Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The motion of air currents.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The administration of medication or fluid directly into localized lesions, by means of gravity flow or INFUSION PUMPS.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (1/141)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic transport of fatty acids in rat enterocytes: role of binding to fatty acid-binding protein. (2/141)

The intracellular movement of fatty acids is thought to be facilitated through codiffusion with fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). This facilitation may occur by decreasing binding to immobile membranes, leading to faster cytoplasmic diffusion. The aims of this study were to measure the intracellular transport of 12-N-methyl-(7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol)aminostearate (NBD-stearate) in villus rat enterocytes and to determine 1) the mechanism of its cytoplasmic transport and 2) if its transport rate correlated with the known variation of FABP binding capacity along the length of the small intestine. Two-dimensional laser photobleaching was used to measure the movement of a fluorescent fatty acid NBD-stearate in enterocytes isolated from different segments of rat intestine. The fraction of NBD-stearate found in the cytostol of enterocytes was determined by differential centrifugation. Cytoplasmic transport of NBD-stearate occurred solely by diffusion and not by convection. Diffusion was homogeneous (nondirectional), consistent with isotropic diffusion. The diffusion rate varied with location along the intestine, correlating with the local FABP concentration and measured cytosolic binding. We conclude that cytoplasmic proteins like FABP promote the intracellular transport of fatty acids by enhancing their diffusive flux. We suggest that facilitation is not specific for a particular cell type but occurs in a variety of cells that transport fatty acids and may contain different types of FABP.  (+info)

Clothing convective heat exchange--proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. (3/141)

Convection is an important determinant for both sensible and evaporative heat exchange. Heat transfer by convection for normal boundary conditions is readily described by simple power functions. Clothing affects convection in various ways and existing characterisation of clothing by its static insulation values produces inaccurate prediction of sensible heat exchange, eventually leading to erroneous risk assessment. The present paper reviews various methods for evaluation of clothing convective (sensible) heat exchange. Based on available data, two equations are proposed for determination of the reduction of the total insulation values obtained under static, still wind conditions as a consequence of wind and walking effects. The equations apply from 0 to 1.84 clo, from 0.2 to 3 m/s and for walking speeds up to 1.2 m/s. The equations are incorporated in ISO 7933 to provide a more realistic and accurate prediction of sensible heat transfer through clothing.  (+info)

The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing. (4/141)

This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press; Havenith, G., Holmer, I., den Hartog, E. and Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing evaporative heat resistance: proposal for improved representation in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press] to provide a practical suggestion for improving existing clothing models so that they can account for the effects of wind and human movement. The proposed method is presented and described in the form of a BASIC computer program. Analytical methods (for example ISO 7933) for the assessment of the thermal strain caused by human exposure to hot environments require a mathematical quantification of the thermal properties of clothing. These effects are usually considered in terms of 'dry' thermal insulation and vapour resistance. This simple 'model' of clothing can account for the insulation properties of clothing which reduce heat loss (or gain) between the body and the environment and, for example, the resistance to the transfer of evaporated sweat from the skin, which is important for cooling the body in a hot environment. When a clothed person is exposed to wind, however, and when the person is active, there is a potentially significant limitation in the simple model of clothing presented above. Heat and mass transfer can take place between the microclimate (within clothing and next to the skin surface) and the external environment. The method described in this paper 'corrects' static values of clothing properties to provide dynamic values that take account of wind and human movement. It therefore allows a more complete representation of the effects of clothing on the heat strain of workers.  (+info)

Efficacy of two methods for reducing postbypass afterdrop. (5/141)

BACKGROUND: Afterdrop, defined as the precipitous reduction in core temperature after cardiopulmonary bypass, results from redistribution of body heat to inadequately warmed peripheral tissues. The authors tested two methods of ameliorating afterdrop: (1) forced-air warming of peripheral tissues and (2) nitroprusside-induced vasodilation. METHODS: Patients were cooled during cardiopulmonary bypass to approximately 32 degrees C and subsequently rewarmed to a nasopharyngeal temperature near 37 degrees C and a rectal temperature near 36 degrees C. Patients in the forced-air protocol (n = 20) were assigned randomly to forced-air warming or passive insulation on the legs. Active heating started with rewarming while undergoing bypass and was continued for the remainder of surgery. Patients in the nitroprusside protocol (n = 30) were assigned randomly to either a control group or sodium nitroprusside administration. Pump flow during rewarming was maintained at 2.5 l x m(-2) x min(-1) in the control patients and at 3.0 l x m(-2) x min(-1) in those assigned to sodium nitroprusside. Sodium nitroprusside was titrated to maintain a mean arterial pressure near 60 mm Hg. In all cases, a nasopharyngeal probe evaluated core (trunk and head) temperature and heat content. Peripheral compartment (arm and leg) temperature and heat content were estimated using fourth-order regressions and integration over volume from 18 intramuscular needle thermocouples, nine skin temperatures, and "deep" hand and foot temperature. RESULTS: In patients warmed with forced air, peripheral tissue temperature was higher at the end of warming and remained higher until the end of surgery. The core temperature afterdrop was reduced from 1.2+/-0.2 degrees C to 0.5+/-0.2 degrees C by forced-air warming. The duration of afterdrop also was reduced, from 50+/-11 to 27+/-14 min. In the nitroprusside group, a rectal temperature of 36 degrees C was reached after 30+/-7 min of rewarming. This was only slightly faster than the 40+/-13 min necessary in the control group. The afterdrop was 0.8+/-0.3 degrees C with nitroprusside and lasted 34+/-10 min which was similar to the 1.1+/-0.3 degrees C afterdrop that lasted 44+/-13 min in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous warming reduced the core temperature afterdrop by 60%. However, heat-balance data indicate that this reduction resulted primarily because forced-air heating prevented the typical decrease in body heat content after discontinuation of bypass, rather than by reducing redistribution. Nitroprusside administration slightly increased peripheral tissue temperature and heat content at the end of rewarming. However, the core-to-peripheral temperature gradient was low in both groups. Consequently, there was little redistribution in either case.  (+info)

Influence of convection on small molecule clearances in online hemodiafiltration. (6/141)

BACKGROUND: Dialysis efficacy is mostly influenced by dialyzer clearance. Urea clearance may be estimated in vitro by total ion clearance, which can be obtained by conductivity measurements. We have previously used this approach to assess in vitro clearances in a system mimicking predilutional and postdilutional online hemodiafiltration with a wide range of QD, QB, and ultrafiltration rates. Our current study elaborates on a formula that allows the prediction of the influence of ultrafiltration on small molecule clearances, and validates the mathematical approach both experimentally in vitro and clinically in vivo data. METHODS: Two conductivimeters in the dialysate side of an E-2008 Fresenius machine were used. HF80 and HF40 polysulfone dialyzers were used; reverse osmosis water and dialysate were used for blood and dialysate compartments, respectively. Study conditions included QB of 300 and 400 mL/min and QD of 500 and 590 mL/min, with a range of ultrafiltration rate from 0 to 400 mL/min in postdilutional hemodiafiltration and to 590 mL/min in predilutional hemodiafiltration. Urea clearances were determined in the in vivo studies, which included 0, 50, 100, and 150 mL/min ultrafiltration rates. RESULTS: The ultrafiltration rate and clearance were significantly correlated (R > 0.9, P < 0.001) and fitted a linear model (P < 0.001) in all of the experimental conditions. The following formula fitted the experimental points with an error <2% for both postdilutional and predilutional online diafiltration in vitro, respectively. K = K0 + [(QB - K0)/(QB)] x ultrafiltration rateK = K0 + [((QD x QB)/(QB + QD) - K0)/QD] x ultrafiltration rate where K is the clearance; K0 is the clearance with nil ultrafiltration rate; QD is the total dialysate produced (in commercial HDF, QD = QDi + Qinf). Since weight loss was maintained at 0, ultrafiltration rate = infusion flow. QB is the "blood" line flow. The formula was also verified in vivo in clinical postdilutional hemodiafiltration with a QB taking into account the cellular and water compartments. DISCUSSION: In vitro, by simply determining the clearance in conventional dialysis, the total clearance for any ultrafiltration rate may be estimated in both predilutional and postdilutional online diafiltration with an error of less than 2%. The same applies to in vivo postdilutional hemodiafiltration when the formula takes into account the cellular and water composition of blood.  (+info)

Contaminant dispersion in the vicinity of a worker in a uniform velocity field. (7/141)

The transportation of gaseous contaminant from a low and moderate low impulse (momentum<1 m s(-1)) source to the breathing zone was studied in a uniform air stream flow. Results of the effects of the direction and the velocity of principal air flow, convection due to a human body, arm movement of a human being and the type of source on the concentration profiles are presented. Three important results were obtained. Firstly, for a given low and moderate impulse low impulse contaminant source in the near field of a worker, his/her orientation relative to the principal air flow direction is the most important factor in reducing occupational exposure, with an air velocity of about 0.3 m s(-1). Secondly, the effect of convection resulting from body heat on air flow was lower than expected. Thirdly, arm movements influence contaminant dispersion, and should be included when models assessing exposure are developed. The present data can also be used to validate existing computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models.  (+info)

Monitoring response to convection-enhanced taxol delivery in brain tumor patients using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. (8/141)

Convection-enhanced drug delivery (CEDD) is a novel approach to enhance the delivery of drugs directly into brain tumors. We have used diffusion-weighted MRI (DWMRI) to monitor the effects of intratumoral CEDD in three brain tumor patients treated with Taxol. Clear changes in the images and the water diffusion parameters were observed shortly after the initiation of treatment. Initially, a bright area corresponding to decreased diffusion appeared, followed by the appearance of a dark area of increased diffusion within the bright area. The time to appearance of the dark area varied among the patients, suggesting different response rates. In this work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using DWMRI as a noninvasive tool to achieve unique early tissue characterization not attainable by other conventional imaging methods.  (+info)

The evaporation rate and internal convective flows of a sessile droplet with a pinned contact line were formulated and investigated numerically. We developed and analyzed a unified numerical model that includes the effects of temperature, droplet volume, and contact angle on evaporation rate and internal flows. The temperature gradient on the air/liquid interface causes an internal flow due to Marangoni stress, which provides good convective mixing within the droplet, depending upon Marangoni number. As the droplet volume decreases, the thermal gradient becomes smaller and the Marangoni flow becomes negligible. Simultaneously, as the droplet height decreases, evaporation-induced flow creates a large jet-like flow radially toward the contact line. For a droplet containing suspended particles, this jet-like convective flow carries particles toward the contact line and deposits them on the surface, forming the so-called coffee ring stain. In addition, we reported a simple polynomial correlation ...
