Heat Transfer Studies during Natural Convection Boiling in an Internally Heated Annulus, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, Elsevier Science Ltd. Pergamon, 2003,Vol. 46, No.6, pp.1085-1095.. Economic Analysis of Two Stage Dual-Fluid Absorption Cycle for Optimizing Generator Temperatures. Energy Convers. & Mmgt. Elsevier Science Ltd. 2001,Vol. 42, pp.407-437.. Performance and Economic study of the combined Absorption/ Compression Heat Pump, ...
... referred to as a form of convection, e.g. thermo-capilliary convection and Granular convection. Convection may happen in fluids ... In thermodynamics "convection" often refers to heat transfer by convection, where the prefixed variant Natural Convection is ... Bénard cells Churchill-Bernstein equation Combined forced and natural convection Double diffusive convection Forced convection ... The convection zone of a star is the range of radii in which energy is transported primarily by convection. Granules on the ...
The size of convection cells is largely determined by the fluid's properties. Convection cells can even occur when the heating ... Such movement is called convection, and the moving body of liquid is referred to as a convection cell. This particular type of ... Convection usually requires a gravitational field, but in microgravity experiments, thermal convection has been observed ... Convection cells can form in any fluid, including the Earth's atmosphere (where they are called Hadley cells), boiling water, ...
When Ar ≫ 1, natural convection dominates and when Ar ≪ 1, forced convection dominates. A r = G r R e 2 {\displaystyle Ar={\ ... Convective heat transfer Combined forced and natural convection Forced Convection Heat Transfer Bahrami, M Simon Fraser ... When the natural convection is not negligible, such flows are typically referred to as mixed convection. When analyzing ... In any forced convection situation, some amount of natural convection is always present whenever there are gravitational forces ...
A convection heater (otherwise known as a convector heater) is a type of heater that uses convection currents to heat and ... Convection heaters are commonly classified according to their power source. Electric convection heaters use electricity, while ... in Dallas, Texas in 1924, is an example of an early model of a convection space heater. This model consisted of three stoves ... Developments in convection heating technology included the publication of the very first manual on fireplace design called ...
Buoyant convection begins at the level of free convection (LFC), above which an air parcel may ascend through the free ... The latent heat release from condensation is the determinate between significant convection and almost no convection at all. ... Another convection-driven weather effect is the sea breeze. Warm air has a lower density than cool air, so warm air rises ... Atmospheric convection is called deep when it extends from near the surface to above the 500 hPa level, generally stopping at ...
... which indicates vigorous convection. This value corresponds to whole mantle convection (i.e. convection extending from the ... A single shallow convection cycle takes on the order of 50 million years, though deeper convection can be closer to 200 million ... Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle as convection currents carrying heat from ... In 1993 it was suggested that inhomogeneities in D" layer have some impact on mantle convection. Mantle convection causes ...
Heat transfer due to this form of convection can be much more effective than buoyancy-induced convection for systems with small ... which leads to thermomagnetic convection. This form of heat transfer can be useful for cases where conventional convection ... They showed how to enhance, suppress and invert the convection modes. They have also carried out scaling analysis for ... A comprehensive review of thermomagnetic convection (in A. Mukhopadhyay, R. Ganguly, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, "Scaling analysis ...
... natural convection) ovens and fan-assisted (forced convection) ovens. Convection ovens distribute heat evenly around the food, ... The first convection oven in wide use was the Maxson Whirlwind Oven, invented in 1945. A convection oven has a fan with a ... There are also convection microwave ovens which combine a convection oven with a microwave oven to cook food with the speed of ... "Definition of CONVECTION OVEN". Ojakangas, Beatrice (2009). Cooking with Convection: Everything You ...
... has been probed by the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) where convection rolls similar to those in ... Under experimental conditions, granular convection of variously sized particles has been observed forming convection cells ... The convection of granular flows is becoming a well-understood phenomenon. It may be counterintuitive to find that the largest ... If a large particle is involved, it will be moved up to the top by convection flow. Once at the top, the large particle will ...
... , named after Swedish physicist Göran Marklund, is a convection process that takes place in filamentary ... During this convection, the different chemical constituents of the plasma, each having its specific ionization potential, ... It occurs within a plasma with an associated electric field, that causes convection of ions and electrons inward towards a ... Portals: Physics Astronomy Stars Spaceflight Outer space Solar System Science (Plasma physics, Convection). ...
A convection zone, convective zone or convective region of a star is a layer which is unstable due to convection. Energy is ... Stellar convection consists of mass movement of plasma within the star which usually forms a circular convection current with ... The core convection zone of these stars is overlaid by a radiation zone that is in thermal equilibrium and undergoes little or ... The region of the star in which this happens is the convection zone. In main sequence stars more than 1.3 times the mass of the ...
