Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Conotoxins: Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Truncus Arteriosus: The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Fritillaria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Herpesvirus 2, Gallid: The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptide Termination Factors: Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.

Intraspecific variation of venom injected by fish-hunting Conus snails. (1/96)

Venom peptides from two species of fish-hunting cone snails (Conus striatus and Conus catus) were characterized using microbore liquid chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry. Both crude venom isolated from the venom duct and injected venom obtained by milking were studied. Based on analysis of injected venom samples from individual snails, significant intraspecific variation (i.e. between individuals) in the peptide complement is observed. The mixture of peptides in injected venom is simpler than that in the crude duct venom from the same snail, and the composition of crude venom is more consistent from snail to snail. While there is animal-to-animal variation in the peptides present in the injected venom, the composition of any individual's injected venom remains relatively constant over time in captivity. Most of the Conus striatus individuals tested injected predominantly a combination of two neuroexcitatory peptides (s4a and s4b), while a few individuals had unique injected-venom profiles consisting of a combination of peptides, including several previously characterized from the venom duct of this species. Seven novel peptides were also putatively identified based on matches of their empirically derived masses to those predicted by published cDNA sequences. Profiling injected venom of Conus catus individuals using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry demonstrates that intraspecific variation in the mixture of peptides extends to other species of piscivorous cone snails. The results of this study imply that novel regulatory mechanisms exist to select specific venom peptides for injection into prey.  (+info)

Association/dissociation of a channel-kinase complex underlies state-dependent modulation. (2/96)

Although ion channels are regulated by protein kinases, it has yet to be established whether the behavioral state of an animal may dictate whether or not modulation by a kinase can occur. Here, we describe behaviorally relevant changes in the ability of a nonselective cation channel from Aplysia bag cell neurons to be regulated by protein kinase C (PKC). This channel drives a prolonged afterdischarge that triggers the release of egg-laying hormone and a series of reproductive behaviors. The afterdischarge is followed by a lengthy refractory period, during which additional bursting cannot be elicited. Previously, we reported that, in excised inside-out patches, the cation channel is closely associated with PKC, which increases channel activity. We now show that this channel-kinase association is plastic, because channels excised from certain neurons lack PKC-dependent modulation. Although direct application of PKC-activating phorbol ester to these patches had no effect, exposing the neurons themselves to phorbol ester reinstated modulation, suggesting that an absence of modulation was attributable to a lack of associated kinase. Furthermore, modulation was restored by pretreating neurons with either PP1 [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine] or SU6656, inhibitors of Src tyrosine kinase, an enzyme whose Src homology 3 domain is required for channel-PKC association. Neurons that were stimulated to afterdischarge and had entered the prolonged refractory period were found to have more phosphotyrosine staining and less channel-PKC association than unstimulated neurons. These findings suggest that Src-dependent regulation of the association between the cation channel and PKC controls both the long-term excitability of these neurons and their ability to induce reproduction.  (+info)

Piscivorous behavior of a temperate cone snail, Conus californicus. (3/96)

Most of the more than 500 species of predatory marine snails in the genus Conus are tropical or semitropical, and nearly all are thought to be highly selective regarding type of prey. Conus californicus Hinds, 1844, is unusual in that it is endemic to the North American Pacific coast and preys on a large variety of benthic organisms, primarily worms and other molluscs, and also scavenges. We studied the feeding behavior of C. californicus in captivity and found that it regularly killed and consumed live prickleback fishes (Cebidichthys violaceus and Xiphister spp.). Predation involved two behavioral methods similar to those employed by strictly piscivorous relatives. One method utilized stings delivered by radular teeth; the other involved engulfing the prey without stinging. Both methods were commonly used in combination, and individual snails sometimes employed multiple stings to subdue a fish. During the course of the study, snails became aroused by the presence of live fish more quickly, as evidenced by more rapid initiation of hunting behavior. Despite this apparent adaptation, details of prey-capture techniques and effectiveness of stings remained similar over the same period.  (+info)

The muO-conotoxin MrVIA inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels by associating with domain-3. (4/96)

Several families of peptide toxins from cone snails affect voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels: mu-conotoxins block the pore, delta-conotoxins inhibit channel inactivation, and muO-conotoxins inhibit Na(V) channels by an unknown mechanism. The only currently known muO-conotoxins MrVIA and MrVIB from Conus marmoreus were applied to cloned rat skeletal muscle (Na(V)1.4) and brain (Na(V)1.2) sodium channels in mammalian cells. A systematic domain-swapping strategy identified the C-terminal pore loop of domain-3 as the major determinant for Na(V)1.4 being more potently blocked than Na(V)1.2 channels. muO-conotoxins therefore show an interaction pattern with Na(V) channels that is clearly different from the related mu- and delta-conotoxins, indicative of a distinct molecular mechanism of channel inhibition.  (+info)

cDNA cloning of two novel T-superfamily conotoxins from Conus leopardus. (5/96)

The full-length cDNAs of two novel T-superfamily conotoxins, Lp5.1 and Lp5.2, were cloned from a vermivorous cone snail Conus leopardus using 3'/5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA of Lp5.1 encodes a precursor of 65 residues, including a 22-residue signal peptide, a 28-residue propeptide and a 15-residue mature peptide. Lp5.1 is processed at the common signal site-X-Arg- immediately before the mature peptide sequences. In the case of Lp5.2, the precursor includes a 25-residue signal peptide and a 43-residue sequence comprising the propeptide and mature peptide, which is probably cleaved to yield a 29-residue propeptide and a 14-residue mature toxin. Although these two conotoxins share a similar signal sequence and a conserved disulfide pattern with the known T-superfamily, the pro-region and mature peptides are of low identity, especially Lp5.2 with an identity as low as 10.7% compared with the reference Mr5.1a. The elucidated cDNAs of these two toxins will facilitate a better understanding of the species distribution, the sequence diversity of T-superfamily conotoxins, the special gene structure and the evolution of these peptides.  (+info)

Isolation and characterisation of conomap-Vt, a D-amino acid containing excitatory peptide from the venom of a vermivorous cone snail. (6/96)

Cone snail venom is a rich source of bioactives, in particular small disulfide rich peptides that disrupt synaptic transmission. Here, we report the discovery of conomap-Vt (Conp-Vt), an unusual linear tetradecapeptide isolated from Conus vitulinus venom. The sequence displays no homology to known conopeptides, but displays significant homology to peptides of the MATP (myoactive tetradecapeptide) family, which are important endogenous neuromodulators in molluscs, annelids and insects. Conp-Vt showed potent excitatory activity in several snail isolated tissue preparations. Similar to ACh, repeated doses of Conp-Vt were tachyphylactic. Since nicotinic and muscarinic antagonists failed to block its effect and Conp-Vt desensitised tissue remained responsive to ACh, it appears that Conp-Vt contractions were non-cholinergic in origin. Finally, biochemical studies revealed that Conp-Vt is the first member of the MATP family with a d-amino acid. Interestingly, the isomerization of L-Phe to D-Phe enhanced biological activity, suggesting that this post-translational modified conopeptide may have evolved for prey capture.  (+info)

Diversity and evolution of conotoxins based on gene expression profiling of Conus litteratus. (7/96)

Cone snails are attracting increasing scientific attention due to their unprecedented diversity of invaluable channel-targeted peptides. As arguably the largest and most successful evolutionary genus of invertebrates, Conus also may become the model system to study the evolution of multigene families and biodiversity. Here, a set of 897 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a Conus litteratus venom duct was analyzed to illuminate the diversity and evolution mechanism of conotoxins. Nearly half of these ESTs represent the coding sequences of conotoxins, which were grouped into 42 novel conotoxin cDNA sequences (seven superfamilies), with T-superfamily conotoxins being the dominant component. The gene expression profile of conotoxin revealed that transcripts are expressed with order-of-magnitude differences, sequence divergence within a superfamily increases from the N to the C terminus of the open reading frame, and even multiple scaffold-different mature peptides exist in a conotoxin gene superfamily. Most excitingly, we identified a novel conotoxin superfamily and three novel cysteine scaffolds. These results give an initial insight into the C. litteratus transcriptome that will contribute to a better understanding of conotoxin evolution and the study of the cone snail genome in the near future.  (+info)