Convection-enhanced delivery permits the direct homogeneous delivery of small- and large-molecular-weight putative therapeutics to the nervous system in a manner that bypasses the blood-nervous system barrier. The development of co-infused surrogate imaging tracers (for computed tomography and MRI) allows for the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of infusate distribution during convective delivery. Real-time image monitoring of convective distribution of therapeutic agents insures that targeted structures/nervous system regions are adequately perfused, enhances safety, informs efficacy (or lack thereof) of putative agents, and provides critical information regarding the properties of convection-enhanced delivery in normal and various pathologic tissue states ...
Define Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits. Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits synonyms, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits pronunciation, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits translation, English dictionary definition of Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits. Jean Baptiste Camille 1796-1875. French artist of the Barbizon school whose landscape paintings influenced the impressionists. n Jean Baptiste Camille ....
Porewater flowlines in the bed of a small Michigan USA river were shown to be altered by Chara hummocks, sea lamprey nests, and beaver dams. Altered flow lines followed expected in-bed convective and underflow patterns predicted from published models. The greater density and shape of Chara hummocks caused upwellings into the hummocks, possibly being of benefit to the plants through contact with higher levels of dissolved substances contained in the cooler, deeper porewater. Streamwater downwelling into the more permeable sea lamprey nests may provide a continuous supply of well-oxygenated water, enhancing egg survival. Convective flow patterns beneath beaver dams, as well as beneath other bed surface features, may function to temporarily store dissolved streamwater substances, altering downstream transport rates, and may function to bring porewater/streamwater to the surface, affecting distributions of surface dwelling organisms.. ...
Liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) is very corrosive to steels. To mitigate structural corrosion of LBE systems, active oxygen control technique is developed. To enhance the speed of oxygen transport in liquid LBE, natural convection has been proposed. This paper numerically analyzes the oxygen transport in a natural convection induced LBE enclosure. Different temperature boundary conditions are added to the container. Both laminar and turbulent LBE flows which are distinguished by strength of flow measured are analyzed. Three laminar cases: (a) heated from the bottom and cooled from the top of the container; (b) heated from the sidewalls and cooled from the top of the container; (c) one sidewall heated and the opposite wall cooled, and one fully turbulent case with one sidewall heated and the opposite sidewall cooled are chosen. Oxidization in near wall areas and formation of oxide layers on container surfaces are considered. In each case, the characteristic velocity and oxygen diffusion time are
Article Entropy generation for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation inside a porous enclosure. Entropy generation problem for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation in a vertical porous enclosure, submitted to a uniform hot wa...
A method and system, together with corresponding apparatus and components, and corresponding kits, for use in performing topical wound therapy by using topical negative pressure (TNP) in combination with one or more hollow fiber catheters. In one embodiment, the method provides hollow fiber catheters for the removal of fluid or fluid components from the wound area by ultrafiltration. In another embodiment the hollow fiber catheters are connected to an infusion pump and used to deliver therapeutic fluids to the wound area. In yet another embodiment, a first set of hollow fiber catheters is connected to a vacuum pump and a second set is connected to an infusion pump to simultaneously remove excess tissue fluid and deliver therapeutic fluid to the wound site.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of temperature-dependent solubility on the onset of thermosolutal convection in a horizontal porous layer. AU - Pritchard, David. AU - Richardson, Chris N.. PY - 2007/1/31. Y1 - 2007/1/31. N2 - We consider the onset of thermosolutal (double-diffusive) convection of a binary fluid in a horizontal porous layer subject to fixed temperatures and chemical equilibrium on the bounding surfaces, in the case when the solubility of the dissolved component depends on temperature. We use a linear stability analysis to investigate how the dissolution or precipitation of this component affects the onset of convection and the selection of an unstable wavenumber; we extend this analysis using a Galerkin method to predict the structure of the initial bifurcation and compare our analytical results with numerical integration of the full nonlinear equations. We find that the reactive term may be stabilizing or destabilizing, with subtle effects particularly when the thermal gradient is ...
An area of convection has persisted near 12.9S 161.1E, approximately 640 nautical miles north-northwest of Noumea, New Caledonia.. The main image here shows the area of convection 36 hours ago, when it was located farther east. The image of the globe shows the systems current location.. Animated METSAT imagery depicts a developing low-level circulation center (LLCC) with flaring deep convection located primarily over the western periphery of the disturbance.. An ASCAT pass shows 10 to 15 knot winds near the center of the tight, but elongated, LLCC.. The system is located in a region of strong, vertical wind which is limiting development at this time.. ...
Conduction Convection Radiation Worksheet. 20 Conduction Convection Radiation Worksheet. Worksheets Convection Conduction Radiation Worksheet
An analysis is made of natural convection mass transfer in a ternary gas mixture adjacent to a vertical plate. The main feature of the analysis is the proper mathematical description of the buoyancy force and of the boundary conditions. With regard to the latter, account is taken of the selective impermeability of the plate to certain components of the mixture. The governing boundary layer equations are shown to admit a similarity solution, and a numerical scheme for solving the similarity equations and boundary conditions is outlined. The general formulation is specialized to the case of sublimation from a solid, vertically oriented naphthalene plate situated in a humid air environment. Solutions were obtained for temperature levels corresponding to those encountered in practice and for relative humidities of water vapor between zero and one. It was found that the mass transfer results were unaffected by the presence of humidity, and this finding gives license to the utilization of the ...
Steady natural convection heat transfer has been studied in porous wall, solar collector systems. The boundary conditions were: two isothermal walls at different temperatures, two horizontal bounding adiabatic walls, and either uniform or nonuniform heat generating porous layer without vents. The aspect ratio A was from 0.5 to 1.4. The Rayleigh number varied from 103 to 108 . The Darcy number was from 10−8 to 10−2 but the detailed studies were carried out only for 10−4 , an optimum value. The results are presented in terms of thermal parameters (θ, θmax , Nu) as a function of Ra and other nondimensional parameters (A=H/L, B=1/L, F=d/L, kr ). The isotherms and streamlines within the system are also produced. The overall results indicate that geometrical parameters are the most important parameters affecting the system performance.. ...
Provides a single-source resource all cylinder heat transfer correlations Presents an exhaustive treatment of natural convection from cylinders including
Introducing Esco Isotherm- world class laboratory incubators for thermal appliations that prefers natural convection design to minimize disturbance to the items being culture such as bacteria culture and Coliform determination among many others.
The composition field in front of a growing lamellar eutectic was determined numerically, both with and without a lateral convective flow. By minimization of the interfacial undercooling it was found...
Convection, process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid such as air or water. Natural convection results from the tendency of most fluids to expand when heated-i.e., to become less dense and to rise as a result of the increased buoyancy. Circulation caused by this effect
Convective systems dominate the vertical transport of aerosols and trace gases. The most recent in situ aerosol measurements presented here show that the concentrations of primary aerosols including sea salt and black carbon drop by factors of 10 to 10,000 from the surface to the upper troposphere. In this study we show that the default convective transport scheme in the National Science Foundation/Department of Energy Community Earth System Model results in a high bias of 10-1,000 times the measured aerosol mass for black carbon and sea salt in the middle and upper troposphere. A modified transport scheme, which considers aerosol activation from entrained air above the cloud base and aerosol‐cloud interaction associated with convection, dramatically improves model agreement with in situ measurements suggesting that deep convection can efficiently remove primary aerosols. We suggest that models that fail to consider secondary activation may overestimate black carbons radiative forcing by a ...
A coupled mechanism for molecular aggregation in a thin water solution film by laser-tweezers is suggested based on (i) simulation of light intensity distribution and (ii) order of magnitude analysis of heat and mass transport induced by Marangoni convection. The analysis suggests that the laser induced temperature distribution develops within 1 ms and Marangoni convection flow commences within 0.01-1 s, which increases by 1-2 orders of magnitude the mass transfer of dissolved molecules into the laser focus where they are trapped and aggregate by attractive van der Waals forces. This mechanism, considered for the particular case of polymer assembly, suggests that it can also be successfully applied for assembling other types of clusters and molecular aggregates from solutions.. ©2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Analytical Solution Of The Diffusion - Convection Equation Over A Finite Domain. Analytical Solution Of The Diffusion - Convection Equation Over A Finite Domain.. ...
Bakery, Convection Systems and Equipment from the EngNet Engineering Directory and search engine. Find suppliers, manufacturers and distributors for Bakery, Convection Systems and Equipment including Catering and Hostelry Equipment, Steam Cooking Systems, Flour Transport Systems, Stainless Steel Dairy Equipment.
The evolution of a star through the helium flash depends upon uncertain aspects of convection theory. Observations place some constraints on the theory of convection in stellar cores.