"Pearson-Bénard convection". Rayleigh-Bénard convection is also sometimes known as "Bénard-Rayleigh convection", "Bénard ... Bénard-Rayleigh convection is one of the most commonly studied convection phenomena because of its analytical and experimental ... In fluid thermodynamics, Rayleigh-Bénard convection is a type of natural convection, occurring in a planar horizontal layer of ... convection", or "Rayleigh convection". Hydrodynamic stability Marangoni effect Natural convection Giant's Causeway and Causeway ...
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is method of drug delivery in which drug is delivered into using bulk flow rather than ... MacKay, J. Andrew; Deen, Dennis F.; Szoka, Francis C. (February 2005). "Distribution in brain of liposomes after convection ... Lam, Miu Fei; Thomas, Meghan G.; Lind, Christopher R.P. (September 2011). "Neurosurgical convection-enhanced delivery of ... Mehta, A. M.; Sonabend, A. M.; Bruce, J. N. (2017-03-15). "Convection-Enhanced Delivery". Neurotherapeutics. 14 (2): 358-371. ...
Conjugate convective heat transfer Convection Forced convection Natural convection Mixed convection Heat transfer coefficient ... Convection is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in liquids and gases. Note that this definition of convection is only ... "natural convection". An example is the draft in a chimney or around any fire. In natural convection, an increase in temperature ... mixed convection). Internal and external flow can also classify convection. Internal flow occurs when a fluid is enclosed by a ...
... is a fluid dynamics phenomenon that describes a form of convection driven by two different density ... Video of Double-diffusive intrusions Layered Diffusive convection Salt-sugar double diffusive convection Double diffusive ... These include convection in the Earth's oceans (as mentioned above), in magma chambers, and in the sun (where heat and helium ... Convection in fluids is driven by density variations within them under the influence of gravity. These density variations may ...
1995), Arnold L. Gordon was the first to find the remnant of deep convection near the Maud Rise in 1977. This deep convection ... Ocean convection is distinguished by three phases: preconditioning, deep convection and lateral exchange and spreading. ... Jones, Helen; Marshall, John (1993). "Convection with Rotation in a Neutral Ocean: A Study of Open-Ocean Deep Convection". ... making it one of the most extreme ocean convection sites in the world. The deep convection in the Labrador Sea is significantly ...
The convection-diffusion equation is a combination of the diffusion and convection (advection) equations, and describes ... For more details and algorithms see: Numerical solution of the convection-diffusion equation. The convection-diffusion equation ... The convection-diffusion equation can only rarely be solved with a pen and paper. More often, computers are used to numerically ... The convection-diffusion equation (with no sources or drains, R = 0) can be viewed as a stochastic differential equation, ...
The electric convection field in the near Earth polar region can be simulated by eq.(2) with the exponent q = - 1/2. At the ... The electric convection field drives strong electric currents within the polar dynamo regions (e.g. DP1 and DP2) which can be ... the convection field-. Its general direction is from dawn to dusk. The co-rotating thermal plasma within the inner ... of the plasmapause decreasing with geomagnetic activity is simulated by the amplitude Φco The origin of the electric convection ...
Atmospheric convection Atmospheric thermodynamics v t e (Atmospheric thermodynamics, Severe weather and convection, All stub ... The level of free convection (LFC) is the altitude in the atmosphere where an air parcel lifted adiabatically until saturation ... From the level of free convection to the point where the ascending parcel again becomes colder than its surroundings, the ... "Level of free convection (LFC)". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. April 25, 2012. Retrieved 2021-08-04 ...
Forced convection is type of heat transport in which fluid motion is generated by an external source like a (pump, fan, suction ... Forced convection heat transfer in a confined porous medium has been a subject of intensive studies during the last decades ... The basic problem in heat convection through porous media consists of predicting the heat transfer rate between a deferentially ...
... combined forced convection and natural convection, or mixed convection, occurs when natural convection and forced convection ... Like for natural convection, the nature of a mixed convection flow is highly dependent on heat transfer (as buoyancy is one of ... Mixed convection problems are characterized by the Grashof number (for the natural convection) and the Reynolds number (for the ... The first case is when natural convection aids forced convection. This is seen when the buoyant motion is in the same direction ...
1 below). Defining variable F as convection mass flux and variable D as diffusion conductance F = ρ u A {\displaystyle F\,=\rho ... For other values of the Peclet number, the upwind scheme is used for convection-dominated flows with Peclet number (,Pe, > 2). ... It can be described by Steady convection-diffusion partial Differential Equation: ∂ ∂ t ( ρ ϕ ) + ∇ ⋅ ( ρ u ϕ ) = ∇ ⋅ ( Γ grad ... The upwind differencing scheme is a method used in numerical methods in computational fluid dynamics for convection-diffusion ...