Two toxins from Conus striatus that individually induce tetanic paralysis. (8/96)

We describe structural properties and biological activities of two related O-glycosylated peptide toxins isolated from injected (milked) venom of Conus striatus, a piscivorous snail that captures prey by injecting a venom that induces a violent, spastic paralysis. One 30 amino acid toxin is identified as kappaA-SIVA (termed s4a here), and another 37 amino acid toxin, s4b, corresponds to a putative peptide encoded by a previously reported cDNA. We confirm the amino acid sequences and carry out structural analyses of both mature toxins using multiple mass spectrometric techniques. These include electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry and nanoelectrospray techniques for small volume samples, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometric analysis as a complementary method to assist in the determination of posttranslational modifications, including O-linked glycosylation. Physiological experiments indicate that both s4a and s4b induce intense repetitive firing of the frog neuromuscular junction, leading to a tetanic contracture in muscle fiber. These effects apparently involve modification of voltage-gated sodium channels in motor axons. Notably, application of either s4a or s4b alone mimics the biological effects of the whole injected venom on fish prey.  (+info)

Posted by Chris on April 01, 2006 at 10:29:19:. In Reply to: Re: Conus californicus, the California Cone Snail posted by Deb Karimoto on April 01, 2006 at 08:50:01:. ...
Cone snails are predatory creatures using venom as a weapon for prey capture and defense. Since this venom is neurotoxic, the venom gland is considered as an enormous collection of pharmacologically interesting compounds having a broad spectrum of targets. As such, cone snail peptides represent an interesting treasure for drug development. Here, we report five novel peptides isolated from the venom of Conus longurionis, Conus asiaticus and Conus australis. Lo6/7a and Lo6/7b were retrieved from C. longurionis and have a cysteine framework VI/VII. Lo6/7b has an exceptional amino acid sequence because no similar conopeptide has been described to date (similarity percentage |50%). A third peptide, Asi3a from C. asiaticus, has a typical framework III Cys arrangement, classifying the peptide in the M-superfamily. Asi14a, another peptide of C. asiaticus, belongs to framework XIV peptides and has a unique amino acid sequence. Finally, AusB is a novel conopeptide from C. australis. The peptide has only one
Marine snails form the dominant component of molluscan faunas throughout the worlds oceans. There are about 600 different species of cone snails found distributed in warm and tropical seas and oceans worldwide, and the greatest diversity is seen in the Western Indo-Pacific Region. Cone snail venoms such as conotoxins and conopeptides show great promise as a source of new and medically important substances. The synthetic version of the conopeptide called ziconotide has been approved as a medication in the United States by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and is in current use as an analgesic (pain reliever). Conantokins, which are a family of conopeptides found in cone snail venom, serve as "sleeper peptides," and these peptides work by a mechanism that may be helpful for people with epilepsy ...
This week on Science and the Sea: Lethal Snails By Damond BenningfieldThe geographic cone snail was already known as a quiet killer. Its only a few inches long. And like many other species of cone snail, it lurks at the bottom...
Late 1980s and 1990s - description of normal level of conus in infants: Using sonography, Robbin et al. (23) refuted the idea of ascension during childhood and posited that by approximately 19 weeks gestation, the conus should have achieved its adult position. Wilson and Prince (38) concluded that a conus positioned at L2-L3 should be considered normal at any age. DiPietro (4) added to these data, showing that children younger than 2 months of age had a mean conus termination at the lower third of the L1 vertebral body, whereas children between the ages of 1 and 4 years had a mean conus termination at the upper third of the L1 vertebral body, and furthermore that the conus of children between the ages of 4 and 13 years was located at the upper third of the L1 vertebral body. Their study (4) also concluded that criteria for the determination of conus level should be age-dependent. Another sonography study (23) found that the conus was located above the L2 vertebral level in 92.1% of term babies, ...
And a handful are already being developed by companies in Australia and the US as non-addictive pain killers up to 10,000 times stronger than morphine.. With up to 50,000 toxins, cone snails may contain the largest and most clinically important pharmacopoeia of any genus in nature, says Professor Chivian. To lose them would be a self-destructive act of unparalleled folly.. Tropical reefs and mangroves where the cone snails live are being degraded by coastal development, overfishing, pollution, disease epidemics, and global climate change, his team says. Capture for the ornamental shell trade is also escalating. Millions of cone snails are now sold annually for as little as a few cents each in shops all over the world. But we could not find any country that monitors this trade, they concluded recently in the journal Science. ...
This National Geographic video shows a cone snail hunting by using its . harpoonlike tooth that can be propelled from an extendable proboscis. The harpoon is loaded with a complex mix of toxins. A cone snail can be seen blasting a fish with its harpoon out in the open. Another cone snail buries itself in the sand and then attacks a fish with its toxic harpoon from below. It then swallows the fish whole. Take a look: ...
Kaas Q, Westermann JC, Halai R, Wang CK and Craik DJ. ConoServer, a database for conopeptide sequences and structures. Bioinformatics (2008) 24(3):445-6 ConoServer is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to ConoServer, the database of conotoxins (http://www.conoserver.org) and the above reference is cited. For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
Kaas Q, Westermann JC, Halai R, Wang CK and Craik DJ. ConoServer, a database for conopeptide sequences and structures. Bioinformatics (2008) 24(3):445-6 ConoServer is managed at the Institute of Molecular Bioscience IMB, Brisbane, Australia. The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to ConoServer, the database of conotoxins (http://www.conoserver.org) and the above reference is cited. For any other use please contact David Craik ([email protected]). ...
But beware! Cone Snails have a extremely potent toxin (called Conotoxin), and they have to. They are tiny little guys who dont move very fast. Their toxin needs to paralyze their prey quickly, otherwise itll get away. The toxin in these Snails has the ability to kill a human being, and there is no known antivenom. They attack via a barb that shoots out from their shell, and the type of paralysis is dependent on the species. When their prey is immobilized, they draw it back in to their shell, still attached to the barb. Cone Snails are carnivorous and predatory, and feed off of fish, worms, and other mollusks, depending on the specific species ...
While considered a delicacy in some parts of the world, snails have found a more intriguing use to scientists and the medical profession offering a plethora of research possibilities.
Ziconotide (SNX-111; Prialt) is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain. Derived from Conus magus, a cone snail, it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide. In December 2004 the Food and Drug Administration approved ziconotide when delivered as an infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid using an intrathecal pump system. Ziconotide is derived from the toxin of the cone snail species Conus magus. Scientists have been intrigued by the effects of the thousands of chemicals in marine snail toxins since the initial investigations in the late 1960s by Baldomero Olivera. Olivera, now a professor of biology in the University of Utah, was inspired by accounts of the deadly effects of these toxins from his childhood in the Philippines. Ziconotide was discovered in the early 1980s by University of Utah research scientist Michael McIntosh, when he was barely out of high school and working with Baldomero Olivera. Ziconotide was developed into an artificially ...
So the question is: what is this barbed appendage that the critter used to poke my thumb? It is not well seen in the image, but the tail is hard, barbed and crescent-shaped and not visible unless the animal lashes out. The animal also used it to turn itself into correct position, if I placed it on its back. The whip of the tail was very fast (I always thought that snails are slow!). What is the primary use of the tail? Self-defense? Correcting the animals position? Attack? Also, is the real stinger supposed to be inside that sack-like structure that is located between the eyes? How easily does one get stung? Should one avoid stepping on a cone snail if walking along the ocean floor? (I know that handling the more exotic cone snails can be dangerous, even fatal - but what about these common ones ...
