Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The motion of air currents.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (1/141)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic transport of fatty acids in rat enterocytes: role of binding to fatty acid-binding protein. (2/141)

The intracellular movement of fatty acids is thought to be facilitated through codiffusion with fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). This facilitation may occur by decreasing binding to immobile membranes, leading to faster cytoplasmic diffusion. The aims of this study were to measure the intracellular transport of 12-N-methyl-(7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol)aminostearate (NBD-stearate) in villus rat enterocytes and to determine 1) the mechanism of its cytoplasmic transport and 2) if its transport rate correlated with the known variation of FABP binding capacity along the length of the small intestine. Two-dimensional laser photobleaching was used to measure the movement of a fluorescent fatty acid NBD-stearate in enterocytes isolated from different segments of rat intestine. The fraction of NBD-stearate found in the cytostol of enterocytes was determined by differential centrifugation. Cytoplasmic transport of NBD-stearate occurred solely by diffusion and not by convection. Diffusion was homogeneous (nondirectional), consistent with isotropic diffusion. The diffusion rate varied with location along the intestine, correlating with the local FABP concentration and measured cytosolic binding. We conclude that cytoplasmic proteins like FABP promote the intracellular transport of fatty acids by enhancing their diffusive flux. We suggest that facilitation is not specific for a particular cell type but occurs in a variety of cells that transport fatty acids and may contain different types of FABP.  (+info)

Clothing convective heat exchange--proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. (3/141)

Convection is an important determinant for both sensible and evaporative heat exchange. Heat transfer by convection for normal boundary conditions is readily described by simple power functions. Clothing affects convection in various ways and existing characterisation of clothing by its static insulation values produces inaccurate prediction of sensible heat exchange, eventually leading to erroneous risk assessment. The present paper reviews various methods for evaluation of clothing convective (sensible) heat exchange. Based on available data, two equations are proposed for determination of the reduction of the total insulation values obtained under static, still wind conditions as a consequence of wind and walking effects. The equations apply from 0 to 1.84 clo, from 0.2 to 3 m/s and for walking speeds up to 1.2 m/s. The equations are incorporated in ISO 7933 to provide a more realistic and accurate prediction of sensible heat transfer through clothing.  (+info)

The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing. (4/141)

This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press; Havenith, G., Holmer, I., den Hartog, E. and Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing evaporative heat resistance: proposal for improved representation in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press] to provide a practical suggestion for improving existing clothing models so that they can account for the effects of wind and human movement. The proposed method is presented and described in the form of a BASIC computer program. Analytical methods (for example ISO 7933) for the assessment of the thermal strain caused by human exposure to hot environments require a mathematical quantification of the thermal properties of clothing. These effects are usually considered in terms of 'dry' thermal insulation and vapour resistance. This simple 'model' of clothing can account for the insulation properties of clothing which reduce heat loss (or gain) between the body and the environment and, for example, the resistance to the transfer of evaporated sweat from the skin, which is important for cooling the body in a hot environment. When a clothed person is exposed to wind, however, and when the person is active, there is a potentially significant limitation in the simple model of clothing presented above. Heat and mass transfer can take place between the microclimate (within clothing and next to the skin surface) and the external environment. The method described in this paper 'corrects' static values of clothing properties to provide dynamic values that take account of wind and human movement. It therefore allows a more complete representation of the effects of clothing on the heat strain of workers.  (+info)

Efficacy of two methods for reducing postbypass afterdrop. (5/141)

BACKGROUND: Afterdrop, defined as the precipitous reduction in core temperature after cardiopulmonary bypass, results from redistribution of body heat to inadequately warmed peripheral tissues. The authors tested two methods of ameliorating afterdrop: (1) forced-air warming of peripheral tissues and (2) nitroprusside-induced vasodilation. METHODS: Patients were cooled during cardiopulmonary bypass to approximately 32 degrees C and subsequently rewarmed to a nasopharyngeal temperature near 37 degrees C and a rectal temperature near 36 degrees C. Patients in the forced-air protocol (n = 20) were assigned randomly to forced-air warming or passive insulation on the legs. Active heating started with rewarming while undergoing bypass and was continued for the remainder of surgery. Patients in the nitroprusside protocol (n = 30) were assigned randomly to either a control group or sodium nitroprusside administration. Pump flow during rewarming was maintained at 2.5 l x m(-2) x min(-1) in the control patients and at 3.0 l x m(-2) x min(-1) in those assigned to sodium nitroprusside. Sodium nitroprusside was titrated to maintain a mean arterial pressure near 60 mm Hg. In all cases, a nasopharyngeal probe evaluated core (trunk and head) temperature and heat content. Peripheral compartment (arm and leg) temperature and heat content were estimated using fourth-order regressions and integration over volume from 18 intramuscular needle thermocouples, nine skin temperatures, and "deep" hand and foot temperature. RESULTS: In patients warmed with forced air, peripheral tissue temperature was higher at the end of warming and remained higher until the end of surgery. The core temperature afterdrop was reduced from 1.2+/-0.2 degrees C to 0.5+/-0.2 degrees C by forced-air warming. The duration of afterdrop also was reduced, from 50+/-11 to 27+/-14 min. In the nitroprusside group, a rectal temperature of 36 degrees C was reached after 30+/-7 min of rewarming. This was only slightly faster than the 40+/-13 min necessary in the control group. The afterdrop was 0.8+/-0.3 degrees C with nitroprusside and lasted 34+/-10 min which was similar to the 1.1+/-0.3 degrees C afterdrop that lasted 44+/-13 min in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous warming reduced the core temperature afterdrop by 60%. However, heat-balance data indicate that this reduction resulted primarily because forced-air heating prevented the typical decrease in body heat content after discontinuation of bypass, rather than by reducing redistribution. Nitroprusside administration slightly increased peripheral tissue temperature and heat content at the end of rewarming. However, the core-to-peripheral temperature gradient was low in both groups. Consequently, there was little redistribution in either case.  (+info)

Influence of convection on small molecule clearances in online hemodiafiltration. (6/141)