Advanced Simulation Library Convection-diffusion equation Double diffusive convection An Album of Fluid Motion Lagrangian and ... a numerical solution for the convection-diffusion equation has to deal with the convection part of the governing equation in ... The following convection diffusion equation is considered here c ρ [ ∂ T ( x , t ) ∂ t + ϵ u ∂ T ( x , t ) ∂ x ] = λ ∂ 2 T ( x ... The unsteady convection-diffusion problem is considered, at first the known temperature T is expanded into a Taylor series with ...
Convection. Radiation. CD 3-way split w/ The Wind-Up Bird and 1 Mile North (Music Fellowship) Travels In Constants (Vol. 18): ...
"Convection". Retrieved 2019-03-02. "NSF Award Search: Award#1019151 - Workshop Support for "Particulate Matter: ...
When the convection is strong and linear or curved, the MCS is called a squall line, with the feature placed at the leading ... "Convection". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 22 ... In the warm season, lee troughs, breezes, outflow boundaries and occlusions can lead to convection if enough moisture is ...
In this case, overturning or convection generally ensues. The Brunt-Väisälä frequency relates to internal gravity waves: it is ... Emmanuel, K.A. (1994). Atmospheric Convection. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1002/joc.3370150709. ISBN 0195066308. ... is a measure of the stability of a fluid to vertical displacements such as those caused by convection. More precisely it is the ...
"Slantwise convection". COMET Courses. UCAR. Retrieved August 23, 2019. Interactive course that needs a login (CS1 French- ... "slantwise convection" if the air parcel is almost saturated and moved laterally and vertically in a CSI area. This concept is ... which entails no convection. Then in the animation, there is warming surface warming and the raised particle remains warmer ...
Wintertime convection. The Lofoten vortex is situated in the deepest parts of the topographic depression of the Lofoten Basin. ... The local currents inside the vortex and the strong convection observed during winter generate a hot spot rich in nutrients, ... This structure reveals that the deep Lofoten Basin is a major convection site in the Nordic Seas, specifically in winter: ... Meteorological events above the centre of the Lofoten Basin play a vital role in the development of deep wintertime convection ...
Through 2012, X-Acto sold ceramic and convection space heaters and fans under the Boston brand name. The use of the X-Acto ... "Ceramic Heaters , Heater with Fan , Convection Heater , X-ACTO". 24 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. ...
... which indicates vigorous convection. This value corresponds to whole mantle convection (i.e. convection extending from the ... Mantle convection in other celestial bodies[edit]. A similar process of slow convection probably occurs (or occurred) in the ... Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earths solid silicate mantle as convection currents carrying heat from ... A single shallow convection cycle takes on the order of 50 million years, though deeper convection can be closer to 200 million ...
... / Hongyan Zhu and Harry Hendon. Cover. Creator. Zhu, Hongyan Created/Published. [ ... 2010, Convection and MJO performance in UM7.1 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, [Melbourne, Victoria] viewed ... Convection and MJO performance in UM7.1 [Melbourne, Victoria]: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2010. Web. ... title=Convection and MJO performance in UM7.1 , year=2010 , section=1 online resource (ii, 16 pages) : charts. , isbn= ...
Convection Microwave Oven - • Capacity - 27 L • 101 Auto Cook Menu • Magic Grill ...
Start cooking fast and evenly with the BLACK+DECKER Convection Toaster Oven. This large, convection toaster oven has the ... The BLACK+DECKER® convection toaster oven can cook a whole 9 inch pizza. It includes a 60-minute and bake, broil, toast, and ...
Though a convection oven works differently than a conventional oven, it requires only very minor adjustments to prepare a ... Baking cookies in convection ovens is one of those kitchen tasks that sounds more complicated than it is. ... A small countertop convection oven will also yield different results than a built-in convection oven. The bottom line is that ... If your oven uses convection heat or is a model that has both thermal and convection settings, then those familiar cookies are ...
How are conduction and convection similar?. Conduction is the passing of heat by contact. Convection is the passing of heat by ... Is stir Fried Vegetables method convection or conduction?. In actual fact stir fry is both conduction & convection, this is ... What is more likely to occur in the water thermal energy transfer by conduction or convection?. Convection ... When water is heated on a stove the flame heats the pan which in turn heats the water Is that convection or conduction?. Both ...
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The Jeio Tech OF-12G forced convection oven is used in the soft lithography processing to perform a dehydration bake prior to ... The Jeio Tech OF-12G forced convection oven is used in the soft lithography processing to perform a dehydration bake prior to ... ...
The convection currents, as they carry heat upward with the magma, break apart the plates at areas referred to as divergent ... Convection currents in Earths mantle are caused by the rise of hot material rising towards the crust, becoming cooler and ... What Causes Convection Currents in the Earths Mantle?. By Staff WriterLast Updated March 24, 2020 ... The convection currents also help transfer heat from Earths core, where magma is created through radioactive decay, to the ...
