The period of recovery following an illness.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Excision of kidney.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

Decreased left ventricular filling pressure 8 months after corrective surgery in a 55-year-old man with tetralogy of Fallot: adaptation for increased preload. (1/328)

A 55-year-old man with tetralogy of Fallot underwent corrective surgery. Left ventricular filling pressure increased markedly with increased left ventricular volume one month after surgery, then decreased over the next 7 months, presumably due to increased left ventricular compliance.  (+info)

Field evaluation of a one-step dipstick assay for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis in the Seychelles. (2/328)

OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To compare the response of a dipstick assay (DSA) detecting Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies with that of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), the microagglutination test (MAT) and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) in patients with leptospirosis confirmed by MAT alone or by MAT and/or PCR (MAT/PCR). RESULT: In 75 patients with acute leptospirosis diagnosed by MAT (respectively, 90 patients diagnosed by MAT/PCR), the response in paired early and convalescent sera was positive in 78.9% (67.9%) by DSA, 76.0% (67.8%) by ELISA, 58.7% (55.6%) by IHA, 44.0% (53.3%) by PCR, and 100% (90.0%) by MAT. In early serum only, the response in patients diagnosed by MAT (respectively by MAT/PCR) was positive in 36.0% (38.9%) by DSA, 36.0% (37.8%) by ELISA, 14.7% (18.9%) by IHA, 39.2% (48.3%) by PCR, and 53.3% (58.9%) by MAT titre > or =1:100. DSA detected the main serogroups implicated in human leptospirosis in Seychelles and demonstrated sensitivity comparable to ELISA. In 124 single sera from control subjects without overt disease, the response was positive in 4.8% by DSA, 3.2% by ELISA, 3.2% by IHA, 13.8% by PCR, 37.9% by MAT titre > or =1:100, and 2.4% by MAT titre > or =1:800, giving evidence of the frequency of both past and current subclinical infection in Seychelles and that DSA was less sensitive than MAT to detect moderate levels of leptospiral antibodies. CONCLUSION: DSA is a simple and reproducible assay well adapted to field conditions and could usefully contribute to the evaluation of leptospirosis in areas devoid of serological laboratory facilities.  (+info)

Preparing for the next round: convalescent care after acute infection. (3/328)

Infections pose a nutritional stress on the growing child. No therapeutic goal is as important as the rapid recovery of preillness weight after acute infections. Successful convalescence, with supernormal growth rates, can be achieved with relatively brief periods of intensive refeeding, offsetting any tendency toward reduced immune defenses or other nutritionally determined susceptibilities to further infection. Since the mother is the only person who can effectively manage convalescent care, she must be given specific tasks with measurable targets in order to reliably oversee the child's rehabilitation. Not generally considered in the realm of preventive medicine, effective home-based convalencent care is the first crucial step in preventing the next round of illness. An approach to the widespread mobilization of mothers to monitor and sustain their children's growth is proposed in this paper. Rather than a passive recipient of health services, the mother becomes the basic health worker, providing diagnostic and therapeutic primary care for her child. Only the mother can break the malnutrition-infection cycle.  (+info)

Beneficial effects of early coronary reperfusion on left ventricular remodeling and systolic function in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (4/328)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the beneficial effects of early coronary reperfusion on left ventricular remodeling (LVRM) and systolic function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Eighty-one patients with first AMI in the convalescent stage and having undergone left ventriculography (LVG) and coronary arteriography (CAG) were divided into four groups: the anterolateral wall (ALW) myocardial infarction (MI) non-reperfusion (n = 20) and reperfusion (n = 21), and inferoposterial wall (IPW) MI non-reperfusion (n = 20) and reperfusion (n = 20), according to infarct location and early treatment with or without successful coronary reperfusion therapy within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. By LVG, the parameters of LVRM and systolic function in the four MI groups were analyzed and compared with those in normal group (n = 25) and between the two reperfusion and non-reperfusion MI groups. RESULTS: In both ALW and IPW MI non-reperfusion groups, the left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), circumference (EDC), short-axis dimension (EDD), short to long axis ratio (ED-D/L), sphericity index (ED-SI) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were all significantly increased (P < 0.01-0.001), while LV ejection fractions (LVEF) were significantly decreased (both P < 0.001) when compared with those of normal group; and the increase in ESV and decrease in LVEF were both significantly greater in ALW than in IPW MI groups (both P < 0.01). In both ALW and IPW MI reperfusion groups, however, the EDV, EDD, ESV, as well as the extent and severity of regional wall motion abnormality (RW-MA) were significantly smaller (P < 0.05-0.001), while LVEF were significantly higher (P < 0.01-0.001) when compared with those in the two non-reperfusion MI groups respectively. There were no longer significant differences in LVEF and ESV between ALW and IPW MI groups (both P > 0.05). The EDC in IPW MI reperfusion group and the ED-D/L and ED-SI in ALW MI reperfusion group were also significantly reduced compared with those in the two non-reperfusion MI groups respectively (P < 0.05-0.001). All the above parameters in the two reperfusion MI group were decreased to the normal in comparison with normal group except ESV and LVEF, and ED-D/L and ED-SI in IPW MI group. CONCLUSION: It was indicated that in both ALW and IPW MI non-reperfusion groups, LVRM had occurred in convalescent stage of AMI with an increase in EDV and EDC, spherical change in LV shape, and accompanying reduction in LV systolic function; and early coronary reperfusion in AMI could reduce the extent and severity of RWMA, prevent from LV enlargement and remodeling, and preserve or improve LV systolic function with more prominence in ALW MI.  (+info)