I will only name my one favorite Conus species: C. ebraeus, mainly because it is the most successful of all. The criteria for biological success vary with the category. At the genus level, Conus is of course the most successful in the sea, because it has the most species and occupies a correspondingly broad array of habitats and areas. For a species, criteria for success include how widespread it is, how abundant it is, and how many types of environment it can exploit. (This is why our species, Homo sapiens, is so successful on land.) C. ebraeus has the widest geographic range of any Conus species. It occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific region (1/4 of the worlds ocean area), and it has also crossed the East Pacific Barrier to colonize the coast of Costa Rica. It has a planktonic larva that stays afloat feeding and growing for at least several weeks and can thus be transported widely by currents. Tom Duda and Haris Lessios have shown that its populations in widely separated regions have almost ...
The big problems with morphine are addictiveness and the fact that people develop a tolerance to it," says Professor David Adams, director of the RMIT Health Innovations Research Institute. "With the painkillers derived from cone snail venom, we dont have those problems. People dont develop tolerance, and they dont get hooked.. "Also, theres a wide safety margin. With morphine, theres little room for error. If you overdose, youre likely to die. But with the venom peptides, there may be side-effects but you will survive.". David leads research into the cocktail of peptides-fragments of protein-with which the cone snail paralyses its prey. "These peptides have exquisite selectivity for their molecular targets," he says. So his team is geared to developing new treatments for chronic nerve-based pain by discovering and purifying peptides that target particular pain receptors.. Worldwide, there are more than 700 species of cone snails, about two-thirds of which are found in the Great Barrier ...
Cone shells (Conidae) are a group of predatory marine snails. This group has not yet been divided into various genera, so that all of the approximately 300 species are included in the genus Conus.. Cone shells, like their close relatives the Turrids (Turridae), Mitre shells (Mitridae), Cytharidae and Auger shells (Terebridae), have developed an unusual venom apparatus for catching prey. However, only Cone shells are known to have caused envenoming in humans.. The shell of the Conidae is in the form of a rolled cone. There is a slit-like opening on the long side through which the animals evert their foot. The larger species, such as C. geographus, reach a length of up to 15 cm. With their often strikingly beautifully patterned shells, Cone shells are highly prized among shell collectors.. Cone shells live in shallow water, including coastal zones, especially reef areas, where they conceal themselves in crevices or bury themselves in the sand during the day. Only at dusk do they start appearing ...
The underwater version of a tank, this cone snail boasts an armored shell and enough venom to kill a human. Nearby fish dont stand a chance.
Vasantha, Basavalingappa and Yamanappa, Hunashal and Raghothama, Srinivasarao and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Conformational properties and aggregation of homo-oligomeric beta(3)(R)-valine peptides in organic solvents. In: BIOPOLYMERS, 108 (3). Vijayasarathy, Marimuthu and Basheer, Soorej M and Franklin, Jayaseelan Benjamin and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Contryphan Genes and Mature Peptides in the Venom of Nine Cone Snail Species by Transcriptomic and Mass Spectrometric Analysis. In: JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, 16 (2). pp. 763-772. Vasantha, Basavalingappa and George, Gijo and Raghothama, Srinivasarao and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Homooligomeric beta(3)(R)-valine peptides: transformation between C-14 and C-12 helical structures induced by a guest Aib residue. In: BIOPOLYMERS, 108 (1, SI). Pareek, Vidhi and Samanta, Moumita and Joshi, Niranjan V and Balaram, Hemalatha and Murthy, Mathur RN and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2016) Connecting Active-Site Loop Conformations and Catalysis in ...
By Glen F King; C R Ganellin; Salvatore Guccione. The pharmaceutical has turn into more and more drawn to biologics from animal venoms as a possible resource for healing brokers in recent times, with a very emphasis on peptides. thus far six medications derived from venom peptides or proteins were licensed via the FDA, with 9 additional brokers at present being investigated in scientific trials. as well as those medications in authorized or complicated levels of improvement, many extra peptides and proteins are being studied in various levels of preclinical improvement. This particular e-book offers an up-to-the-minute and entire account of the opportunity of peptides and proteins from animal venoms as attainable therapeutics. subject matters lined contain chemistry and structural biology of animal venoms, proteomic and transcriptomic methods to drug discovery, bioassays, high-throughput monitors and aim identity, and reptile, scorpion, spider and cone snail venoms as a platform for drug ...
Research Interests:. Foldamers are unnatural oligomers with a propensity to adopt well-defined conformations. These molecules have seen success in the mimicry of canonical peptide secondary structures such as -helices and -sheets. Current efforts in the field involve the application of foldamer design strategies to mimic higher-order protein structures and novel peptide architectures. Disulfide-rich peptides are notable candidates for foldamer research due to their intricate folding patterns and potent bioactivities. I am interested in establishing foldamer design principles for the synthesis of disulfide-rich peptide analogs with heterogeneous backbone modifications that manifest specific conformations, desired functionality and improved pharmacological properties.. Education:. B.S. in Microbiology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008. M.S. in Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014. ...
Conus badius Kiener, 1845) Kiener, L.C. (1844-1850). Spécies général et iconographie des coquilles vivantes. Vol. 2. Famille des Enroulées. Genre Cone (Conus, Lam.), pp. 1-379, pl. 1-111 [pp. 1-48 (1846); 49-160 (1847); 161-192 (1848); 193-240 (1849); 241-[379](assumed to be 1850); plates 4,6 (1844); 2-3, 5, 7-32, 34-36, 38, 40-50 (1845); 33, 37, 39, 51-52, 54-56, 57-68, 74-77 (1846); 1, 69-73, 78-103 (1847); 104-106 (1848); 107 (1849); 108-111 (1850)]. Paris, Rousseau & J.B. Baillière., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/88016 ...
But following in the success of zicontide(Prialt(R)), the pain reliever made the venom of the cone snail, researchers started looking at other natural venoms to see if they could be tamed as pain relievers. These new pain relievers is touted as a non-addictive pain reliever 1000 times as powerful as, and possibly a replacement for, morphine. These are various peptides, targeting each a specific nerve channel or receptor. This venom also contains a pain-reducing component, first pacifying the victim, before immobilising and then killing it. Many peptides produced by the cone snails show prospects for being potent pharmaceuticals, such as AVC1, isolated from the Australian cone shell Conus victoriae. This has proved very effective in treating post-surgical and neuropathic pain, even accelerating recovery from nerve injury. Other drugs are in clinical and preclinical trials, such as compounds of the toxin that may be used in the treatment of Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and epilepsy ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Trying to scrape together some money to make it home for the holidays. The following items are for sale. Any purchase over $20 will come with a free imitation buff (your choice of red, green, blue, or orange). 1) Cabelas down drawers new with tags. Tan, 550 fill. 3xl (!) but fit snug for size. $50 shipped CONUS Adding to this: 7) Pair 1/8 black Amsteel whoopies. Just shy of 6 each. $16.50 shipped CONUS 8) Imitation buffs. 3 each in red, blue, green, orange and camo. $5
Trying to scrape together some money to make it home for the holidays. The following items are for sale. Any purchase over $20 will come with a free imitation buff (your choice of red, green, blue, or orange). 1) Cabelas down drawers new with tags. Tan, 550 fill. 3xl (!) but fit snug for size. $50 shipped CONUS Adding to this: 7) Pair 1/8 black Amsteel whoopies. Just shy of 6 each. $16.50 shipped CONUS 8) Imitation buffs. 3 each in red, blue, green, orange and camo. $5