Explore the benefits of a convection microwave and decide whether its right for your home. ... How Does a Convection Microwave Oven Work?. A convection microwave has at least two modes - the first is a standard mode that ... What is a Convection Microwave,. and is it Right For Your Kitchen?. How can a convection microwave oven help you in the kitchen ... What is a Convection Microwave Oven?. A convection microwave combines some of the features of two kitchen appliances - a ...
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We propose a multilevel correction method for the convection-diffusion eigenvalue problems which is suitable for not only ... Consider the convection-diffusion equation. where and .. The eigenvalues of (92) are. where . The corresponding adjoint ... Consider the convection-diffusion eigenvalue problems as follows:. where is a polyhedral bound domain. We denote the complex ... Consider the convection-diffusion equation (92) where . A reference value for the first eigenvalue of (92) is and the sixth ...
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Find out what a convection microwave is, how it works, what you can cook in it and how it can benefit you as a second oven in ... but only when the microwave is in convection mode. Convection microwaves from Whirlpool brand come with a convection cooking ... Convection microwaves typically come with a convection rack to place dishes on that allows air to circulate for even baking. ... What can you cook in a convection microwave?. Convection microwave cooking means you can use your microwave to:. *. Roast an ...
Many microwaves also can use convection to cook foods more efficiently. This guide contains microwave convection reviews. ... Like if a cake calls for 350 degrees, in the convection oven you put it at 325 degrees. The things you use in the convection ... I have had for years a GE micro-convection oven. I love it. Just last year we remodeled our kitchen with all new appliances and ... I cant live without my Sharp microwave/convection oven. I use it more than my regular oven. My mom and sister have one, too. ...
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Thermal convection in laboratory-scale porous media. Breitmeyer, R. J., Cooper, C. A., Decker, D. L. (2006). Thermal convection ...
Convection occurs when hot air rises, allowing cooler air to come in and be heated. Thermal radiation happens when accelerated ... convection, and radiation. Conduction involves molecules transferring kinetic energy to one another through collisions. ... Were observing conduction, conduction, convection, convection, convection, and thermal radiation all at the same time. So Ill ... Now convection, this is around the idea that hot air is less dense. So if we have a bunch of air particles here, so lets say ...
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Convection cooking uses a fan and exhaust system to blow hot oven air on the food and vent it back out. It ensures the even ... How Convection Ovens Work A good convection oven will have three heating elements: top, bottom, and rear, with a fan connected ... Whats the difference between a regular oven and a convection oven? In a convection oven, the fan and exhaust system blow hot ... In addition to cooking many foods in a more optimal way, convection ovens (or an oven with a convection setting) also save ...
Such convection patches can persist for thousands of days or, in deeper convection zones, can come and go in sporadic bursts of ... What is convection?. Convection is an instability occurring in a stratified fluid. It is a mechanism for transporting thermal ... Surface Convection. As in many turbulent flows, boundary layers can play an important role in stellar convection. The upper ... Freytag, B. 2006, Convection in giant stars, EAS, 21, 325 Gilman, P.A. 1975, Linear Simulations of Boussinesq Convection in a ...
It enables us to describe the dynamics of the oscillatory convection by a single degree of freedom which we call the collective ... We derive the phase sensitivity function, which quantifies the phase response of the oscillatory convection to weak ... We formulate a theory for the collective phase description of oscillatory convection in Hele-Shaw cells. ... and the phase synchronization between two weakly coupled Hele-Shaw cells exhibiting oscillatories convection is analyzed on the ...
My GE oven has a convection selection as well as a convection ROAST selection. Not sure when to use one or the other as well as ... Convection cooking: 25dF less than conventional My GE oven has a convection selection as well as a convection ROAST selection. ... I use the convection bake setting mostly for cookies because it ensures that the tops are done without the bottoms burning. ... I have the GE Monogram wall ovens, and I like to use the convection roast setting for roasting a whole chicken. It produces a ...
Save time and energy with the Hamilton Beach Convection Toaster Oven that fits six slices of bread or a 9-inch pizza. ... Convection cooks more evenly - fan circulates heated air around food to cook more evenly than a traditional oven ...
Convection heating involves the mixing of fluids (liquids and gasses) of different temperatures. No convection, therefore, ... Is the most heat lost by the means of conduction, convection or radiation? Asked by: Shazia Answer. The three methods of heat ... and a tight lid minimizes cooling of the air above the liquids surface by convection. Answered by: Paul Walorski, B.A., Part- ...