BACKGROUND: Dialysis efficacy is mostly influenced by dialyzer clearance. Urea clearance may be estimated in vitro by total ion clearance, which can be obtained by conductivity measurements. We have previously used this approach to assess in vitro clearances in a system mimicking predilutional and postdilutional online hemodiafiltration with a wide range of QD, QB, and ultrafiltration rates. Our current study elaborates on a formula that allows the prediction of the influence of ultrafiltration on small molecule clearances, and validates the mathematical approach both experimentally in vitro and clinically in vivo data. METHODS: Two conductivimeters in the dialysate side of an E-2008 Fresenius machine were used. HF80 and HF40 polysulfone dialyzers were used; reverse osmosis water and dialysate were used for blood and dialysate compartments, respectively. Study conditions included QB of 300 and 400 mL/min and QD of 500 and 590 mL/min, with a range of ultrafiltration rate from 0 to 400 mL/min in postdilutional hemodiafiltration and to 590 mL/min in predilutional hemodiafiltration. Urea clearances were determined in the in vivo studies, which included 0, 50, 100, and 150 mL/min ultrafiltration rates. RESULTS: The ultrafiltration rate and clearance were significantly correlated (R > 0.9, P < 0.001) and fitted a linear model (P < 0.001) in all of the experimental conditions. The following formula fitted the experimental points with an error <2% for both postdilutional and predilutional online diafiltration in vitro, respectively. K = K0 + [(QB - K0)/(QB)] x ultrafiltration rateK = K0 + [((QD x QB)/(QB + QD) - K0)/QD] x ultrafiltration rate where K is the clearance; K0 is the clearance with nil ultrafiltration rate; QD is the total dialysate produced (in commercial HDF, QD = QDi + Qinf). Since weight loss was maintained at 0, ultrafiltration rate = infusion flow. QB is the "blood" line flow. The formula was also verified in vivo in clinical postdilutional hemodiafiltration with a QB taking into account the cellular and water compartments. DISCUSSION: In vitro, by simply determining the clearance in conventional dialysis, the total clearance for any ultrafiltration rate may be estimated in both predilutional and postdilutional online diafiltration with an error of less than 2%. The same applies to in vivo postdilutional hemodiafiltration when the formula takes into account the cellular and water composition of blood.  (+info)

Contaminant dispersion in the vicinity of a worker in a uniform velocity field. (7/141)

The transportation of gaseous contaminant from a low and moderate low impulse (momentum<1 m s(-1)) source to the breathing zone was studied in a uniform air stream flow. Results of the effects of the direction and the velocity of principal air flow, convection due to a human body, arm movement of a human being and the type of source on the concentration profiles are presented. Three important results were obtained. Firstly, for a given low and moderate impulse low impulse contaminant source in the near field of a worker, his/her orientation relative to the principal air flow direction is the most important factor in reducing occupational exposure, with an air velocity of about 0.3 m s(-1). Secondly, the effect of convection resulting from body heat on air flow was lower than expected. Thirdly, arm movements influence contaminant dispersion, and should be included when models assessing exposure are developed. The present data can also be used to validate existing computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models.  (+info)

Monitoring response to convection-enhanced taxol delivery in brain tumor patients using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. (8/141)

Convection-enhanced drug delivery (CEDD) is a novel approach to enhance the delivery of drugs directly into brain tumors. We have used diffusion-weighted MRI (DWMRI) to monitor the effects of intratumoral CEDD in three brain tumor patients treated with Taxol. Clear changes in the images and the water diffusion parameters were observed shortly after the initiation of treatment. Initially, a bright area corresponding to decreased diffusion appeared, followed by the appearance of a dark area of increased diffusion within the bright area. The time to appearance of the dark area varied among the patients, suggesting different response rates. In this work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using DWMRI as a noninvasive tool to achieve unique early tissue characterization not attainable by other conventional imaging methods.  (+info)

Convection, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the movement of fluids or gases in a system due to differences in temperature or density. This process plays a crucial role in various biological systems, including blood circulation, heat regulation, and respiration.

For instance, in the human body, convection helps regulate body temperature through the movement of warm and cool blood between the core and peripheral tissues. In the lungs, air moves in and out of the alveoli through convective forces generated by the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles during breathing.

In a broader medical context, convection may also refer to the movement of fluids or gases in medical devices such as intravenous (IV) lines, catheters, or respiratory equipment, where it can impact the distribution and delivery of medications, nutrients, or oxygen.

Thermal conductivity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a physical property of materials that refers to their ability to conduct heat. However, in the context of medicine, thermal conductivity may be relevant when discussing certain medical treatments or devices that involve heating or cooling tissues. For example, some ablation techniques used to destroy cancerous tissue use probes with high thermal conductivity to deliver radiofrequency energy and generate heat.

Here is a general definition of thermal conductivity:

Thermal conductivity (k) is the measure of a material's ability to transfer heat energy conducted through it due to a temperature difference. It is expressed as the amount of heat energy (in watts, W) transferred per unit of time (second, s) through a unit area (square meter, m²) with a given temperature difference (kelvin, K) between the two faces. The formula for thermal conductivity is:

k = Q x L / (A x ΔT)

Where:

* k is the thermal conductivity (in W/mK)
* Q is the heat transfer rate (in watts, W)
* L is the length of the material through which the heat is transferred (in meters, m)
* A is the cross-sectional area of the material perpendicular to the heat flow (in square meters, m²)
* ΔT is the temperature difference between the two faces of the material (in kelvin, K)

"Air movements" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to the movement or circulation of air, which can occur naturally (such as through wind) or mechanically (such as through fans or ventilation systems). In some contexts, it may refer specifically to the movement of air in operating rooms or other controlled environments for medical purposes. However, without more specific context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "air movements."

Diffusion, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they are evenly distributed throughout a space or solution. This passive transport mechanism does not require energy and relies solely on the random motion of particles. Diffusion is a vital process in many biological systems, including the exchange of gases in the lungs, the movement of nutrients and waste products across cell membranes, and the spread of drugs and other substances throughout tissues.

