A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.

Intraspecific variation of venom injected by fish-hunting Conus snails. (1/96)

Venom peptides from two species of fish-hunting cone snails (Conus striatus and Conus catus) were characterized using microbore liquid chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry. Both crude venom isolated from the venom duct and injected venom obtained by milking were studied. Based on analysis of injected venom samples from individual snails, significant intraspecific variation (i.e. between individuals) in the peptide complement is observed. The mixture of peptides in injected venom is simpler than that in the crude duct venom from the same snail, and the composition of crude venom is more consistent from snail to snail. While there is animal-to-animal variation in the peptides present in the injected venom, the composition of any individual's injected venom remains relatively constant over time in captivity. Most of the Conus striatus individuals tested injected predominantly a combination of two neuroexcitatory peptides (s4a and s4b), while a few individuals had unique injected-venom profiles consisting of a combination of peptides, including several previously characterized from the venom duct of this species. Seven novel peptides were also putatively identified based on matches of their empirically derived masses to those predicted by published cDNA sequences. Profiling injected venom of Conus catus individuals using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry demonstrates that intraspecific variation in the mixture of peptides extends to other species of piscivorous cone snails. The results of this study imply that novel regulatory mechanisms exist to select specific venom peptides for injection into prey.  (+info)

Association/dissociation of a channel-kinase complex underlies state-dependent modulation. (2/96)

Although ion channels are regulated by protein kinases, it has yet to be established whether the behavioral state of an animal may dictate whether or not modulation by a kinase can occur. Here, we describe behaviorally relevant changes in the ability of a nonselective cation channel from Aplysia bag cell neurons to be regulated by protein kinase C (PKC). This channel drives a prolonged afterdischarge that triggers the release of egg-laying hormone and a series of reproductive behaviors. The afterdischarge is followed by a lengthy refractory period, during which additional bursting cannot be elicited. Previously, we reported that, in excised inside-out patches, the cation channel is closely associated with PKC, which increases channel activity. We now show that this channel-kinase association is plastic, because channels excised from certain neurons lack PKC-dependent modulation. Although direct application of PKC-activating phorbol ester to these patches had no effect, exposing the neurons themselves to phorbol ester reinstated modulation, suggesting that an absence of modulation was attributable to a lack of associated kinase. Furthermore, modulation was restored by pretreating neurons with either PP1 [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine] or SU6656, inhibitors of Src tyrosine kinase, an enzyme whose Src homology 3 domain is required for channel-PKC association. Neurons that were stimulated to afterdischarge and had entered the prolonged refractory period were found to have more phosphotyrosine staining and less channel-PKC association than unstimulated neurons. These findings suggest that Src-dependent regulation of the association between the cation channel and PKC controls both the long-term excitability of these neurons and their ability to induce reproduction.  (+info)

Piscivorous behavior of a temperate cone snail, Conus californicus. (3/96)

Most of the more than 500 species of predatory marine snails in the genus Conus are tropical or semitropical, and nearly all are thought to be highly selective regarding type of prey. Conus californicus Hinds, 1844, is unusual in that it is endemic to the North American Pacific coast and preys on a large variety of benthic organisms, primarily worms and other molluscs, and also scavenges. We studied the feeding behavior of C. californicus in captivity and found that it regularly killed and consumed live prickleback fishes (Cebidichthys violaceus and Xiphister spp.). Predation involved two behavioral methods similar to those employed by strictly piscivorous relatives. One method utilized stings delivered by radular teeth; the other involved engulfing the prey without stinging. Both methods were commonly used in combination, and individual snails sometimes employed multiple stings to subdue a fish. During the course of the study, snails became aroused by the presence of live fish more quickly, as evidenced by more rapid initiation of hunting behavior. Despite this apparent adaptation, details of prey-capture techniques and effectiveness of stings remained similar over the same period.  (+info)

The muO-conotoxin MrVIA inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels by associating with domain-3. (4/96)