Interleukin-6 and RANTES in Takayasu arteritis: a guide for therapeutic decisions? (5/328)

BACKGROUND: In patients with Takayasu arteritis, circulating lymphocytes are activated, and histological findings indicate that cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in the pathogenetic sequence leading to vascular lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: To delineate the profile of inflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines involved in T-cell activation in Takayasu arteritis, we measured by ELISA serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, and RANTES in 18 patients. Subsequently, we wanted to establish whether any of these molecules could be used as a marker to monitor the clinical course of the disease and to predict disease exacerbations. We found that all patients with Takayasu arteritis studied during an active phase of the disease have increased serum concentration of IL-6 compared with healthy control subjects (P<0.01). Enhanced IL-6 serum levels paralleled disease activity to the extent that its serum concentrations were comparable to those of control subjects when patients were studied in remission. RANTES concentrations were also higher than normal in the serum of all patients with Takayasu arteritis (P<0.01) studied during an active phase of the disease. RANTES serum levels tended to normalize in remission, but values remained higher than those of control subjects (P<0.05). In contrast, serum concentrations of IL-1beta were below the detection limit of ELISA in both healthy subjects and all patients with Takayasu arteritis. A positive correlation was found between either IL-6 (rho=0.705, P<0.01) or RANTES (rho=0.607, P<0.05) serum level and disease activity. CONCLUSIONS: The close correlation of serum IL-6 and RANTES levels with disease activity suggests that these cytokines contribute to vasculitic lesions in Takayasu arteritis and raises the possibility that their monitoring in serum helps clinicians find adequate treatment adjustments in individual patients.  (+info)

Effects of reinforcement magnitude on spontaneous recovery. (6/328)

Extinction of operant behavior has been associated with a number of undesirable effects. One such effect is the temporary reappearance of behavior after responding appears to be completely extinguished, known as spontaneous recovery. In this report, the occurrence of spontaneous recovery and its attenuation with large amounts of reinforcement were examined during the treatment of disruption.  (+info)

Evaluation of an immunofluorescent antibody test to detect bovine herpesvirus 1-specific IgM. (7/328)

An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IIFAT) was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)-specific IgM. All sera were treated with protein-G agarose prior to testing to eliminate the possibility of false-positive results due to IgM-isotype rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). Specific IgM was first detected 8 days after experimental infection of 3 calves free of maternally derived antibody, with peak responses occurring 2-7 days later. Seroconversion was detected in all 3 calves using a single-dilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following reinfection at 30 days postinfection, a low-level IgM response was detected in only 1 calf. Seroconversion was detected in 2 calves. There was no evidence of activation of IgM-RF by infection or reinfection with BHV-1. When 87 acute and convalescent serum pairs collected from 21 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested, specific IgM was detected in 58 animals (66.6%) from 19 (90.5%) outbreaks. Seroconversion was detected in 44 of these animals (50.6%) from 17 outbreaks (81.0%). The correlations between these 2 assays on a calf and outbreak basis were 79.3% and 90.5%, respectively. Specific IgM was detected in 17/20 sera (85.0%) collected from an additional outbreak. No virus was detected by virus isolation or immunofluorescent staining in nasal mucus samples collected at the same time. Detection of specific IgM by IIFAT is a useful technique for the serodiagnosis of BHV-1 infection.  (+info)

