A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The wounding of the body or body parts by branding, cutting, piercing (BODY PIERCING), or TATTOOING as a cultural practice or expression of creativity or identity.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
The sole genus in the family Nautilidae, order Nautilida, comprised of CEPHALOPODS with spiral external shells that are separated into chambers.
A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)
A group of islands in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, the three main islands being St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. The capital is Charlotte Amalie. Before 1917 the U.S. Virgin Islands were held by the Danish and called the Danish West Indies but the name was changed when the United States acquired them by purchase.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.

Intraspecific variation of venom injected by fish-hunting Conus snails. (1/96)

Venom peptides from two species of fish-hunting cone snails (Conus striatus and Conus catus) were characterized using microbore liquid chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry. Both crude venom isolated from the venom duct and injected venom obtained by milking were studied. Based on analysis of injected venom samples from individual snails, significant intraspecific variation (i.e. between individuals) in the peptide complement is observed. The mixture of peptides in injected venom is simpler than that in the crude duct venom from the same snail, and the composition of crude venom is more consistent from snail to snail. While there is animal-to-animal variation in the peptides present in the injected venom, the composition of any individual's injected venom remains relatively constant over time in captivity. Most of the Conus striatus individuals tested injected predominantly a combination of two neuroexcitatory peptides (s4a and s4b), while a few individuals had unique injected-venom profiles consisting of a combination of peptides, including several previously characterized from the venom duct of this species. Seven novel peptides were also putatively identified based on matches of their empirically derived masses to those predicted by published cDNA sequences. Profiling injected venom of Conus catus individuals using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry demonstrates that intraspecific variation in the mixture of peptides extends to other species of piscivorous cone snails. The results of this study imply that novel regulatory mechanisms exist to select specific venom peptides for injection into prey.  (+info)

Association/dissociation of a channel-kinase complex underlies state-dependent modulation. (2/96)

Although ion channels are regulated by protein kinases, it has yet to be established whether the behavioral state of an animal may dictate whether or not modulation by a kinase can occur. Here, we describe behaviorally relevant changes in the ability of a nonselective cation channel from Aplysia bag cell neurons to be regulated by protein kinase C (PKC). This channel drives a prolonged afterdischarge that triggers the release of egg-laying hormone and a series of reproductive behaviors. The afterdischarge is followed by a lengthy refractory period, during which additional bursting cannot be elicited. Previously, we reported that, in excised inside-out patches, the cation channel is closely associated with PKC, which increases channel activity. We now show that this channel-kinase association is plastic, because channels excised from certain neurons lack PKC-dependent modulation. Although direct application of PKC-activating phorbol ester to these patches had no effect, exposing the neurons themselves to phorbol ester reinstated modulation, suggesting that an absence of modulation was attributable to a lack of associated kinase. Furthermore, modulation was restored by pretreating neurons with either PP1 [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine] or SU6656, inhibitors of Src tyrosine kinase, an enzyme whose Src homology 3 domain is required for channel-PKC association. Neurons that were stimulated to afterdischarge and had entered the prolonged refractory period were found to have more phosphotyrosine staining and less channel-PKC association than unstimulated neurons. These findings suggest that Src-dependent regulation of the association between the cation channel and PKC controls both the long-term excitability of these neurons and their ability to induce reproduction.  (+info)

Piscivorous behavior of a temperate cone snail, Conus californicus. (3/96)

Most of the more than 500 species of predatory marine snails in the genus Conus are tropical or semitropical, and nearly all are thought to be highly selective regarding type of prey. Conus californicus Hinds, 1844, is unusual in that it is endemic to the North American Pacific coast and preys on a large variety of benthic organisms, primarily worms and other molluscs, and also scavenges. We studied the feeding behavior of C. californicus in captivity and found that it regularly killed and consumed live prickleback fishes (Cebidichthys violaceus and Xiphister spp.). Predation involved two behavioral methods similar to those employed by strictly piscivorous relatives. One method utilized stings delivered by radular teeth; the other involved engulfing the prey without stinging. Both methods were commonly used in combination, and individual snails sometimes employed multiple stings to subdue a fish. During the course of the study, snails became aroused by the presence of live fish more quickly, as evidenced by more rapid initiation of hunting behavior. Despite this apparent adaptation, details of prey-capture techniques and effectiveness of stings remained similar over the same period.  (+info)

The muO-conotoxin MrVIA inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels by associating with domain-3. (4/96)

Several families of peptide toxins from cone snails affect voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels: mu-conotoxins block the pore, delta-conotoxins inhibit channel inactivation, and muO-conotoxins inhibit Na(V) channels by an unknown mechanism. The only currently known muO-conotoxins MrVIA and MrVIB from Conus marmoreus were applied to cloned rat skeletal muscle (Na(V)1.4) and brain (Na(V)1.2) sodium channels in mammalian cells. A systematic domain-swapping strategy identified the C-terminal pore loop of domain-3 as the major determinant for Na(V)1.4 being more potently blocked than Na(V)1.2 channels. muO-conotoxins therefore show an interaction pattern with Na(V) channels that is clearly different from the related mu- and delta-conotoxins, indicative of a distinct molecular mechanism of channel inhibition.  (+info)

cDNA cloning of two novel T-superfamily conotoxins from Conus leopardus. (5/96)

The full-length cDNAs of two novel T-superfamily conotoxins, Lp5.1 and Lp5.2, were cloned from a vermivorous cone snail Conus leopardus using 3'/5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA of Lp5.1 encodes a precursor of 65 residues, including a 22-residue signal peptide, a 28-residue propeptide and a 15-residue mature peptide. Lp5.1 is processed at the common signal site-X-Arg- immediately before the mature peptide sequences. In the case of Lp5.2, the precursor includes a 25-residue signal peptide and a 43-residue sequence comprising the propeptide and mature peptide, which is probably cleaved to yield a 29-residue propeptide and a 14-residue mature toxin. Although these two conotoxins share a similar signal sequence and a conserved disulfide pattern with the known T-superfamily, the pro-region and mature peptides are of low identity, especially Lp5.2 with an identity as low as 10.7% compared with the reference Mr5.1a. The elucidated cDNAs of these two toxins will facilitate a better understanding of the species distribution, the sequence diversity of T-superfamily conotoxins, the special gene structure and the evolution of these peptides.  (+info)

Isolation and characterisation of conomap-Vt, a D-amino acid containing excitatory peptide from the venom of a vermivorous cone snail. (6/96)

Cone snail venom is a rich source of bioactives, in particular small disulfide rich peptides that disrupt synaptic transmission. Here, we report the discovery of conomap-Vt (Conp-Vt), an unusual linear tetradecapeptide isolated from Conus vitulinus venom. The sequence displays no homology to known conopeptides, but displays significant homology to peptides of the MATP (myoactive tetradecapeptide) family, which are important endogenous neuromodulators in molluscs, annelids and insects. Conp-Vt showed potent excitatory activity in several snail isolated tissue preparations. Similar to ACh, repeated doses of Conp-Vt were tachyphylactic. Since nicotinic and muscarinic antagonists failed to block its effect and Conp-Vt desensitised tissue remained responsive to ACh, it appears that Conp-Vt contractions were non-cholinergic in origin. Finally, biochemical studies revealed that Conp-Vt is the first member of the MATP family with a d-amino acid. Interestingly, the isomerization of L-Phe to D-Phe enhanced biological activity, suggesting that this post-translational modified conopeptide may have evolved for prey capture.  (+info)

Diversity and evolution of conotoxins based on gene expression profiling of Conus litteratus. (7/96)

Cone snails are attracting increasing scientific attention due to their unprecedented diversity of invaluable channel-targeted peptides. As arguably the largest and most successful evolutionary genus of invertebrates, Conus also may become the model system to study the evolution of multigene families and biodiversity. Here, a set of 897 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a Conus litteratus venom duct was analyzed to illuminate the diversity and evolution mechanism of conotoxins. Nearly half of these ESTs represent the coding sequences of conotoxins, which were grouped into 42 novel conotoxin cDNA sequences (seven superfamilies), with T-superfamily conotoxins being the dominant component. The gene expression profile of conotoxin revealed that transcripts are expressed with order-of-magnitude differences, sequence divergence within a superfamily increases from the N to the C terminus of the open reading frame, and even multiple scaffold-different mature peptides exist in a conotoxin gene superfamily. Most excitingly, we identified a novel conotoxin superfamily and three novel cysteine scaffolds. These results give an initial insight into the C. litteratus transcriptome that will contribute to a better understanding of conotoxin evolution and the study of the cone snail genome in the near future.  (+info)

Two toxins from Conus striatus that individually induce tetanic paralysis. (8/96)

We describe structural properties and biological activities of two related O-glycosylated peptide toxins isolated from injected (milked) venom of Conus striatus, a piscivorous snail that captures prey by injecting a venom that induces a violent, spastic paralysis. One 30 amino acid toxin is identified as kappaA-SIVA (termed s4a here), and another 37 amino acid toxin, s4b, corresponds to a putative peptide encoded by a previously reported cDNA. We confirm the amino acid sequences and carry out structural analyses of both mature toxins using multiple mass spectrometric techniques. These include electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry and nanoelectrospray techniques for small volume samples, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometric analysis as a complementary method to assist in the determination of posttranslational modifications, including O-linked glycosylation. Physiological experiments indicate that both s4a and s4b induce intense repetitive firing of the frog neuromuscular junction, leading to a tetanic contracture in muscle fiber. These effects apparently involve modification of voltage-gated sodium channels in motor axons. Notably, application of either s4a or s4b alone mimics the biological effects of the whole injected venom on fish prey.  (+info)