Marine drugs have developed rapidly in recent decades. Cone snails, a group of more than 700 species, have always been one of the focuses for new drug discovery. These venomous snails capture prey using a diverse array of unique bioactive neurotoxins, usually named as conotoxins or conopeptides. These conotoxins have proven to be valuable pharmacological probes and potential drugs due to their high specificity and affinity to ion channels, receptors, and transporters in the nervous systems of target prey and humans. Several research groups, including ours, have examined the venom gland of cone snails using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing, and revealed the existence of hundreds of conotoxin transcripts and thousands of conopeptides in each Conus species. Over 2000 nucleotide and 8000 peptide sequences of conotoxins have been published, and the number is still increasing quickly. However, more than 98% of these sequences still lack 3D structural and functional information. With
Conus textile is a species of cone snail known as the "cloth of gold." It lives in the waters of the Indo-Pacific, Australia, the Indian Ocean from eastern Africa to Hawaii, and French Polynesia. Typical length of adults is about 9.0 cm (3.5 in).. It uses a conotoxin to kill its prey. The animal uses microscopic needles to inject the toxin into its prey. The proboscis, the tip which holds the harpoon-like, radular tooth, is capable of being extended to any part of its own shell. The living animal is a risk to any person handling it who has not taken proper care to protect exposed skin. Several human deaths have been attributed to this species.. The female lays several hundred eggs at a time, which hatch after about 16 or 17 days. After hatching, the larvae float around in the current for approximately 16 days. Afterward, they settle at the bottom of the ocean. By this point their length is about 1.5 mm (0.06 in).. ...
Ever since Thor Heyerdahl and a small party of adventurers sailed their raft from South America to the Tuamotu islands, far to the north of Easter Island, a controversy has raged over the origin of the islanders. Today DNA testing has proved conclusively that the Polynesians arrived from the west rather than the east, and that the people of Easter Island are descendants of intrepid voyagers who set out from Taiwan thousands of years ago. Legend says that the people left for Easter Island because their own island was slowly being swallowed by the sea.
Cone snails are marine predators that use venoms to immobilize their prey. The venoms of these mollusks contain a cocktail of peptides that mainly target different voltage- and ligand-gated ion channe
Cone snails may look harmless but a sting from one can be lethal. Find out how these pretty-looking shells could possibly pose a threat and what to do if you encounter one.
Synonyms for Epacris purpurascens in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Epacris purpurascens. 1 synonym for Epacris purpurascens: Port Jackson heath. What are synonyms for Epacris purpurascens?
Designing novel conotoxins with therapeutic potential Conotoxins, with their exquisite specificity and potency have recently created much excitement as drug leads for the treatment of chronic pain. For example, the conotoxin MVIIA (also known as Ziconotide or Prialt) has been approved for use in the U.S. and Europe for the treatment of pain and several other conotoxins have entered clinical trials. In addition, a number of conotoxins have played a critical role in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of ion channel and transporter functions in the nervous system.. There are projects available in the design of novel conotoxins that target specific receptors involved in pain.. ...
The 887 giant moai statues on Easter Island have turned one of the most isolated islands in the world into one of the most well known---and most
Choose from a list of recommended hotels in Easter Island, and SouthAmerica.travel will create a tailor-made itinerary including hotels, transfers, tour and flights.
If the flowers on your tissue box dont exactly match your décor, then the Big Maoi Tissue Dispenser might be just the thing you need to add some style to your sniffles. Just load a regular rectangular tissue box in the back, and the tissues are pulled through the nostrils of the Easter Island statue. Its unique, and practical.. [I Want One Of Those - Big Maoi Tissue Dispenser]. [Via: Shurebit]. ...
When I first read this I thought it must either be a joke or some new age mumbo-jumbo, but this seems to be for real. Scientists have found that a compound called rapamycin, first found on Easter Island, may have longevity enhancing capabilites. What is more interesting is that it seems to have this effect regardless of…
Historical remote sensing phenology (RSP) image data and graphics for the conterminous U.S. are made freely available from the USGS/EROS Center through this website. Five data sets are distributed: CONUS 1 km AVHRR RSP data, C5 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C6 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C5 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, and C6 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data.. ...
Historical remote sensing phenology (RSP) image data and graphics for the conterminous U.S. are made freely available from the USGS/EROS Center through this website. Five data sets are distributed: CONUS 1 km AVHRR RSP data, C5 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C6 Eastern CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, C5 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data, and C6 Western CONUS 250 m eMODIS RSP data.. ...
α-Conotoxins that are thought to act as antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing α3-subunits are efficacious in several preclinical models of chronic pain. Potent interactions of Vc1.1 with other targets have suggested that the pain-relieving actions of α-conotoxins might be mediated by either α9α10 nAChRs or a novel GABA B receptor-mediated inhibition of N-type calcium channels. Here we establish that three α-conotoxins, Vc1.1, AuIB and MII have distinct selectivity profiles for these three potential targets. Their potencies after intramuscular administration were then determined for reversal of allodynia produced by partial nerve ligation in rats. Vc1.1, which potently inhibits α9α10 nAChRs and GABA B/Ca 2+ channels but weakly blocks α3β2 and α3β4 nAChRs, produced potent, long-lasting reversal of allodynia that were prevented by pre-treatment with the GABA B receptor antagonist, SCH50911. α-Conotoxin AuIB, a weak α3β4 nAChR antagonist, inhibited GABA B/Ca 2+
Pixdaus.com is an environmental photo-bookmarking and sharing service. All the pictures are uploaded by users and the copyrights belong to the rightholders. You can request a removal using the Copyright flag link below each image if you find an image that shouldnt belong here ...
Bouchet, P. (2014). Conus quadratus. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=429500 on 2017-12- ...
Researchers are increasingly turning to nature for inspiration for new drugs. One example is Prialt. It's an incredibly powerful painkiller tha
2LZ5: Characterization of a novel alpha-conotoxin from conus textile that selectively targets alpha6/alpha3beta2beta3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
We had a full day at Tayrona National Park. There were two main options of things to do. If you fancied walking uphill for an hour and a half, there was an archaeological site of an ancient city. However it was far too hot and although it looked quite nice from the photos, Ive been…
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201000620/abstract The Engineering of an Orally Active Conotoxin for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain...
Spent about 2 hours at Whiskey Bridge today. I found that theres a decent bit of stuff directly under the bridge, but if you walk upstream, theres a lot of areas that havent really been dug in. Plus, up that way the fossiliferous material is over my height, and you can just walk along it and look at all the layers. Thats interesting, in and of itself. Not just because of the appearance, but because I tend to get to thinking about how old they are, and about how every one of those fossils is somethings entire life, the cumulation of its efforts to survive. Its fascinating to picture- these layers on layers of life. I wouldnt make it as a paleontologist, not with my fatigue issues, but Ill gladly do this hobby-type stuff just for those moments. I found a good handful of shells, including a nice cone snail. I also brought home some shell-rich clods of matrix to work with. Gonna give those a good long soak and see if I can break them open without breaking the shells inside. A lot of these ...
This species is restricted to a single bay in Angola. The threats are unknown. Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011 ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Straumann, Alex and Conus, Sebastien and Degen, Lukas and Felder, Stephanie and Kummer, Mirjam and Engel, Hansjürg and Bussmann, Christian and Beglinger, Christoph and Schoepfer, Alain and Simon, Hans-Uwe ...