Rapid recovery from cognitive deficits in abstinent alcoholics: a controlled test-retest study. (8/328)

The pattern of cognitive deficits and their time-dependent recovery were investigated in a cohort of 49 male alcohol-dependent patients using a repeated measurement design with 49 healthy male controls matched for age, education, and marital status. We combined parts of the Halstead Reitan Battery and the Wechsler Memory Scale with tests that are widely used in German-speaking countries. Patients were tested in the first week (T1) and 5 weeks later (T2) at the end of the in-patient treatment programme. Matched controls were tested also at T1 and T2, which enabled us to take learning effects into account. At T1, the patients showed distinct cognitive deficits on 5 of 12 neuropsychological parameters (perceptual-motor speed, verbal short-term memory, verbal knowledge, non-verbal reasoning, spatial imagination). At T2, significant improvements had occurred in four of the five dysfunctional domains with a significant difference remaining in verbal short-term memory. Duration of dependency and length of abstinence prior to testing had no essential effects on neuropsychological functions. Our results provide evidence for the well-established fact that chronic alcoholism has detrimental effects on cognitive performance, but that performance improves with neuropsychological recovery which occurs rapidly within weeks when abstinence is maintained. Cognitive deficits seem to be similar across different studies and cultures.  (+info)

Convalescence is the period of recovery following a serious illness, injury, or medical treatment. During this time, the body gradually returns to its normal state of health and functioning. The length and intensity of the convalescent period can vary widely depending on the individual and the severity of the condition that required treatment.

During convalescence, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves and allow their bodies to heal properly. This may involve getting plenty of rest, eating a healthy diet, engaging in gentle exercise or physical therapy as recommended by a healthcare provider, and avoiding strenuous activities or stressors that could hinder recovery.

Convalescence is an essential part of the healing process, and it is important to allow oneself enough time to fully recover before returning to normal activities. Rushing the convalescent period can lead to setbacks, complications, or a prolonged recovery time. By taking the time to focus on self-care and healing during convalescence, individuals can help ensure a full and speedy recovery.

Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the bacterium Shigella. It is characterized by the inflammation of the intestines, particularly the colon, resulting in diarrhea that may contain blood and mucus. The infection is typically spread through contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person. Symptoms usually appear within 1-4 days after exposure and can include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to have a bowel movement). In severe cases, bacillary dysentery can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and other complications. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria, as well as fluid replacement to prevent dehydration.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Infectious Mononucleosis, also known as "mono" or the "kissing disease," is a common infectious illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It primarily affects adolescents and young adults. The medical definition of Infectious Mononucleosis includes the following signs and symptoms:

1. Infection: Infectious Mononucleosis is an infection that spreads through saliva, hence the nickname "kissing disease." It can also be transmitted through sharing food, drinks, or personal items such as toothbrushes or utensils with an infected person.
2. Incubation period: The incubation period for Infectious Mononucleosis is typically 4-6 weeks after exposure to the virus.
3. Symptoms: Common symptoms of Infectious Mononucleosis include fever, sore throat (often severe and may resemble strep throat), fatigue, swollen lymph nodes (particularly in the neck and armpits), and skin rash (in some cases).
4. Diagnosis: The diagnosis of Infectious Mononucleosis is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory test results. A complete blood count (CBC) may reveal an increased number of white blood cells, particularly atypical lymphocytes. Additionally, the Paul-Bunnell or Monospot test can detect heterophile antibodies, which are present in about 85% of cases after the first week of illness.
5. Treatment: There is no specific antiviral treatment for Infectious Mononucleosis. Management typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain relief for symptoms like sore throat and fever.
6. Complications: Although most cases of Infectious Mononucleosis resolve without significant complications, some individuals may experience complications such as splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), hepatitis, or neurological issues. Rarely, the virus can cause more severe complications like myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) or hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells).
7. Prevention: Preventing Infectious Mononucleosis is difficult since it is primarily spread through respiratory droplets and saliva. However, practicing good hygiene, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing and avoiding sharing personal items like utensils or drinking glasses, can help reduce the risk of transmission.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