Biggs J.S., Watkins M., Puillandre N., Ownby J.P., Lopez-Vera E., Christensen S., Moreno K.J., Bernaldez J., Licea-Navarro A., Corneli P.S., Olivera B.M.. Conus species are characterized by their hyperdiverse toxins, encoded by a few gene superfamilies. Our phylogenies of the genus, based on mitochondrial genes, confirm previous results that C. californicus is highly divergent from all other species. Genetic and biochemical analysis of their venom peptides comprise the fifteen most abundant conopeptides and over 50 mature cDNA transcripts from the venom duct. Although C. californicus venom retains many of the general properties of other Conus species, they share only half of the toxin gene superfamilies found in other Conus species. Thus, in these two lineages, approximately half of the rapidly diversifying gene superfamilies originated after an early Tertiary split. Such results demonstrate that, unlike endogenously acting gene families, these genes are likely to be significantly more ...
Posted by Chris on April 01, 2006 at 10:29:19:. In Reply to: Re: Conus californicus, the California Cone Snail posted by Deb Karimoto on April 01, 2006 at 08:50:01:. ...
Cone snails are predatory creatures using venom as a weapon for prey capture and defense. Since this venom is neurotoxic, the venom gland is considered as an enormous collection of pharmacologically interesting compounds having a broad spectrum of targets. As such, cone snail peptides represent an interesting treasure for drug development. Here, we report five novel peptides isolated from the venom of Conus longurionis, Conus asiaticus and Conus australis. Lo6/7a and Lo6/7b were retrieved from C. longurionis and have a cysteine framework VI/VII. Lo6/7b has an exceptional amino acid sequence because no similar conopeptide has been described to date (similarity percentage |50%). A third peptide, Asi3a from C. asiaticus, has a typical framework III Cys arrangement, classifying the peptide in the M-superfamily. Asi14a, another peptide of C. asiaticus, belongs to framework XIV peptides and has a unique amino acid sequence. Finally, AusB is a novel conopeptide from C. australis. The peptide has only one
During evolution, nature has embraced different strategies for species to survive. One strategy, applied by predators as diverse as snakes, scorpions, sea anemones and cone snails, is using venom to immobilize or kill a prey. This venom offers a unique and extensive source of chemical diversity as it is driven by the evolutionary pressure to improve prey capture and/or to protect their species. Cone snail venom is an example of the remarkable diversity in pharmacologically active small peptides that venoms can consist of. These venom peptides, called conopeptides, are classified into two main groups based on the number of cysteine residues, namely disulfide-rich and disulfide-poor conopeptides. Since disulfide-poor conotoxins are minor components of this venom cocktail, the number of identified peptides and the characterization of these peptides is far outclassed by its cysteine-rich equivalents. This review provides an overview of 12 families of disulfide-poor peptides identified to date as well as the
Marine snails form the dominant component of molluscan faunas throughout the worlds oceans. There are about 600 different species of cone snails found distributed in warm and tropical seas and oceans worldwide, and the greatest diversity is seen in the Western Indo-Pacific Region. Cone snail venoms such as conotoxins and conopeptides show great promise as a source of new and medically important substances. The synthetic version of the conopeptide called ziconotide has been approved as a medication in the United States by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and is in current use as an analgesic (pain reliever). Conantokins, which are a family of conopeptides found in cone snail venom, serve as sleeper peptides, and these peptides work by a mechanism that may be helpful for people with epilepsy ...
This week on Science and the Sea: Lethal Snails By Damond BenningfieldThe geographic cone snail was already known as a quiet killer. Its only a few inches long. And like many other species of cone snail, it lurks at the bottom...
Late 1980s and 1990s - description of normal level of conus in infants: Using sonography, Robbin et al. (23) refuted the idea of ascension during childhood and posited that by approximately 19 weeks gestation, the conus should have achieved its adult position. Wilson and Prince (38) concluded that a conus positioned at L2-L3 should be considered normal at any age. DiPietro (4) added to these data, showing that children younger than 2 months of age had a mean conus termination at the lower third of the L1 vertebral body, whereas children between the ages of 1 and 4 years had a mean conus termination at the upper third of the L1 vertebral body, and furthermore that the conus of children between the ages of 4 and 13 years was located at the upper third of the L1 vertebral body. Their study (4) also concluded that criteria for the determination of conus level should be age-dependent. Another sonography study (23) found that the conus was located above the L2 vertebral level in 92.1% of term babies, ...
Cone snails use their venom to paralyze their prey. Although the venom is often dangerous for humans, it contains chemicals that may have important medical benefits.
And a handful are already being developed by companies in Australia and the US as non-addictive pain killers up to 10,000 times stronger than morphine.. With up to 50,000 toxins, cone snails may contain the largest and most clinically important pharmacopoeia of any genus in nature, says Professor Chivian. To lose them would be a self-destructive act of unparalleled folly.. Tropical reefs and mangroves where the cone snails live are being degraded by coastal development, overfishing, pollution, disease epidemics, and global climate change, his team says. Capture for the ornamental shell trade is also escalating. Millions of cone snails are now sold annually for as little as a few cents each in shops all over the world. But we could not find any country that monitors this trade, they concluded recently in the journal Science. ...
This National Geographic video shows a cone snail hunting by using its . harpoonlike tooth that can be propelled from an extendable proboscis. The harpoon is loaded with a complex mix of toxins. A cone snail can be seen blasting a fish with its harpoon out in the open. Another cone snail buries itself in the sand and then attacks a fish with its toxic harpoon from below. It then swallows the fish whole. Take a look: ...
Kaas Q, Westermann JC, Halai R, Wang CK and Craik DJ. ConoServer, a database for conopeptide sequences and structures. Bioinformatics (2008) 24(3):445-6 ConoServer is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to ConoServer, the database of conotoxins (http://www.conoserver.org) and the above reference is cited. For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
Kaas Q, Westermann JC, Halai R, Wang CK and Craik DJ. ConoServer, a database for conopeptide sequences and structures. Bioinformatics (2008) 24(3):445-6 ConoServer is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to ConoServer, the database of conotoxins (http://www.conoserver.org) and the above reference is cited. For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
With the use of ultra-high-speed videography, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Associate Professor Emanuel Azizi and colleagues from Occidental College Los Angeles have shed light on the hunting mechanism of the cone snail Conus catus. Published online in Current Biology - Cell Press, the researchers identified the snails hydraulically propelled feeding structure as the quickest movement among mollusks by an order of magnitude.
But beware! Cone Snails have a extremely potent toxin (called Conotoxin), and they have to. They are tiny little guys who dont move very fast. Their toxin needs to paralyze their prey quickly, otherwise itll get away. The toxin in these Snails has the ability to kill a human being, and there is no known antivenom. They attack via a barb that shoots out from their shell, and the type of paralysis is dependent on the species. When their prey is immobilized, they draw it back in to their shell, still attached to the barb. Cone Snails are carnivorous and predatory, and feed off of fish, worms, and other mollusks, depending on the specific species ...
While considered a delicacy in some parts of the world, snails have found a more intriguing use to scientists and the medical profession offering a plethora of research possibilities.
Ziconotide (SNX-111; Prialt) is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain. Derived from Conus magus, a cone snail, it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide. In December 2004 the Food and Drug Administration approved ziconotide when delivered as an infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid using an intrathecal pump system. Ziconotide is derived from the toxin of the cone snail species Conus magus. Scientists have been intrigued by the effects of the thousands of chemicals in marine snail toxins since the initial investigations in the late 1960s by Baldomero Olivera. Olivera, now a professor of biology in the University of Utah, was inspired by accounts of the deadly effects of these toxins from his childhood in the Philippines. Ziconotide was discovered in the early 1980s by University of Utah research scientist Michael McIntosh, when he was barely out of high school and working with Baldomero Olivera. Ziconotide was developed into an artificially ...
So the question is: what is this barbed appendage that the critter used to poke my thumb? It is not well seen in the image, but the tail is hard, barbed and crescent-shaped and not visible unless the animal lashes out. The animal also used it to turn itself into correct position, if I placed it on its back. The whip of the tail was very fast (I always thought that snails are slow!). What is the primary use of the tail? Self-defense? Correcting the animals position? Attack? Also, is the real stinger supposed to be inside that sack-like structure that is located between the eyes? How easily does one get stung? Should one avoid stepping on a cone snail if walking along the ocean floor? (I know that handling the more exotic cone snails can be dangerous, even fatal - but what about these common ones ...
I will only name my one favorite Conus species: C. ebraeus, mainly because it is the most successful of all. The criteria for biological success vary with the category. At the genus level, Conus is of course the most successful in the sea, because it has the most species and occupies a correspondingly broad array of habitats and areas. For a species, criteria for success include how widespread it is, how abundant it is, and how many types of environment it can exploit. (This is why our species, Homo sapiens, is so successful on land.) C. ebraeus has the widest geographic range of any Conus species. It occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific region (1/4 of the worlds ocean area), and it has also crossed the East Pacific Barrier to colonize the coast of Costa Rica. It has a planktonic larva that stays afloat feeding and growing for at least several weeks and can thus be transported widely by currents. Tom Duda and Haris Lessios have shown that its populations in widely separated regions have almost ...
Subunit non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists reduce injury-induced pain behavior, but generally produce unacceptable side effects. In this study, we examined the antinociceptive and motor effects of cone snail venom-derived peptides, conantokins G and T (conG and conT), whi …
The big problems with morphine are addictiveness and the fact that people develop a tolerance to it, says Professor David Adams, director of the RMIT Health Innovations Research Institute. With the painkillers derived from cone snail venom, we dont have those problems. People dont develop tolerance, and they dont get hooked.. Also, theres a wide safety margin. With morphine, theres little room for error. If you overdose, youre likely to die. But with the venom peptides, there may be side-effects but you will survive.. David leads research into the cocktail of peptides-fragments of protein-with which the cone snail paralyses its prey. These peptides have exquisite selectivity for their molecular targets, he says. So his team is geared to developing new treatments for chronic nerve-based pain by discovering and purifying peptides that target particular pain receptors.. Worldwide, there are more than 700 species of cone snails, about two-thirds of which are found in the Great Barrier ...
Cone shells (Conidae) are a group of predatory marine snails. This group has not yet been divided into various genera, so that all of the approximately 300 species are included in the genus Conus.. Cone shells, like their close relatives the Turrids (Turridae), Mitre shells (Mitridae), Cytharidae and Auger shells (Terebridae), have developed an unusual venom apparatus for catching prey. However, only Cone shells are known to have caused envenoming in humans.. The shell of the Conidae is in the form of a rolled cone. There is a slit-like opening on the long side through which the animals evert their foot. The larger species, such as C. geographus, reach a length of up to 15 cm. With their often strikingly beautifully patterned shells, Cone shells are highly prized among shell collectors.. Cone shells live in shallow water, including coastal zones, especially reef areas, where they conceal themselves in crevices or bury themselves in the sand during the day. Only at dusk do they start appearing ...