Since I am whining a lot tonight I decided to describe the CRC at Ft. Benning. Before you can go into a war zone working for the military or a contractor, all people are required to go through the CRC. That stands for conus replacement center. I have been there twice. When it is decided…
No holds. First to pay basis. $50 each or both remaining pairs for $75 All items include CONUS USPS Priority mail shipping. Add $20 for Canada...
Learn how to call Easter Island from Bangladesh. Out complete resource guide gives you the Easter Island country code & Bangladeshi dialing code to make your international calls.
The sharp, venomous stinger of the cone snail imparts a paralytic toxin similar to that of the pufferfish and the blue-ringed octopus; poisoning symptoms may include pain, numbness, tingling, muscle paralysis, blurred/double vision, and respiratory paralysis.
Appeltans W, Bouchet P, Boxshall GA, Fauchald K, Gordon DP, Hoeksema BW, Poore GCB, van Soest RWM, Stöhr S, Walter TC, Costello MJ. (Eds). 2011. World Register of Marine Species. Available at: http://www.marinespecies.org. (Accessed: August 2011).. Czerwiec, E., De Backer, J.P., Vauquelin, G. and Vanderheyden, P.M.L. 1996. High-affinity binding of [3H]neuropeptide Y to a polypeptide from the venom of Conus anemone. European Journal of Pharmacology 315: 355-362.. Guido, T., Poppe, Poppe, P. 1996-2011. Conchology.be. Mactan Available at: http://www.conchology.be/. (Accessed: March 2011).. IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).. Kohn, A.J. 2003. Biology of Conus on shores of the Dampier Archipelago, Northwestern Australia. In: Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I. and Jones, D.S. (eds), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia, pp. 12. Western Australian Museum, Perth.. Poppe, G. T. and Poppe, P. ...
Spinal Schwannoma originates from the Schwann cells, hence it is called Schwannoma. The tumor localization is in various parts of the spinal cord, but prevails in cervical and thoracic. In the literature 70 to 80% of spinal schwannomas are reported to be intradural in location, and 15% with both intradural and extradural components. All 3 cases were female in their 4th-5th decade, presented with either low back pain, radiculopathy, weakness of both lower limbs associated with urinary incontinence. MRI revealed a well defined mass adjacent to conus medullary area located intradural, extramedullary. All three patients underwent microscopic assisted excision of the tumour. All patients had Good Early Outcome. Spinal schwannoma causing Conus Medullary Syndrome is rare. Back pain and radicular pain were most common early presenting symptoms while urinary symptoms occur later. Schwannomas typically arise from a single nerve root originating from the schwann cells. To obtain total resection, the ...
by Justin A. Varholick Ph.D., University of Florida, Department of Biology and UF Genetics Institute Too often we read about new research using mice, rats, non-human primates, and fish. These few categories of animals teach us a lot about biology and how we may intervene to cure or alleviate a human disease. But, what about…
The islands mayor, Petro Edmunds, told AFP that "foreigners are already taking over the island", which is impacting its long-standing culture. There is also concerns about the local environment as more people leads to more waste.. The time limit for travellers - which applies to international travellers and Chileans who are not a part of the indigenous Rapa Nui people - come into effect as of 1 August. A limit to the number of overall tourists who can visit it is likely on its way, though a number has yet to be established.. While this effort is designed to protect the island and its inhabitants, Chile has also been working to protect the local waters. Last year, a conservation area the size of France was created around the island to help preserve marine life. The region was created after the residents of Easter Island voted for it in a referendum.. ...
The magnificent view of the full body of the Moai statues hidden beneath the earth in Easter Island tells a tale about the inhabitants of this island hundreds of years ago. No wonder it has earned its place as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Carved mostly from volcanic rocks by the Rapanui people, the intrinsic details on the body speaks of the carving skills and the artistic nature of these inhabitants. Made from one large rock weighing about 14 tonnes, it fetches a height between 2.5 - 10 metres. Although it is known that there are about 1000 Moai statues in this island, it is still unknown why, when or how it was made. It is a common belief that it was made to deify their ancestors. ...
This caused my fascination with archaeology and thats how it all started. For me, archaeology means feeling a buzz of interest when something is found in the ground which isnt mentioned in texts or the oral traditions and which might then become the subject of some interesting stories.". Helene Martinsson-Wallin has studied Easter Island for many years. The island is the most eastward of the Polynesian islands. In the 1940s, Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl had a theory that Easter Island was colonised from South America and sailed from Peru to Polynesia on the balsa raft Kon-Tiki in order to prove his theory. But we know today that Easter Island was colonised by Polynesians ...
2MIX: Sample limited characterization of a novel disulfide-rich venom peptide toxin from terebrid marine snail Terebra variegata.
These toxins target sodium and calcium channels in the body. At the time of their discovery, little was known about voltage-gated calcium-channels, which are present in excitable cells such as muscle cells and neurons and which initiate a response such as contraction or excitation, respectively, upon the passage of calcium through the channels. One of Oliveras peptides from cone snails, the Ω-conotoxin GVIA, functioned through inhibition of calcium uptake through binding to neuronal calcium channels. News of this discovery caused a boon of research in this field, yielding more than 2,000 studies, which utilized Oliveras synthesized version of the Ω-GVIA peptide, active at concentrations of less than 1E-12M! Research in this field finally resulted in the purification of the neuronal calcium channel, which was subsequently named after Oliveras peptide, "the conotoxin receptor." In addition to the impact this discovery had in the field of neuroscience, a conotoxin peptide has been approved as ...
Disulfide-rich neurotoxins from venomous animals continue to provide compounds with therapeutic potential. Minimizing neurotoxins often results in removal of disulfide bridges or critical amino acids. To address this drug-design challenge, we explored the concept of disulfide-rich scaffolds consisting of isostere polymers and peptidic pharmacophores. Flexible spacers, such as amino-3-oxapentanoic or 6-aminohexanoic acids, were used to replace conformationally constrained parts of a three-disulfide-bridged conotoxin, SIIIA. The peptide-polymer hybrids, polytides, were designed based on cladistic identification of nonconserved loci in related peptides. After oxidative folding, the polytides appeared to be better inhibitors of sodium currents in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves in mice. Moreover, the polytides appeared to be significantly more potent and longer-lasting analgesics in the inflammatory pain model in mice, when compared to SIIIA. The resulting polytides provide a promising ...
The first thread was closed due to disruptive behavior from a few individuals. The second thread was behind the pay wall. I am activating this third thread in front of the pay wall in order to permit public review and google scanning of the thread. Earlier today, 30 Sept 2014, US Centers of Disease Control confirmed positive diagnosis of Ebola in an index patient in Dallas.
The market tested the 50 day ma as I predicted yesterday and the selling started once that point was reached. What remains to be seen now is whether the market is going for the 200 day ma by breaking 1405 support or if the market intends to rally back up to 1434 to close above it. As I said yesterday, I lean towards the market turning bullish but it does seem like there is a missing down leg so perhaps the market will retrace to the 1420 area before breaking through 1405? pure speculation obviously but now that the parameters are set, I can buy some stuff next week. Im probably going to buy VXX is we get that retrace to the 1420s area with a stop at 1434. Or Ill be a buyer of XIV at the 200 day ma. China and HK continue to rally so well see if that gets affected at all next week, I will be ready to start taking profit there fairly soon but leaving most of it intact for my Easter Island trip :) (That Shanghai index is going for 10,000 before the decade is over). Also, gold is finally in the ...