Several families of peptide toxins from cone snails affect voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels: mu-conotoxins block the pore, delta-conotoxins inhibit channel inactivation, and muO-conotoxins inhibit Na(V) channels by an unknown mechanism. The only currently known muO-conotoxins MrVIA and MrVIB from Conus marmoreus were applied to cloned rat skeletal muscle (Na(V)1.4) and brain (Na(V)1.2) sodium channels in mammalian cells. A systematic domain-swapping strategy identified the C-terminal pore loop of domain-3 as the major determinant for Na(V)1.4 being more potently blocked than Na(V)1.2 channels. muO-conotoxins therefore show an interaction pattern with Na(V) channels that is clearly different from the related mu- and delta-conotoxins, indicative of a distinct molecular mechanism of channel inhibition.  (+info)

cDNA cloning of two novel T-superfamily conotoxins from Conus leopardus. (5/96)

The full-length cDNAs of two novel T-superfamily conotoxins, Lp5.1 and Lp5.2, were cloned from a vermivorous cone snail Conus leopardus using 3'/5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA of Lp5.1 encodes a precursor of 65 residues, including a 22-residue signal peptide, a 28-residue propeptide and a 15-residue mature peptide. Lp5.1 is processed at the common signal site-X-Arg- immediately before the mature peptide sequences. In the case of Lp5.2, the precursor includes a 25-residue signal peptide and a 43-residue sequence comprising the propeptide and mature peptide, which is probably cleaved to yield a 29-residue propeptide and a 14-residue mature toxin. Although these two conotoxins share a similar signal sequence and a conserved disulfide pattern with the known T-superfamily, the pro-region and mature peptides are of low identity, especially Lp5.2 with an identity as low as 10.7% compared with the reference Mr5.1a. The elucidated cDNAs of these two toxins will facilitate a better understanding of the species distribution, the sequence diversity of T-superfamily conotoxins, the special gene structure and the evolution of these peptides.  (+info)

Isolation and characterisation of conomap-Vt, a D-amino acid containing excitatory peptide from the venom of a vermivorous cone snail. (6/96)

Cone snail venom is a rich source of bioactives, in particular small disulfide rich peptides that disrupt synaptic transmission. Here, we report the discovery of conomap-Vt (Conp-Vt), an unusual linear tetradecapeptide isolated from Conus vitulinus venom. The sequence displays no homology to known conopeptides, but displays significant homology to peptides of the MATP (myoactive tetradecapeptide) family, which are important endogenous neuromodulators in molluscs, annelids and insects. Conp-Vt showed potent excitatory activity in several snail isolated tissue preparations. Similar to ACh, repeated doses of Conp-Vt were tachyphylactic. Since nicotinic and muscarinic antagonists failed to block its effect and Conp-Vt desensitised tissue remained responsive to ACh, it appears that Conp-Vt contractions were non-cholinergic in origin. Finally, biochemical studies revealed that Conp-Vt is the first member of the MATP family with a d-amino acid. Interestingly, the isomerization of L-Phe to D-Phe enhanced biological activity, suggesting that this post-translational modified conopeptide may have evolved for prey capture.  (+info)

Diversity and evolution of conotoxins based on gene expression profiling of Conus litteratus. (7/96)

Cone snails are attracting increasing scientific attention due to their unprecedented diversity of invaluable channel-targeted peptides. As arguably the largest and most successful evolutionary genus of invertebrates, Conus also may become the model system to study the evolution of multigene families and biodiversity. Here, a set of 897 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a Conus litteratus venom duct was analyzed to illuminate the diversity and evolution mechanism of conotoxins. Nearly half of these ESTs represent the coding sequences of conotoxins, which were grouped into 42 novel conotoxin cDNA sequences (seven superfamilies), with T-superfamily conotoxins being the dominant component. The gene expression profile of conotoxin revealed that transcripts are expressed with order-of-magnitude differences, sequence divergence within a superfamily increases from the N to the C terminus of the open reading frame, and even multiple scaffold-different mature peptides exist in a conotoxin gene superfamily. Most excitingly, we identified a novel conotoxin superfamily and three novel cysteine scaffolds. These results give an initial insight into the C. litteratus transcriptome that will contribute to a better understanding of conotoxin evolution and the study of the cone snail genome in the near future.  (+info)

Two toxins from Conus striatus that individually induce tetanic paralysis. (8/96)