The underwater version of a tank, this cone snail boasts an armored shell and enough venom to kill a human. Nearby fish dont stand a chance.
Putative prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) α-subunit sequences have been extracted by mining transcriptomic data obtained from seven cone snail species C. amadis, C. monile, C. araneosus, C. miles, C. litteratus, C. frigidus, and C. ebraeus. Sequences ranging from 518 to 559 residues have been compared with representative animal P4H sequences. The α-subunit consists of an N-terminus double domain, involv ...
As is well-known, toxins occur in a large number of animal species. Among the long list of toxins, we would like to mention apamin, the toxin of the bee, and conotoxin, a toxin originated in the cone snail, a sea snail.. Some of the sea snail venoms (cone snail) contain a analgetic toxin, i.e. the toxin derived of the conus magus species. This toxin is 1000times stronger than morphine in its analgetic action. Toxins consists of a mixture of different peptides. Each of these single peptides attacks special neuritic channels or receptors.. These toxins are the focus of pharmaceutical R&D and have become more and more important in this sector to develop drugs against diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson or Epilepsy. Moreover, toxins are already used in pain treatment therapy.. The advantages of our products:. Our partner, neither uses natural toxins, which could harm the species population, nor those CITES listed. Our partner is producing these toxins by peptide synthesis, which has the following ...
Vasantha, Basavalingappa and Yamanappa, Hunashal and Raghothama, Srinivasarao and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Conformational properties and aggregation of homo-oligomeric beta(3)(R)-valine peptides in organic solvents. In: BIOPOLYMERS, 108 (3). Vijayasarathy, Marimuthu and Basheer, Soorej M and Franklin, Jayaseelan Benjamin and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Contryphan Genes and Mature Peptides in the Venom of Nine Cone Snail Species by Transcriptomic and Mass Spectrometric Analysis. In: JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, 16 (2). pp. 763-772. Vasantha, Basavalingappa and George, Gijo and Raghothama, Srinivasarao and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Homooligomeric beta(3)(R)-valine peptides: transformation between C-14 and C-12 helical structures induced by a guest Aib residue. In: BIOPOLYMERS, 108 (1, SI). Pareek, Vidhi and Samanta, Moumita and Joshi, Niranjan V and Balaram, Hemalatha and Murthy, Mathur RN and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2016) Connecting Active-Site Loop Conformations and Catalysis in ...
By Glen F King; C R Ganellin; Salvatore Guccione. The pharmaceutical has turn into more and more drawn to biologics from animal venoms as a possible resource for healing brokers in recent times, with a very emphasis on peptides. thus far six medications derived from venom peptides or proteins were licensed via the FDA, with 9 additional brokers at present being investigated in scientific trials. as well as those medications in authorized or complicated levels of improvement, many extra peptides and proteins are being studied in various levels of preclinical improvement. This particular e-book offers an up-to-the-minute and entire account of the opportunity of peptides and proteins from animal venoms as attainable therapeutics. subject matters lined contain chemistry and structural biology of animal venoms, proteomic and transcriptomic methods to drug discovery, bioassays, high-throughput monitors and aim identity, and reptile, scorpion, spider and cone snail venoms as a platform for drug ...
Research Interests:. Foldamers are unnatural oligomers with a propensity to adopt well-defined conformations. These molecules have seen success in the mimicry of canonical peptide secondary structures such as -helices and -sheets. Current efforts in the field involve the application of foldamer design strategies to mimic higher-order protein structures and novel peptide architectures. Disulfide-rich peptides are notable candidates for foldamer research due to their intricate folding patterns and potent bioactivities. I am interested in establishing foldamer design principles for the synthesis of disulfide-rich peptide analogs with heterogeneous backbone modifications that manifest specific conformations, desired functionality and improved pharmacological properties.. Education:. B.S. in Microbiology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008. M.S. in Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014. ...
Conus badius Kiener, 1845) Kiener, L.C. (1844-1850). Spécies général et iconographie des coquilles vivantes. Vol. 2. Famille des Enroulées. Genre Cone (Conus, Lam.), pp. 1-379, pl. 1-111 [pp. 1-48 (1846); 49-160 (1847); 161-192 (1848); 193-240 (1849); 241-[379](assumed to be 1850); plates 4,6 (1844); 2-3, 5, 7-32, 34-36, 38, 40-50 (1845); 33, 37, 39, 51-52, 54-56, 57-68, 74-77 (1846); 1, 69-73, 78-103 (1847); 104-106 (1848); 107 (1849); 108-111 (1850)]. Paris, Rousseau & J.B. Baillière., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/88016 ...
But following in the success of zicontide(Prialt(R)), the pain reliever made the venom of the cone snail, researchers started looking at other natural venoms to see if they could be tamed as pain relievers. These new pain relievers is touted as a non-addictive pain reliever 1000 times as powerful as, and possibly a replacement for, morphine. These are various peptides, targeting each a specific nerve channel or receptor. This venom also contains a pain-reducing component, first pacifying the victim, before immobilising and then killing it. Many peptides produced by the cone snails show prospects for being potent pharmaceuticals, such as AVC1, isolated from the Australian cone shell Conus victoriae. This has proved very effective in treating post-surgical and neuropathic pain, even accelerating recovery from nerve injury. Other drugs are in clinical and preclinical trials, such as compounds of the toxin that may be used in the treatment of Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and epilepsy ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Puillandre, N. Duda, T.F. Meyer, C. Olivera, B.M. Bouchet, P., 2015. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails., Journal of Molluscan Studies, Vol. 81(1): 1-23. . doi:10.1093/mollus/eyu055. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyu055 ...
Puillandre, N. Duda, T.F. Meyer, C. Olivera, B.M. Bouchet, P., 2015. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails., Journal of Molluscan Studies, Vol. 81(1): 1-23. . doi:10.1093/mollus/eyu055. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyu055 ...
Trying to scrape together some money to make it home for the holidays. The following items are for sale. Any purchase over $20 will come with a free imitation buff (your choice of red, green, blue, or orange). 1) Cabelas down drawers new with tags. Tan, 550 fill. 3xl (!) but fit snug for size. $50 shipped CONUS Adding to this: 7) Pair 1/8 black Amsteel whoopies. Just shy of 6 each. $16.50 shipped CONUS 8) Imitation buffs. 3 each in red, blue, green, orange and camo. $5
Trying to scrape together some money to make it home for the holidays. The following items are for sale. Any purchase over $20 will come with a free imitation buff (your choice of red, green, blue, or orange). 1) Cabelas down drawers new with tags. Tan, 550 fill. 3xl (!) but fit snug for size. $50 shipped CONUS Adding to this: 7) Pair 1/8 black Amsteel whoopies. Just shy of 6 each. $16.50 shipped CONUS 8) Imitation buffs. 3 each in red, blue, green, orange and camo. $5
Marine drugs have developed rapidly in recent decades. Cone snails, a group of more than 700 species, have always been one of the focuses for new drug discovery. These venomous snails capture prey using a diverse array of unique bioactive neurotoxins, usually named as conotoxins or conopeptides. These conotoxins have proven to be valuable pharmacological probes and potential drugs due to their high specificity and affinity to ion channels, receptors, and transporters in the nervous systems of target prey and humans. Several research groups, including ours, have examined the venom gland of cone snails using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing, and revealed the existence of hundreds of conotoxin transcripts and thousands of conopeptides in each Conus species. Over 2000 nucleotide and 8000 peptide sequences of conotoxins have been published, and the number is still increasing quickly. However, more than 98% of these sequences still lack 3D structural and functional information. With
α-Conotoxins isolated from Conus venoms contain 11-19 residues and preferentially fold into the globular conformation that possesses a specific disulfide pairing pattern (C1-3, C2-4). We and others isolated a new family of χ-conotoxins (also called λ conotoxins) with the conserved cysteine framework of α-conotoxins but with alternative disulfide pairing (C1-4, C2-3) resulting in the ribbon conformation. In both families, disulfide pairing and hence folding are important for their biological potency. By comparing the structural differences, we identified potential structural determinants responsible for the folding tendencies of these conotoxins. We examined the role of conserved proline in the first intercysteine loop and the conserved C-terminal amide on folding patterns of synthetic analogues of ImI conotoxin by comparing the isoforms with the regiospecifically synthesized conformers. Deamidation at the C-terminus and substitution of proline in the first intercysteine loop switch the ...
Conotoxins (conopeptides) are a diverse group of peptides isolated from the venom of marine cone snails. Conus peptides modulate pain by interacting with voltage-gated ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Opiate drugs targeting GPCRs have long been used, nonetheless, many undesirable side effects associated with opiates have been observed including addiction. Consequently, alternative avenues to pain management are a largely unmet need. It has been shown that various voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) respond to GPCR modulation. Thus, regulation of VGCCs by GPCRs has become a valuable alternative in the management of pain. In this review, we focus on analgesic conotoxins that exert their effects via GPCR-mediated inhibition of ion channels involved in nociception and pain transmission. Specifically, α-conotoxin Vc1.1 activation of GABAB receptors and inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels as a novel mechanism for reducing the excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons is
Conus textile is a species of cone snail known as the cloth of gold. It lives in the waters of the Indo-Pacific, Australia, the Indian Ocean from eastern Africa to Hawaii, and French Polynesia. Typical length of adults is about 9.0 cm (3.5 in).. It uses a conotoxin to kill its prey. The animal uses microscopic needles to inject the toxin into its prey. The proboscis, the tip which holds the harpoon-like, radular tooth, is capable of being extended to any part of its own shell. The living animal is a risk to any person handling it who has not taken proper care to protect exposed skin. Several human deaths have been attributed to this species.. The female lays several hundred eggs at a time, which hatch after about 16 or 17 days. After hatching, the larvae float around in the current for approximately 16 days. Afterward, they settle at the bottom of the ocean. By this point their length is about 1.5 mm (0.06 in).. ...
Ever since Thor Heyerdahl and a small party of adventurers sailed their raft from South America to the Tuamotu islands, far to the north of Easter Island, a controversy has raged over the origin of the islanders. Today DNA testing has proved conclusively that the Polynesians arrived from the west rather than the east, and that the people of Easter Island are descendants of intrepid voyagers who set out from Taiwan thousands of years ago. Legend says that the people left for Easter Island because their own island was slowly being swallowed by the sea.
Cone snails are marine predators that use venoms to immobilize their prey. The venoms of these mollusks contain a cocktail of peptides that mainly target different voltage- and ligand-gated ion channe
Cone snails may look harmless but a sting from one can be lethal. Find out how these pretty-looking shells could possibly pose a threat and what to do if you encounter one.
Synonyms for Epacris purpurascens in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Epacris purpurascens. 1 synonym for Epacris purpurascens: Port Jackson heath. What are synonyms for Epacris purpurascens?
Designing novel conotoxins with therapeutic potential Conotoxins, with their exquisite specificity and potency have recently created much excitement as drug leads for the treatment of chronic pain. For example, the conotoxin MVIIA (also known as Ziconotide or Prialt) has been approved for use in the U.S. and Europe for the treatment of pain and several other conotoxins have entered clinical trials. In addition, a number of conotoxins have played a critical role in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of ion channel and transporter functions in the nervous system.. There are projects available in the design of novel conotoxins that target specific receptors involved in pain.. ...
The 887 giant moai statues on Easter Island have turned one of the most isolated islands in the world into one of the most well known---and most