Research by an international team, led by the University of Bristol, has shed new light on the fate of the ancient people of Rapa Nui (Easter Island).
Top Things to Do in Hanga Roa, Easter Island: See TripAdvisors 4,758 traveller reviews and photos of 29 things to do when in Hanga Roa.
Available: http://www.calflora.org/ (Accessed: Jan 18, 2018). The information on this page comes from diverse sources. None of the links are sponsored. ...
For vascular plants occurring in wildlands or otherwise outside of cultivation in California, the Jepson eFlora contains taxonomic treatments, distribution maps, illustrations, photographs, and identification keys.
Im pleased that this species description is now out. The species in question was a little snail, now named Praticolella salina! The discovery is highlighted on the universitys home page! But the universitys article doesnt tell you where to find the paper. Putting the name into Google Scholar didnt help either. I finally found it because someone posted a shot of the article on Instagram ...
Scientific names of different types of snails varies. The link below categories the varies snail species and their scientific names.. ...
Would you believe scientists have been using snails to study ways to learn? For snails, learning is better and lasts longer if it is not done all at once.. You kind of knew those crash study sessions before an exam were a bad idea, didnt you? Studying a little bit every day is a better idea. You can tell your teacher you are learning to study like a snail:). Learning is very complex, so studying a simpler animal, like a snail, can help scientists understand the process better.. STEM Challenge: How might you change the way you study to learn better?. Source: Laura Sanders. (2012, January 28.) Staggered lessons may boost recall. Training at irregular intervals improves memory in sea snails. Science News.. ...
Greetings one and all! Firstly, Id like to apologize for my late breakdown. We had a long weekend holiday, as we always do for Easter, so I was preoccupied with other activities. besides that, before we start with the breakdown, I would also like to wish everyone a Happy Easter, for those who celebrate it.…
Search Results For easter-bunny-finials: easter-bunny-finials, Interchangeable Seasonal Finials, Set of 3, 11H Easter Bunny Chatimal, Large Loppy the Bunny, Cutie Corduroy Bunny, Easter Egg Play Set.
Collecting Easter eggs has to be the most egg-citing part of Easter morning. Seeing what that big old bunny left is great fun - but what to collect them in?
HELIKO, Experts in Manufacturing and Exporting Snail Secretion Filtrate, Snail Extract and 1 more Products. A Supplier on Alibaba.com.
Hi, I see a piece of gravel in opening side of Snail, attached picture, can anyone please help if its stuck and if I need to try taking it off snail or is...
I got some anacharis from Petco and looks like they included some free snails without my knowledge. Will they eat the anacharis?
I was on the hunt for a Shimmerscale Snail. It is said to be on the shore of Darkshore. I have only found crabs, and no snail ever joins the fight. Anyone know if these guys have gone extinct or moved to other shores? ...
Serve up the classic French appetiser of Escargot with the Digoin Snail Dish. With 6 holes for serving snails, this oven-to-table dish is handmade from durable stoneware and features a traditional style brown glaze.
So Eliza was playing with her doodle pro and suddenly she exclaimed, "Its a snail, Mommy!" I wasnt really paying attention and just said, "Mmm" without even looking. Instead my husband took a look after she said the second time. He told me that it is a snail and then only I started taking it seriously. I was pretty impressed so of course it is a photo opportunity ...
Today, the Obama family plays host to the 2010 White House Easter Egg Roll. The theme is Ready, Set, Go, which ties into the first ladys Lets Move
I was going to warn you about that!! But I thought it was only w/ the wee snails and not the big ones. Sorry! Start flushing them now otherwise you will have a lemming-type sitch on your hands shortly... ...
Which does better in planted tanks for algae-otos or snails (Ive seen mystery and nerite in the stores so far)? Im trying to decide between the two for my 40
Jual Wish Snails Harga Murah | Beli Produk Online dengan Promo & Diskon di Blibli.com Bisa Gratis Ongkir, Cicilan 0%, Kualitas Terjamin & Beragam Pembayaran
ỐC GẠO LUỘC NGUYÊN CON - English name: Cooked Baby Snail - Latin name: Assiminea lutea - Size: Natural - Packing: 400grs/pa, VAC x 20
I am now the thrilled owner 12 nerite snails! But now that I have them, I have a couple of questions. I knew they climb out of tanks. Theyre
please follow the template thank you The modz WANTED TO BUY: assasin snails SIZE, SEX, CONDITION: any LOCATION: South Aussie WILLING TO PAY/TRADE: negoti
Hitchhikers. These guys came in on a plant I got a month or so ago. At first, they all looked the same because they are babies. Now, there are obviously 2 different types. My lights havent came on yet, so here are some sub-par pictures. 1st type. There arent very many of them in there. Maybe 5 total. I think they are Ramshorn (Snails on the left--2 of them...mating?):
A mum of two who just has no time but wants to do 100 and 1 things. I will share my thoughts and fun things we make. Hope you enjoy ...
Всем привет! Добро пожаловать на мой сайт! Здесь я буду размещать свое рукодельное творчество, ну и иногда рассказывать о себе и делиться полезными советами! У меня много всяких хобби, но не всегда есть вермя, поэтому еще пока не знаю как часто буду обновлять свою страничку ...
They knew it was going to come. The big One they called it. Every 80 years or so, the earth shakes the ground as the mountains grow a ...
U and i trading post #### TRADING BREAKOUTS INVESTOPEDIA Rating Binary Options Manual S&P FUTURE #### Aldi easter trading hours robina
We bought our very first caravan last October and have just booked our very first trip away in it at Easter [grin] Has anyone got any essential item
The Nordic-European Initiative on Colorectal Cancer Project leader: Michael Bretthauer (PI), Hans-Olov Adami (Chairman of Scientific Advisory Committee) Project period: Main financing: Federal funds from Norway, Poland, the Netherlands, and from the Nordic Cancer Union. In Sweden, financial support has been received from the Swedish Cancer Society and from AFA.
Stewart J. & Gilly W. F. (October 2005). "Piscivorous Behavior of a Temperate Cone Snail, Conus californicus". Biological ... the cone snails. As both the Latin name and common name suggest, this cone is found in California. This small cone snail is ... Conus californicus Reeve, 1844. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010. ... McMenamin, M. A. S. (1984). "Conus californicus from the Late Pleistocene of Isla Vista, California". Bulletin of the Southern ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23. The Conus Biodiversity website. ... Conasprella guyanensis is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Conus biodiversity website. accessed 25 May 2010. Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, ... The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: Profundiconus tuberculosus Mike Filmer (2011) Nomenclature and Taxonomy in ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Bouchet, P. (2015). Conus wendrosi (Tenorio & Afonso, 2013). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 To Encyclopedia of Life To World Register of ...
... is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Lividoconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Lividoconus) Wils, 1970 (type species Conus lividus Hwass in Bruguière, ... is equivalent to Conus diadema G. B. Sowerby I, 1834 Lividoconus floridulus (A. Adams & Reeve, 1848) is equivalent to Conus ... 1792) represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Lividoconus from Conus in the ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Conus mcgintyi - Information. Note that the ... Conasprella mcgintyi is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, ... Minimum recorded depth is 55 m. Maximum recorded depth is 219 m. Pilsbry H. A. (1955). "Another Floridan Conus". The Nautilus ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
... is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Ductoconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Ductoconus) represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 ... synonym of Conus (Ductoconus) da Motta, 1991 represented as Conus princeps Linnaeus, 1758 Ductoconus da Motta, 1991. Retrieved ... Kohn A. A. (1992). Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. Monteiro ...
Gastridium is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Gastridium has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Gastridium) represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 ... synonym of Conus geographus Linnaeus, 1758 Gastridium tulipa (Linnaeus, 1758) synonym of Conus tulipa Linnaeus, 1758 Gastridium ... synonym of Conus eldredi Morrison, 1955 Gastridium fragilissimum (Petuch, 1979) synonym of Conus fragilissimus Petuch, 1979 ...