... is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury. It refers to the later stage of an ... Laplace (February 1946). "Convalescence from surgical procedures. I. Studies of the circulation lying and standing, of tremor, ... Pillsbury BL (1978). "'Doing the Month': Confinement and Convalescence of Chinese Women After Childbirth". The Embryo Project ... Francis, Gavin (2022). Recovery : the lost art of convalescence. London. ISBN 978-1-80081-048-8. OCLC 1285689647.{{cite book ...
Convalescence", No Depression, April 30, 2003. Retrieved September 23, 2017 Schacht, John "Welcome, Convalescence Review", ... Welcome, Convalescence is the second album by South San Gabriel, recorded at Slobberbone singer Brent Best's Denton house in ... Retrieved September 23, 2017 Klein, Joshua (2003) "South San Gabriel Welcome, Convalescence", Chicago Tribune, July 3, 2003. ... Retrieved September 23, 2017 "South San Gabriel - Welcome Convalescence (Munich)", Manchester Evening News, August 11, 2004. ...
La Convalescence is a quartier of Terre-de-Haut Island, located in Îles des Saintes archipelago in the Caribbean. It is located ... It is built on a mount called La Convalescence also called Morne Gros Dos. (Articles lacking sources from June 2019, All ...
Convalescence :::". www.blaircastle.net. Retrieved 14 June 2019. "Charles A. Carlow (Deceased 1954) - AIME". www.aimehq.org. ...
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Florian Takes the Full Count 6. Marlowe's Trip 7. Convalescence Montage 8. Take Me to Your Lido 9. Three Mile Limited 10. Moose ...
IMBODEN JB, CANTER A, CLUFF LE (1961). "Convalescence from influenza. A study of the psychological and clinical determinants". ...
During his convalescence, 12. Staffel was temporarily led by Leutnant Bernd Gallowitsch. Bär was promoted to Hauptmann in late ...
A long convalescence followed. For a time the doctors thought they would have to amputate his foot, but in the end they saved ...
Hooded Spirits Priapus Antal, Adriana (2014). "A god of convalescence. Telesphorus/Genius Cucullatus in Roman Dacia". Acta ...
"L'OL TOUJOURS EN CONVALESCENCE" (in French). Olympique Lyonnais. 20 December 2009. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. ...
b) Health care connected to convalescence. c) Rehabilitation after illness 2000 data from the INE (Spain's National Institute ...
... convalescence, rehabilitation and general nursing care ; cosmetic, reconstructive or weight loss treatment; deafness; dental/ ...
"Les Maisons coloniales de convalescence" (PDF). Le Journal des Débats. 11 January 1897. "Banque de l'Indo-Chine : Assemblée ...
She spent her convalescence reading encyclopaedias. After working as a medical laboratory technician, she moved on to a career ...
Illness forced his convalescence in Madrid. Upon recovery in February 1917, he was posted to Cordoba then requested leave to ...
During his convalescence he concentrated on printmaking. When he resumed painting, his work showed a new subtlety in the ...
Molson was repatriated to Canada for convalescence. Upon being declared once again fit for flying duties, he was promoted to ...
During her convalescence she spent time drawing. The Carrs arrived in Rome in December 1791 and stayed for almost six months. ...
He then spent three months in convalescence. After further treatment, he worked in staff positions and ended the war with the ...
Charles Ralls (25 January 1962). "King Saud arrives here for convalescence stay". Palm Beach Daily News. Retrieved 9 February ...
Following convalescence, Eder was back with III. Gruppe of JG 7 and claimed a B-17 shot down near Berlin on 17 April 1945. The ... Eder suffered a skull fracture and following convalescence, he was posted to the Jagdfliegerschule 2 (fighter pilot school) at ...
Original surgical treatments were evolved and many officers owe the full use of their limbs to ... the care in convalescence at ...
After a lengthy convalescence, Comanche was retired. In April 1878, Colonel Samuel D. Sturgis issued the following order: ...
Wishnie, H.A.; Hackett, T.P.; Cassem, N. H. (1971). "Psychological hazards of convalescence following myocardial infarction". ...
"JM de Guzman drops debut EP 'Convalescence'". Push.com.ph. July 30, 2021. "KZ Tandingan and TJ Monterde sing their love letter ...
During his convalescence, a second coronary occurred. Grinnell died on May 29, 1939, in Berkeley, California, at age 62. The ...
Subsequent convalescence can last months to years. As of 2017, patient mortality in the US from HPS is 36%. The virus can be ...
After two years convalescence, he fully recovered. After this injury there is some evidence that Mynn wore padding on his game ...
He contracted pneumonia during his convalescence and died. He was interred in the crypt under the altar of St. Patrick's ...
Convalescence is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury. It refers to the later stage of an ... Laplace (February 1946). "Convalescence from surgical procedures. I. Studies of the circulation lying and standing, of tremor, ... Pillsbury BL (1978). "Doing the Month: Confinement and Convalescence of Chinese Women After Childbirth". The Embryo Project ... Francis, Gavin (2022). Recovery : the lost art of convalescence. London. ISBN 978-1-80081-048-8. OCLC 1285689647.{{cite book ...