Choose from a list of recommended hotels in Easter Island, and SouthAmerica.travel will create a tailor-made itinerary including hotels, transfers, tour and flights.
When I first read this I thought it must either be a joke or some new age mumbo-jumbo, but this seems to be for real. Scientists have found that a compound called rapamycin, first found on Easter Island, may have longevity enhancing capabilites. What is more interesting is that it seems to have this effect regardless of…
If the flowers on your tissue box dont exactly match your décor, then the Big Maoi Tissue Dispenser might be just the thing you need to add some style to your sniffles. Just load a regular rectangular tissue box in the back, and the tissues are pulled through the nostrils of the Easter Island statue. Its unique, and practical.. [I Want One Of Those - Big Maoi Tissue Dispenser]. [Via: Shurebit]. ...
Historical remote sensing phenology (RSP) image data and graphics for the conterminous U.S. are made freely available from the USGS/EROS Center through this website. Five data sets are distributed: CONUS 1 km AVHRR RSP data, C5 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C6 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C5 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, and C6 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data.. ...
Historical remote sensing phenology (RSP) image data and graphics for the conterminous U.S. are made freely available from the USGS/EROS Center through this website. Five data sets are distributed: CONUS 1 km AVHRR RSP data, C5 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C6 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C5 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, and C6 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data.. ...
α-Conotoxins that are thought to act as antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing α3-subunits are efficacious in several preclinical models of chronic pain. Potent interactions of Vc1.1 with other targets have suggested that the pain-relieving actions of α-conotoxins might be mediated by either α9α10 nAChRs or a novel GABA B receptor-mediated inhibition of N-type calcium channels. Here we establish that three α-conotoxins, Vc1.1, AuIB and MII have distinct selectivity profiles for these three potential targets. Their potencies after intramuscular administration were then determined for reversal of allodynia produced by partial nerve ligation in rats. Vc1.1, which potently inhibits α9α10 nAChRs and GABA B/Ca 2+ channels but weakly blocks α3β2 and α3β4 nAChRs, produced potent, long-lasting reversal of allodynia that were prevented by pre-treatment with the GABA B receptor antagonist, SCH50911. α-Conotoxin AuIB, a weak α3β4 nAChR antagonist, inhibited GABA B/Ca 2+
Pixdaus.com is an environmental photo-bookmarking and sharing service. All the pictures are uploaded by users and the copyrights belong to the rightholders. You can request a removal using the Copyright flag link below each image if you find an image that shouldnt belong here ...
Bouchet, P. (2014). Conus quadratus. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=429500 on 2017-12- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Single Disulfide-Directed β-Hairpin Fold. Dynamics, Stability, and Engineering. AU - Chittoor, Balasubramanyam. AU - Krishnarjuna, Bankala. AU - Morales, Rodrigo A.V.. AU - Macraild, Christopher A.. AU - Sadek, Maiada M.. AU - Leung, Eleanor W.W.. AU - Robinson, Samuel D.. AU - Pennington, Michael William. AU - Norton, Raymond S.. PY - 2017/5/16. Y1 - 2017/5/16. N2 - Grafting bioactive peptide sequences onto small cysteine-rich scaffolds is a promising strategy for enhancing their stability and value as novel peptide-based therapeutics. However, correctly folded disulfide-rich peptides can be challenging to produce by either recombinant or synthetic means. The single disulfide-directed β-hairpin (SDH) fold, first observed in contryphan-Vc1, provides a potential alternative to complex disulfide-rich scaffolds. We have undertaken recombinant production of full-length contryphan-Vc1 (rCon-Vc1[Z1Q]) and a truncated analogue (rCon-Vc11-22[Z1Q]), analyzed the backbone dynamics of ...
Researchers are increasingly turning to nature for inspiration for new drugs. One example is Prialt. It's an incredibly powerful painkiller tha
K+ channel of 529 aas and 6 TMSs, Kv1.6 or KCNA6. It can form functional homotetrameric channels and heterotetrameric channels that contain variable proportions of KCNA1, KCNA2, KCNA4, KCNA6, and possibly other family members (). channel properties depend on the type of alpha subunits that are part of the channel. Channel properties are modulated by cytoplasmic beta subunits that regulate the subcellular location of the alpha subunits and promote rapid inactivation (By similarity). Homotetrameric channels display rapid activation and slow inactivation (Grupe et al. 1990). It is inhibited by 0.6 μM β-defensin 3 (BD3) (Zhang et al. 2018) as well as by neurotoxic cone snail peptide μ-GIIIA and other conotoxins (Leipold et al. 2017 ...
2LZ5: Characterization of a novel alpha-conotoxin from conus textile that selectively targets alpha6/alpha3beta2beta3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
We had a full day at Tayrona National Park. There were two main options of things to do. If you fancied walking uphill for an hour and a half, there was an archaeological site of an ancient city. However it was far too hot and although it looked quite nice from the photos, Ive been…
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201000620/abstract The Engineering of an Orally Active Conotoxin for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain...
Icy? Well, compared to some areas in the US or Moscow, it had only a few degrees below zero (Celsius) last Sunday. The nights had about -10°C, the days about -2°C. This period lastet from last Friday to Monday. No snow at all and very, very dry air. The last two days we had about 0°C during the night and +10°C maximum during the day. Still very dry. So without any snow and clear, but cold weather, I checked out a few Miocene sites around St. Josef in western Styria, Austria. I have made a detailed report about the area more then a year ago here: Rocks and fossils wer ...
This species is restricted to a single bay in Angola. The threats are unknown. Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011 ...
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a. Civilian Employees. (1) Temporary Quarters Subsistence Expense (TQSE). TQSE may be authorized to partially reimburse a Civilian employee for temporary subsistence expenses incurred during a PCS. The Civilian employees new PDS must be in the United States (CONUS or Non-Foreign OCONUS) and the new PDS must be at least 50 miles away from the old PDS. There are two types of TQSE: TQSE(AE) for actual expense reimbursement and TQSE(LS) for a lump sum payment. See JTR, Section 0542 for more detailed information on TQSE eligibility and allowances.. (2) Foreign Transfer Allowance (FTA). The FTA helps defray a Civilian employees excess costs when transferring to a foreign area PDS for up to 10 days prior to departure from the CONUS or non-foreign OCONUS PDS. The FTA is governed by the Department of State Standardized Regulations (DSSR). See DSSR 240 for more detailed information on FTA eligibility and allowances... (3) Temporary Quarters Subsistence Allowance (TQSA). TQSA reimburses a Civilian ...
size xs (=52-53), frame weight with liner, cable stops, cable guides, hanger front/rear, 914 gr, fork uncut, with conus, 260 gr. removed superfluous design embellishment from the frame.. ...
Since I am whining a lot tonight I decided to describe the CRC at Ft. Benning. Before you can go into a war zone working for the military or a contractor, all people are required to go through the CRC. That stands for conus replacement center. I have been there twice. When it is decided…
No holds. First to pay basis. $50 each or both remaining pairs for $75 All items include CONUS USPS Priority mail shipping. Add $20 for Canada...
Straumann, Alex and Conus, Sebastien and Degen, Lukas and Felder, Stephanie and Kummer, Mirjam and Engel, Hansjürg and Bussmann, Christian and Beglinger, Christoph and Schoepfer, Alain and Simon, Hans-Uwe ...
These trials completed more than 12 months ago and should have reported results. These trials are not yet due to report results: some are ongoing, some completed within the past 12 months. ...
The conus snail has a throat sac. Air sacs Crop (anatomy) Gular (disambiguation), gular anatomical formations in other species ...
Stewart J. & Gilly W. F. (October 2005). "Piscivorous Behavior of a Temperate Cone Snail, Conus californicus". Biological ... This small cone snail is unusual, in that most cone snail species are tropical, whereas this species lives in the cooler, ... Conus californicus Reeve, 1844. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010. ... McMenamin, M. A. S. (1984). "Conus californicus from the Late Pleistocene of Isla Vista, California". Bulletin of the Southern ...
Ziconotide is derived from the sea snail Conus magus. Marine life portal Bacillus isolates Biotechnology in pharmaceutical ...
... is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Lividoconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Lividoconus) Wils, 1970 (type species Conus lividus Hwass in Bruguière, ... is equivalent to Conus diadema G. B. Sowerby I, 1834 Lividoconus floridulus (A. Adams & Reeve, 1848) is equivalent to Conus ... 1792) represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Lividoconus from Conus in the ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Dalliconus ... Conasprella pacei is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Conasprella ... Conasprella pepeiu is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from the Marquesas Archipelago: description of a new endemic offshore fauna. Vita Malacologica 6: ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website " ... Pseudolilliconus korni is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, ... Conus (Leptoconus) korni n. sp. La Conchiglia. 25(267): 24-28, 19 figs. Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Conus mcgintyi - Information. Note that the ... Conasprella mcgintyi is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, ... Minimum recorded depth is 55 m. Maximum recorded depth is 219 m. Pilsbry H. A. (1955). "Another Floridan Conus". The Nautilus ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Richard, G., 2009. Conus roberti spec. nov., ( ... Conasprella roberti is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... Annales de la Société des Sciences naturelles de Charente-Maritime 9(9): 921-928 The Conus Biodiversity website "Dalliconus ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Kioconus gordyi ... Conasprella gordyi is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Conus gordyi, a new species form Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean. La Conchiglia 31(293):41-43, 10 figs. Tucker J.K. & ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Kohniconus ... Conasprella scaripha is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... Summary of the shells of the genus Conus from the Pacific coast of Americain the U. S. National Museum; Proceedings of the ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Conus biodiversity website. accessed 25 May 2010. Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... The Conus Biodiversity website "Profundiconus tuberculosus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Mike Filmer (2011) ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Dalliconus ... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. ... Conasprella lenhilli, common name the brown-flamed cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Yeddoconus ... Two new species of Conus from New Caledonia: Conus boucheti sp. nov. and Conus kanakinus sp. nov. (Neogastropoda: Conidae). ... Conasprella boucheti is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Conus howelli ... Conasprella howelli is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging", ... Seashells of New South Wales: Conus howelli v t e. ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Bathyconus ... Conasprella elokismenos is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Substitute name for Conus orbignyi aratus Kilburn, nom preocc.. The Nautilus: A Quarterly Devoted to Malacology, 89 (2 ) ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ...
... is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Ductoconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Ductoconus) represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 ... synonym of Conus (Ductoconus) da Motta, 1991 represented as Conus princeps Linnaeus, 1758 Ductoconus da Motta, 1991. Retrieved ... Kohn A. A. (1992). Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. Monteiro ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 da Motta, A. J. (1985 ["1984"]). Two new Conus ... Profundiconus neotorquatus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... 1901): 14-26 Tenorio M. (2016). The genus Profundiconus: Cone snails from the deep sea. 4th International Cone Meeting - ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Description of a new species of Conus. Quarterly Journal of Conchology 1:107-108, 1 fig. Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., ... Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Bathyconus ... Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from offshore French Polynesia: Description of dredging from TARASOC expedition, with new records ... Conasprella fijiensis is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, ...