... has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Kalloconus) da Motta, 1991 (type species: Conus pulcher [Lightfoot], 1786) ... Kalloconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. In ... represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Kalloconus from Conus in the following ... Feeding habits These cone snails are vermivorous, meaning that the cones prey on polychaete worms. This list of species is ...
... is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Monteiroconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus (Monteiroconus) da Motta, 1991 (type species Conus ambiguus Reeve, 1844) ... is equivalent to Conus bellocqae van Rossum, 1996 Monteiroconus tabidus (Reeve, 1844) is equivalent to Conus tabidus Reeve, ... represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Monteiroconus from Conus in the following ...
The conus snail has a throat sac. Crop (anatomy) Air sacs Gular (disambiguation), gular anatomical formations in other species ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Description of a new species of Conus. Quarterly Journal of Conchology 1:107-108, 1 fig. Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., ... Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and ... The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: Profundiconus jeanmartini. ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: Cylinder pacificus. ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2013) Illustrated ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: Conus cakobaui'. ... these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable ... A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 Conus mazei - Information on this species. ... the cone snails, cone shells or cones. Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and ... Conasprella mazei, common name Maze's cone, is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family ...
Ziconotide is derived from the sea snail Conus magus. Marine life portal Bacillus isolates Biotechnology in pharmaceutical ...
... has become a synonym of the subgenus Conus (Virroconus) Iredale, 1930, represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758, as ... These are sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. This list of synonyms ... synonym of Conus taeniatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Miliariconus tiaratus (G.B. Sowerby I, 1833): synonym of Conus tiaratus G. ... synonym of Conus aristophanes G. B. Sowerby II, 1857 Miliariconus coronatus (Gmelin, 1791): synonym of Conus coronatus Gmelin, ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: ... Conasprella gordyi is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Conus gordyi, a new species form Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean. La Conchiglia 31(293):41-43, 10 figs. Tucker J.K. & ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: ... Conasprella tiki is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ... Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from the Marquesas Archipelago: description of a new endemic offshore fauna. Vita Malacologica 6: ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: ... the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. ... Conasprella lenhilli, common name the brown-flamed cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com: ... Profundiconus scopulicola is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and ... Like all species within the genus Profundiconus, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Gastropods.com ... Conasprella elokismenos is a species of sea snail, a marinegastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their ... Substitute name for Conus orbignyi aratus Kilburn, nom preocc.. The Nautilus: A Quarterly Devoted to Malacology, 89 (2 ) ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, known as the cone snails, cone ... On the Growth Stages of Conus fergusoni Sowerby, 1873, the Reinstatement of Conus xanthicus Dall, I910, and a New Species of ... Conus kohni. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded on 6 August ... Like all species within the genus Conasprella, these cone snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" ...
"Conus" of the Southeastern United States and Caribbean by Alan J. Kohn Petymol Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names ... In 1853 Sauveur Abel Aubert Petit de la Saussaye named the sea snail genus Recluzia in his honour. He also has several species ... named after him; examples being Conus recluzianus, Polinices reclusianus and Paramya recluzi. Description de quelques nouvelles ...
Discrimination between Calcium Channel Subtypes Using .omega.-conotoxin from Conus Magus Venom." Biochemistry, 26 (8): 2086-090 ... Tsetlin, V.I, and F. Hucho (2004) "Snake and Snail Toxins Acting on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Fundamental Aspects and ...
Conus lenavati (Cone snail)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A0K8TTM0,A0A0K8TTM0_CONLV Conopeptide (Fragment) OS=Conus lenavati OX=1519839 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Conus parius (Cone snail). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection"> ... "Novel conantokins from Conus parius venom are specific antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.". Teichert R.W., Jimenez ... "Novel conantokins from Conus parius venom are specific antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.". Teichert R.W., Jimenez ... "Novel conantokins from Conus parius venom are specific antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.". Teichert R.W., Jimenez ...
Conus parius (Cone snail). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and ... "Divergent M- and O-superfamily peptides from venom of fish-hunting Conus parius.". Jimenez E.C., Olivera B.M.. Peptides 31:1678 ... "Divergent M- and O-superfamily peptides from venom of fish-hunting Conus parius.". Jimenez E.C., Olivera B.M.. Peptides 31:1678 ... sp,P0CH20,O16D_CONPI Conotoxin pr6d OS=Conus parius OX=505247 PE=1 SV=1 YGNFPTCSETGEDCSAMHCCRSMTCRNNICAD Align. Format. Add to ...
Conus australis (Cone snail) (Asprella australis). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... "Discovery of a new subclass of alpha-conotoxins in the venom of Conus australis.". Lebbe E.K., Peigneur S., Maiti M., Mille B.G ... "Discovery of a new subclass of alpha-conotoxins in the venom of Conus australis.". Lebbe E.K., Peigneur S., Maiti M., Mille B.G ... "Discovery of a new subclass of alpha-conotoxins in the venom of Conus australis.". Lebbe E.K., Peigneur S., Maiti M., Mille B.G ...
Conus radiatus (Rayed cone). Conus lynceus (Lynceus cone). Conus eburneus (Ivory cone). Conus geographus (Geography cone) ( ... Conus ermineus (Atlantic fish-hunting cone). Conus purpurascens (Purple cone). Conus betulinus (Beech cone). Conus sulcatus ( ... Conus rolani (Cone snail). Conus lenavati. 96. UniRef90_P0DKZ0. Cluster: Conantokin-R1-B (Fragment). 3. ... Conus flavidus (Yellow Pacific cone). Conus litteratus (Lettered cone). And more. 107. UniRef50_P58806. Cluster: Conantokin-R. ...
... [ Follow Ups ] [ Post Followup ] [ California Scuba Diving BBS ] [ FAQ ]. Posted ... In Reply to: Re: Conus californicus, the California Cone Snail posted by Deb Karimoto on April 01, 2006 at 08:50:01:. you ...
Cone shell snail)Ralph Waldo Emerson once stated The most dangerous thing is illusion. Good morning/afternoon ladies and ... The geography cone or Conus geographus is one of over 500 species of cone shell snails. Typically, these snails inhabit the ... Taxonomic Classification of the Cone Shell Snail (Conus Geographus) and the uses of its venom. Essay by TobyJL, High School, ... Taxonomic Classification of the Cone Shell Snail (Conus Geographus) and the uses of its venom. (2012, April 24). In WriteWork. ...
The venom of the marine snail, Conus loroisii, was studied to assess its risk and lethal factors in regard of human welfare. ... Clinico-toxinological characterization of the acute effects of the venom of the marine snail, Conus loroisii. ... Clinico-toxinological characterization of the acute effects of the venom of the marine snail, Conus loroisii. Acta Tropica 97 ( ...
Conus textile strikes a snail. Clip (44 sec) A snail-hunting species of cone snail stings its prey repeatedly, inducing the ... Conus tulipa hunts fish by net. Clip (1 min 7 sec) Unlike a hook-and-line type fish-hunter, a net-hunting cone snail lures its ... Conus catus strikes a fish. Clip (1 min 11 sec) A fish-hunting cone snail strikes its prey with a venomous harpoon, causes ... Conus imperialis strikes a worm. Clip (31 sec) A worm-hunting cone snail species feeds on fireworms, and is unaffected by the ...
SPECIES ACCOUNTSROMAN SNAIL (Helix pomatia): SPECIES ACCOUNTSSHIELD LIMPET (Lottia pelta): SPECIES ACCOUNTSTOP SHELL (Trochus ... niloticus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS Source for information on Sea Slugs, Snails, and Limpets: Gastropoda: Grzimeks Student Animal ... SNAILS, AND LIMPETS: GastropodaNO COMMON NAME (Corolla spectabilis): ... GEOGRAPHY CONE SHELL (Conus geographus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS. Physical characteristics: The shell spire is flat with knobby whorls ...