... "Harvesters of Flesh and Bone Dye" T-Shirt Sale priceFrom $29.99 ... The Convalescence The Convalescence "This is Hell" CD Sale price$8.40 Regular price$12.00 ... The Convalescence The Convalescence "Harvesters Of Flesh And Bone" T-Shirt Sale priceFrom $29.99 ... The Convalescence The Convalescence "This is Hell" T-Shirt Sale priceFrom $24.99 ...
Injuries are not only upsetting for competitive athletes: everyone wants to recover as quickly as possible and get back to work and everyday life. A fast recovery not only depends on optimal rehabilitation but also on nutrition: an injury-specific diet should be followed. Appropriate food supplements and sports foods c
The Convalescence. Into Pandemonium. Deceiving the Spectre. Bog. Sarcophile. Doors at 7:00PM, Show at 7:30PM. $10 advance. All ...
Rejecting the idea that healing is passive, Recovery offers tools and wisdom for convalescence, and shows how tending to our ... and vulnerabilities-and suggests ways to navigate and learn from convalescence." -Kay Redfield Jamison, Ph.D., Dalio Professor ...
The Delaware Aging & Disability Resource Center (ADRC) is accessible by phone or email anytime - 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Get connected to a resource specialist today. ...
Indias First COVID-19 Convalescence Centre All Set To Opened.... Kritika Raj Reddy - 13 July 2020. 0 ...
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Convalescence From out the dragging vastness of the sea,. Wave-fettered, bound in sinuous seaweed strands,. He toils toward the ...
Milla Kibble is the Research Facilitator at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP) at the University of Cambridge. She received her PhD in high dimensional convex geometry and probability theory (Pure Mathematics) from UCL in 2000, and subsequently changed research focus to developing and employing analytics techniques to gain actionable information from large datasets. Her research application area has primarily been in biomedicine and healthcare, with work including probability and graph theory applications to biological data; network pharmacology approaches to provide systems-level insights into the mechanisms of action of natural products; and using multiple data types from monozygotic twins to gain insights into the role of epigenetic effects in obesity. During her MRC funded secondment to the COVID-19 Longitudinal Health and Wellbeing National Core Study, Milla is working with Professor Nic Timpson at the University of Bristol and Dr Claire Steves at KCL to ...
Convalescence literally means recuperation, time spent recovering from an illness or medical treatment, or after a trauma or ... Equally, try to be aware of people around you so we can begin to create a society where convalescence is not only expected, but ... Convalescence literally means recuperation, time spent recovering from an illness or medical treatment, or after a trauma or ... This makes sleep an essential part of convalescence.. Homeopathy can help with lingering symptoms, and while it may help speed ...
Convalescence. Thanks to people in a local art group encouraging me to try different techniques. ...
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Be the first to review "Convalescence" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * ...
Craft of Convalescence, New Brewery Arts, 2022 Crisis as Structure The Darkness of Sheltered Existence Dear mother of fresh ... Cinematic Convalescence A Clearing Compassionate Attention (After Yvonne Rainer) Consciousness of Mist The Convalescent 1924-5 ... The gentleness of convalescence George Bodington Grass, sun and nothing besides (Mervs favourite place) Halcyonian Calm ...
Embracing Convalescence. My new favorite word is convalesce; it has a certain Victorian-era ring dont you think? When I ... With any luck, my trip to the world of convalescence will be brief, so I might as well enjoy it while it lasts. ... Yes, yes, convalescence is so Helena Bonham Carter! (with the exception of her character in Fight Club). ... I think the problem is that convalescence doesnt look that different from my everyday life. Thus far, theres been much ...
2: Limit Spells: Word of Convalescence. This passive ability increases the base healing of your Word of Convalescence spells by ... 2: Limit Spells: Word of Convalescence. This passive ability increases the base healing of your Word of Convalescence spells by ... 2: Limit Spells: Word of Convalescence. This passive ability increases the base healing of your Word of Convalescence spells by ... 2: Limit Spells: Word of Convalescence. This passive ability increases the base healing of your Word of Convalescence spells by ...
Convalescence ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Convalescence Authors Mann, Hubert. ✖Remove constraint Authors: Mann, Hubert. ... 1. Circulatory reactions to exercise during convalescence from infectious disease Author(s): Mann, Hubert. Publication: Chicago ...
Convalescence ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Convalescence Languages English ✖Remove constraint Languages: English Publication ... 1. Circulatory reactions to exercise during convalescence from infectious disease Author(s): Mann, Hubert. Publication: Chicago ...