Binding of targetted biomolecules, pathogens or analytes on a reactive surface is commonly used for biodiagnostic systems. However the process is slow and inefficient if one relies only on molecular diffusion to transfer the analytes to the immobilized ligand. A micropump based on a Marangoni convection in a droplet geometry has been designed in order to enhance the kinetics of binding. The droplet is suspended to a heated rod and cooled at its bottom, resulting in a gradient of temperature on the liquid-air interface that drives a Marangoni convection inside the droplet. This type of convection has been verified by an experimental set up. We have then developped a numerical model for the calculation of the kinetics of binding: first, a calculation of the Maragoni flow is performed assuming a steady state convection, second, we solve a coupled system for the the concentration of analytes inside the droplet and the adsorption at the wall. The model shows the efficiency of the convection on the kinectics
Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Natural Convection flow in a partially heated Vertical Annulus, Numerical Heat Transfer- Part A, Taylor & Francis, 2017, ISSN: 0891-6152 , Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 25-45.. Experimental Studies on Natural Convection of Water in a Closed Loop Vertical Annulus, Experimental Heat Transfer, Taylor & Francis, 2017, ISSN: 0891-6152 , Vol. 30, No.1 pp. 25-45.. Experimental Study of Boiling Incipience in a Closed Loop Vertical Annular Thermo-siphon, Applied Thermal Engineering, Elsevier Ltd. 2010 , Vol. 30, Issues 11-12 pp.1333-1340.. Heat Transfer Studies during Natural Convection Boiling in an Internally Heated Annulus, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, Elsevier Science Ltd. Pergamon, 2003,Vol. 46, No.6, pp.1085-1095.. Economic Analysis of Two Stage Dual-Fluid Absorption Cycle for Optimizing Generator Temperatures. Energy Convers. & Mmgt. Elsevier Science Ltd. 2001,Vol. 42, pp.407-437.. Performance and Economic study of the combined Absorption/ Compression Heat Pump, ...
Everyone knows that hot fluid rises and cold fluid sinks. These buoyancy driven flows, known as thermal convection, are physical phenomena of great importance for engineering applications and throughout the geophysical and astrophysical sciences. Heat transfer by natural convection is a basic consideration for insulation, ventilation, and climate control in buildings, in automotive engineering and for the thermal management of electronic devices and systems. Thermal convection occurs naturally in the earths atmosphere and oceans and plays a fundamental role in the global heat transfer processes determining the weather and controlling the climate. On geological time scales, convection in the earths mantle is the driving force behind continental drift. On the largest scales, convective heat transport in stars is a primary factor in the balance between ongoing thermonuclear explosions in the core and gravitational attraction that determines their structure.. Despite its ubiquity in everyday life, ...
Fluid Convection, Generation and Reinfusion in Haemodiafiltration. By Emily J. See, Carmel M. Hawley, John WM. Agar and David W. Johnson. Despite widespread use in clinical practice for over 30 years, many questions remain unanswered regarding fluid convection and reinfusion strategies in haemodiafiltration (HDF). Randomised controlled trials have failed to consistently demonstrate improved survival with convective therapies, but a dose-dependent improvement in outcome has been suggested. The minimum and ideal volumes of convection are undefined. Online generation of ultrapure dialysis fluid has allowed unprecedented convection volumes; however, delivery of fluid directly into the blood circuit requires strict monitoring. The replacement fluid may be reinfused at multiple points in the circuit. Post-dilution HDF is highly efficient in terms of solute clearance but is limited by haemoconcentration. Pre-dilution HDF prolongs filter life but requires significant convection volumes to achieve ...
Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 7.6 years (range 3.2-18 years) underwent 39 catheter insertions for CED between 2012 and 2017. Thirty catheter insertions had tractography data available for analysis. The mean trajectory length was 105.5 mm (range 92.7-121.6 mm). The mean number of intersections of CST by catheter was 2.2 (range 0-3) and the mean intersecting length was 18.9 mm (range 0-44.2 mm). The first 9 infusions in the highest dose level (range 3.84-4.54 ml infusate) were analyzed for Vd overlap with CST. In this group, the mean age was 7.6 years (range 5.8-10.3 years), the mean trajectory length was 109.5 mm (range 102.6-122.3 mm), and the mean overlap between Vd and CST was 5.5 cm3. For catheter placement-related adverse events, 1 patient (3%) had worsening of a contralateral facial nerve palsy following the procedure with two CST intersections, an intersecting distance of 31.7 mm, and an overlap between Vd and CST of 3.64 cm3. For infusion-related adverse events, transient ...
Here we review the improvements that have been made to CED devices over recent years and current state of the art for chronic infusion systems.
A Phase II, multi-center, open-label, single-arm study in up to 42 subjects with first recurrence or progression of GBM at up to 12 sites in Australia, Europe, Israel, and the United States. Subjects will receive intratumoral infusion of PRX321 administered via convection-enhanced delivery (CED) at a concentration of 1.5 μg/mL and a total volume of 60 mL over 2 to 7 days.. Primary Objective:. To evaluate the efficacy (expressed as overall survival at 6 months [OS-6]) of intratumoral infusion of PRX321 in subjects with first recurrence or progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).. Secondary Objectives:. To assess the safety of intratumoral infusion with PRX321 in subjects with recurrent or progressive GBM.. To evaluate objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS).. Tertiary Objective:. To evaluate the relationship of observed infusate distribution with clinical and radiological responses. ...
Conduction, convection, and radiation are all forms of heat transfer, but they rely on different physical interactions to transfer heat. Conduction occurs when heated solid matter transfers heat....
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Numerical simulation of forced convection of nanofluid around a circular cylinder - Archives of Thermodynamics
1 1 sin dx using Gauss Quadrature Method. x x 3 b) Explain and draw flow chart for Simpsons 8 y = f(x). 8 th rule to find area under the curve 8 [3663] 107 4 *3663107* 6 11. a) Explain the use of computers in construction project management. b) Write an algorithm to find critical path in a CPM network. 6[price]Applied RheologyPublications[hdpe]Heat Transfer of Third Grade Fluid Flow in a Pipe Under An Externally Applied Magnetic Field with Convection on Wall Appl. Rheol. 28:5 (2018) 56023 (11 pages) In this research, a fully developed steady flow of a third Grade fluid in a pipe under an externally applied maGnetic field with convection on [price][3663] 101 PDF Free Download ZOMBIEDOC.COM[hdpe]1 1 sin dx using Gauss Quadrature Method. x x 3 b) Explain and draw flow chart for Simpsons 8 y = f(x). 8 th rule to find area under the curve 8 [3663] 107 4 *3663107* 6 11. a) Explain the use of computers in construction project management. b) Write an algorithm to find critical path in a CPM network. ...
A fully coupled meteorology‐chemistry‐aerosol mesoscale model (WRF‐Chem) is used to simulate a multiday biomass burning event in the dry season of South America. The effects of biomass burning aerosols on clouds and precipitation are described at both 36 km and 4 km horizontal resolutions. The dominant effect of the aerosols is to reduce the diurnal amplitude of convection by decreasing clouds and precipitation in the afternoon but increasing them at night, with the afternoon decrease greater than the nighttime increase on the daily mean. On average, the decrease of surface precipitation is about 5% (3%) and the amplitude of diurnal cycle is reduced by about 11% (5%) in the 36 km (4 km) simulations. Such a modulation of clouds and precipitation is primarily contributed by the aerosol radiative effect, i.e., their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation. The aerosol microphysical effect as cloud condensation nuclei tends to act oppositely to the aerosol radiative effect but with a ...
V. P. Trubitsyn and A. M. Bobrov Abstract Thermomechanical interaction between the mantle and continents strongly affects mantle convection patterns. We present a numerical study of this interaction. Numerical models of mantle convection with free-floating rigid continents must include boundary conditions at mantle-continent interfaces. We state these conditions using solutions at successive time steps $\Delta t$. First, with fixed positions of continents, thermal convection is calculated for the whole region excluding the continents; then the instantaneous velocity $V$ of their displacement can be obtained. At the next time step mantle convection is calculated with the new positions of continents now shifted by the distance $V\Delta t$. No-slip conditions at the mantle-continent interface cannot be used, because $V$ equals zero in that case. We suggest boundary conditions at mantle-continent interfaces where velocities of the continents are accepted to be equal to the mean velocities of the ...
Despite the improvements in the parameterizations of physical processes and higher grid spacings of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models over the past decades, quantitative precipitation forecasting still remains a challenge for state-of-the-art numerical models. In particular, the forecast of deep moist convection in situations with weak synoptic forcing over both flat and orographically structured terrain is still inadequate for many applications. With prevailing weak synoptic-scale forcing, land-atmosphere interactions are assumed to be decisive for cloud formation and subsequent convective precipitation. Surface heterogeneities ranging from large scales (100 km) to kilometric scales can cause atmospheric circulations which themselves modify the boundary layer structure and cloud formation. For example, soil moisture influences heat and moisture fluxes into the planetary boundary layer and uncertainties in the initial state can introduce large forecast errors. Furthermore, the feedback ...
Convection motions within the Sun transport heat from its interior to its surface. The hot regions are seen as granular (∼1000 kilometers across) and supergranular (∼30,000 kilometers across) cells in the Sun. Using data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hathaway et al. (p. 1217) found evidence for even larger cells that have long been predicted by theory but not unambiguously detected. The flows associated with these giant cells transport angular momentum toward the equator and are important for maintaining the Suns equatorial rotation.. Video follows: GO WITH THE FLOW Long-lasting plasma flows appear in red and blue in this animation, which portrays data from four solar rotations. Some flows persist for several months; these patterns are especially visible near the suns north pole. Scientists think these flows keep the suns equator rotating faster than its poles.. ...
The proposition that a high rate of evapotranspiration from forested regions is a prime mover of major air mass convection has remained contentious. Meesters et al. (2009) rejected the BPT on the grounds that the ascending air motions induced by the evaporative/condensation force would rapidly restore hydrostatic equilibrium and thereby become extinguished. In reply Makarieva et al. (2009) pointed out that condensation removed water vapour molecules from the gas phase and reduced the weight of the air column. That removal must disturb hydrostatic equilibrium and make air circulate under the action of the evaporation/condensation force (Makarieva, 2009). The mass of an air column is equal to the number of air molecules in the column multiplied by their molecular masses. When the number of air molecules in the column is preserved, its weight remains unchanged and independent of density. Hence, heating of the air column does not change its weight. In contrast, condensation changes the number of gas ...