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  • Unlike conventional ovens, which use heating elements to surround food with heat, convection ovens have fans that continuously circulate hot air around the food. (
  • Cookies are one of the baked goods that are best suited for convection ovens. (
  • At least when you're first experimenting with baking cookies in convection ovens, it's advisable to stay in the kitchen and check on them often. (
  • One of the things about which to be conscious when baking cookies in convection ovens is that opening the oven door will let circulating hot air escape and will disturb the baking process. (
  • Finally, keep in mind that not all convection ovens are created alike, and not all cookie recipes will turn out perfectly in this type of oven. (
  • In ovens that have multiple settings, the convection feature sometimes doesn't work at maximum efficiency. (
  • Convection microwave ovens heat up food like conventional microwaves, but have an extra heating element and fan so they can also bake, roast and crisp food like an oven. (
  • You could look around at convection ovens to see which model has a shallow profile assembly and order the parts. (
  • RV Microwave/Convection ovens that have a grill function actually cut down on the time it takes to prepare meals including the grilling of meats, vegetables, and breads. (
  • This powerful 1800-watt convection oven is our overall pick … Are there fans available that can be put in ovens to self-style a convection oven? (
  • Because convection ovens offer superior results when browning and crisping foods, most recipes designed for convection ovens do not call for baking dishes to be covered. (
  • Designed to cook and to cook fast, the new convection speed oven, Miele MasterChef H4080BM delivers ultimate flexibility by fusing two ovens into one. (
  • Many cooks swear by their convection ovens for just about everything they bake or roast. (
  • In addition to cooking many foods in a more optimal way, convection ovens (or an oven with a convection setting) also save energy, since you don't have to raise the oven temperature as high for the same results. (
  • I have the GE Monogram wall ovens, and I like to use the convection roast setting for roasting a whole chicken. (
  • ebm-papst products help prepare all kinds of dishes and baked goods in convection ovens. (
  • Convection ovens have grown in popularity over the years, but did you know this appliance is relatively new? (
  • Gas and electric ovens did not come to the scene until the 19th century, but it was not until the 1960s that the convection oven emerged in the market. (
  • If you are new to convection cooking, or even if you think you understand convection ovens, there are a number of tips and tricks to get the most out of this appliance. (
  • With convection ovens, you also will set a temperature, but there are additional settings to consider. (
  • Convection ovens may only have one fan setting, but some models will have two (via The Army Quartermaster Corps ). (
  • One of the biggest mistakes people make when using a convection oven is not adapting recipe instructions to account for the differences between conventional and convection ovens. (
  • One of the benefits of convection ovens is that the air circulation leads to more even cooking, but you have to be careful. (
  • The air inside convection ovens generally gets hotter than in conventional ovens. (
  • Convection ovens can lead to food browning too quickly. (
  • Even after lowering the oven temperature, convection ovens will still cook faster than conventional ovens. (
  • It is estimated that convection ovens can reduce your cook and bake times by up to 25% . (
  • Benefits of Steam Cooking - Beyond bake or broil, combination Countertop Convection Toaster Steam Ovens open an entirely new world of culinary possibilities by combining the precision of convection with the health benefits of Steam. (
  • After the judicial liquidation of SA GUYON, I need ventilation motors with long shaft for rotary kilns and convection ovens for the after-sales service of my customers all over the world. (
  • Our most advanced and powerful convection system, Total Convection - in both ovens. (
  • Pharmaceutical, manufacturing and material science labs will often use gravity convection ovens for this application. (
  • Polyimide baking is another common process carried out in gravity convection ovens. (
  • In forensic labs, specially configured vacuum ovens are used to develop fingerprints, while biological labs use gravity convection ovens to remove microbiological contaminants in lab equipment, along with vacuum ovens in order to adhere substrates to the surface of filters. (
  • If you're shopping for a new appliance, you may have noticed that some microwaves offer a convection option that allows you to bake, roast and more. (
  • A convection microwave combines some of the features of two kitchen appliances - a microwave and a convection oven, allowing you to bake and roast foods in addition to heating them. (
  • But in a convection microwave oven, an extra heating element and fan circulate hot air around the cavity, letting you bake and roast food with home-cooked results. (
  • My GE oven has a convection selection as well as a convection ROAST selection. (
  • I use the convection bake setting mostly for cookies because it ensures that the tops are done without the bottoms burning. (
  • That said, I was told by the cooking expert who does demos at our local Dacor showroom that convection roast -- at least for my Dacor range -- should only be used for very large roasts. (
  • The hot material added at spreading centers cools down by conduction and convection of heat as it moves away from the spreading centers. (
  • Is an Electric water heater conduction or convection? (