The Coriolis force is an apparent force that acts on objects in motion relative to a rotating frame of reference. In the context of meteorology and oceanography, the Earth's rotation creates a Coriolis force that affects large-scale air and water movements.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis force causes deflection of moving objects, such as wind or ocean currents, to the right. In the Southern Hemisphere, the deflection is to the left. The magnitude of the Coriolis force depends on the speed and latitude of the moving object. It is named after French scientist Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis, who first described it in 1835.

It's important to note that the Coriolis force is not a true force but rather an apparent force that arises due to the rotation of the Earth.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrodynamics" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Hydrodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of fluids and the forces acting on them. It is commonly used in fields such as engineering, particularly in the design of fluid-handling systems, and in the study of phenomena like water waves and blood flow in certain scientific contexts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Hemodiafiltration (HDF) is a type of renal replacement therapy used for patients with severe kidney failure. It combines elements of hemodialysis and hemofiltration to provide more efficient removal of waste products, toxins, and excess fluid from the blood.

During HDF, the patient's blood is passed through a semi-permeable membrane in a dialyzer or artificial kidney. The membrane allows for the passage of smaller molecules such as urea, creatinine, and electrolytes, while retaining larger molecules like proteins. A combination of diffusion (due to the concentration gradient) and convection (due to the application of a transmembrane pressure) leads to the removal of waste products and toxins from the blood.

In addition to this, a substitution fluid is infused into the extracorporeal circuit to replace the volume of fluid removed during convection. This substitution fluid can be tailored to match the patient's electrolyte and acid-base status, allowing for better control over their biochemical parameters.

HDF has been shown to provide better clearance of middle and large molecular weight uremic toxins compared to conventional hemodialysis, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes such as reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk. However, more research is needed to confirm these benefits and establish the optimal dosing and prescription for HDF.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Rheology is not a term that is specific to medicine, but rather it is a term used in the field of physics to describe the flow and deformation of matter. It specifically refers to the study of how materials flow or deform under various stresses or strains. This concept can be applied to various medical fields such as studying the flow properties of blood (hematology), understanding the movement of tissues and organs during surgical procedures, or analyzing the mechanical behavior of biological materials like bones and cartilages.

Respiratory transport, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to the process of gas exchange between the environment and an organism's body or between different parts of the body. Specifically, it involves the uptake of oxygen (O2) from the atmosphere into the lungs during inhalation, its transportation through the bloodstream to the body's cells, and the release of carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product, from the cells to the lungs during exhalation.

The process of respiratory transport is essential for providing oxygen to the body's tissues and removing carbon dioxide, which is produced as a byproduct of cellular metabolism. The efficiency of respiratory transport can be affected by various factors, including lung function, cardiovascular health, and the presence of respiratory diseases or conditions that impair gas exchange.

Cetylpyridinium is an antimicrobial compound that is commonly used in oral healthcare products such as mouthwashes, toothpastes, and lozenges. It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to the death of the microorganism. Cetylpyridinium has been shown to be effective against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, making it a popular ingredient in products designed to maintain oral hygiene and prevent infection.

The chemical name for cetylpyridinium is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and it has the molecular formula C16H37NClO. It is a cationic surfactant, which means that it contains positively charged ions that can interact with negatively charged bacterial cell membranes. This interaction disrupts the membrane's structure, leading to the leakage of cellular components and the death of the microorganism.

Cetylpyridinium is generally considered safe for use in oral healthcare products, although it can cause irritation in some people. It is important to follow the instructions on any product containing cetylpyridinium carefully, as overuse or improper use may lead to adverse effects. Additionally, it is always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional before using any new medication or healthcare product, especially if you have any pre-existing medical conditions or are taking other medications.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

Extracellular fluid (ECF) is the fluid that exists outside of the cells in the body. It makes up about 20-25% of the total body weight in a healthy adult. ECF can be further divided into two main components: interstitial fluid and intravascular fluid.

Interstitial fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cells and fills the spaces between them. It provides nutrients to the cells, removes waste products, and helps maintain a balanced environment around the cells.

Intravascular fluid, also known as plasma, is the fluid component of blood that circulates in the blood vessels. It carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body, and helps regulate temperature, pH, and osmotic pressure.

Maintaining the proper balance of ECF is essential for normal bodily functions. Disruptions in this balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, edema, and heart failure.

In the context of medical terminology, "heating" generally refers to the application of heat to an area of the body for therapeutic purposes. This can be done using various methods such as hot packs, heating pads, warm compresses, or even heated wax. The goal of applying heat is to increase blood flow, reduce pain and muscle spasms, and promote healing in the affected area. It's important to note that excessive heating or application of heat to sensitive areas should be avoided, as it can lead to burns or other injuries.

Influenza A Virus: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Influenza A virus is an orthomyxovirus that causes respiratory illness in humans and many other animal species. It can be found in birds, pigs, horses, and humans. The viral genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments enclosed within a lipid membrane derived from the host cell. Two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are used to classify Influenza A virus into subtypes based on antigenic properties. There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 NA subtypes, but only H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 have caused widespread human disease since the 1900s.

Influenza A viruses can be further divided into strains based on differences in their internal proteins. The most common cause of seasonal flu epidemics in humans is Influenza A (H3N2) and Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, the latter of which caused the 2009 pandemic. Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A viruses, and they are also responsible for the emergence of new subtypes.

These viruses can occasionally cause outbreaks in domestic poultry and, more rarely, in humans. Avian influenza A (H5N1), avian influenza A (H7N9), and avian influenza A (H1N1) are some examples of zoonotic influenza viruses that have caused severe disease and death in humans. However, sustained human-to-human transmission has not been observed with these subtypes, except for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain, which was a reassortant virus containing genes from both avian and swine influenza A viruses.

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a type of targeted radiation therapy used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. It involves the use of a boron-containing compound, which selectively accumulates in cancer cells. Once the compound has been taken up by the cancer cells, the patient is exposed to a beam of low-energy neutrons. When the neutrons interact with the boron-10 isotope within the compound, a nuclear reaction occurs, producing high-energy alpha particles that destroy the cancer cells.