ZCZC MIATCDAT2 ALL TTAA00 KNHC DDHHMM TROPICAL DEPRESSION FRED DISCUSSION NUMBER 21 NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL072009 500 PM AST SAT SEP 12 2009 OTHER THAN A SHORT-LIVED PUFF OF DEEP CONVECTION WELL-REMOVED FROM THE CIRCULATION CENTER...FRED IS NOW A SWIRL OF LOW CLOUDS DEVOID OF DEEP CONVECTION. IN FACT...THERE HAS BEEN NO CENTRAL CONVECTION ASSOCIATED WITH FRED SINCE ABOUT 0000 UTC....AND FRED IS NO LONGER CLASSIFIABLE USING THE DVORAK TECHNIQUE. THE LACK OF DEEP CONVECTION ALSO MEANS THAT FRED IS NO LONGER A TROPICAL CYCLONE... AND IS NOW DECLARED A REMNANT LOW. THE INITIAL INTENSITY IS LOWERED TO 30 KT...BASED UPON AN EARLIER QUIKSCAT PASS AND THE ASSUMPTION THAT THERE HAS BEEN ADDITIONAL WEAKENING SINCE THAT TIME. WHAT REMAINS OF FRED SHOULD BEGIN MOVING NORTHWESTWARD TO WEST- NORTHWESTWARD WITH AN INCREASE IN FORWARD SPEED OVER THE NEXT 12 TO 24 HOURS...AS A LOW- TO MID-LEVEL RIDGE BUILDS TO ITS NORTH. SEVERAL GLOBAL MODELS STILL MAINTAIN THE REMNANTS OF FRED DURING THE ...
Charney and Eliassen (1964) argued in essence that the depth of the free tropospheric secondary circulation associated with cross-isobaric frictional flow is comparable to the depth of the troposphere. As noted in section 1, the steady-state approximation would be valid if this were true, and the vertical motion at the top of the boundary layer could be said to be caused by the action of surface friction. However, as we have shown, typical values of atmospheric stratification result in a far shallower secondary circulation in response to surface friction. Under these circumstances, the time tendency of the wind along the isobars cannot be neglected for a flow of any reasonable horizontal scale (say , 1000 km) in the tropics. For horizontal scales of order 100 km or less, the vertical scale of the secondary circulation is typically much smaller than the thickness of the layer over which surface friction is deposited, especially when there is widespread shallow, moist convection such as occurs in ...
Article Entropy generation due to forced convection fluid flow about a solid sphere. The problem of entropy generation for laminar fluid flow around a solid sphere subjected to uniform heat flux is investigated numerically using a finite-difference t...
n this work, a simple numerical model of the evaporation process of a single droplet of various fuels, e.g., n-alkanes (n-decane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) and kerosene is evaluated with various correlations at standard pressure (0.1 MPa) and various uniform temperature fields. The effect of natural, forced or combined convection is explored using an effective Reynolds number (Reeff). Studies are performed for n-alkanes and kerosene droplets and have been compared with the empirical data available in the literature for the temporal variation of droplet diameter, droplet surface temperature, and average evaporation rate constants at various temperatures under free-stream and quiescent conditions. A good match is observed for a particular property rule (Eq. 10), with different convective correlations, depending on the convective conditions present.. ...
With this hands-on kit students perform investigations to learn how air masses are formed and how air moves in response to changes in temperature. These investigations help students gain an understanding of the terms air mass, convection current, and front.
The adjoint method for data assimilation is a gradient-based inversion technique which is especially useful for inverting nonlinear dynamic systems. Recently, its application for simulating geophysical problems has been proved promising. In this paper, we try to introduce the adjoint method in a systematic way, from the theoretical basis to its practical implementation in numerical models of mantle convection, with several examples to help the understanding. The adjoint operator of a temporally evolving system can be derived based on the perturbation theory, where a mismatch in the model output against observation is attributed to an error in the input, with their relation approximated as a first-order derivative (gradient) of the least-squared mismatch with respect to the input. For a nonlinear system, iterative processing is inevitable; the efficiency and convergence rate depend on the amount of a-priori information about the input (e.g. the initial condition). Seismic tomography, which ...
Heat Transfer- conduction, convection, and radiation practice that involves reading comprehension and application! Many students these days have a terribly difficult time comprehending nonfiction & informational text - textbooks, websites, articles etc.
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Oven vs Convection Oven An oven is a chamber or an enclosed compartment that is thermally insulated for heating, baking, or drying substances. Ovens are
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Abstract The influence of the melt flow on the solidification structure is bilateral. The flow plays an important role in the solidification pattern, viathe heat transfer, grain distribution, and...
Convection. Radiation. CD 3-way split w/ The Wind-Up Bird and 1 Mile North (Music Fellowship) Travels In Constants (Vol. 18): ...
When the convection is strong and linear or curved, the MCS is called a squall line, with the feature placed at the leading ... In the warm season, lee troughs, breezes, outflow boundaries and occlusions can lead to convection if enough moisture is ... "Convection". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2006-10-22. "Orographic Lifting". Glossary of ...
Through 2012, X-Acto sold ceramic and convection space heaters and fans under the Boston brand name. Knife Scalpel Arts and ... "Ceramic Heaters , Heater with Fan , Convection Heater , X-ACTO". 24 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. ...
From 1992 to 1996 he published four more books, Convection in Porous Media, Heat Transfer, Thermal Design and Optimization and ... In 1984 he published Convection Heat Transfer'. In an era when researchers did heat transfer calculations using numerical ... Bejan, Adrian; Khair, Khairy R. (1985). "Heat and mass transfer by natural convection in a porous medium". International ... ISBN 978-0-471-89612-8., updated in 1995, 2004, and 2013: Bejan, Adrian (2013). Convection Heat Transfer (4th ed.). Wiley. ISBN ...
Small-scale sublithospheric convection; Oceanic intraplate extension; Slab tearing and break-off; Shallow mantle convection; ... A mantle plume is a proposed mechanism of convection of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle. Because the plume head ... Tan, K. K.; Thorpe, R. B. (1999). "The onset of convection driven by buoyancy caused by various modes of transient heat ... doi:10.1016/S0009-2509(98)00248-6. Tan, K.K. & Thorpe, R. B. (1999). "The onset of convection driven by buoyancy caused by ...
Cannon, D. J.; Troy, C. D.; Liao, Q.; Bootsma, H. A. (2019-06-28). "Ice‐Free Radiative Convection Drives Spring Mixing in a ... Kelley, Dan E. (1997). "Convection in ice-covered lakes: effects on algal suspension". Journal of Plankton Research. 19 (12): ... Austin, Jay A. (2019-04-22). "Observations of radiatively driven convection in a deep lake". Limnology and Oceanography. 64 (5 ... Bouffard, Damien; Wüest, Alfred (2019-01-05). "Convection in Lakes" (PDF). Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 51 (1): 189-215. ...
p. 3.2 Mantle convection. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Dumé, Belle (27 July 2005). "Geoneutrinos make their debut; Radiogenic ...
"Experiment: Heat Flow and Convection". NASA. Archived from the original on 2011-05-01. Retrieved 2011-02-10. Apollo 17 Heat ... Apollo 17 carried an additional Speedmaster to lunar orbit as part of the heat flow and convection experiment conducted by ... Flow and Convection Experiments (PDF) (Technical Memorandum), NASA, 1973-07-16, TM-X 64772 "Apollo 17 Flown Omega Stainless ...
Three regimes of mantle convection with non-Newtonian viscosity and stagnant lid convection on the terrestrial planets. Geophys ... Scaling of time-dependent stagnant lid convection: application to small-scale convection on Earth and other terrestrial planets ... The lid will not participate in the underlying convection of the mantle. At the base of the lithosphere, where the lid is in ... Gurnis M. (1989). "A reassessment of the heat transport by variable viscosity convection with plates and lids" (PDF). ...
Cellulose inhibits convection more effectively. In general, loose fill is seen as being better at reducing the presence of gaps ... However, heat flow to and from surfaces also occurs via convection, which in some geometries is different in different ... Convection or Radiation) to transfer from one side to another. Reflective Insulation is one of the Heat/Thermal Insulation to ... the sun's heat arrives by radiating through space and not by conduction or convection. At night the absence of heat (i.e. cold ...
These clouds may later metamorphose into cumulus clouds when convection is intense enough, though the presence of these types ... Cumulus mediocris Atmospheric convection "Windows2Universe". "NOAA Turbulence Guide". Retrieved 2018-06-03. CS1 maint: ...
Thermomagnetic convection Alves, C.S.; Colman, F.C.; Foleiss, G.L.; Vieira, G.T.F.; Szpak, W. (November 2013). "Numerical ...
Plates, Plumes and Mantle Convection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Herzberg, C., Condie, K., & Korenaga, J. 2010. ...
This fluid circulation is known as Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The fluid is assumed to circulate in two dimensions (vertical ... Gorman, M.; Widmann, P.J.; Robbins, K.A. (1986). "Nonlinear dynamics of a convection loop: A quantitative comparison of ... In 1963, Edward Lorenz, with the help of Ellen Fetter, developed a simplified mathematical model for atmospheric convection. ... doi:10.1016/0167-2789(93)90006-M. Saltzman, Barry (1962). "Finite Amplitude Free Convection as an Initial Value Problem-I". ...
The air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain (orographic lift ... Graupel and hail indicate convection. In mid-latitudes, convective precipitation is intermittent and often associated with ... Robert A. Houze Jr (October 1997). "Stratiform Precipitation in Regions of Convection: A Meteorological Paradox?" (PDF). ... Robert Houze (October 1997). "Stratiform Precipitation in Regions of Convection: A Meteorological Paradox?". Bulletin of the ...
This is called Bénard-Marangoni convection. Pearson, J. R. A. (1958). "On convection cells induced by surface tension". Journal ... convection) occurs, driven by the gradients in the surface tension. ...