Gastridium is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Gastridium has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Gastridium) represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 ... synonym of Conus geographus Linnaeus, 1758 Gastridium tulipa (Linnaeus, 1758) synonym of Conus tulipa Linnaeus, 1758 Gastridium ... synonym of Conus eldredi Morrison, 1955 Gastridium fragilissimum (Petuch, 1979) synonym of Conus fragilissimus Petuch, 1979 ...
... has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Kalloconus) da Motta, 1991 (type species: Conus pulcher [Lightfoot], 1786) ... Kalloconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. In ... represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Kalloconus from Conus in the following ... Feeding habits These cone snails are vermivorous, meaning that the cones prey on polychaete worms. This list of species is ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Profundiconus ... Profundiconus scopulicola is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
... is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Monteiroconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Monteiroconus) da Motta, 1991 (type species Conus ambiguus Reeve, 1844) ... is equivalent to Conus bellocqae van Rossum, 1996 Monteiroconus tabidus (Reeve, 1844) is equivalent to Conus tabidus Reeve, ... represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Monteiroconus from Conus in the following ...
Two new Conus species. La Conchiglia 17(190-191): 26-28 [27] [replacement name for Conus torquatus von Martens, 1901]. Wilson, ... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous ... Venus 19(1): 1-16 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - Knights of the Sea Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B ... Profundiconus teramachii, common name Teramachi's cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Bouchet, P. (2015). Conus wendrosi (Tenorio & Afonso, 2013). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 To Encyclopedia of Life To World Register of ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... The Conus Biodiversity website "Profundiconus frausseni". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019. v t e. ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic ...
The risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: Conidae) in Brazil". Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina ... Exceptions to the above are the molluscs Planorbidae or ram's horn snails, which are air-breathing snails that use iron-based ... About 80% of all known mollusc species are gastropods (snails and slugs), including this cowry (a sea snail).[16] ... Snails and slugs can also be serious agricultural pests, and accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into ...
The risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: Conidae) in Brazil". Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina ... "Snails as Food". Snail World. Retrieved 2 July 2016.. *^ May, Gareth (10 July 2014). "Whelks are healthy, versatile and ... The predatory snail Euglandina rosea was disastrously introduced in an attempt to control it, as the predator ignored A. fulica ... Brown, D.S. (1994). Freshwater Snails of Africa and Their Medical Importance. CRC Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-7484-0026-3. .. ...
Con-P (P0C8E3) and Con-E (P0C8D9) were isolated from the only two fish-hunting cone snails of the Americas (Conus purpurascens ... Con-T (P17684) is purified from the venom of the fish-hunting cone-snail, Conus tulipa. This peptide has 4 residues of Gla. Con ... Con-Br (or Con-S1, P0CG46) is isolated from Conus brettinghami (now Conus sulcatus), and is the only known conantokin with a ... A conantokin from Conus radiatus is called Conantokin-R, but the latter-discovered ones from Conus rolani are called Canontokin ...
Discrimination between Calcium Channel Subtypes Using .omega.-conotoxin from Conus Magus Venom." Biochemistry, 26 (8): 2086-090 ... Tsetlin, V.I, and F. Hucho (2004) "Snake and Snail Toxins Acting on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Fundamental Aspects and ...
Redirected from CONUS). "CONUS" redirects here. For the sea snail, see Conus. ... CONUS - "Continental United States." CONUS refers to the 48 contiguous states. It is not synonymous with United States. CONUS ... CONUS and OCONUSEdit. CONUS, a technical term used by the U.S. Department of Defense, General Services Administration, NOAA/ ... "Per Diem Rates (CONUS and OCONUS)". United States General Services Administration.. *^ a b "U.S. Navy Style Guide". ...
Two examples developed for clinical use include ω-conotoxin (from the marine snail Conus magus) and ecteinascidin 743 (from the ... A more recent example is the N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide analgesic which is based on a cyclic peptide cone snail ... ISBN 978-1-4381-0211-5. Lewis RJ, Dutertre S, Vetter I, Christie MJ (April 2012). "Conus venom peptide pharmacology". ... an N-type neuronal calcium channel blocker found in the venom of Conus magus". Toxicon. 36 (11): 1651-8. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101 ...
"Snail shell" redirects here. For the cave in Tennessee, see Snail Shell Cave. For the They Might Be Giants song, see John Henry ... Conus *Contabulate, short, with shouldered whorls. *Convolute: aperture as long as the shell, nearly or quite concealing the ... a b Pfenninger M., Hrabáková M., Steinke D. & Dèpraz A. (4 November 2005) "Why do snails have hairs? A Bayesian inference of ... The gastropod shell is part of the body of a gastropod or snail, a kind of mollusc. The shell is an exoskeleton, which protects ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... 81: 1-23 Conus coronatus Gmelin, J.F., 1791 Conus coronatus Gmelin, J.F., 1791 Conus coronatus Gmelin, J.F., 1791 Conus ... Conus coronatus, common name the crowned cone or the coronated cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in ... Monograph of the genus Conus. pls 1-39 in Reeve, L.A. (ed.). Conchologica Iconica. London : L. Reeve & Co. Vol. 1. Hedley, C. ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells or cones ... This marine species of cone snail occurs off Martinique. MolluscaBase eds. (2020). MolluscaBase. Conus riosi Petuch, 1986. ... This snail is predatory and venomous and is capable of "stinging" humans. The length of the shell attains 40 mm. ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ... Conus boavistensis at The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - Knights of the Sea v t e. ... Conus boavistensis Rolán, 1990. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010. Rolán E. (1990) ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... Conus distans, common name the distant cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - ... Monograph of the genus Conus. pls 1-39 in Reeve, L.A. (ed.). Conchologica Iconica. London : L. Reeve & Co. Vol. 1. Brazier, J. ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... Conus sennottorum, common name Sennett's cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - ... Minimum recorded depth is 26 m. Maximum recorded depth is 106 m. Conus sennottorum Rehder & Abbott, 1951. Retrieved through: ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website "Conus ... Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ... Minimum recorded depth is 240 m. Maximum recorded depth is 240 m. Conus leekremeri Petuch, 1987. Retrieved through: World ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. ... Conus virgo Linnaeus, C., 1758 Conus virgo Linnaeus, C., 1758 Conus virgo Linnaeus, C., 1758 Conus virgo Linnaeus, C., 1758 The ... Varieties Conus virgo var. alba Spalowsky, 1795: synonym of Conus virgo Linnaeus, 1758 Conus virgo var. fasciata Menke, 1828: ... "Conus virgo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2014.old-form url Conus virgo Linnaeus, 1758. ...
... , common name the obese cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the ... The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - Knights of the Sea Conus zeylanicus Gmelin, J.F., 1791. ... These snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully ... Conus zeylanicus Gmelin, 1791. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010. G.W. Tryon (1884) Manual ...
Morelet described various taxa, including: Cyclophorus horridulum (Morelet, 1882) - a species of land snail Taxa named in ... Conus moreleti Crosse, 1858[citation needed] Edentulina moreleti (Adams, 1868)[citation needed] Leidyula moreleti (Fischer, ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... 81: 1-23 Conus praecellens Adams, A., 1854 Conus praecellens Adams, A., 1854 Conus praecellens Adams, A., 1854 Conus ... Conus praecellens, common name the admirable cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae ... Conus. pls 24-37 in Sowerby, G.B. (2nd) (ed). The Conchological Illustrations or coloured figures of all the hitherto unfigured ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... 81: 1-23 Conus bulbus Reeve, L.A., 1843 Conus bulbus Reeve, L.A., 1843 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - Knights of ... Conus bulbus, common name the onion cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, ... This species occurs in the Atlantic Ocean off Angola Conus bulbus Reeve, 1843. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - ... Conasprella lentiginosa is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
... is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails ... Pseudonoduloconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Pseudonoduloconus)Tucker & Tenorio, 2009 (type species: Conus ... represented as Conus carnalis G. B. Sowerby III, 1879 (alternate representation) Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 To World Register of Marine Species v t e. ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk, in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies ... Monograph of the genus Conus. In: Conchologia Iconica, vol. 1, pl. 1-47 and unpaginated text. L. Reeve & Co., London. [pl. 1-3 ... MolluscaBase (2018). Conus sugillatus Reeve, 1844. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www. ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk, in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. ... New Angolan Species of Conus Linné, 1758 (Gastropoda: Conidae). Conchylia 49(3-4): 14-23 v t e. ... MolluscaBase (2018). Conus eusebioi Schönherr, 2018. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www. ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... 81: 1-23 Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguière, J.G., 1792 Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguière, J.G., 1792 Conus pulicarius Hwass ... 1792 Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguière, J.G., 1792 Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguière, J.G., 1792 (juv). The Conus ... Conus pulicarius, common name the flea-bitten cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae ...
... is a synonym of Conus (Stephanoconus) Mörch, 1852,: synonym of Conus Linnaeus, 1758. These are sea snails, marine ... synonym of Conus solidus Gmelin, 1791 Tenorioconus trinitarius (Hwass in Bruguière, 1792): synonym of Conus mappa trinitarius ... synonym of Conus duffyi Petuch, 1992 (alternate representation) Tenorioconus granarius (Kiener, 1845): synonym of Conus mappa ... synonym of Conus mappa Lightfoot, 1786 (alternate representation) Tenorioconus panamicus (Petuch, 1990): synonym of Conus mappa ...
... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are ... Conus cumingii, common name Cuming's cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, ... This species is not to be confused with Conus cumingii Reeve, L.A., 1849, an invalid junior homonym and synonym of Conus ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells or ... This marine species of cone snail occurs in the Western Indian Ocean. Bouchet, P. (2015). Conus behelokensis Lauer, 1989. In: ... These snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans. The size of the shell varies between 34 mm and ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 To World Register of Marine Species Cone Shells ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells or ... These snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans. The size of the shell varies between 11 mm and ... Conus antoniaensis (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 7 December 2018. ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies ... Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ... The variety Conus vayssierei var. ossea Monterosato, 1917 is a variety of Conus vayssieri characterized by white background ... Conus vayssierei Pallary, 1906. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 26 July 2011. Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells ... These snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans. The size of the shell varies between 22 mm and ... This marine species in the South Atlantic Ocean off Angola at a depth of 20 m. Bouchet, P. (2015). Conus lineopunctatus. In: ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Kiener, L.C. (1844-1850). Spécies général et ...
Conus lenavati (Cone snail)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A0K8TTM0,A0A0K8TTM0_CONLV Conopeptide (Fragment) OS=Conus lenavati OX=1519839 PE=4 SV=1 ...
... [ Follow Ups ] [ Post Followup ] [ California Scuba Diving BBS ] [ FAQ ]. Posted ... In Reply to: Re: Conus californicus, the California Cone Snail posted by Deb Karimoto on April 01, 2006 at 08:50:01:. you ...