The advantage of BNCT is that it allows for targeted delivery of radiation to cancer cells while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues. However, this type of therapy is still experimental and is only available in a limited number of medical centers worldwide. It has been studied most extensively in the treatment of brain tumors, head and neck cancers, and melanoma.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Hemofiltration is a type of renal replacement therapy used for treating acute or chronic renal failure. It is a convective process that utilizes a semipermeable membrane to remove waste solutes and water from the blood. In this process, blood is passed through a filter, called a hemofilter, which contains hollow fibers with tiny pores. The pressure gradient across the membrane causes fluid and solutes to move from the blood into the filtrate compartment, based on their size and charge.

The filtrate, which contains waste products and water, is then discarded, while a replacement solution is infused back into the patient's bloodstream to maintain adequate fluid volume and electrolyte balance. Hemofiltration can be performed continuously (continuous hemofiltration) or intermittently (intermittent hemofiltration), depending on the clinical situation and the patient's needs.

Hemofiltration is particularly useful in critically ill patients with fluid overload, electrolyte imbalances, or acute kidney injury, as it can effectively remove large volumes of water and solutes, including inflammatory mediators and toxins, from the blood. It is also used in the management of drug overdoses and poisonings, where rapid removal of toxic substances is required.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. In medical terms, hydrostatic pressure is often discussed in relation to body fluids and tissues. For example, the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) is the force that drives the fluid out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues. This helps to maintain the balance of fluids in the body. Additionally, abnormal increases in hydrostatic pressure can contribute to the development of edema (swelling) in the tissues.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

Microfluidic analytical techniques refer to the use of microfluidics, which is the manipulation of fluids in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers, for analytical measurements and applications. These techniques involve the integration of various functional components such as pumps, valves, mixers, and detectors onto a single chip or platform to perform chemical, biochemical, or biological analyses.

Microfluidic analytical techniques offer several advantages over traditional analytical methods, including reduced sample and reagent consumption, faster analysis times, increased sensitivity and throughput, and improved automation and portability. Examples of microfluidic analytical techniques include lab-on-a-chip devices, digital microfluidics, bead-based assays, and micro total analysis systems (μTAS). These techniques have found applications in various fields such as diagnostics, drug discovery, environmental monitoring, and food safety.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