Runcorn applies the Rayleigh's theory of convection: convection occurs if viscosity under the crust is less than 1026-1027 CGS ... Although convection would mix up the mantle and make it homogeneous. The seafloor cycle with subduction and upwelling is ... a model with convection), (Holmes 1944); then to Felix Andries Vening Meinesz (gravity anomalies along the oceanic trenches ... "Convection plumes in the lower mantle". Nature. 230 (5288): 42-43. Bibcode:1971Natur.230...42M. doi:10.1038/230042a0. S2CID ...
Suryanarayana, N. V. (2000). "3.2.2 Forced Convection - External Flows". In Kreith, Frank (ed.). The CRC Handbook of Thermal ...
W. J. Morgan (1971). "Convection Plumes in the Lower Mantle". Nature. 230 (5288): 42-43. Bibcode:1971Natur.230...42M. doi: ...
This allows for heat transfer via convection to occur. Blood vessels transfer heat by convection. Convection is dominated by ... With convection, the heat in the system moves from a point of high heat concentration to low heat concentration, a concept ... This increases the overall capillary surface area, allowing for increased heat transfer through convection. Surface charges on ...
A fan or pump might be the only mechanical moving parts; reliance on convection is considered impractical. Other uses of an ... The most efficient is the chest-style freezer, as its top-opening design minimizes convection when opening the doors, reducing ...
This profile extends on roughly radial lines through the solar convection zone to the interior. At the tachocline the rotation ... At the base of the convection zone". Solar Physics. 125 (1-2): 137-150. Bibcode:1985GApFD..31..137G. doi:10.1080/ ...
... is a phenomenon of convection carrying material beyond an unstable region of the atmosphere into a ... Gilman, Peter A. (2000). "Fluid Dynamics and MHD of the Solar Convection Zone and Tachocline: Current Understanding and ... Another example of convective overshoot is at the base of the convection zone in the solar interior. The heat of the Sun's ... is carried outward by radiation in the deep interior radiation zone and by convective circulation in the outer convection zone ...
With respect to convection, variations in velocity between flow paths in the bulk facilitate the distribution of the dispersed ... This process is facilitated by molecular diffusion and convection. With respect to molecular diffusion, dispersion occurs as a ... Mauri, Roberto (May 1991). "Dispersion, convection, and reaction in porous media". Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics. 3 (5): ... the mechanism of dispersion is primarily driven by convection in cases where there is significant turbulent flow in the bulk. ...
... most of the convection had weakened. July 17 06:00 UTC (2:00 a.m. AST) at 10°24′N 49°06′W / 10.4°N 49.1°W / 10.4; -49.1 ( ...
Prentice, A.J.R.; Dyt, C.P. (2003). "A numerical simulation of supersonic turbulent convection relating to the formation of the ... Dyt, C.P.; Prentice, A.J.R. (1998). "A numerical simulation of supersonic thermal convection". Monthly Notices of the Royal ... Prentice's nested gas rings arise due to the effect of 'supersonic turbulent convection' in slowing the infall of interstellar ... Prentice, A. J. R. (1976). "Supersonic Turbulent Convection, Inhomogeneities of Chemical Composition, and the Solar Neutrino ...
Kidder, J.G.; Phillips, R.J. (1996). "Convection-driven subsolidus crustal thickening on Venus". Journal of Geophysical ...
Convection organized around the center, signaling intensification. On November 16, the IMD upgraded the depression to a deep ... by which time a well-defined eye was centered in the deepest convection, or thunderstorms. A day later, the cyclone reached ...
This implies that Venus lacks convection in its outer core. Convection occurs when there is a large difference in temperature ... These may be caused by mantle convection. Many of the tectonic features such as tesserae (large regions of highly deformed ... it is possible that outer core convection is being suppressed by a warm mantle. It's also possible that Venus may lack a solid ... there is no release of the latent heat of crystallization there to steepen the temperature gradient and increase convection. ...
A feature of the LHPG technique is its high convection speed in the liquid phase due to Marangoni convection. It is possible to ... The video presented in the following reference shows the liquid phase convection during lithium niobate (LiNbO3) fiber pulling ... "Convection in Laser Heated Pedestal Growth technique". YouTube.. ...
Natural convection results from the tendency of most fluids to expand when heated-i.e., to become less dense and to rise as a ... Convection, process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid such as air or water. ... atmosphere: Convection. Vertical mixing (convection) occurs in the atmosphere as well as in bodies of water. This process of ... Natural convection results from the tendency of most fluids to expand when heated-i.e., to become less dense and to rise as a ...
... a single-source resource all cylinder heat transfer correlations Presents an exhaustive treatment of natural convection from ... Natural Convection from Circular Cylinders. Authors. * Sandra Boetcher Series Title. SpringerBriefs in Thermal Engineering and ... This book covers all natural convection heat transfer laws for vertical and inclined cylinders and is an excellent resource for ... Presents an exhaustive treatment of natural convection from cylinders including robust data sets collected from hard-to-find ...
... J Neurosci Methods. 2016 Feb 1;259:47-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth. ... Background: Intraparenchymal convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of therapeutics directly into the brain has long been endorsed ...
These investigations help students gain an understanding of the terms air mass, convection current, and front. ... Carolina® Air Mass and Convection Kit. Item # 749109 *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... These investigations help students gain an understanding of the terms air mass, convection current, and front. Kit includes a ... These investigations help students gain an understanding of the terms air mass, convection current, and front. ...
Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits synonyms, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits pronunciation, Convection, ... Rotation and Planetary Transits translation, English dictionary definition of Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits. Jean ... Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits - definition of Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits by The Free Dictionary ... redirected from Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits). Also found in: Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. Co·rot. (kô-rō′, kə-), ...
... convection, and radiation practice that involves reading comprehension and application! Many students these days have a ... convection, and radiation practice that involves reading comprehension and application! Many students these days have a ... Heat Transfer- conduction, convection, and radiation practice that involves reading comprehension and application! Many ...
Find suppliers, manufacturers and distributors for Bakery, Convection Systems and Equipment including Catering and Hostelry ... Convection Systems and Equipment from the EngNet Engineering Directory and search engine. ...
Convergence natural convection in an open cavity Tanveer. FLUENT. 3. June 17, 2008 01:52. ... natural convection problem in cfx NVSD BABU. CFX. 7. November 13, 2008 11:56. ... Natural convection problem in CFX 11 Willy. CFX. 2. May 23, 2008 23:12. ... Natural convection problem (CFX 11.0) Willy. CFX. 0. May 13, 2008 21:19. ...
The convection zone begins at about 70% of the radius and the heat transport is fast by convection ... its clear to me that the count of convection cells in the Northern hemisphere + log(convection cells in the southern hemisphere ... Their article causes me to wonder, is there an active sun convection cell structure versus a quiet sun convection cell ... Do these convection zones have any relationship to the filaments that make flares?. No, not directly.. Also do they have any ...
Article Entropy generation due to forced convection fluid flow about a solid sphere. The problem of entropy generation for ... Entropy generation due to forced convection fluid flow about a .... Entropy generation due to forced convection fluid flow ... No comments were found for Entropy generation due to forced convection fluid flow about a solid sphere. Be the first to comment ... Keywords: entropy generation, solid sphere, laminar fluid flow, forced convection, heat flux, finite difference, heat transfer ...
Oven vs Convection Oven An oven is a chamber or an enclosed compartment that is thermally insulated for heating, baking, or ... Difference Between Oven and Convection Oven. • Categorized under Objects , Difference Between Oven and Convection Oven ... Oven vs Convection Oven. An oven is a chamber or an enclosed compartment that is thermally insulated for heating, baking, or ...
Double Electric Wall Oven Self-Cleaning with Convection in Stainless Steel PT9550SFSS ... Broiler,Convection Oven,Hidden Bake Element. Convection Oven,Food Temperature Probe,Hidden Bake Element. Broiler,Convection ... Can you do non- convection baking, or is the convection always on? ... Double Electric Smart Wall Oven Self-Cleaning with Convection and. One look at the GE Cafe kitchen and One look at the GE Cafe ...
Convection-enhanced delivery in glioblastoma: A review of preclinical and clinical studies. J. Neurosurg. 126, 191-200 (2017). ... Diffusion and convection in collagen gels: Implications for transport in the tumor interstitium. Biophys. J. 83, 1650-1660 ( ... Convection-enhanced drug delivery: Increased efficacy and magnetic resonance image monitoring. Cancer Res. 65, 6858-6863 (2005 ... Effects of fluid convection and particle spin on ferrohydrodynamic pumping in traveling wave magnetic fields. J. Magn. Magn. ...
Entropy generation problem for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation in a vertical porous enclosure, submitted to a ... Article Entropy generation for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation inside a porous enclosure. ... Entropy generation for unsteady natural convection and thermal .... Entropy generation for unsteady natural convection and ... No comments were found for Entropy generation for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation inside a porous enclosure. ...
This transilient matrix can then be used to answer several questions about convection. In a simulation of moist convection, it ... In moist convection, the lifetimes of clouds are on the order of 1 h, so bij should be independent of τ so long as τ is much ... A Transilient Matrix for Moist Convection David M. Romps; David M. Romps ... To analyze steady-state convection, the purity tracer is reset to 1 below h at every time step. Above h, the purity is set to 0 ...
Observations place some constraints on the theory of convection in stellar cores. ... The evolution of a star through the helium flash depends upon uncertain aspects of convection theory. ... Wickett A.J. (1977) Convection in the helium flash. In: Spiegel E.A., Zahn JP. (eds) Problems of Stellar Convection. Lecture ... The evolution of a star through the helium flash depends upon uncertain aspects of convection theory. Observations place some ...
Buoyant convection begins at the level of free convection (LFC), above which an air parcel may ascend through the free ... The latent heat release from condensation is the determinate between significant convection and almost no convection at all. ... "Open-ocean deep convection".. *^ National Weather Service Forecast Office in Tucson, Arizona (2008). "What is a monsoon?". ... "Shallow/Deep Convection". National Centers for Environmental Prediction. 15 March 1999.. *^ Helen Jones. " ...