The Convalescence will join The Faceless, Lorna Shore, and more on the Becoming A Ghost Tour (on selected dates) July 11th - ... The Convalescence will join The Faceless, Lorna Shore, and more on the Becoming A Ghost Tour (on selected dates) ...
Farmina Vet Life dog Convalescence je kompletná veterinárna diéta pre psy, odporúčaná ako výživa na zotavenie a ... Farmina Vet Life dog Convalescence je kompletné diétne krmivo pre dospelé psy s receptúrou na obdobie zotavenia. Je indikované ... Farmina Vet Life dog Convalescence je kompletná veterinárna diéta pre psy, odporúčaná ako výživa na zotavenie a ...
... on lung function in early convalescence phase. A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of ... and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. Compared ... Huang, Y., Tan, C., Wu, J. et al. Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pulmonary function in early convalescence phase. Respir ... In early convalescence, the 6MWD of the severe patients was significantly shorter than that of the non-severe patients, ...
DASH DEEP RECORDS is an international platform for deep house and minimalistic electronic music art. please feel free to send your demos in: [email protected]. ...
On Convalescence (as Teratology of the Self) By Dejan Lukić • 3 years ago ... For these three counter-curse makers, convalescence happens in the realm of internal and external atmospherics. Internally, the ... Yet they are instantiations of convalescence, intimations of overcoming. They speak from the delirium of their time by ...
In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ... In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ... In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ... In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ...
In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ... In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ... In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ... In case of fatigue and exhaustion, infectious diseases, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, poisoning, allergic conditions, ...
En convalescence, Arnel Bélizaire remercie ses soutiens Written by admin on April 20, 2022 ...
Venom Inc., Goatwhore, Toxic Holocaust & The Convalescence at Gramercy Theatre (photos). September 19, 2020. NextMosh Staff ... On September 2, 2017, metal extremists Venom Inc., Goatwhore, Toxic Holocaust and The Convalescence brought their Blood ... Share the post "Venom Inc., Goatwhore, Toxic Holocaust & The Convalescence at Gramercy Theatre (photos)" ...
Supporting Convalescence at Bella Lui. The most important prerequisites for a sanatorium were a location that was protected ...
  • Gavin Francis writes with clinical wisdom and grace about doctors and patients-their expectations, strengths, and vulnerabilities-and suggests ways to navigate and learn from convalescence. (brazosbookstore.com)
  • Background Information about predictors for the duration of convalescence and the overall general wellbeing after laparoscopic surgery for suspected appendicitis is missing in the scientific literature. (regsj.dk)
  • We aimed to describe and identify predictors for the duration of convalescence and the quality of recovery for patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for suspected appendicitis. (regsj.dk)
  • Conclusions Duration of convalescence after laparoscopic surgery for appendicitis seems long. (regsj.dk)
  • Ascorbate 100 ml In case of fatigue, infectious diseases, convalescence. (kihorsemed.com)
  • most people are infectious prior to and during the first week of convalescence, but 10% of untreated patients will discharge bacteria for up to 3 months. (who.int)
  • Treg depletion on day 21 resulted in the relapse of renal dysfunction and an increase in Th1 cells, suggesting that Tregs are essential for disease control during the convalescence stage. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Our data suggest that GATA3 is important for the recruitment of Tregs into the kidney, which is necessary for convalescence after renal tissue destruction. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Convalescence is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rejecting the idea that healing is passive, Recovery offers tools and wisdom for convalescence, and shows how tending to our bodies, environments, and perspectives can help us move through the landscape of illness-and come out the other side whole. (brazosbookstore.com)
  • Convalescence literally means recuperation, time spent recovering from an illness or medical treatment, or after a trauma or death. (homeopathbarbara.nz)
  • A complete dietetic wet pet food for cats of all ages, scientifically formulated to provide nutritional support during restoration and convalescence from injury, malnutrition and illness. (purina.co.uk)