... referred to as a form of convection, e.g. thermo-capilliary convection and Granular convection. Convection may happen in fluids ... In thermodynamics, convection often refers to heat transfer by convection, where the prefixed variant Natural Convection is ... A convection cell, also known as a Bénard cell, is a characteristic fluid flow pattern in many convection systems. A rising ... In broad terms, convection arises because of body forces acting within the fluid, such as gravity. Natural convection is a type ...
The size of convection cells is largely determined by the fluid's properties. Convection cells can even occur when the heating ... Such movement is called convection, and the moving body of liquid is referred to as a convection cell. This particular type of ... Convection usually requires a gravitational field, but in microgravity experiments, thermal convection has been observed ... Convection cells can form in any fluid, including the Earth's atmosphere (where they are called Hadley cells), boiling water, ...
When Ar ≫ 1, natural convection dominates and when Ar ≪ 1, forced convection dominates. A r = G r R e 2 {\displaystyle Ar={\ ... Convective heat transfer Combined forced and natural convection Forced Convection Heat Transfer Bahrami, M Simon Fraser ... When the natural convection is not negligible, such flows are typically referred to as mixed convection. When analyzing ... In any forced convection situation, some amount of natural convection is always present whenever there are gravitational forces ...
A convection heater (otherwise known as a convector heater) is a heater that uses convection currents to heat and circulate air ... Convection heaters are commonly classified according to their power source. Electric convection heaters use electricity, while ... in Dallas, Texas in 1924, is an example of an early model of a convection space heater. This model consisted of three stoves ... Developments in convection heating technology included the publication of the very first manual on fireplace design called ...
Buoyant convection begins at the level of free convection (LFC), above which an air parcel may ascend through the free ... "Open-ocean deep convection". While less dynamically important than in the atmosphere, such oceanic convection is responsible ... The latent heat release from condensation is the determinate between significant convection and almost no convection at all. ... Another convection-driven weather effect is the sea breeze. Warm air has a lower density than cool air, so warm air rises ...
... which indicates vigorous convection. This value corresponds to whole mantle convection (i.e. convection extending from the ... A single shallow convection cycle takes on the order of 50 million years, though deeper convection can be closer to 200 million ... Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle as convection currents carry heat from the ... In 1993 it was suggested that inhomogeneities in D" layer have some impact on mantle convection. Mantle convection causes ...
Heat transfer due to this form of convection can be much more effective than buoyancy-induced convection for systems with small ... which leads to thermomagnetic convection. This form of heat transfer can be useful for cases where conventional convection ... They showed how to enhance, suppress and invert the convection modes. They have also carried out scaling analysis for ... A comprehensive review of thermomagnetic convection (in A. Mukhopadhyay, R. Ganguly, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, "Scaling analysis ...
... natural convection) ovens and fan-assisted (forced convection) ovens. Convection ovens distribute heat evenly around the food, ... The first convection oven in wide use was the Maxson Whirlwind Oven, invented in 1945. A convection oven has a fan with a ... There are also convection microwave ovens which combine a convection oven with a microwave oven to cook food with the speed of ... "Definition of CONVECTION OVEN". www.merriam-webster.com. 7 July 2023. Ojakangas, Beatrice (2009). Cooking with Convection: ...
... has been probed by the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where convection rolls similar to those in ... Under experimental conditions, granular convection of variously sized particles has been observed forming convection cells ... If a large particle is involved, it will be moved up to the top by convection flow. Once at the top, the large particle will ... Granular convection is also exemplified by debris flow, which is a fast moving, liquefied landslide of unconsolidated, ...
... , named after Swedish physicist Göran Marklund, is a convection process that takes place in filamentary ... During this convection, the different chemical constituents of the plasma, each having its specific ionization potential, ... It occurs within a plasma with an associated electric field, that causes convection of ions and electrons inward towards a ... Portals: Physics Astronomy Stars Spaceflight Outer space Solar System Science (Plasma physics, Convection). ...
A convection zone, convective zone or convective region of a star is a layer which is unstable due to convection. Energy is ... Stellar convection consists of mass movement of plasma within the star which usually forms a circular convection current with ... The core convection zone of these stars is overlaid by a radiation zone that is in thermal equilibrium and undergoes little or ... The region of the star in which this happens is the convection zone. In main sequence stars more than 1.3 times the mass of the ...
"Pearson-Bénard convection". Rayleigh-Bénard convection is also sometimes known as "Bénard-Rayleigh convection", "Bénard ... Bénard-Rayleigh convection is one of the most commonly studied convection phenomena because of its analytical and experimental ... In fluid thermodynamics, Rayleigh-Bénard convection is a type of natural convection, occurring in a planar horizontal layer of ... convection", or "Rayleigh convection". Hydrodynamic stability Marangoni effect Natural convection Giant's Causeway and Causeway ...
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is method of drug delivery in which drug is delivered into using bulk flow rather than ... MacKay, J. Andrew; Deen, Dennis F.; Szoka, Francis C. (February 2005). "Distribution in brain of liposomes after convection ... Lam, Miu Fei; Thomas, Meghan G.; Lind, Christopher R.P. (September 2011). "Neurosurgical convection-enhanced delivery of ... Mehta, A. M.; Sonabend, A. M.; Bruce, J. N. (2017-03-15). "Convection-Enhanced Delivery". Neurotherapeutics. 14 (2): 358-371. ...
Conjugate convective heat transfer Convection Forced convection Natural convection Mixed convection Heat transfer coefficient ... It should not be confused with the dynamic fluid phenomenon of convection, which is typically referred to as Natural Convection ... Convection is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in liquids and gases. Note that this definition of convection is only ... "natural convection". An example is the draft in a chimney or around any fire. In natural convection, an increase in temperature ...
... is a fluid dynamics phenomenon that describes a form of convection driven by two different density ... Video of Double-diffusive intrusions Layered Diffusive convection Salt-sugar double diffusive convection Double diffusive ... These include convection in the Earth's oceans (as mentioned above), in magma chambers, and in the sun (where heat and helium ... Convection in fluids is driven by density variations within them under the influence of gravity. These density variations may ...
1995), Arnold L. Gordon was the first to find the remnant of deep convection near the Maud Rise in 1977. This deep convection ... Ocean convection is distinguished by three phases: preconditioning, deep convection and lateral exchange and spreading. ... Jones, Helen; Marshall, John (1993). "Convection with Rotation in a Neutral Ocean: A Study of Open-Ocean Deep Convection". ... making it one of the most extreme ocean convection sites in the world. The deep convection in the Labrador Sea is significantly ...
The convection-diffusion equation is a combination of the diffusion and convection (advection) equations, and describes ... For more details and algorithms see: Numerical solution of the convection-diffusion equation. The convection-diffusion equation ... The convection-diffusion equation can only rarely be solved with a pen and paper. More often, computers are used to numerically ... The convection-diffusion equation (with no sources or drains, R = 0) can be viewed as a stochastic differential equation, ...