As such, cone snail peptides represent an interesting treasure for drug development. Here, we report five novel peptides ... isolated from the venom of Conus longurionis, Conus asiaticus and Conus australis. Lo6/7a and Lo6/7b were retrieved from C. ... Cone snails are predatory creatures using venom as a weapon for prey capture and defense. Since this venom is neurotoxic, the ... Here, we report five novel peptides isolated from the venom of Conus longurionis, Conus asiaticus and Conus australis. Lo6/7a ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 2865 Pu1.5 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... "Alpha-conopeptides specifically expressed in the salivary gland of Conus pulicarius.". Biggs J.S., Olivera B.M., Kantor Y.I.. ... "Alpha-conopeptides specifically expressed in the salivary gland of Conus pulicarius.". Biggs J.S., Olivera B.M., Kantor Y.I.. ... sp,P0C8U9,CA15_CONPL Alpha-conotoxin-like Pu1.5 OS=Conus pulicarius OX=93154 PE=3 SV=1 ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 1084 Mi11.1 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... sp,P69498,I2_CONMI Conotoxin Mi11.1 OS=Conus miles OX=69564 PE=2 SV=2 ... Conus miles (Soldier cone) (Mile cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ...
Conus magus (Magus cone) (Magicians cone snail). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... sp,P0C257,I1B1_CONMA Iota-conotoxin-like M11.1 (Fragment) OS=Conus magus OX=6492 PE=2 SV=1 ...
"Identification, by RT-PCR, of four novel T-1-superfamily conotoxins from the vermivorous snail Conus spurius from the Gulf of ... "Identification, by RT-PCR, of four novel T-1-superfamily conotoxins from the vermivorous snail Conus spurius from the Gulf of ... "Identification, by RT-PCR, of four novel T-1-superfamily conotoxins from the vermivorous snail Conus spurius from the Gulf of ... sp,C0KYC6,CT57_CONSP Conotoxin Sr5.7 OS=Conus spurius OX=192919 PE=3 SV=1 ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 2789 Pu5.1 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... "Identification of six novel T-1 conotoxins from Conus pulicarius by molecular cloning.". Peng C., Wu X., Han Y., Yuan D., Chi C ... sp,P0C636,CT51_CONPL Conotoxin Pu5.1 OS=Conus pulicarius OX=93154 PE=2 SV=1 ... Conus pulicarius (Flea-bite cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy% ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 732 Vn6.18 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... sp,Q9BP93,O1618_CONVE Conotoxin VnMKLT2-013 OS=Conus ventricosus OX=117992 PE=2 SV=1 ... Conus ventricosus (Mediterranean cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy% ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 722 Vn6.11 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... sp,Q9BPA2,O1611_CONVE Conotoxin VnMKLT1-01121 OS=Conus ventricosus OX=117992 PE=2 SV=1 ... Conus ventricosus (Mediterranean cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 753 Ar6.20 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... sp,Q9BP72,O3620_CONAE Conotoxin ArMSGL-0124 OS=Conus arenatus OX=89451 PE=2 SV=1 ... Conus arenatus (Sand-dusted cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 1159 LtVIIA precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... sp,Q2I2Q9,O271_CONLT Conotoxin Lt7.1 OS=Conus litteratus OX=89445 PE=2 SV=1 ... Conus litteratus (Lettered cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
Conus magus (Magus cone) (Magicians cone snail). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand% ... sp,P0C1W2,CA1B_CONMA Alpha-conotoxin-like MIB OS=Conus magus OX=6492 PE=1 SV=1 NGRCCHPACARKYNC Align. Format. Add to basket. ... "Alpha-conotoxin GIC from Conus geographus, a novel peptide antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.". McIntosh J.M., ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 2838 ArIA precursor. 3450 Sequence 299 from Patent EP1852440. 351 ... sp,P0C8R2,CA1A_CONAE Alpha-conotoxin ArIA (Fragment) OS=Conus arenatus OX=89451 PE=1 SV=1 ... Conus arenatus (Sand-dusted cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 125 Qc1.4 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... Conus quercinus (Oak cone)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p ... tr,Q6PPB2,Q6PPB2_CONQU Alpha-conotoxin-like OS=Conus quercinus OX=101313 PE=2 SV=1 ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 738 Ar6.9 precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... sp,Q9BP87,O169_CONAE Conotoxin ArMKLT2-0312 OS=Conus arenatus OX=89451 PE=2 SV=1 ... Conus arenatus (Sand-dusted cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
ConoServer: Cone snail toxin database. More...ConoServeri. 2758 Bt15a precursor. ,p>This section provides information on the ... sp,B0KZ78,CO2FA_CONBE Conotoxin Bt15a OS=Conus betulinus OX=89764 PE=2 SV=1 ... Conus betulinus (Beech cone). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names ...
  • The team still needs to conduct more experiments to measure how quickly snail insulin, or a modified human insulin, would work when injected into an organism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cone snails are mainly known due to the beauty of their shells, which can be found in plenty of the "sea side souvenir shops" all over the world. (springer.com)
  • They are integral to food chains and, in addition to a number of species being consumed by humans as delicacies, snails also touch upon the inner nature of people, adding aesthetic value and contributing to the human fascination with nature , particularly with their unique shells and behaviors. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Conus badius Kiener, 1845 ) Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2013) Illustrated catalog of the living cone shells . (marinespecies.org)
  • look up in IMIS ) [details] status source (of Conus damottai damottai Trovão, 1979 ) Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2013) Illustrated catalog of the living cone shells . (marinespecies.org)
  • Solvin Zankl / The shells of the minute sea snail (Schwartziella ephamilla, top) and the wentletraps (Cycloscala hyalina, below) from sand sample from Raja Ampat, Indonesien. (naturepl.com)
  • University of Utah researchers have found that the structure of an insulin molecule produced by predatory cone snails may be an improvement over current fast-acting therapeutic insulin. (eurekalert.org)
  • The snail stings the fish with a harpoon like tooth, which is hollow and barbed and held at the tip of the proboscis. (springer.com)
  • several sequences of the tribblei and lenavati conopeptide data sets showed high similarity to SF-mi2 and SF-mi4 in Conus miles (Jin et al. (nih.gov)
  • Tests on insulin receptors in the lab showed that although the snail insulin was less effective than human insulin, it was still effective, and could possibly start acting in five minutes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies headed by the University of Utah's Helena Safavi-Hemami, PhD, found that while insulin molecules produced by different species of cone snail lacked structurally and functionally critical parts of human insulin, they were still able to bind to and activate human, mouse and fish insulin receptors. (genengnews.com)
  • Tests showed that the cone snail venom insulins activated the insulin receptors and lowered blood glucose levels in zebrafish and mouse models of chemically induced diabetes. (genengnews.com)
  • Unlike human insulin, which has requires a huge hinge (shown in red) to bind to insulin receptors, cone snails have just a single amino acid in place of the hinge, making the molecule smaller and faster to work in the body. (livescience.com)
  • In lab experiments, the team found that the insulin from the Conus successfully bound to human insulin receptors. (livescience.com)
  • Studying the structure of the cone snail insulin could help researchers modify human insulin to lose its self-aggregation but retain its potency, Safavi says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now we can look at the human insulin and see if we can make it more snail-like. (eurekalert.org)
  • And now, researchers have discovered that the chemical hack that makes cone snail venom so fast acting, could also be used to make human insulin act faster, which could lead to better blood sugar control for people with diabetes. (livescience.com)
  • The venom insulin has to work quickly, so we could use those same principles to make a human insulin therapeutic, to use the same tricks that the snail uses to attack fish," said study co-author Mike Lawrence, a structural biologist at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Victoria, Australia. (livescience.com)
  • The new findings suggest a molecular strategy for designing faster-acting human insulin: The hinge in human insulin could be snipped out and replaced with the amino acid that cone snails use in their insulin. (livescience.com)