Cone shell snail)Ralph Waldo Emerson once stated The most dangerous thing is illusion. Good morning/afternoon ladies and ... The geography cone or Conus geographus is one of over 500 species of cone shell snails. Typically, these snails inhabit the ... Taxonomic Classification of the Cone Shell Snail (Conus Geographus) and the uses of its venom. Essay by TobyJL, High School, ... Taxonomic Classification of the Cone Shell Snail (Conus Geographus) and the uses of its venom. (2012, April 24). In WriteWork. ...
The venom of the marine snail, Conus loroisii, was studied to assess its risk and lethal factors in regard of human welfare. ... Clinico-toxinological characterization of the acute effects of the venom of the marine snail, Conus loroisii. ... Clinico-toxinological characterization of the acute effects of the venom of the marine snail, Conus loroisii. Acta Tropica 97 ( ...
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As such, cone snail peptides represent an interesting treasure for drug development. Here, we report five novel peptides ... isolated from the venom of Conus longurionis, Conus asiaticus and Conus australis. Lo6/7a and Lo6/7b were retrieved from C. ... Cone snails are predatory creatures using venom as a weapon for prey capture and defense. Since this venom is neurotoxic, the ... Here, we report five novel peptides isolated from the venom of Conus longurionis, Conus asiaticus and Conus australis. Lo6/7a ...
Conus textile strikes a snail. Clip (44 sec) A snail-hunting species of cone snail stings its prey repeatedly, inducing the ... Conus tulipa hunts fish by net. Clip (1 min 7 sec) Unlike a hook-and-line type fish-hunter, a net-hunting cone snail lures its ... Conus catus strikes a fish. Clip (1 min 11 sec) A fish-hunting cone snail strikes its prey with a venomous harpoon, causes ... Conus imperialis strikes a worm. Clip (31 sec) A worm-hunting cone snail species feeds on fireworms, and is unaffected by the ...
SPECIES ACCOUNTSROMAN SNAIL (Helix pomatia): SPECIES ACCOUNTSSHIELD LIMPET (Lottia pelta): SPECIES ACCOUNTSTOP SHELL (Trochus ... niloticus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS Source for information on Sea Slugs, Snails, and Limpets: Gastropoda: Grzimeks Student Animal ... SNAILS, AND LIMPETS: GastropodaNO COMMON NAME (Corolla spectabilis): ... GEOGRAPHY CONE SHELL (Conus geographus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS. Physical characteristics: The shell spire is flat with knobby whorls ...
Deadly Cone Snails (Conus) Harbour Painkillers of the Future. Biology , Medicine. Anti-radiation antidote. ...
Cone snails (Conus spp.) DAS *Fusarium sambucinum cultures that produce DAS, or ... Soluble peptides of the appropriate amino acid sequence extracted from the venom bulb of cone snails that have been treated ...
Cone snails (Conus spp.) *Recombinant production systems.. *Chemical synthesis.. * Milking of snails. ... Soluble peptides of the appropriate amino acid sequence extracted from the venom bulb of cone snails that have been treated ...
marine snail Conus magus. Prialt. neuropathic pain. Perrigo, formerly Elan Corporation (Dublin, Ireland). ... It then took another 30 years for the next marine natural product, Prialt (ziconotide), from cone snail to be approved in 2004 ...
14.5 Conus Envenomation: Nonfatal and Fatal Reports 459. 14.6 Chemical Diversity of Cone Snails 461 ... 14 Recent Developments and Chemical Diversity of Cone Snails with Special Reference to Indian Cone Snails 445. Satheesh Kumar ... 14 Recent Developments and Chemical Diversity of Cone Snails with Special Reference to Indian Cone Snails 445. Satheesh Kumar ...
... snails have found a more intriguing use to scientists and the medical profession offering a plethora of research possibilities. ... The venom of a particular species of cone snail, Conus regius, collected by the Marí group at the Florida Keys, is particularly ... Cone snails are marine mollusks, just as conch, octopi and squid, but they capture their prey using venom. The venom of these ... Cone snails can be found throughout the Florida coast at different depths. Marí and his team regularly collect these animals ...
University of Utah researchers have found that the structure of an insulin molecule produced by predatory cone snails may be an ... The Conus geographus snail is a predatory cone snail, eating fish. C. geographus and its relatives have developed complex brews ... Chou, Safavi, and colleagues found that insulin produced by the cone snail Conus geographus lacked the segment of the B region ... Putting snail insulin to work. Studying the structure of the cone snail insulin could help researchers modify human insulin to ...
... channel inhibitors from cone snail venom (the ω-conotoxins) have emerged as a new class of therapeutics for the treatment of ... Figure 1. The shells of three piscivorous cone snails. A, Conus catus (2-3 cm); B, C. magus (3-4 cm); and C, C. geographus (~6 ... Figure 1. The shells of three piscivorous cone snails. A, Conus catus (2-3 cm); B, C. magus (3-4 cm); and C, C. geographus (~6 ... All ω-conotoxins identified to date have been found in piscivorous cone snails ranging from the small Conus catus to the large ...
24 222901 Conus spp.. Organism Type: a cone snail. Identifiers:. Australian Faunal Directory (AFD). urn:lsid:biodiversity.org. ... Conus (Turriconus) praecellens A. Adams, 1854 CAAB category: 24 - Mollusca - Gastropoda Gastropods (univalve molluscs, slugs, ... Conus sowerbyi. Kurodaconus praecellens Taxon lists:. Current Australian list: Commercial species list: Standard Fish Names ... One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails., Journal of Molluscan Studies, Vol. 81(1): 1-23. . doi: ...
Conus geographus). Also known as: cone shell. Image: Wikimedia. One sting from this predatory snail could kill many adults. One ... These snails are found near Indo-Pacific ocean reefs and are most likely encountered when they are stepped on. Because stings ...
Textile Cone Snail Conus textile. ). Conus textile is a species of cone snail known as the "cloth of gold." It lives in the ...
Conidae (cone snails) - show full list Common Name: [a cone snail]. Recent Synonyms: Conus pulcherrimus. Conus tannaensis. ... a cone snail. Identifiers:. Australian Faunal Directory (AFD). urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:afd.taxon:171ea5f0-b8f6-410b-8c01- ... Conus (Turriconus) excelsus G.B. Sowerby III, 1908 CAAB category: 24 - Mollusca - Gastropoda Gastropods (univalve molluscs, ... One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails., Journal of Molluscan Studies, Vol. 81(1): 1-23. . doi: ...
Redirected from CONUS). "CONUS" redirects here. For the sea snail, see Conus. ... CONUS - "Continental United States." CONUS refers to the 48 contiguous states. It is not synonymous with United States. CONUS ... CONUS and OCONUSEdit. CONUS, a technical term used by the U.S. Department of Defense, General Services Administration, NOAA/ ... "Per Diem Rates (CONUS and OCONUS)". United States General Services Administration.. *^ a b "U.S. Navy Style Guide". ...
Pared down insulins produced by marine cone snails activate the human insulin receptor and lower blood glucose levels in animal ... Back in 2015 Safavi-Hemamis team discovered that venom produced by the fish-hunting cone snail Conus geographus contains an ... A cone snail waits for a fish to swim past. [University of Utah Health]. The cone snail sits in wait for prey to approach, and ... The connection between snails and diabetes may not be obvious, but the venom produced by predatory marine snails is giving ...
... the cone snails, cone shells or cones. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They ... 1882 Conus eumitus Tomlin, 1926 Conus panniculus Lamarck, 1810 Conus reteaureum Perry, 1811 Conus sirventi Fenaux, 1943 Conus ... synonym of Conus textile archiepiscopus) Conus tigrinus G. B. Sowerby II, 1858 Conus undulatus [Lightfoot], 1786 Conus ... Conus textile, the textile cone or the cloth of gold cone is a venomous species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the ...
The conus snail has a throat sac. Air sacs Crop (anatomy) Gular (disambiguation), gular anatomical formations in other species ...
Venom induces paralysis in preycone snail. Conus victoriae cone snails catch food by injecting a potent venom that renders prey ... Magnesium substitution prevents crackssea snail. The egg capsule of a sea snail resists cracks due to substituting calcium with ... Cells undertake calcification in freshwatercommon pond snail. The cells of the freshwater common pond snail maintain critical ... The eggs of the white rock shell snail ward off microbial attack with a series of physical, mechanical, and potentially ...
Cone snail venom could inspire the design of newer, faster-working insulins that would improve blood sugar control for ... Some cone snail species, such as Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, release a venom that paralyzes their prey. And then the ... Predatory snails. Cone snails are a large family of predatory mollusks that lurk in seas around the world. The slimy fish ... A cone snail uses a simple molecular hack to make its insulin so fast. Unlike human insulin, which has requires a huge hinge ( ...
Diversity of conotoxin gene superfamilies in the venomous snail, Conus victoriae.. Robinson SD, Safavi-Hemami H, McIntosh LD, ... Embryonic toxin expression in the cone snail Conus victoriae: primed to kill or divergent function? ... Identification of Conus peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) and assessment of their role in the oxidative folding of ... Hormone-like peptides in the venoms of marine cone snails.. Robinson SD, Li Q, Bandyopadhyay PK, Gajewiak J, Yandell M, ...
Snails (Conus). US. US Patent No.s 6369193, 6344551, 6197535, 6153738, 6077934, 5633347, 5595972, 5589340 and 5514774 ...
Featured image: 3 Conus regius. Courtesy: The University of Utah Health.. The results of the study are available in the ... "These snails have developed a strategy to hit and subdue their prey with up to 200 different compounds, one of which is insulin ... "We are beginning to uncover the secrets of cone snails," says Safavi-Hemami. "We hope to use what we learn to find new ... and her team examined the function of seven insulin sequences found in the venom from three species of cone snail Conus ...
The risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: Conidae) in Brazil". Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina ... Exceptions to the above are the molluscs Planorbidae or rams horn snails, which are air-breathing snails that use iron-based ... About 80% of all known mollusc species are gastropods (snails and slugs), including this cowry (a sea snail).[16] ... Snails and slugs can also be serious agricultural pests, and accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into ...
  • The geography cone or Conus geographus is one of over 500 species of cone shell snails. (writework.com)
  • C. geographus is the largest of the Conus species and also the most venomous, according to the Queensland Museum (http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/Find+out+about/Animals+of+Queensland/Mollusks/Gastropods/Marine+snails/Geography+Cone) the geography cone is responsible for at least a dozen human deaths. (writework.com)
  • The fish-hunting cone snail, Conus geographus , is the deadliest snail on earth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conus geographus is believed to prey on fish hiding in reef crevices at night. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have analyzed the venom-duct of Conus geographus using a transcriptomics approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • it was the characterization of Conus geographus venom peptides which established that most of the biologically-active components of Conus venoms, were small, disulfide rich peptides [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to being the deadliest of all cone snails, Conus geographus has an unusual strategy for catching fish: it is believed to prey primarily on schools of small fish hiding in reef crevices at night. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several peptides from Conus geographus venom have become widely used in neuroscience research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, Conus geographus peptides are among the best characterized from any animal venom. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is a Conus geographus hunting a fish. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chou, Safavi, and colleagues found that insulin produced by the cone snail Conus geographus lacked the segment of the B region that causes aggregation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Conus geographus snail is a predatory cone snail, eating fish. (eurekalert.org)
  • Back in 2015 Safavi-Hemami's team discovered that venom produced by the fish-hunting cone snail Conus geographus contains an insulin peptide that lacks the critical region of the B chain that is responsible for insulin dimerization and human insulin receptor engagement, but is still able to activate the human insulin receptor. (genengnews.com)
  • Conus geographus , C. tulipa, and C. kinoshitai . (genengnews.com)
  • All ω-conotoxins identified to date have been found in piscivorous cone snails ranging from the small Conus catus to the large Conus geographus ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • A cone snail (Conus geographus) hunting for a fishy snack. (livescience.com)
  • Some cone snail species, such as Conus geographus and Conus tulipa , release a venom that paralyzes their prey. (livescience.com)
  • Comparison of the structures of insulin in Conus geographus (red/white) and in humans (blue/white and green). (utah.edu)