The electric convection field in the near Earth polar region can be simulated by eq.(2) with the exponent q = - 1/2. At the ... The electric convection field drives strong electric currents within the polar dynamo regions (e.g. DP1 and DP2) which can be ... the convection field-. Its general direction is from dawn to dusk. The co-rotating thermal plasma within the inner ... large amounts of ionospheric plasma are transported into the polar ionosphere by the electric convection fields , causing ...
The level of free convection (LFC) is the altitude in the atmosphere where an air parcel lifted adiabatically until saturation ... From the level of free convection to the point where the ascending parcel again becomes colder than its surroundings, the ... "Level of free convection (LFC)". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. April 25, 2012. Retrieved 2021-08-04 ... Atmospheric convection Atmospheric thermodynamics v t e v t e (Atmospheric thermodynamics, Meteorological quantities, Severe ...
Forced convection is type of heat transport in which fluid motion is generated by an external source like a (pump, fan, suction ... Forced convection heat transfer in a confined porous medium has been a subject of intensive studies during the last decades ... The basic problem in heat convection through porous media consists of predicting the heat transfer rate between a deferentially ...
... combined forced convection and natural convection, or mixed convection, occurs when natural convection and forced convection ... Like for natural convection, the nature of a mixed convection flow is highly dependent on heat transfer (as buoyancy is one of ... Mixed convection problems are characterized by the Grashof number (for the natural convection) and the Reynolds number (for the ... The first case is when natural convection aids forced convection. This is seen when the buoyant motion is in the same direction ...
Formulation of Steady state convection diffusion equation Central differencing scheme#Formulation of Steady state convection ... 1 below). Defining variable F as convection mass flux and variable D as diffusion conductance F = ρ u A {\displaystyle F\,=\rho ... For other values of the Peclet number, the upwind scheme is used for convection-dominated flows with Peclet number (,Pe, > 2). ... The upwind differencing scheme is a method used in numerical methods in computational fluid dynamics for convection-diffusion ...
Advanced Simulation Library Convection-diffusion equation Double diffusive convection An Album of Fluid Motion Lagrangian and ... a numerical solution for the convection-diffusion equation has to deal with the convection part of the governing equation in ... The following convection diffusion equation is considered here c ρ [ ∂ T ( x , t ) ∂ t + ϵ u ∂ T ( x , t ) ∂ x ] = λ ∂ 2 T ( x ... The unsteady convection-diffusion problem is considered, at first the known temperature T is expanded into a Taylor series with ...
Convection. Radiation. CD 3-way split w/ The Wind-Up Bird and 1 Mile North (Music Fellowship) Travels In Constants (Vol. 18): ...
"Convection". www.ds.mpg.de. Retrieved 2019-03-02. "NSF Award Search: Award#1019151 - Workshop Support for "Particulate Matter: ...
When the convection is strong and linear or curved, the MCS is called a squall line, with the feature placed at the leading ... "Convection". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 22 ... In the warm season, lee troughs, breezes, outflow boundaries and occlusions can lead to convection if enough moisture is ...
In this case, overturning or convection generally ensues. The Brunt-Väisälä frequency relates to internal gravity waves: it is ... Emmanuel, K.A. (1994). Atmospheric Convection. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1002/joc.3370150709. ISBN 0195066308. ... is a measure of the stability of a fluid to vertical displacements such as those caused by convection. More precisely it is the ...
"Slantwise convection". COMET Courses. UCAR. Retrieved August 23, 2019. Interactive course that needs a login (CS1 French- ... "slantwise convection" if the air parcel is almost saturated and moved laterally and vertically in a CSI area. This concept is ... which entails no convection. Then in the animation, there is warming surface warming and the raised particle remains warmer ...
2023, March 14). Double diffusive convection. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13:48, April 20, 2023, from https ... en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Double_diffusive_convection&oldid=1144481954 Klarreich, Erica (23 July 2001). "Cicadas ... Retrieved 13:49, April 20, 2023, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Granular_convection&oldid=1150491635 Hickman, ... 2023, April 18). Granular convection. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. ...
Wintertime convection. The Lofoten vortex is situated in the deepest parts of the topographic depression of the Lofoten Basin. ... The local currents inside the vortex and the strong convection observed during winter generate a hot spot rich in nutrients, ... This structure reveals that the deep Lofoten Basin is a major convection site in the Nordic Seas, specifically in winter: ... Meteorological events above the centre of the Lofoten Basin play a vital role in the development of deep wintertime convection ...
... referred to as a form of convection, e.g. thermo-capilliary convection and Granular convection. Convection may happen in fluids ... In thermodynamics, convection often refers to heat transfer by convection, where the prefixed variant Natural Convection is ... A convection cell, also known as a Bénard cell, is a characteristic fluid flow pattern in many convection systems. A rising ... In broad terms, convection arises because of body forces acting within the fluid, such as gravity. Natural convection is a type ...
Convection ovens A convection oven uses a fan which is usually located on the back side of the oven. The purpose of the fan is ... or at least a conventional oven that can switch to a convection mode upon request. Convection ovens are speedier and more ... Convection ovens have many followers and fans, but these types of ovens can be hard to get used to… especially for novice cooks ... The temperature a convection oven uses to cook food is also about 20 percent lower than a recipes suggested cooking ...
Exact Heat Toaster/Convection at home with this delicious recipe. ... Place rack in the Cuisinart® Exact Heat™ Convection Toaster ... Pizza with Italian Sweet Sausage and Garlic Spinach - Exact Heat Toaster/Convection ... Oven Broiler in position B. Preheat to 425˚F on Bake or Convection Bake for 10 minutes. Lightly coat baking pan with cooking ...
Features of the Cuisinart Chefs Convection Toaster Oven include: 0.95 cubic-foot capacity brushed stainless steel convection ... The Cuisinart Chefs Convection Toaster Oven also comes with an auto slide-out rack, a door sensor that activates the oven, ... This Chefs Toaster Convection Oven from Cuisinart has 15 cooking functions and special settings for speed convection, ... toaster oven 15 cooking functions, including innovative Dual Cook, Sandwich and Speed Convection Fits a 13 pizza, 9 x 13 ...
The site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items.. ...
aspect/cookbooks/convection-box-particles/convection-box-particles.prm at main · geodynamics/aspect ... extensible finite element code to simulate convection in both 2D and 3D models. - ...
Forecasting convection is a key problem in the UK and improving the model forecasts available for meteorologists is a priority ... Forecasting convection is a key problem in the UK and improving the model forecasts available for meteorologists is a priority ... Forecasting convection is a key problem in the UK and improving the model forecasts available for meteorologists is a priority ... His main scientific interests are in the areas of convection, urban meteorology and orographic rain. He is a PI on the WesCon/ ...
CONVECTION COOKING. Combine the power of convection cooking with the versatility of microwave. ... CONVECTION COOKING. Combine the power of convection cooking with the versatility of microwave. ... 30 Inch Over The Range Convection Microwave Hood 30 Inch Over The Range Convection Microwave Hood ... A hood, convection oven, and microwave come together in the ultimate kitchen design solution for all ventilation and cooking ...
Forced air convection generated by a circular fan provides high and uniform drying performance. • Adjustable dual slide vents ... For more information on Forced Convection Ovens - Economy talk to Medline Scientific Limited ...