Granular convection has been probed by the use of MRI [8] where convection rolls similar to those in fluids (Bénard cells) can ... Under experimental conditions, granular convection of variously sized particles has been observed forming convection cells ... Granular Convection and Size Separation. The University of Chicago *^ Rosato, A.; Strandburg, K.J.; Prinz, F.; Swendsen, R.H. ( ... If a large particle is involved, it will be moved up to the top by convection flow. Once at the top, the large particle will ...
Panasonic India offers microwave convection ovens which are designed with dual heating, 20L - 27L capacity, black mirror finish ...
... referred to as free convection, occurs when the environmental lapse rate (the rate of change of an atmospheric variable, such ... In atmosphere: Convection. This process, referred to as free convection, occurs when the environmental lapse rate (the rate of ... to as free convection (or natural convection), occurs when the environmental lapse rate (the rate of change of an atmospheric ... Alternative Titles: convective turbulence, natural convection. Learn about this topic in these articles:. importance in Earth ...
Convection Oven - • 23L Compact Double Heater Oven • Large-area flat cavity • Double Heater Oven 40°C, 100-220°C • Simultaneous ...
Artisans who make mezcal, a traditional Mexican spirit, have known for centuries that long-lasting bubbles on the surface of the beverage is an indicator that it has been distilled to the right alcohol level. A new study reveals the science behind why that is. In part, it has to do with whats known as the Marangoni effect. Certain chemicals in mezcal cause liquid to convect upwards into the membranes of bubbles, which helps sustain them for a longer period.
Movement, or convection, in this layer is also responsible for all of Earths volcanic and seismic activity. Information about ... A stable atmospheric event thats found here on Earth as well, open cell convection can be compared to the action of boiling ... This in turn is believed to cause the liquid elements to become buoyant, helping to drive convection in the outer core. This ... What were seeing here is thought to be an open cell convection process in Titans upper atmosphere. In open cells, air sinks ...
Sometimes the term "convection" is used to refer specifically to "free heat convection" (natural heat convection) which is due ... However, in thermodynamics "convection" often refers specifically to heat transfer by convection. Additionally, convection ... Although forced convection from thermal gas expansion in zero-g does not fuel a fire as well as natural convection in a gravity ... The convection zone of a star is the range of radii in which energy is transported primarily by convection. Granules on the ...
The size of convection cells is largely determined by the fluids properties. Convection cells can even occur when the heating ... Such movement is called convection, and the moving body of liquid is referred to as a convection cell. This particular type of ... Convection usually requires a gravitational field, but in microgravity experiments, thermal convection has been observed ... Convection cells can form in any fluid, including the Earths atmosphere (where they are called Hadley cells), boiling water, ...
Use a convection oven to speed the turkey cook time per pound. The hot air circulating around the turkey reduces the overall ... Convection Oven Cooking Turkey Time Per Pound By Ruth de Jauregui Updated March 27, 2019 ... Because the convection oven depends on air circulation to speed the cooking process, use a roasting pan with low sides. If you ... A convection oven is a time-saving addition to your kitchen. The primary difference between a conventional oven and a ...
AirFryer Convection Oven is a premium full-s ... 7 Cooking Functions - AirFry, Convection Bake, Convection Broil ... TOA-60A - Introducing a healthier way to fry, and so much more! The Cuisinart® AirFryer Convection Oven is a premium full-size ... Enjoy the crunch without the calories and messy cleanup, with the AirFryer Convection Oven from Cuisinart®! Easy ...
A convection-cooled electronic system includes an electronic device and a stand. The electronic device has air intake openings ... In operation, the heat emitted by the electronic components within the device housing creates airflow by convection. Convection ... A convection-cooled electronic system includes an electronic device and a stand. The electronic device has air intake openings ... Embodiments of the invention relate to a system and method in which an electronic device is cooled by air convection through a ...
Convection cell definition, a distinct volume of circulating fluid, in a fluid medium under gravity, that is heated from below ... convection cell. convalesce, convalescence, convalescent, convect, convection, convection cell, convection oven, convection ...
Convection ovens take the term full of hot air to an optimistic level. The convection oven, using hot air to help decrease ... Save money now and later with a rebate on a high-efficiency natural gas convection oven and reduce operating and energy costs. ...
Convection ovens boast the ability to cook food faster, more evenly, and with better browning, while also saving energy ... Best Convection Ovens. Convection ovens boast the ability to cook food faster, more evenly, and with better browning, while ... Convection ovens come in a range of different sizes, and most offer a variety of functions designed for different foods, like ... As the most affordable pick here, this Oster oven is a great choice for those who want to add a convection oven to their ...
Samsung 28 L Convection Microwave MC288TVTCSQ/TL with Slim fry. Microwave oven with curd making, 150 Indian menus, Tandoor ... MC288TVTCSQ Convection MWO with Slim Fry, 28 L. MC288TVTCSQ/TL MC288TVTCSQ Convection MWO with Slim Fry, 28 L is rated 5.0 out ...
... leading to the self-aggregation of convection. Clouds fascinate people in many ways and with the right amount of imagination ... where the radiative cooling is balanced by randomly distributed moist convection, called radiative-convective-equilibrium. It ...
Observations from NASAs orbiting Solar Dynamics Observatory enabled scientists to confirm the existence of giant flows of gases and plasma moving heat from the suns core to its surface, ending 45 years of speculation and helping better understand sunspot activity that can disrupt communications on Earth.
Visualize the fluid motion of convection cells. This phenomenon occurs all around us but is usually unseen. For this activity, ... Pie-Pan Convection. Its cool to be dense-just watch these convection cells.. Visualize the fluid motion of convection cells. ... Convection happens in all types of fluids and locations. You can discover it in: * Liquids: Convection cells occur in liquids ... This causes the convection cells to widen and become extremely well defined. This slowing of the convection process allows the ...
Weather for UK, Ireland and the world. Sailing, Marine Weather, Weather maps, radar, satellite, climate, historic weather data, information about meteorology, reports, weather warning.
Convection currents occur due to the density difference between hot and cold fluids. A fluid that is heated from below expands ... How does convection work?. A: Convection works by transferring heat from a hot substance to a cooler one through the motion of ... Convection currents occur due to the density difference between hot and cold fluids. A fluid that is heated from below expands ... Convection is the only one of the three heat transfer methods to involve the movement of matter. The other two methods, ...
A convection oven is an oven that creates a uniform temperature with internal fans. Convection ovens are the best for ensuring ... Im just now learning to use my new convection/microwave oven in our new RV. Can you make toast in the convection oven and if ... I am planning to replace my microwave with a convection oven because of health concerns. Is a convection oven useful in warming ... Does anyone know if you can microwave immediately after using the convection part of the microwave convection oven or do you ...
Enjoy homemade dough or yoghurt with the advanced fermentation technology with MW5000H Convection MWO, 28 L. Ensure a more ... MW5000H Convection MWO with Dough proof/Yogurt, 28 L. MC28H5013AW/EU MW5000H Convection MWO with Dough proof/Yogurt, 28 L is ... MW5000H Convection MWO with Dough proof/Yogurt, 28 L Reviews - page 2 ...
Convection-enhanced delivery of AAV2-PrPshRNA in prion-infected mice.. Ahn M1, Bajsarowicz K2, Oehler A2, Lemus A2, Bankiewicz ...
Convection currents are one of three types of heat transfer, which involve the movement of energy from a... ... Convection currents flow in the asthenosphere, immediately below the rocky outer lithosphere. ... How do convection currents move tectonic plates?. A: Convection currents move tectonic plates when there is heat inside the ... Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of a heated fluid. Convection currents start in the Earths core and mantle ...
Thermochemical convection can thus reconcile the survival of geochemically distinct reservoirs with the small amplitude of ... To understand the forms that convection might take in such a mantle, I have conducted laboratory experiments on thermochemical ... For intermediate density contrasts, a doming regime of convection is observed, in which hot domes oscillate vertically ... scaling laws derived from the experiments show that the mantle might have evolved from strictly stratified convection 4 Gyr ago ...