We describe structural properties and biological activities of two related O-glycosylated peptide toxins isolated from injected (milked) venom of Conus striatus, a piscivorous snail that captures prey by injecting a venom that induces a violent, spastic paralysis. One 30 amino acid toxin is identified as kappaA-SIVA (termed s4a here), and another 37 amino acid toxin, s4b, corresponds to a putative peptide encoded by a previously reported cDNA. We confirm the amino acid sequences and carry out structural analyses of both mature toxins using multiple mass spectrometric techniques. These include electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry and nanoelectrospray techniques for small volume samples, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometric analysis as a complementary method to assist in the determination of posttranslational modifications, including O-linked glycosylation. Physiological experiments indicate that both s4a and s4b induce intense repetitive firing of the frog neuromuscular junction, leading to a tetanic contracture in muscle fiber. These effects apparently involve modification of voltage-gated sodium channels in motor axons. Notably, application of either s4a or s4b alone mimics the biological effects of the whole injected venom on fish prey.  (+info)

No data available that match "conus snail"


A study of a fast-acting insulin from the cone snail provides insights for designing rapid-acting insulins to better manage ... The marine cone snail Conus geographus hunting a fish.Baldomero Olivera, Ph.D., University of Utah ... Cone snail venom reveals insulin insights At a Glance. *Researchers found that a fast-acting insulin from the cone snail can ... The researchers synthesized and purified snail insulin. They found that despite its smaller structure, the snail insulin could ...
Prior characterization of cone snail venoms established that bioactive venom components used to capture prey, defend against ... Left top, Conus regius (Florida); Left bottom, Conus archon (West Mexico); Center, Conus imperialis (Philippines); Right top, ... Conus zonatus (Laccadive Islands, India); Conus imperialis variety (Reunion Island); Conus imperialis variety (Balicasag Island ... 2015). Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus . Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
Ziconotide is the synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the piscivorous marine snail, Conus magus. ...
A study of a fast-acting insulin from the cone snail provides insights for designing rapid-acting insulins to better manage ... A minimized human insulin-receptor-binding motif revealed in a Conus geographus venom insulin. Menting JG, Gajewiak J, MacRaild ... The marine cone snail has an unusual survival mechanism that offers new insights for managing diabetes. The snail releases an ... A marine cone snail hunting a fish. Photo courtesy of Dr. Baldomero Olivera, University of Utah ...
PRIALT contains ziconotide, a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the piscivorous marine snail, ... Conus magus. Ziconotide is a 25 amino acid, polybasic peptide containing three disulfide bridges with a molecular weight of ...
PRIALT contains ziconotide, a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the piscivorous marine snail, ... Conus magus. Ziconotide is a 25 amino acid, polybasic peptide containing three disulfide bridges with a molecular weight of ...
Conus Snail B01.050.500.644.400.400 Hermissenda B01.050.500.644.400.600 Pleurobranchaea B01.050.500.644.400.750 Snails B01.050. ... 500.644.400.750.185 Biomphalaria B01.050.500.644.400.750.323 Bulinus B01.050.500.644.400.750.450 Helix (Snails) B01.050.500.644 ...
2. Persian Gulf Snail Crude Venom (Conus textile): A Potential Source of Anti-Cancer Therapeutic Agents for Glioblastoma ...
High-throughput identification of novel conotoxins from the Chinese tubular cone snail (Conus betulinus) by multitranscriptome ...
Conus Snail Preferred Concept UI. M0482897. Registry Number. txid6490. Scope Note. A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the ... Conus Snail Preferred Term Term UI T635494. Date04/07/2005. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ... Conus Snail. Tree Number(s). B01.050.500.644.400.275. Unique ID. D052078. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ... Conus Term UI T635499. Date04/07/2005. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ...
Conus Snail Preferred Concept UI. M0482897. Registry Number. txid6490. Scope Note. A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the ... Conus Snail Preferred Term Term UI T635494. Date04/07/2005. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ... Conus Snail. Tree Number(s). B01.050.500.644.400.275. Unique ID. D052078. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ... Conus Term UI T635499. Date04/07/2005. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ...