Simulations from five convection-allowing models available during the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field ... Simulations from five convection-allowing models available during the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field ... Past studies have shown that their morphology remains poorly forecast in current convection-allowing models operating at 3-4-km ... Past studies have shown that their morphology remains poorly forecast in current convection-allowing models operating at 3-4-km ...
Nothing ruins a good meal like immediately burning the roof of your mouth with too-hot food. But what is "too-hot"? Well, drinking beverages or eating foods at anywhere above 110°F runs the risk of irritating your mouth, but consuming anything at 160 degrees or hotter usually equals an immediate burn. Now, while no one can…. ...
This propane powered convection oven is engineered deliver reliable quality and grade-A results. Powered by 75,000 total BTU & ... This propane powered convection oven is engineered deliver reliable quality and grade-A results. Powered by 75,000 total BTU & ...
We show that low-viscosity flows consist of two zones: an outer convection-dominated zone and an inner advection-dominated zone ... "On the Radial Structure of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows with Convection." The Astrophysical Journal 565 (2): 1101-6 ...
Abstract: V61.00006 : Dial-a-plume: Active Control of Localised Photo-Bio-Convection*. 3:54 PM-4:06 PM ... This novel form of photo-bio-convection allows a precise, fast and reconfigurable control of the spatio-temporal dynamics of ...
Snow calculator solving for air convection given heat storage change, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation exchange ...
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Convection. Liquids and gases are fluids. The particles in these fluids can move from place to place. Convection occurs when ... Convection: the transfer of heat energy through a moving liquid * Radiation: electromagnetic radiation emitted from a hot ... Conduction, Convection and Radiation. * Conduction: the transfer of heat energy through a material-without the material itself ... Convection. Liquids and gases are fluids. The particles in these fluids can move from place ... ...
Propane Convection Oven $575.00. Propane powered commercial convection oven, perfect for off-site cooking. Please scroll down ... Propane Convection Oven. •Max output of 50,000 BTU, burns approximately 6lbs of. propane per hour. Requires 115V power supply ... Be the first to review "Propane Convection Oven" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a review. ...
Binder - Drying and Heating Chambers - Series FP Classic.Line - With forced convection and program functions. ... Binder - Drying and Heating Chambers - Series M - With forced convection and advanced program functions. ... Binder - Drying and Heating Chambers - Series ED-S Solid.Line - With natural convection ... Binder - Drying and Heating Chambers - Series FD Classic.Line - With forced convection. ...
The High Pointe Over The Range Convection Microwave is specifically designed to withstand vibrations set by the road in RVs. ... Contoure Stainless Steel Convection RV Microwave High Pointe Microwave Convection Oven With Grill And Turn Table Contoure RV ... High Pointe Over The Range Convection Microwave Oven - Stainless Steel. High Pointe Over The Range Convection Microwave Oven - ... The High Pointe Over The Range Convection Microwave is specifically designed to withstand vibrations set by the road in RVs.. ...
i have researching the natural convection inside vertical pipe flows through the vertical pipe is driven by natural convection ... i have researching the natural convection inside vertical pipe. flows through the vertical pipe is driven by natural convection ... UDF of natural convection in 3D cylinder a_Sarlak. Fluent UDF and Scheme Programming. 0. November 7, 2015 08:19. ... How do i set the reference temperature for developing region on natural convection User Name. Remember Me. ...
A High Order Finite Difference Discretization Strategy Based on Extrapolation for Convection Diffusion Equations. Numerical ... Sun, H. and Zhang, J. (2004) A High Order Finite Difference Discretization Strategy Based on Extrapolation for Convection ... A Second Order Characteristic Mixed Finite Element Method for Convection Diffusion Reaction Equations ...
Excitation of stellar p-modes by turbulent convection. I. Theoretical formulation R. Samadi1,2 and M.-J. Goupil3 ... Excitation of stellar p-modes by turbulent convection - II. The Sun A&A 370, 147-156 (2001). ... Stochatic excitation of stellar oscillations by turbulent convection is investigated and an expression for the power injected ... into the oscillations by the turbulent convection of the outer layers is derived which takes into account excitation through ...
It features natural convection, intuitive touch screen interface and excellent temperature uniformity and accuracy between 30º ... It features natural convection, intuitive touch screen interface and excellent temperature uniformity and accuracy between 30º ...
... for MJO-C than MJO-B and most rain over land comes from diurnal convection. Once the MJO convection center enters the MC, the ... 1.2 Role of the Diurnal Cycle of Land Convection in the Barrier Effect on the MJO by the Maritime Continent More ... See more of: MJO/BSISO and Convection over the Maritime Continent. See more of: Seventh Symposium on the Madden-Julian ... Possible effects of the diurnal cycle in land convection on the eastward propagation of MJO over the Indo-Pacific Maritime ...
The Convection-Permitting Ensemble Prediction System (CPEPS) based on GRAPES-MESO is developed, implemented and run for ... TJ1.1 Application of a Convection-Permitting Ensemble Prediction System in Southern China: Preliminary Results of QPF during ...
Home > Combi and Convection Ovens > Convection Ovens > BLUE SEAL E31 Turbofan Convection Oven. ... Make an Enquiry REF: CQC5641 Categories: Combi and Convection Ovens, Convection Ovens Tags: 13 amp plug oven, 4 x 1/1 ... If youre looking for the perfect convection oven for your commercial kitchen, look no further. Loved by outside caterers ... Be the first to review "BLUE SEAL E31 Turbofan Convection Oven" Cancel reply. Your Rating. Rate…. Perfect. Good. Average. Not ...
A difference scheme for a degenerating convection-diffusion-reaction system modelling continuous sedimentation. Raimund Bürger1 ...
  • Heat transfer by natural convection plays a role in the structure of Earth's atmosphere, its oceans, and its mantle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural convection also plays a role in stellar physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In thermodynamics, convection often refers to heat transfer by convection, where the prefixed variant Natural Convection is used to distinguish the fluid mechanics concept of Convection (covered in this article) from convective heat transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural convection is a type of flow, of motion of a liquid such as water or a gas such as air, in which the fluid motion is not generated by any external source (like a pump, fan, suction device, etc.) but by some parts of the fluid being heavier than other parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The driving force for natural convection is gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • i have researching the natural convection inside vertical pipe flows through the vertical pipe is driven by natural convection force i am looking for inside surface heat transfer coefficient varying with diameter, length(GrL=3*10^8 - 4*10^10) and Prantdl number(0.7, 20, 2,014). (cfd-online.com)
  • convergenceof natural convection prob. (cfd-online.com)
  • It features natural convection, intuitive touch screen interface and excellent temperature uniformity and accuracy between 30º and 80º. (camlab.co.uk)
  • The manuscript analyzes parameters including melting fraction, complete melting time, Rayleigh number, natural convection heat transfer gain, melting phase interface, velocity and temperature distributions, and heat storage. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, a bottom cross-cut ratio of 0.5 enhances natural convection heat transfer gain by 3.28 times. (lu.se)
  • Two of the most popular oven types are conventional and convection, and many newer ovens have the option of cooking food in either fashion depending on the set mode. (streetdirectory.com)
  • A convection oven uses a fan which is usually located on the back side of the oven. (streetdirectory.com)
  • The heated air is constantly pushed over and around the food, and therefore a convection oven cooks food much faster than a conventional oven. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Not only does a convection oven cook food more quickly than a conventional oven, but it can also thoroughly cook food at lower temperatures. (streetdirectory.com)