  • And I could say thermal conduction, thermal convection, and thermal radiation, and the word thermal is just relating to things dealing with temperature. (
  • Is the most heat lost by the means of conduction, convection or radiation? (
  • A vacuum (Thermos) bottle is designed to minimized all three forms of heat transfer--a vacuum reduces conduction, mirrored sides minimize radiation, and a tight lid minimizes cooling of the air above the liquid's surface by convection. (
  • Home insulation works mainly to block heat flow by conduction and convection . (
  • fant loses heat by evaporation, convection, The overall mortality rate in that study was radiation and conduction. (
  • KBIS 2006 Reviews] Looking for a true European convection double oven? (
  • True European Convection allows for a superior cooking, roasting, and baking experience. (
  • Baking in a convection oven is actually a really useful (and delicious) way to prepare cookies, in part because this baking method is great for getting food brown and crispy. (
  • There's a simple rule of thumb that helps bakers translate their usual recipes for baking in a convection oven: Lower the temperature by 25 degrees and expect the food to cook a little quicker than it would in a typical oven. (
  • The Jeio Tech OF-12G forced convection oven is used in the soft lithography processing to perform a dehydration bake prior to silanization and cure samples coated with elastomeric polymers. (
  • Type: Forced convection oven. (
  • Start cooking fast and evenly with the BLACK+DECKER Convection Toaster Oven. (
  • The second is a convection mode that transforms your microwave into a convection oven , which uses a heating element and a fan to evenly distribute heat throughout the appliance. (
  • Designed by Jasper Morrison, the BT 65 CD BSTL is quality-built and elegant stainless steel, double convection multifunctional oven with 40°C to 300°C temperature range offering two separate heating elements and two separate fans to distribute heat evenly and quickly for perfect results each and every time. (
  • But with convection cooking, an integrated fan circulates the hot air around and across the rolls, cooking them all evenly and all at the same time, and in less time than in a standard oven. (
  • Using a convection oven for granola helps it bake quickly and evenly. (
  • This oven also features two-zone convection technology that results in evenly-cooked pizza, the Bistro convection oven is a top-notch surrogate for a small home kitchen or for use in a restaurant. (
  • The wolfgang puck 198-368 toaster oven is a convection oven that uses technology to manage heat evenly, the oven grants a blue color and it is produced of stainless steel. (
  • Of halogen light convection technology that causes the oven to cook food faster and more evenly than a traditional oven, the etov-110 r also presents an automatic temperature control that keeps food at a consistent temperature no matter the humidity. (
  • An element located next to the convection fan ensures hot air is evenly circulated throughout the oven. (
  • Preheat the convection oven to the highest setting, typically 450 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit. (
  • Preheat the convection oven to 275 degrees F. Line a heavy, large rimmed cookie sheet with parchment paper. (
  • Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle as convection currents carrying heat from the interior to the planet's surface. (
  • If your oven uses convection heat or is a model that has both thermal and convection settings, then those familiar cookies are well within reach. (
  • The convection currents also help transfer heat from Earth's core, where magma is created through radioactive decay, to the mantle. (
  • The convection currents, as they carry heat upward with the magma, break apart the plates at areas referred to as divergent plate boundaries. (
  • A convection microwave has at least two modes - the first is a standard mode that uses microwaves to heat or cook food. (
  • And so this convection, this idea of the hot air rising or the cold air falling, this is another form of heat transfer. (
  • Central to this problem is the description of stellar turbulent convection and how it transports heat and energy, how it redistributes angular momentum to yield large scale flows such as differential rotation and meridional circulation, and how it generates, maintains and organizes magnetic fields (see below). (
  • Roasting at a high temp on this convection setting is somewhat similar to rotisserie cooking due to the fan that produces an even heat. (
  • We find that the convection redistributes the heat flux emitted from the outer surface, leading to an enhancement of the heat flux in the polar and equatorial regions. (
  • First engineered by the Malleable Iron Range Company, a convection oven uses a fan to circulate hot air to cook food, as opposed to a conventional oven that uses a heating source to heat the air inside the oven (via Chicago Tribune ). (
  • Our advanced convection uses a 3rd heating element and a reversing fan to provide the highest level of heat and air circulation, ensuring you can prepare culinary creations with ease and perfection every time. (
  • The global transport of heat and momentum in turbulent convection is constrained by thin thermal and viscous boundary layers at the heated and cooled boundaries of the system. (
  • article{osti_1606457, title = {Classical 1/3 scaling of convection holds up to Ra = 10 15}, author = {Iyer, Kartik P. and Scheel, Janet D. and Schumacher, Jörg and Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.}, abstractNote = {The global transport of heat and momentum in turbulent convection is constrained by thin thermal and viscous boundary layers at the heated and cooled boundaries of the system. (