Conus californicus Conus californicus is the only known dangerous cone snail in North American waters. It is present in waters ... Cone snails Cone snails are a rare cause of marine envenomation among divers and shell collectors in the Indian and Pacific ... Severe Conus stings may require mechanical ventilation Overview of Mechanical Ventilation Mechanical ventilation can be ... When the snail is aggressively handled (eg, during shell cleaning, when placed in a pocket), it injects its venom through a ...
Snail Venom. Snail Venoms. Venom, Conus. Venom, Mollusk. Venom, Octopus. Venom, Snail. Venoms, Conus. Venoms, Mollusc. Venoms, ... Conus Venom. Conus Venoms. Mollusc Venoms. Mollusk Venom. Octopus Venom. Octopus Venoms. ... venenos de Conus venenos de Octopus venenos de caracoles venenos de caracoles y babosas ... Venenos de moluscos, incluidas las especies CONUS y OCTOPUS. El veneno contiene proteínas, enzimas, derivados de la colina, ...
Conus. To marine predators, a small molecule produced by Conus snails is deadly and serves as a form of defense. But for people ... Due to the fact that so many Conus varieties exist in nature, and that each snail produces many different venoms, the ... Indeed, a number of other promising Conus-derived molecules are in the drug development pipeline for a range of clinical ... Nearly a decade of NIGMS research probing the properties and physiological effects of Conus poisons has matured into the ...
PRIALT contains ziconotide, a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the piscivorous marine snail, ... Conus magus. Ziconotide is a 25 amino acid, polybasic peptide containing three disulfide bridges with a molecular weight of ...
αO-Conotoxin GeXIVA is a 28 amino acid peptide derived from the venom of the marine snail Conus generalis. The presence of four ... Caramujo Conus , Camundongos , Animais , Cricetinae , Caramujo Conus/química , Caramujo Conus/metabolismo , Cricetulus , ... Study on the Analgesic Activity of Peptide from Conus achates. Liu, Xiujie; Wang, Fuli; Yu, Huilan; Liu, Changcai; Xia, Junmei ... OBJECTIVE: To recognize the target protein and analgesic activity of Ac6.4 from Conus achates. METHODS: In the present study, ...
The cone snail venoms turned out to be unlike anything else that had been discovered before. They were a very large family of ... And 6A refers to conus geographus where it came off the column when he separated the venom. So G6A had a unique property of ... The other problem that they face is that if that fish swims three feet away before it dies, by the time the snail gets there, ... So the cone snail is [right there] when the fish goes. Just lovely, lovely biology. I really like that. [laughs] ...
Conus Snail UI - D052078 MN - B1.500.644.400.275 MS - A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class ... It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey. HN - ... A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually ...
Snail Venom Peptide Sequences. Incorporating the xtract ‑insd command in a search on cone snail venom:. esearch -db pubmed - ... INSDSeq_source,Conus imperialis,/INSDSeq_source,. ,INSDSeq_organism,Conus imperialis,/INSDSeq_organism,. ,INSDSeq_taxonomy, ... organism="Conus imperialis". /db_xref="taxon:35631". /country="Philippines". Protein ,1..17. /product="alpha-conotoxin ImI ... Conoidea; Conidae; Conus,/INSDSeq_taxonomy,. ,INSDSeq_references,. ,INSDReference,. .... Biological features and qualifiers ( ...
Conus Snail Convalescence Convallaria Convection Convergence, Ocular Conversion Disorder Conversion to Open Surgery ...
Imposex in sea snails, caused by organotin (tributyltin and triphenyltin) pollution in Japan: a survey. Appl Organomet Chem 11: ... Conus marmoreus bandanus, Virroconus ebraeus), and Nassariidae (e.g., Ilyanassa obsoleta, Nassarius reticulatus) of the ... Mechanism of imposex induction in mud snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta: TBT as a neuro-toxin and aromatase inhibitor. Mar Environ Res ... Sexuality in the American mud snail, Nassarius obsoletus Say. Proc Malacol Soc Lond 39:377-378. Google Scholar ...
... pbfi hsr203j ubig hypomotility m26 pbsc debre uo4 radiodiagnosis ndhk ethylisothiourea tetraose tml stt4 anasarca snails psbl ... phenylacetamido dysphasia gp46 aminoethoxy isoflavone acetylaminofluorene sausage canada tainer benzoylphenyl conus geneticist ... periodate accessorius avoiding predominant tre interdisciplinary fragmin epiglottic cola osseointegration snail csp dmg ...