  • Here, we show that the defence-evoked venom of Conus geographus contains high levels of paralytic toxins that potently block neuromuscular receptors, consistent with its lethal effects on humans. (nih.gov)
  • Conus geographus, the cone snail used for this study. (zmescience.com)
  • In order to study this substance, researchers examined the gene sequences of all the proteins in the venom gland of Conus geographus, a cone snail with a very powerful venom. (zmescience.com)
  • The fish-eating Conus geographus cone snail is one of the most venomous cone snails in existence. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • A scuba diver holds a live specimen of Conus geographus collected during a night dive. (utah.edu)
  • Some of these fish-hunting species, such as Conus geographus , release plumes of toxic venom that contain a unique form of insulin into the surrounding water. (utah.edu)
  • But the geography cone ( Conus geographus ) first disperses its toxins through the water. (nhm.ac.uk)
  • 44 sec) A snail-hunting species of cone snail stings its prey repeatedly, inducing the prey to thrash about. (hhmi.org)
  • 1 min 10 sec) This species of cone snail immobilizes its prey in a split second with lightning-strike cabal toxins. (hhmi.org)
  • Professor Frank Marí in the Charles E. Schmidt College of Science at Florida Atlantic University holds a live Conus regius , a particular species of cone snail collected by the Marí. (eurekalert.org)
  • The venom of a particular species of cone snail, Conus regius, collected by the Marí group at the Florida Keys, is particularly rich in alpha conotoxins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Conus textile is a species of cone snail known as the "cloth of gold. (untamedscience.com)
  • Studies headed by the University of Utah's Helena Safavi-Hemami, PhD, found that while insulin molecules produced by different species of cone snail lacked structurally and functionally critical parts of human insulin, they were still able to bind to and activate human, mouse and fish insulin receptors. (genengnews.com)
  • This marine species of cone snail is endemic to Vietnam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The venom of cone snails contains hundreds of different compounds, and its exact composition varies widely from one species of cone snail to another. (zmescience.com)
  • The ones that prey on fish are exceptionally dangerous as their venom is much more potent and can cause death in humans given the right species of cone snail. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • The venom peptides from cone snails (genus Conus ) are generally small cysteine-rich peptides with the unique feature of being highly selective and potent ligands for a wide range of ion channels and receptors [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent surge in developmental and genomic research focused on "slipper snails" in the genus Crepidula is resulting in the development of Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus, 1758), as a de facto model system for molluscan development (see Fig. 1A). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Venomous marine snails of the genus Conus employ small peptides to capture prey, mainly osteichthyes, mollusks, and worms. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cone snail is classified in the Conus genus, which is very large (over 600 species) and comprises predatory snails from small to large. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • Snails of this genus sometimes hitchhike in on liverock so care should always be taken when handling an unknown snail as their stings can be rather nasty. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • In short, the genus Conus , the big family of cone snails, has become an important genetic resource for conotoxin identification and drug development. (mdpi.com)
  • Abstract: Cone snails within the genus Conus constitute one of the most species rich marine invertebrate genera in the world. (ucla.edu)
  • Cone snails are venomous predators that rapidly immobilize their prey using a complex cocktail of short peptides (10-40 AA long) collectively known as conotoxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 13 min 39 sec) Dr. Jason Biggs of the University of Guam Marine Laboratory discusses the anatomy of cone snails and introduces us to a variety of cone snail species with different tactics to hunt and capture their prey. (hhmi.org)
  • 1 min 7 sec) Unlike a hook-and-line type fish-hunter, a net-hunting cone snail lures its prey into its wide mouth. (hhmi.org)
  • 44 sec) A species of fish-hunting cone snail quickly immobilizes its prey and swallows it. (hhmi.org)
  • 1 min 11 sec) A fish-hunting cone snail strikes its prey with a venomous harpoon, causes paralysis, and eats it. (hhmi.org)
  • Cone snails are predatory creatures using venom as a weapon for prey capture and defense. (mdpi.com)
  • Cone snails are marine mollusks, just as conch, octopi and squid, but they capture their prey using venom. (eurekalert.org)
  • The venom produced by these animals immobilizes prey, which can be worms, other snails and fish," said Marí. (eurekalert.org)
  • The finding suggests that the cone snail insulin, produced by the snails to stun their prey, could begin working in as few as five minutes, compared with 15 minutes for the fastest-acting insulin currently available. (eurekalert.org)
  • It makes sense because the snail has to very rapidly induce insulin shock in its fish prey, so it has evolved something very fast acting," Safavi says. (eurekalert.org)
  • These snails have developed a strategy to hit and subdue their prey with up to 200 different compounds, one of which is insulin," said Safavi-Hemami, an assistant professor of biochemistry at the University of Utah Health, and senior author on the team's paper, which was published in eLife . (genengnews.com)
  • The cone snail sits in wait for prey to approach, and then releases insulin-containing toxic venom into the water. (genengnews.com)
  • The prey are immobilized and the snail can emerge from its hiding place and engulf its meal. (genengnews.com)
  • Evolution may be the driving force to increase the molecular diversity of the toxin molecules that the cone snail species use for hunting prey," said co-author Danny Hung-Chieh Chou, PhD, assistant professor of biochemistry at the University of Utah. (genengnews.com)
  • Cone snails, found on the Great Barrier Reef in Australia and most other tropical waters around the world, are predatory marine gastropods they prey on fish, worms or molluscs [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Venom that snails use to paralyze their prey before gobbling them up could inspire a new drug for diabetes. (livescience.com)
  • Although moderately mobile, marine cone snails have perfected several strategies to capture prey. (dlife.com)
  • These snails have developed a strategy to hit and subdue their prey with up to 200 different compounds, one of which is insulin," says Dr. Helena Safavi-Hemami , assistant professor of Biochemistry at U of U Health and senior author on the paper. (dlife.com)
  • Cone snails are tropical marine mollusks that envenomate prey with a complex mixture of neuropharmacologically active compounds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cone snails are marine predators that use venoms to immobilize their prey. (springer.com)
  • The compound is derived from petide, a chemical component found in the venom of the particular snail in question, which uses it both to help immobilize prey and also as a defense mechanism. (digitaltrends.com)
  • There are hundreds of species of snail, which hunt a wide variety of prey, such as fish, worms, and other snails," Dr. J. Michael McIntosh , a professor of psychiatry and biology at the University of Utah, told Digital Trends. (digitaltrends.com)
  • Cone snails use a hypodermic-like modified radula tooth and a venom gland to attack and paralyze their prey before engulfing it. (zmescience.com)
  • A cone snail stalking its prey. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • As cone snails slither across coral reefs, they are constantly on the prowl for prey. (utah.edu)
  • This Dalmatian spotted wanna-be is nothing but a evolutionarily honed snail eating machine with a modified poisonous harpoon that can be ejected from its body to subdue any prey. (deepseanews.com)
  • These venomous snails capture prey using a diverse array of unique bioactive neurotoxins, usually named as conotoxins or conopeptides. (mdpi.com)
  • The museum had a drawer of these snails (see below) and noted that they are used in medical research because the snails use unique venoms to paralyze their prey. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • They hunt and eat marine worms, small fish, molluscs, and other cone snails using a harpoon, called a toxoglossan radula, to inject their prey with neurotoxins. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • Although cone snails often just attack small prey, some have a very powerful sting that can penetrate wetsuits and kill humans. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • These predatory snails typically feed on worms, molluscs, or fish, and capture their prey using a cocktail of venomous neurotoxins. (ucla.edu)
  • Cone snails have a hypodermic needle-like tooth to inject their prey with paralysing venom. (nhm.ac.uk)
  • The venom of the predatory marine snail Conus Magus is one of the most potent painkillers on the planet. (newscientist.com)
  • It is the synthetic equivalent of ω-MVIIA, a component of the venom of the marine snail, Conus magus. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The sea snail Conus magus looks harmless enough, but it packs a venomous punch that lets it paralyze and eat fish. (wbur.org)
  • PRIALT is the synthetic equivalent of a naturally-occurring conopeptide found in a marine snail known as Conus magus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ziconotide is the synthetic equivalent of another naturally occurring toxin (the venom of the marine snail, Conus magus). (pharmiweb.com)
  • Derived from Conus magus (Cone Snail), it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide. (drugbank.ca)
  • The researchers reported their findings in a paper titled " Fish-hunting cone snail venoms are a rich source of minimized ligands of the vertebrate insulin receptor . (genengnews.com)
  • Hormone-like peptides in the venoms of marine cone snails. (nih.gov)
  • Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. (curehunter.com)
  • Remarkably, cone snails can rapidly switch between distinct venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that defensive toxins, originally evolved in ancestral worm-hunting cone snails to protect against cephalopod and fish predation, have been repurposed in predatory venoms to facilitate diversification to fish and mollusk diets. (nih.gov)
  • Cone snails are a large family of predatory mollusks that lurk in seas around the world. (livescience.com)
  • Mollusks include cones (including cone snails), cephalopods (including octopi and squids), and bivalves. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The shells of snails and other mollusks, and snail egg casings, are primarily made up of calcium carbonate. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Severe Conus stings may require mechanical ventilation and measures to reverse shock. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The snail stings the fish with a harpoon like tooth, which is hollow and barbed and held at the tip of the proboscis. (springer.com)
  • Thus, stings from cone snails often cause intense localized pain, numbness and tingling, muscle paralysis, and sometimes loss of vision and respiratory failure. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • Highly selective N-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca V ) channel inhibitors from cone snail venom (the ω-conotoxins) have emerged as a new class of therapeutics for the treatment of chronic and neuropathic pain. (mdpi.com)
  • Identification, by RT-PCR, of four novel T-1-superfamily conotoxins from the vermivorous snail Conus spurius from the Gulf of Mexico. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Many small molecules interact with nAChRs including d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. (tcdb.org)
  • Gao B, Peng C, Yang J, Yi Y, Zhang J, Shi Q. Cone Snails: A Big Store of Conotoxins for Novel Drug Discovery. (mdpi.com)
  • α-Conotoxins, disulfide-constrained peptides isolated from the venom of cone snails, potently inhibit nAChRs. (edu.au)
  • How brilliant is this," says Meyer, who has observed a close cousin of the geographic cone snail-named Conus tulipa-hunting and killing fish in the same way in Guam. (zmescience.com)
  • We report the discovery and biochemical characterization of a structurally unique peptide isolated from the venom of Conus marmoreus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conus textile, the textile cone or the cloth of gold cone is a venomous species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells or cones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conus dangdami is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells or cones. (wikipedia.org)
  • New endemic species of Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from the islands of São Nicolau, Santo Antão and Sal in the Cape Verde Archipelago. (spirula.nl)
  • The identity and systematics of Conus lightbourni Petuch, 1986 (Gastropoda, Conidae). (spirula.nl)
  • Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from the Marquesas Archipelago: description of a new endemic offshore fauna. (spirula.nl)