  • A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. (ametsoc.org)
  • In a simulation of moist convection, it can tell us where in the boundary layer cumuli originate. (ametsoc.org)
  • The predictability of deep moist convection depends on many factors, such as the synoptic-scale flow, the geographical region (i.e., the presence of mountains), and land surface-atmosphere as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. (copernicus.org)
  • In particular, the forecast of deep moist convection in situations with weak synoptic forcing over both flat and orographically structured terrain is still inadequate for many applications. (wavestoweather.de)
  • We consider the onset of thermosolutal (double-diffusive) convection of a binary fluid in a horizontal porous layer subject to fixed temperatures and chemical equilibrium on the bounding surfaces, in the case when the solubility of the dissolved component depends on temperature. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Electric Convection Double Wall Oven provides a full 5.0 cu. ft. capacity per oven for ample cooking space. (homedepot.com)
  • Turbofan® Convection Oven, elec. (tamirson.com)
  • Atmospheric convection currents can be set up by local heating effects such as solar radiation (heating and rising) or contact with cold surface masses (cooling and sinking). (britannica.com)
  • Such convection currents primarily move vertically and account for many atmospheric phenomena, such as clouds and thunderstorms. (britannica.com)
  • Pirich, R.G., and Larson, D.J. (1982) Influnce of Gravity Driven Convection on the Directional Solidification of Bi/ MnBi Eutectic Composites, pp. 523-532 in Materials Processing in the Reduced Gravity Environment of Space, ed. (springer.com)
  • Forced convection involves the transport of fluid by methods other than that resulting from variation of density with temperature . (britannica.com)
  • Entropy generation problem for unsteady natural convection and thermal radiation in a vertical porous enclosure, submitted to a uniform hot walls temperature and filled with a fluid saturated porous medium, has been performed. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The analysis suggests that the laser induced temperature distribution develops within 1 ms and Marangoni convection flow commences within 0.01-1 s, which increases by 1-2 orders of magnitude the mass transfer of dissolved molecules into the laser focus where they are trapped and aggregate by attractive van der Waals forces. (osapublishing.org)
  • Pritchard, D & Richardson, CN 2007, ' The effect of temperature-dependent solubility on the onset of thermosolutal convection in a horizontal porous layer ', Journal of Fluid Mechanics , vol. 571, pp. 59-95. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Heat Transfer- conduction, convection, and radiation practice that involves reading comprehension and application! (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • A transilient matrix was first defined for convection by Stull (1984) [see also the review by Stull (1993) ]. (ametsoc.org)
  • Baskaran V., Eisa G.F., Wilcox W.R. (1984) Influence of Convection on Eutectic Microstructure. (springer.com)
  • Natural convection results from the tendency of most fluids to expand when heated- i.e., to become less dense and to rise as a result of the increased buoyancy. (britannica.com)
  • 2) I have worked on few turbulence models concerning natural convection and have found v2f model to be most suitable. (cfd-online.com)
  • It has been found that the results obtained by the integral method are in good agreement with those obtained by Bejan and Khair [Heat and Mass Transfer by Natural Convection in a Porous medium, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 28, pp. 909-918, 1985]. (witpress.com)
  • Keywords: natural convection, porous media, heat and mass transfer. (witpress.com)
  • Natural Convection Induced Oxygen Transport in Liquid Lead Bismuth Eut" by Taide Tan, Yitung Chen et al. (unlv.edu)
  • To enhance the speed of oxygen transport in liquid LBE, natural convection has been proposed. (unlv.edu)
  • This paper numerically analyzes the oxygen transport in a natural convection induced LBE enclosure. (unlv.edu)
  • Convection Equation Over A Finite Domain. (edu.sa)
  • Analytical Solution Of The Diffusion - Convection Equation Over A Finite Domain. (edu.sa)
  • A modified transport scheme, which considers aerosol activation from entrained air above the cloud base and aerosol‐cloud interaction associated with convection, dramatically improves model agreement with in situ measurements suggesting that deep convection can efficiently remove primary aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • Here, we report the use of two distinct micropropellers powered by rotating magnetic fields to increase diffusion-limited NP transport by enhancing local fluid convection. (sciencemag.org)
  • We aim to develop a theoretical model including relevant physicochemical properties in order to review whether applied chemotherapeutics are suitable for passive diffusion through an intact BBB or whether local administration via convection-enhanced delivery (CED) may increase their therapeutic potential. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • This indicates that the dominant mechanisms for convection initiation remain but that precipitation amounts depend on the strength of the trigger mechanisms. (copernicus.org)
  • A coupled mechanism for molecular aggregation in a thin water solution film by laser-tweezers is suggested based on (i) simulation of light intensity distribution and (ii) order of magnitude analysis of heat and mass transport induced by Marangoni convection. (osapublishing.org)
  • Observations place some constraints on the theory of convection in stellar cores. (springer.com)
  • By either assimilation or comparison with geological observations, especially the dynamic topography inferred from stratigraphy, adjoint calculation of mantle convection can constrain unknown mantle dynamic properties while recovering the initial condition. (caltech.edu)
  • Convection motions within the Sun transport heat from its interior to its surface. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • In this paper, we try to introduce the adjoint method in a systematic way, from the theoretical basis to its practical implementation in numerical models of mantle convection, with several examples to help the understanding. (caltech.edu)
  • Convection , process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid such as air or water. (britannica.com)
  • The evolution of a star through the helium flash depends upon uncertain aspects of convection theory. (springer.com)
  • Plasma is ionized and massy particles, convection of which is the Sun's major heat transport mechanism. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Experiments were performed on MnBi-Bi eutectic using spinup/spin-down to provide controlled convection. (springer.com)
  • While less dynamically important than in the atmosphere, such oceanic convection is responsible for the worldwide existence of cold water in the lowest layers of the ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although elements of this debate still continue, results from seismic tomography, numerical simulations of mantle convection and examination of Earth's gravitational field are all beginning to suggest the existence of 'whole' mantle convection, at least at the present time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is now well accepted that subducting slabs cross the mantle transition zone and descend into the lower mantle, debate about the existence and continuity of plumes persists, with important implications for the style of mantle convection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atmospheric convection is called deep when it extends from near the surface to above the 500 hPa level, generally stopping at the tropopause at around 200 hPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior to the planet's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary convection may cause surface volcanism as a consequence of intraplate extension and mantle plumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mantle convection causes tectonic plates to move around the Earth's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • This value corresponds to whole mantle convection (i.e. convection extending from the Earth's surface to the border with the core). (wikipedia.org)
  • On a global scale, surface expression of this convection is the tectonic plate motions, and therefore has speeds of a few cm per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • This broad-scale pattern of flow is also consistent with the tectonic plate motions, which are the surface expression of convection in the Earth's mantle and currently indicate degree-2 convergence toward the western Pacific and the Americas, and divergence away from the central Pacific and Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat transfer due to natural convection inside a closed cavity must be modeled to include the effects of turbulence if the Rayleigh number is sufficiently large. (emerald.com)
  • This study assesses the performance of several commonly used numerical turbulence models such as k‐ε, Renormalized Group k‐ε and Reynolds stress model, in predicting heat transfer due to natural convection inside an air‐filled cubic cavity. (emerald.com)
  • Walsh, P.C. and Leong, W.H. (2004), "Effectiveness of several turbulence models in natural convection", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow , Vol. 14 No. 5, pp. 633-648. (emerald.com)
  • The strengths of a BINDER ED series drying chamber include routine drying and sterilization tasks up to 300 °C. Thanks to the natural convection, all thermal processes which use this drying chamber are highly efficient. (dksh.com)
  • The problem of free and natural convection with combined driving forces is considered in general and all possible configurations are identified. (harvard.edu)
  • Sheremet, M.A. and Pop, I. (2014) Natural Convection in a Square Porous Cavity with Sinusoidal Temperature Distributions on Both Side Walls Filled with a Nano-fluid Buongiorno's Mathematical Model. (scirp.org)
  • ABSTRACT: The work we present in this paper is a continuation of a series of studies on the numerical study of natural convection in a square porous cavity saturated by a Newtonian fluid. (scirp.org)
  • This course gives background on Newton's law of cooling, a brief description of the difference between natural convection and forced convection, a discussion of the dimensionless numbers used in convection heat transfer correlations, and an introduction to some of the typical configurations of interest for convection heat transfer. (suncam.com)
  • Then the rest of the course is devoted to presentation of correlations and example calculations for estimating natural convection and forced convection heat transfer coefficients. (suncam.com)
  • The overall objective of this course is to prepare those completing the course to calculate heat transfer coefficients for a variety of physical configurations of forced convection and natural convection. (suncam.com)
  • ebm-papst products help prepare all kinds of dishes and baked goods in convection ovens. (ebmpapst.com)
  • The foundation of the Convection Dryer is the same convection plenum that is used in our industry leading reflow ovens . (btu.com)
  • These smaller kitchens mean a trend to combination microwave/convection oven/grill units to replace ovens at least twice the size. (gadgetguy.com.au)
  • With convection cooking, you get consistent heating and better browning than conventional ovens because a fan circulates hot air within the cavity. (etundra.com)
  • You've got the option of electric ovens, a convection oven, gas freestanding ovens and more, manufactured by elite brands like Belling , Omega and Electrolux . (harveynorman.co.nz)
  • This Product Ranks 14 Out Of 111 In Commercial Convection Ovens. (centralrestaurant.com)
  • Convection ovens are not as common as conventional ovens, but they do have several advantages, especially when it comes to roasting meats. (leaf.tv)
  • Fan-assisted convection ovens are commonly used for baking. (hourinstant.biz)
  • Bertazzoni convection steam ovens use water vapor to cook food without harming its nutrients vitamins and minerals. (hourinstant.biz)
  • Fan-assisted convection ovens are also used for non-food industrial applications. (hourinstant.biz)
  • Even-Heat™ True Convection Oven - Produces flawless results. (percys.com)
  • The new Thermador Steam and Convection Oven is the industry's first steam oven to combine three distinct cooking solutions - Steam, True Convection and Combination (Steam and Convection) - with 40 automatic food programs and nine advanced cooking modes. (appliance.net)
  • o True Convection (85-450oF) - A fan on the back wall distributes the heat evenly throughout. (appliance.net)
  • Digital controls provide added convenience to bake, toast, broil, warm and convection cook in just one touch. (theaterforachange.com)