  • Here we show, by direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection flows in a slender cylindrical cell of aspect ratio1/10, that the Nusselt number-the dimensionless measure of heat transport-follows the classical power law ofNu=(0.0525±0.006)×Ra0.331±0.002up toRa=1015. (
  • The elite Bistro convection oven is an excellent alternative for individuals who admire the convenience of an air-tight oven that is again reaches high temperatures, this oven grants 17 ounces of heat and needs less space than other models, so it will fit most kitchens. (
  • This beautiful electric freestanding range produces flawless cooking results with Even-Heat™ True Convection. (
  • Convection is the method by which heat moves through liquids and gases. (
  • Affects heat transfer from the skin's surface either by radiation or convection. (
  • Smart Electric Wall Oven and Microwave Combo with 120 Volt Advantium Technology in Stainless Steel $ 2,518 00 A "super convection" setting is helpful for faster, crispier results, but not required. (
  • Our AUG Electric Steam Convection Toaster and Roaster Oven also features LED control panel with easy touch, magnetic water filter, stainless steel interior and internal lighting. (
  • [11] [12] Although elements of this debate still continue, results from seismic tomography , numerical simulations of mantle convection and examination of Earth's gravitational field are all beginning to suggest the existence of 'whole' mantle convection, at least at the present time. (
  • We present the first global 3D simulations of thermal convection in the oblate envelopes of rapidly-rotating solar-type stars. (
  • Entrainment and detrainment processes have been recognised for a long time as key processes for cumulus convection and have recently witnessed a regrowth of interest mainly due to the capability of large-eddy simulations (LES) to diagnose these processes in more detail. (
  • Finally in this research, three-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out for the study of free convection in a layered porous enclosure heated from below and cooled from the top. (
  • A small countertop convection oven will also yield different results than a built-in convection oven. (
  • Upwelling beneath the spreading centers is the rising component of mantle convection. (
  • Subduction is the descending component of mantle convection. (
  • [7] In 1993 it was suggested that inhomogeneities in D" layer have some impact on mantle convection. (
  • Mantle convection causes tectonic plates to move around the Earth's surface. (
  • Dashed curve: layered mantle convection. (
  • Although it is now well accepted that subducting slabs cross the mantle transition zone and descend into the lower mantle, debate about the existence and continuity of plumes persists, with important implications for the style of mantle convection. (
  • This value corresponds to whole mantle convection (i.e. convection extending from the Earth's surface to the border with the core ). (
  • The big, 1.2 cubic foot Microwave Convection Oven and Grill looks like it belongs in a high-end commercial kitchen. (
  • I am thinking about replacing it with a microwave convection oven, but have read mixed reviews. (
  • Does anyone have any experiences with the microwave convection combo? (
  • I can't live without my Sharp microwave/convection oven. (
  • I would like to replace my old microwave with a microwave convection oven, full size, if possible. (
  • Particularly interesting from a geo-and astrophysical point of view are convection flows at -very low Prandtl numbers, ie in fluids with low viscosity and particularly high thermal conductivity. (
  • A finite element parallel code to simulate problems in thermal convection in both 2D and 3D models.ASPECT is a code to simulate problems in thermal convection. (
  • Does a convection microwave speed up cooking, and is it the right fit for your kitchen? (
  • Because of this, a convection microwave lets you use cooking techniques that aren't available with traditional microwaves - think baking, roasting, broiling and the like. (
  • Roasting, baking, cooking and crisping are all possible when you upgrade to a convection microwave. (
  • A convection oven circulates the hot air throughout the oven, cooking all sides at more or less the same time. (
  • A convection oven would rather negate that, cooking the crust faster. (
  • Consumer Reports and Susan Reid of Sift magazine offer tips on cooking in a convection oven. (
  • This efficient, large capacity double convection oven from Samsung gives 65 litres of cooking space and features two independent compartments allowing you to cook several dishes simultaneously without mixing the flavors. (
  • What Is Convection Cooking? (
  • Generally, convection cooking takes three-fourths the time of standard cooking, and, as a rule of thumb, at 25 degrees lower. (
  • Avoid these mistakes, and you will be on your way to mastering the art of convection cooking (and baking). (
  • This Chef's Convection Toaster Oven allows you to program the ideal settings for whatever you are cooking. (
  • The standard setting can be turned on during any of the cooking functions at any time and comes with its own separate convection touch buttons. (
  • Takes the guesswork out of convection cooking by ensuring exceptional results when experimenting with new recipes or familiar favorites. (
  • Takes guesswork out of convection cooking by ensuring you can get exceptional results when experimenting with new or familiar recipes. (
  • Make the most flavorful tofu of your life with a little help from your countertop convection oven. (
  • The unique bow-tie design and convection fan ensure the inside of the oven is heated to, and stays at, the perfect temperature. (
  • Set oven to lowest temperature possible (175 to 200 °F). Use convection bake if available. (