  • The average amount of time saved when cooking with a convection oven is about 20 percent of the food's normal cooking time. (streetdirectory.com)
  • The temperature a convection oven uses to cook food is also about 20 percent lower than a recipe's suggested cooking temperature. (streetdirectory.com)
  • However, it is becoming more popular for individuals to own convection ovens in their homes, or at least a conventional oven that can switch to a convection mode upon request. (streetdirectory.com)
  • The most obvious difference between a conventional oven and a convection oven is the fact that in a conventional oven, air is not forced throughout the oven on a constant basis with the aid of a fan, as it is in a convection oven. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Place rack in the Cuisinart® Exact Heat™ Convection Toaster Oven Broiler in position B. Preheat to 425˚F on Bake or Convection Bake for 10 minutes. (cuisinart.com)
  • This Chef's Toaster Convection Oven from Cuisinart has 15 cooking functions and special settings for speed convection, sandwiches, waffles, pizza, roast, broil, and more, which means you can cook just about any meal right on the countertop. (kitchenkapers.com)
  • The Cuisinart Chef's Convection Toaster Oven also comes with an auto slide-out rack, a door sensor that activates the oven, digital controls with back-lit LED display, clock and 2 hour timer. (kitchenkapers.com)
  • A hood, convection oven, and microwave come together in the ultimate kitchen design solution for all ventilation and cooking needs. (dacor.com)
  • This propane powered convection oven is engineered deliver reliable quality and grade-A results. (marqueerents.com)
  • Propane powered commercial convection oven, perfect for off-site cooking. (lirents.net)
  • Typically, convection ovens are known for their popularity in the restaurant industry as well as in commercial cooking facilities. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Convection ovens are speedier and more efficient than conventional ovens, and therefore may be more expensive. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Conventional ovens are similar to convection ovens in that they both cook food using heat. (streetdirectory.com)
  • There are pros and cons to both conventional and convection ovens. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Convection ovens have many followers and fans, but these types of ovens can be hard to get used to… especially for novice cooks. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Stochatic excitation of stellar oscillations by turbulent convection is investigated and an expression for the power injected into the oscillations by the turbulent convection of the outer layers is derived which takes into account excitation through turbulent Reynolds stresses and turbulent entropy fluctuations. (aanda.org)
  • This formulation generalizes results from previous works and is built so as to enable investigations of various possible spatial and temporal spectra of stellar turbulent convection. (aanda.org)
  • The main outcomes of present communication are summarized as: (i) velocity of material particles decreases subject to larger inverse Darcy-number while it enhances via velocity ratio and magnetic parameters (ii) temperature distribution as well as layer thickness enhance for higher estimations of Eckert number and heat source parameter while it decays against Prandtl number (iii) skin friction coefficient decreases through higher values of inverse Darcy number and mixed convection parameter. (bvsalud.org)
  • No particles are involved, unlike in the processes of conduction and convection, so radiation can even work through the vacuum of space. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Affects heat transfer from the skin's surface either by radiation or convection. (cdc.gov)
  • As radiation and convection from the skin increases, this value decreases. (cdc.gov)
  • fant loses heat by evaporation, convection, The overall mortality rate in that study was radiation and conduction. (who.int)
  • The "Wessex Convection experiment" (WesCon) which ran alongside the NERC funded project "WesCon - Observing the Evolving Structures of Turbulence" (WOEST) took place for three months (Jun-Aug) in the summer of 2023. (rmets.org)
  • His main scientific interests are in the areas of convection, urban meteorology and orographic rain. (rmets.org)
  • Sun, H. and Zhang, J. (2004) A High Order Finite Difference Discretization Strategy Based on Extrapolation for Convection Diffusion Equations. (scirp.org)
  • It is possible to extend this technique to the case of interface problems, and it is in this context that the second project aims to develop the numerical analysis and implementation of such HDG methods for diffusion and convection-diffusion equations such as the Darcy and Oseen equations, coupling both in two sub-domains separated by a smooth interface. (lu.se)
  • Granular convection is a similar phenomenon in granular material instead of fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convection may happen in fluids at all scales larger than a few atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that low-viscosity flows consist of two zones: an outer convection-dominated zone and an inner advection-dominated zone. (harvard.edu)
  • Combine the power of convection cooking with the versatility of microwave. (dacor.com)
  • Convection cannot take place in most solids because neither bulk current flows nor significant diffusion of matter can take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convection is single or multiphase fluid flow that occurs spontaneously due to the combined effects of material property heterogeneity and body forces on a fluid, most commonly density and gravity (see buoyancy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Convection occurs when particles with a lot of heat energy in a liquid or gas move and take the place of particles with less heat energy. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • In fluid mechanics, convection has a broader sense: it refers to the motion of fluid driven by density (or other property) difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to overcome this, the biofilm growth in SSFs is modelled using a system of non-linear balance laws of convection-diffusion-reaction type with discontinuous flux for the concentration of species in the biofilm matrix and the flowing liquid suspension. (lu.se)
  • Forced air convection generated by a circular fan provides high and uniform drying performance. (findtheneedle.co.uk)
  • The High Pointe Over The Range Convection Microwave is specifically designed to withstand vibrations set by the road in RV's. (rvupgradestore.com)
  • Convection is a process in which heat is carried from place to place by the bulk movement of a fluid and gases In the 1830s, in The Bridgewater Treatises, the term convection is attested in a scientific sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the word convection has different but related usages in different scientific or engineering contexts or applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angle between vectors influences convection from skin surface (below). (cdc.gov)
  • Some phenomena which result in an effect superficially similar to that of a convective cell may also be (inaccurately) referred to as a form of convection, e.g. thermo-capilliary convection and Granular convection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convection is often categorised or described by the main effect causing the convective flow, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convection may also take place in soft solids or mixtures where particles can flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, convection currents that transfer heat from place to place are set up. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • This novel form of photo-bio-convection allows a precise, fast and reconfigurable control of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the instability and the ensuing global recirculation, which can be activated and stopped in real time. (aps.org)
  • Past studies have shown that their morphology remains poorly forecast in current convection-allowing models operating at 3-4-km horizontal grid spacing. (ametsoc.org)
  • Convective heat transfer is the intentional use of convection as a method for heat transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The convection may be due to gravitational, electromagnetic or fictitious body forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • In broad terms, convection arises because of body forces acting within the fluid, such as gravity. (wikipedia.org)