  • An energy-efficient alternative to turning on the full-size oven, this convection oven uses 50 percent less energy and offers digital settings, including bake, broil, toast, pizza, and defrost options, to take the guesswork out of cooking. (theaterforachange.com)
  • Professional Series Double Oven - Installs flush or proud - Dual diagonal convection fans, provide best-in-class even heat throughout the extra large 4.1 cu.ft oven cavity - bake evenly using all 7 levels of the oven - full-width 8 pass broiler. (baronsmajorbrands.com)
  • Circulates heat around the oven cavity with a 1600-watt convection element that allows baking at temperatures up to 425° F. (pagehardware.com)
  • Ft. 1000w Convection Over the Range 30" Microwave with High-Speed Cooking - White Features 1,000 Watts of Cooking Power Convection Cooking circulates heat around the oven cavity with a 1500-watt convection â ¦ When narrowing down your search for the best convection microwave, there are a number of questions that you should ask yourself to help you select the best appliance. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • This 27-inch unit uses convection technology for quick roasting and baking, and its Power Preheat function lets you start cooking with minimal delay. (star-power.com)
  • Perfect for the holidays when you need extra oven space or just for cooking dinner quickly on a weeknight, this large countertop convection oven uses convection technology to distribute heat evenly for thorough cooking and excellent results. (theaterforachange.com)
  • The unique bow-tie design and convection fan ensure the inside of the oven is heated to, and stays at, the perfect temperature. (percys.com)
  • The problem of steady, laminar, heat and mass transfer by mixed convection from a semi‐infinite, isothermal, vertical and permeable plate embedded in a uniform porous medium in the presence of temperature‐dependent heat source or sink and magnetic field effects is considered. (emerald.com)
  • Convection heat transfer takes place whenever a fluid is in contact with a solid surface that is at a different temperature than the fluid. (suncam.com)
  • It has 6 power levels and multiple cooking modes with convection temperature from â ¦ Free Shipping. (jacktophono.com)
  • Learners will use hot and cold water to see how fluids at different temperature move around in convection currents. (nasa.gov)
  • Helps in cooking food faster by combining convection, Grill mode and the Microwave function - depending on the dish, you could save up to 30% of your time. (haier.com)
  • MISE.EN.PLACE: Sincronize the food loading in the cooking chamber to have every pan ready at the same time. (archiexpo.com)
  • You've got two cooking options to choose from with the convection steamer working well for even the most delicate of foods and the boiler available to cook up a large batch of pasta or an amazing sauce to complement your other ingredients. (etundra.com)
  • Designed with turbo convection heat technology, this versatile electric oven uses a fan to circulate hot air and help ensure faster, more consistent cooking and browning. (theaterforachange.com)
  • Samsung 28 L Convection Microwave Oven (CE1041DSB2/TL, Black) has amazing features for easy cooking at home. (jacktophono.com)
  • Cooking a turkey breast in a convection oven takes less time than cooking one in a conventional oven. (leaf.tv)
  • A convection oven has at least one fan built into it to move the heated air around the food, which results in more even and faster cooking. (leaf.tv)
  • Cooking settings include microwave, convection, convection roast, convection â ¦ This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • The short and sweet answer is that convection microwaves offer the quick-cooking features of a microwave, with the browning, crisping, and full â cook-throughâ of a traditional oven. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • Convection Function - Allows you to achieve great cooking results in a fraction of the time Auto Defrost - The microwave can be used to perfectly defrost meat, poultry and seafood. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • Whirlpool 1.9-cu ft Smart Over-the-Range Microwave with Scan-to-Cook Technology and Convection Cooking - Fingerprint Resistant Stainless Steel Item # 878062 Model # WMH78019HZ Convection microwaves are all the rage because they can make cooking as fast and efficient as a microwave yet they have added features which make them work more like a convection oven. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • 19-cu ft Smart Over-the-Range Microwave with Scan-to-Cook Technology and Convection Cooking - Fingerprint Resistant Stainless Steel. (hourinstant.biz)
  • The Convection, Conduction, Radiation MatchCard explores the three types of heat transfer with cool science experiments and review activities. (learn4yourlife.com)
  • Objective: Describe three types of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiation. (learn4yourlife.com)
  • Match the Information Pieces on the Convection Conduction Radiation MatchCard with diagram for convection. (learn4yourlife.com)
  • Encourage the use of the terms "convection," "conduction," and "radiation" as part of daily vocabulary. (learn4yourlife.com)
  • A Conduction Convection Radiation Worksheet is a great way to help you understand the different types of radiation and how it affects people. (semesprit.com)
  • If you have questions about the effects of radiation you can consult with a doctor or use a Conduction Convection Radiation Worksheet. (semesprit.com)
  • This Southbend SLGS-22SC gas convection oven made of stainless steel construction for long lasting durability in a busy commercial kitchen. (centralrestaurant.com)
  • The Crispy Crust Bread Maker is very versatile and very impressive when it comes to baking almost any type of combinations of bread, dough, cake and jams and a lot more and best of all, it has brushed stainless steel exterior partnered with always-cool handles so you can easily transport the convection bread maker anywhere you want. (itrush.com)
  • Ft., 900W, Countertop Microwave Oven with FlashXpres, Smart Countertop Microwave Oven Works with Alexa, 1100W Griller Microwave Oven with Touch Control, Stainless Steel Convection Microwave Oven, Fisher Paykel 24" Convection Microwave Oven. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • Over the Range Convection Microwave in Stainless Steel. (hourinstant.biz)
  • At the time I bought it there was a rebate that basically made it the cheapest stainless over-the-range convection oven I could buy. (hourinstant.biz)
  • AirFry Smart Wi-Fi Enabled 30-in 5 Burners 58-cu ft Self-Cleaning Air Fry Convection Oven Freestanding Gas Range Stainless Steel Model LRGL5823S. (hourinstant.biz)
  • o Proof (95-120oF) - Steam and convection modes are combined to keep the surface of bread dough from drying out. (appliance.net)
  • This convection bread maker has 16 pre-programmed settings such as gluten-free and low-carb options just enough to fill your home with the perfectly baked bread complete with heavenly aroma. (itrush.com)
  • This convection bread machine is the perfect tool for making a variety of bakery breads at home. (shopyourway.com)
  • The dryers can be configured with radiant heaters (ceramic fully-enclosed-coil, FEC), convection plenums or combination thereof. (btu.com)
  • To use a combination convection oven for a few weeks to see what we thought. (gadgetguy.com.au)
  • o Combination (250-450oF) - A blend of steam and convection modes. (appliance.net)
  • Most convection microwaves can be used as a regular microwave or as a combination microwave/convection oven. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • The Dry Dome Standard Convection Hearing Aid Dehumidifier Dryer is from the makers of Dry and Store, so you can be assured of its quality. (maxiaids.com)
  • The BTU convection dryer can be configured for very wide widths up to 48″ and very long heated sections. (btu.com)
  • A forced convection automatic cabinet dryer integrated with a data logger was designed and fabricated. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • The casters on the base of the Southbend - EH/20CCH - Half Size Double Electric Convection Oven, makes it easy to move around the commercial kitchen for regular cleaning schedules. (etundra.com)
  • The Southbend Half Size Double Electric Convection Oven (EH/20CCH) is a durable and practical option for small kitchens wanting to diversify their menu. (etundra.com)
  • This Southbend double stack convection oven will arrive as one unit. (centralrestaurant.com)
  • The Oster Digital French Door Oven looks elegant, cooks with convection and makes meal prep easier. (theaterforachange.com)
  • Optional convection fan cooks foods up to 30% faster. (spoilthecook.com)
  • This convection oven does heat quite uniformly inside as I can see that all the bullets seem to go to the shiny state at the same time. (castbulletassoc.org)
  • o Defrost (95-140oF) - Steam and convection modes are combined. (appliance.net)
  • A theoretical investigation of mixed convection is presented for laminar, periodically fully-developed flow in a channel with fin array. (witpress.com)
  • Prepare meals in up to half the time with the convection microwave mode. (hourinstant.biz)
  • Four distinct cases are considered for conventional convection and for the situation when the body force and the density gradient are parallel but opposed. (harvard.edu)
  • By: Hilary Weller Atmospheric convection - the dynamics behind clouds and precipitation - is one of the biggest challenges of weather and climate modelling. (reading.ac.uk)
  • One of the most affordable convection microwaves available that still offers some convenient presets. (fruitnaturesat.com)
  • 10,436 Buy Samsung CE1041DSB2 28 Litre Convection Microwave online at the best price in India for Rs. (jacktophono.com)
  • Best price for Samsung MC28H5033CK TL Convection 28 Litres Microwave Oven in India is sourced from trusted online stores like Flipkart, Amazon, Snapdeal & Tatacliq. (jacktophono.com)
  • Central Restaurant Products offers free, same-day shipping on the Value Series gas convection oven. (centralrestaurant.com)
  • The Oster Extra Large Digital Countertop Convection Oven includes a baking pan and an integrated broiling rack. (theaterforachange.com)
  • To roast a turkey breast in a convection oven, take it out of the wrappings, dry it well with paper towels, season it and put it on a rack in a shallow roasting pan. (leaf.tv)
  • This study examines the case dependence of the multiscale characteristics of initial condition (IC) and model physics (MO) perturbations and their interactions in a convection-permitting ensemble prediction system (CPEPS), focusing on the 12-h forecasts of precipitation perturbation energy. (ametsoc.org)
  • Whether you're planning to make cabbage, dumplings, or even seafood, you can count on the Crown Steam - ECX-10-6 - 44 inch 10 Pan Convection Steamer with Electric Boiler to deliver the results your kitchen needs. (etundra.com)
  • You'll be surprised to find out just how many uses there are for the Crown Steam 44 inch 10 Pan Convection Steamer with Electric Boiler (ECX-10-6). (etundra.com)
  • We make a short list of the best double convection oven electric including detail information and score based on 27,600 reviews analysed . (theaterforachange.com)
  • Dual Fuel Range with 7 Function Convection Oven COS-305DFSC Refine your culinary skills when you cook with the Cosmo COS-305DFSC 30 inch free standing dual fuel range with electric oven and gas cooktop. (hourinstant.biz)
  • Cook with the convenience of an oven on your countertop using the Oster Extra Large Digital Countertop Convection Oven. (theaterforachange.com)
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  • Current deficits of numerical weather prediction models in predicting convective precipitation are presumably caused by insufficiently resolved boundary-layer processes and their role in initiating convection. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We found that Sharp is the number one selling microwave brand by volume but its convection series only accounts for about 5% of sales. (gadgetguy.com.au)
  • This series of mini labs helps to introduce students to the complexity of convection. (betterlesson.com)
  • In this series of investigation developed by Ann Bykerk-Kauffman at the University of Chicago, students explore convection through different models. (betterlesson.com)
  • Thermovibrational flow can be seen as a variant of standard thermogravitational convection where steady gravity is replaced by a time-periodic acceleration. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The need to overcome a threshold to induce convection from an initial quiescent state, together with the opposite tendency of acceleration to damp fluid motion when its sign is reversed, causes a variety of possible solutions which can display synchronous, non-synchronous, time-periodic and multi-frequency responses. (strath.ac.uk)
  • A mixed convection parameter for the entire range of free‐forced‐mixed convection is employed and non‐similar equations are obtained. (emerald.com)