... see conus medullaris terminal hinge position (DEN) X DENTAL OCCLUSION, CENTRIC terminal jaw relation record (DEN) X VERTICAL ... X SNAILS ♦helix, viral see nucleocapsid Heller-Dohle mesoaortitis X SYPHILIS, CARDIOVASCULAR H AORTIC DISEASES Heller-Nelson ... conus medullaris (NEU) ♦medullary cone ♦terminal cone X SPINAL CORD Cooke-Apert-Gallais syndrome (SYN) X ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROBE ... see conus medullaris melanoepithelioma (TUK) X KELANOHA medullary fibrosarcoaa X FIBROSARCOBA medullary megakaryocytic myelosis ...
SLIMY HOUSEKEEPER SIZER SIZES THEME SUPPLANTING SMELL ATRIOVENTRICULARE SLIPS SLIPT SNAFU DEBILITATES ROVED SMELT SNAIL ... PULLET COOLY SERENES FAKIR CONSTRUCTIONAL CONTO DETECTABLY COCOONS FOREFEND DIVES PROPHETIC DENARINARII RAMBUNCTIOUSNESS CONUS ...
  • Prior characterization of cone snail venoms established that bioactive venom components used to capture prey, defend against predators and for competitive interactions were relatively small, structured peptides (10-35 amino acids), most with multiple disulfide crosslinks. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we describe how it has recently become clear that to varying degrees, cone snail venoms also contain bioactive non-peptidic small molecule components. (nih.gov)
  • It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms ( CONUS VENOMS ) with which they immobilize their prey. (nih.gov)
  • Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. (bvsalud.org)
  • The marine cone snail Conus geographus hunting a fish. (nih.gov)
  • A minimized human insulin-receptor-binding motif revealed in a Conus geographus venom insulin. (nih.gov)
  • 4] In the Gastridium clade of fish-hunting cones, including Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, insulinlike polypeptides are highly expressed in the distal duct segment. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of the structures of cone snail insulin (red/white) and human insulin (blue/white and green). (nih.gov)
  • The green B-chain terminal segment is absent in the cone snail insulin. (nih.gov)
  • An international research team led by Drs. Helena Safavi of the University of Utah and Michael Lawrence of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Australia set out to characterize cone snail insulin to gain insights into therapeutic insulin design. (nih.gov)
  • Cone snail insulin lacks a segment of the B chain. (nih.gov)
  • An NIH-supported research team, based partly at the University of Utah, analyzed the 3-D structure of cone snail insulin. (nih.gov)
  • Mollusks include cones (including cone snails), cephalopods (including octopi and squids), and bivalves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The marine cone snail releases a venom cocktail to stun its prey. (nih.gov)
  • Cone snails incapacitate their prey by injecting a cocktail of neurotoxins, which can be dangerous to humans. (medscape.com)
  • To capture a much faster prey in a highly dynamic marine environment, this relatively slow-moving snail has evolved into one of the fastest known predators in the animal kingdom, with the average attack lasting only milliseconds. (medscape.com)
  • More than 2,000 toxins from an estimated more than 70,000 bioactive peptides have been identified in the Conus genus. (medscape.com)
  • A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA . (nih.gov)
  • This article focuses on the more than 600 members of the invertebrate Conidae family of the phylum Mollusca and the class Gastropoda (ie, the cone snails). (medscape.com)
  • The marine cone snail has an unusual survival mechanism that offers new insights for managing diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Cone snails are a rare cause of marine envenomation among divers and shell collectors in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In contrast, the cone snail has the smallest known insulin found in nature and works rapidly. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the insulin in cone snails is small and fast acting. (nih.gov)
  • The snail releases an insulin-containing venom that acts within seconds to stun nearby fish, so they're easier to capture and eat. (nih.gov)
  • Cone snail ingesting a small fish. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers found that a fast-acting insulin from the cone snail can bind and activate the human insulin receptor. (nih.gov)
  • They found that despite its smaller structure, the snail insulin could bind the human insulin receptor and turn on the receptor to activate signaling. (nih.gov)
  • We found that cone snail venom insulins work faster than human insulins by avoiding the structural changes that human insulins undergo in order to function-they are essentially primed and ready to bind to their receptors," Lawrence says. (nih.gov)
  • To determine how the shorter snail insulin could bind, the team assessed its 3-D structure by using X-ray crystallography. (nih.gov)
  • Despite its smaller structure, the snail insulin could bind and turn on the human insulin receptor. (nih.gov)