  • Collections: Medicine in the Americas, 1610-1920 / Subjects: Convalescence / Authors: Mann, Hubert. (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to identify the determinants of longitudinal measures of pneumonia and time to convalescence or recovery of under five admitted pneumonia patients at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potential predictors for the duration of convalescence and the quality of recovery measured by the QoR-15 score were identified. (regsj.dk)
  • Psychological factors, demographical factors, and perioperative outcomes were important predictors for the quality of recovery and the duration of convalescence. (regsj.dk)
  • Increased quality of recovery is associated with a shorter period of convalescence. (regsj.dk)
  • This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disease, depressive mood, level of recreational activities, age, and pain at rest on the first postoperative day were significant predictors of the duration of convalescence. (regsj.dk)
  • Impaired diffusing-capacity, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lung function damage of patients with COVID-19 in early convalescence phase deserves attention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rural hospitalizations are characterized by a much higher proportion of older patients being hospitalized and an increasing number of admissions for medical or convalescence reasons. (cdc.gov)
  • Traditionally, time has been allowed for convalescence to happen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays, in some instances, where there is a shortage of hospital beds or of trained staff, medical settings can feel rushed and may have drifted away from a focus on convalescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you like medical history you can check out this article in the Post Graduate Medical Journal from 1935 which specifically talks about nutrition for convalescence (and different types of convalescence). (homeopathbarbara.nz)
  • Credit to Janieke from Natural Healing Raumati for discussing convalescence and sparking the idea, as well as making suggestions for this post. (homeopathbarbara.nz)
  • Okay, I'm not exactly Helena (and whether or not I'd really like to be is a bit of a digression) but I am intrigued by the idea of exploring convalescence, maybe doing some Gonzo-style journalism looking into what it feels like to be a convalescent. (catherineguthrie.com)
  • Farmina Vet Life dog Convalescence je kompletná veterinárna diéta pre psy, odporúčaná ako výživa na zotavenie a rekonvalescenciu. (vitalvet.sk)
  • Farmina Vet Life dog Convalescence je kompletné diétne krmivo pre dospelé psy s receptúrou na obdobie zotavenia. (vitalvet.sk)
  • Convalescence is measures taken. (who.int)
  • Pain medication usually isn't necessary for convalescence, but be advised that anything containing aspirin may increase bleeding. (adoosimg.com)
  • Our data suggest that GATA3 is important for the recruitment of Tregs into the kidney, which is necessary for convalescence after renal tissue destruction. (elsevierpure.com)
  • As part of the efforts outlined in the NIAID Strategic Plan for COVID-19 Research , NIAID researchers are spearheading a large, international collaboration to unveil the innate and adaptive immune responses during acute COVID-19 infection and convalescence. (nih.gov)
  • The Immune Deficiency Genetics Section aims to analyze the dynamic changes that occur within an individual's T-cell and B-cell repertoires during the transition from acute COVID-19 infection into convalescence. (nih.gov)
  • If your horse is going through rehabilitation after an injury or experiencing a period of convalescence, it is important to be mindful of the nutrients you provide them with. (jaybe.org)
  • Retesting during convalescence is usually required to detect these antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe a patient who recovered from EVD and was subsequently found to have severe unilateral uveitis during convalescence. (nih.gov)
  • Among the survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD), complications that include uveitis can develop during convalescence, although the incidence and pathogenesis of EVD-associated uveitis are unknown. (nih.gov)
  • To examine the psychological distress and the associated predictor factors of the 2019 corona-virus disease (COVID-19) on survivors in the early convalescence in Shenzhen. (nih.gov)
  • Treg depletion on day 21 resulted in the relapse of renal dysfunction and an increase in Th1 cells, suggesting that Tregs are essential for disease control during the convalescence stage. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 9. Inguinal hernia repair: anaesthesia, pain and convalescence. (nih.gov)
  • Nowadays, in some instances, where there is a shortage of hospital beds or of trained staff, medical settings can feel rushed and may have drifted away from a focus on convalescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with all anabolic androgenic steroids, you can expect side effects to be a big focus of your use of Winstrol, ablation testicule convalescence. (jimadamsdesign.com)
  • Symphonic death metal unit/recent Unique Leader signees The Convalescence will release their This Is Hell full-length via Unique Leader Records on September 1st. (metalnerd.net)
  • Convalescence is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury. (wikipedia.org)