  • The BLACK+DECKER® convection toaster oven can cook a whole 9 inch pizza. (
  • This large, convection toaster oven has the ability to cook whole 9 inch pizzas with ease. (
  • Food will cook unevenly if the convection oven's hot fans can't reach all parts of it, so choose cookie sheets that are either entirely flat or that have a small lip. (
  • Convection microwaves let you alternate between both modes to cook foods faster. (
  • You can expect faster cook times on certain items as the convection element and microwave cook simultaneously, and convection microwaves come with racks that let you microwave multiple dishes at once. (
  • What can you cook in a convection microwave? (
  • This double convection oven can serve as 3-in-1 oven allowing you to cook in one large single space or use upper and lower levels separately. (
  • The convection oven also comes with triple layer CoolTouch door and nonstick interior coated with a special ceramic enamel which makes surface scratch-resistant, non-porous, super hygienic and antibacterial. (
  • Numerical modeling of free convection in porous enclosures is investigated in order to determine the best approaches to solve the problem in two and three dimensions considering their accuracy and computing time. (
  • The mathematical problem of free convection in 2D homogeneous porous enclosures is solved following the well known stream function approach and also in terms of primitive variables. (
  • Thanks to their versatility and small size, convection microwaves can be a good choice for small kitchens, apartments and RVs. (
  • If the cookie recipe calls for 12 minutes of baking in a 375-degree oven, then 10 minutes at 350 degrees might be just right in the convection oven. (
  • Like if a cake calls for 350 degrees, in the convection oven you put it at 325 degrees. (
  • The most common guidance is to reduce the oven by 25 degrees when using convection settings. (
  • DeLonghi's Convection Toaster Oven with Broiler and Rotisserie is loaded with lots of bells and whistles. (
  • If so, check out our reviews of the Cuisinart TOA 60 Convection , our Breville BOV800XL Smart Toaster Oven review, our Rhoswill RHTO 13001 Toaster Oven review, our Toshiba AC25CEW BS Digital Toaster Oven review, or our Oster 6 Slice Toaster Oven review . (
  • As radiation and convection from the skin increases, this value decreases. (
  • The puck Bistro convection oven is a peerless surrogate assuming that searching for a top-of-the-line oven, this oven comes with high-quality trays and racks, and can be easily customized to your needs. (
  • That tells me that the convection heating air is blown through that big heater by the fan and is then circulated about the inside of the oven. (
  • The CNS-E is a modern surface-mounted convection heater with a sleek European slimline design. (
  • This well-designed convection oven extends a sleek design and a w pizza baker design, it presents a small form factor, so it can be used in small kitchens and it presents a built-in pizza oven that makes it basic to get your pizza right to your guests. (
  • What Causes Convection Currents in the Earth's Mantle? (
  • Convection currents in Earth's mantle are caused by the rise of hot material rising towards the crust, becoming cooler and sinking back down. (
  • The plates grow when the convection currents cause the spreads, but the spread forces the edges of the plates down into the subduction zones where it is melted once more and turned back into magma. (
  • On Earth, the Rayleigh number for convection within Earth's mantle is estimated to be of order 10 7 , which indicates vigorous convection. (
  • The vigorous high-latitude convection also establishes elongated axisymmetric circulation cells and zonal jets in the polar regions. (
  • High Rayleigh numbers allow multicellular convection to remain in a larger interval of angles. (
  • Combined infrared/convection oven is suitable for a variety of applications, including drying and curing of paints, inks and adhesives on plastic, metal and fabric substrates. (
  • Amazon has the Breville Smart Oven Air Fryer with Dual Speed Convection (BOV860BSS) for a low $279.95 Free Shipping . (
  • Designed specifically for use in the Wolf convection steam oven. (
  • When buying a convection oven, look for that third heating element. (
  • True convection uses a powerful third heating element and a sturdy fan to circulate even temperatures for more consistent roasting and baking. (
  • Learn about this versatile appliance and discover if a convection microwave is right for you. (
  • After years of wishing for one, our new kitchen has a double oven with convection. (
  • A convection oven also has an exhaust system that vents hot air, which pulls some of the moisture out of the oven and speeds up browning or crisping. (
  • In a convection oven, the fan and exhaust system blow hot oven air on the food and vent it back out. (
  • The patterns are reminiscent of spoke-type convection discovered experimentally by Busse and Whitehead (1974). (
  • While this simple prescription of convection has its merit to describe in one dimension the quasi static structure of stars over secular time, it lacks several important physical properties, such as a turbulent spatial and temporal energy distribution, velocity correlations, non locality etc… that are key to a modern understanding of the (magneto)-hydrodynamics of stars. (
  • The theory can be considered as a phase reduction method for limit-cycle solutions in infinite-dimensional dynamical systems, namely, stable time-periodic solutions to partial differential equations, representing the oscillatory convection. (
  • When baking with the convection setting you need to be attentive to the time as things tend to bake faster. (
  • So, how much time can you save by using a convection oven? (