  • 24 - Mollusca - Gastropoda Gastropods (univalve molluscs, slugs, snails etc. (cmar.csiro.au)
  • The gastropods ( snails and slugs ) are by far the most numerous molluscs and account for 80% of the total classified species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slugs," which are gastropods that lack a conspicuous shell, are scattered throughout groups that primarily include "snails. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The class is made up of the snails , which have a shell into which the animal can generally withdraw, and the slugs -snails whose shells have been reduced to an internal fragment or completely lost in the course of evolution. (britannica.com)
  • The pulmonates are snails and slugs that lack an operculum but show complex and highly varied body structures. (britannica.com)
  • Conus californicus is the only known dangerous cone in North American waters. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Divergent superfamilies refer to the conopeptides identified in early divergent species, Conus californicus and Conus distans. (nih.gov)
  • Venom of marine snail Conus californicus: biochemical studies of a cholinomimetic component. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When the snail is aggressively handled (eg, during shell cleaning, when placed in a pocket), it injects its venom through a harpoon-like tooth. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Once a fish approaches out of curiosity, the snail will rapidly shoot a harpoon at it, which consists of an evolutionarily modified tooth. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Sea shells & Land snails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conus badius Kiener, 1845 ) Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2013) Illustrated catalog of the living cone shells . (marinespecies.org)
  • Conus laevigatus G. B. Sowerby II, 1858 ) Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2013) Illustrated catalog of the living cone shells . (marinespecies.org)
  • Cone snails are mainly known due to the beauty of their shells, which can be found in plenty of the "sea side souvenir shops" all over the world. (springer.com)
  • Snail is the common name applied to most members of the mollusk class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • They are integral to food chains and, in addition to a number of species being consumed by humans as delicacies, snails also touch upon the inner nature of people, adding aesthetic value and contributing to the human fascination with nature , particularly with their unique shells and behaviors. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The term snail is not a taxonomic unit but is variously defined to include all members of Gastropoda, all members of the subclass Orthogastropoda, all members of Orthogastropoda with a high coiled shell, or a group of gastropods with shells that do not include limpets, abalones, cowries, whelks, and conches. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Solvin Zankl / The shells of the minute sea snail (Schwartziella ephamilla, top) and the wentletraps (Cycloscala hyalina, below) from sand sample from Raja Ampat, Indonesien. (naturepl.com)
  • abbreviata Dautzenberg, 1937: synonym of Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758 Conus textile var. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conus (Virgiconus) frigidus Reeve, 1848 ) Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). (marinespecies.org)
  • Extraction and characterization of chitin from sea snail Conus inscriptus (Reeve, 1843). (uhnresearch.ca)
  • Thus, our transcriptome analysis provides a new physiological framework for understanding the molecular envenomation strategy of this deadly snail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Discovery by proteogenomics and characterization of an RF-amide neuropeptide from cone snail venom. (nih.gov)
  • Isolation and characterization of a novel conus peptide with apparent antinociceptive activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{McIntosh2000IsolationAC, title={Isolation and characterization of a novel conus peptide with apparent antinociceptive activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of a T-superfamily conotoxin TxVC from Conus textile that selectively targets neuronal nAChR subtypes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Featured image: 3 Conus regius. (dlife.com)
  • RegIIA: an α4/7-conotoxin from the venom of Conus regius that potently" by Aldo Franco, Shiva N. Kompella et al. (edu.au)
  • We isolated an α4/7-conotoxin (RegIIA) from the venom of Conus regius. (edu.au)
  • Specialized insulin is used for chemical warfare by fish-hunting cone snails. (nih.gov)
  • A specialized defensive envenomation strategy is widely evolved across worm, mollusk and fish-hunting cone snails. (nih.gov)
  • University of Utah researchers have found that the structure of an insulin molecule produced by predatory cone snails may be an improvement over current fast-acting therapeutic insulin. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nearly a century after insulin was discovered, an international team of researchers including University of Utah Health scientists report that they have developed the world's smallest, fully functional version of the hormone, one that combines the potency of human insulin with the fast-acting potential of a venom insulin produced by predatory cone snails. (utah.edu)
  • However, the sworn enemy of the Tonga Fighting Conch is the Marbled Cone, Conus marmoreus . (deepseanews.com)
  • The connection between snails and diabetes may not be obvious, but the venom produced by predatory marine snails is giving University of Utah researchers new insights into the structure and function of insulin that could lead to the development of faster-acting treatments for diabetes in humans. (genengnews.com)
  • I recently visited the Natural History Museum at the University of Florida and found an odd animal that I didn't know was used in medical research: Predatory Marine Snails, a.k.a. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • A snail breaks up its food using the radula. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This is why snails are often heard 'crunching' their food: the radula is tearing away at what they are eating. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Finally, the snail "harpoons" the fish with a poisonous barb called a radula tooth which finishes off the fish. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • The eyes and mouth parts an be seen in the narrow/anterior end of the snail, and that is where I assume the real radula-derived poison stinger should also be located. (biology-online.org)
  • Novel Conopeptides of Largely Unexplored Indo Pacific Conus sp. (mdpi.com)
  • Several research groups, including ours, have examined the venom gland of cone snails using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing, and revealed the existence of hundreds of conotoxin transcripts and thousands of conopeptides in each Conus species. (mdpi.com)
  • Commonly not so well recognized is that the biology of these marine snails is very fascinating because these slow animals live as predators. (springer.com)
  • I've understood that all cone snails are predators and venomous. (biology-online.org)
  • Tests on insulin receptors in the lab showed that although the snail insulin was less effective than human insulin, it was still effective, and could possibly start acting in five minutes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tests showed that the cone snail venom insulins activated the insulin receptors and lowered blood glucose levels in zebrafish and mouse models of chemically induced diabetes. (genengnews.com)
  • Unlike human insulin, which has requires a huge hinge (shown in red) to bind to insulin receptors, cone snails have just a single amino acid in place of the hinge, making the molecule smaller and faster to work in the body. (livescience.com)
  • In lab experiments, the team found that the insulin from the Conus successfully bound to human insulin receptors. (livescience.com)
  • In tests with laboratory rats, this hybrid insulin molecule, which the scientists call "mini-insulin," interacted with insulin receptors in ways that cone snail insulin doesn't. (utah.edu)
  • Diet diversity is distributed unevenly in this group - nearly 70% of cone snails feed on worms. (ucla.edu)
  • euetrios G. B. Sowerby III Conus textile var. (wikipedia.org)
  • loman Dautzenberg, 1937 Conus textile var. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. textile eats snails. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the recently isolated ω-conotoxin TxVII, from Conus textile was found to target the L-type Ca V channel [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Studying the structure of the cone snail insulin could help researchers modify human insulin to lose its self-aggregation but retain its potency, Safavi says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now we can look at the human insulin and see if we can make it more snail-like. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team still needs to conduct more experiments to measure how quickly snail insulin, or a modified human insulin, would work when injected into an organism. (eurekalert.org)
  • And now, researchers have discovered that the chemical hack that makes cone snail venom so fast acting, could also be used to make human insulin act faster, which could lead to better blood sugar control for people with diabetes. (livescience.com)
  • The venom insulin has to work quickly, so we could use those same principles to make a human insulin therapeutic, to use the same tricks that the snail uses to attack fish," said study co-author Mike Lawrence, a structural biologist at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Victoria, Australia. (livescience.com)
  • The new findings suggest a molecular strategy for designing faster-acting human insulin: The hinge in human insulin could be snipped out and replaced with the amino acid that cone snails use in their insulin. (livescience.com)
  • Using cell lines, they found the cone snail insulin sequences were able to bind to and activate the human insulin receptor, despite missing the part of the B chain found in human insulin. (dlife.com)
  • In pursuit of their goal, the researchers found that insulin derived from cone snail venom lacks a "hinge" component that causes human insulin to aggregate or clump together so it can be stored in the pancreas. (utah.edu)
  • We had the idea of making human insulin more snail-like," says Safavi, who is also an adjunct professor of biochemistry at U of U Health. (utah.edu)
  • The researchers thought this was possible because cone snail insulin essentially has the same basic structure or "backbone" as human insulin. (utah.edu)
  • Conus (Rhizoconus) namocanus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 ) Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). (marinespecies.org)
  • They are definitely carnivorous snails, and race over to that leftover crab. (tonmo.com)
  • After a quick search on Wikipedia, I found that cone snails are carnivorous, predatory, and extremely venomous. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • It takes the venomous cone snail about two weeks to digest a fish. (uni-bonn.de)
  • several sequences of the tribblei and lenavati conopeptide data sets showed high similarity to SF-mi2 and SF-mi4 in Conus miles (Jin et al. (nih.gov)
  • It then took another 30 years for the next marine natural product, Prialt (ziconotide), from cone snail to be approved in 2004, followed by Yondelis (trabectedin) in 2007. (nature.com)
  • Prialt is based on a component in the venom of a marine snail. (wbur.org)
  • Small-molecule mimicry hunting strategy in the imperial cone snail, Conus imperialis. (mbl.edu)
  • Hidden in the mud, the cone snail Conus purpurascens lies in wait for its victims. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Conus purpurascens hunting a clown fish. (springer.com)
  • there have been many cases of divers being stung by cone snails, and even some lived were claims by the very powerful venom. (zmescience.com)
  • However, what happened with this snail is that when I picked it up, it soon stung me with this odd appendage it had in the rear end of its shell. (biology-online.org)
  • Beyond humans' minimal risk of being stung, cone snail neurotoxins are also studied for its potential in creating pharmaceutical drugs. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • 2 min 8 sec) The Philippines archipelago is rich in marine biodiversity, including venomous octopus and venomous snails. (hhmi.org)
  • In popular culture, the snail is known for its stereotypical slowness, while the octopus and giant squid have featured in literature since classical times as monsters of the deep . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 min 3 sec) Dr. Olivera demonstrates a live specimen of Conus striatus. (hhmi.org)
  • 2013), U superfamily in Conus victoriae (Robinson et al. (nih.gov)
  • Cone snails are a rare cause of marine envenomation among divers and shell collectors in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Snails move by alternating body contractions with stretching, with a proverbially low speed (1 millimeter per second is a typical speed for adult Helix lucorum ) (Pavlova 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The common snail ( Helix aspersa ). (britannica.com)
  • others are serious crop pests, and species such as the giant East African snail Lissachatina fulica have damaged ecosystems in areas where they have been introduced. (wikipedia.org)