Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.United StatesDrug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Great BritainHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.EuropeDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Herbals as Topic: Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Comparative Effectiveness Research: Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. (hhs.gov/recovery/programs/cer/draftdefinition.html accessed 6/12/2009)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Bookplates as Topic: Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Broadsides as Topic: Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Control Groups: Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Therapeutic Equipoise: Expectation of real uncertainty on the part of the investigator regarding the comparative therapeutic merits of each arm in a trial.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Germany

Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression. (1/433)

The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less impact on clinical psychopharmacology than another contemporary class of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs). The RIMAs agents are distinguished from the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) by their selectivity and reversibility. As a result, dietary restrictions are not required during RIMA therapy, and hypertensive crises are quite rare. In this article, we describe a series of meta-analyses of studies of the two most widely researched RIMAs, moclobemide (MOC; Aurorex) and brofaromine (BRO). Our findings confirm that both BRO and MOC are as effective as the tricyclic antidepressants, and they are better tolerated. However, BRO is not being studied at present for reasons unrelated to efficacy or side effects. MOC, which is available throughout much of the world (but not the United States), is significantly more effective than placebo and, at the least, comparable to the SSRIs in both efficacy and tolerability. For MOC, higher dosages may enhance efficacy for more severe depressions. We also found evidence that supports clinical impressions that MOC is somewhat less effective, albeit better tolerated, than older MAOIs, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine. Little evidence has yet emerged to suggest that the RIMAs share older MAOIs' utility for treatment of depressions characterized by prominent reverse neurovegetative features. Based on available evidence, the RIMAs appear to have a limited, but useful, role in the differential therapeutics of the depressive disorders.  (+info)

The evolution of antibiotic therapy for neutropenic patients. (2/433)

Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of infections in neutropenic patients during the past three decades. A major contribution to this progress has been the discovery of effective new therapies and their prompt administration. Unfortunately, successful therapy of each important pathogen has resulted in the emergence of new pathogens, usually with unique patterns of antibiotic susceptibility. Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance has become an increasing threat in recent years, raising the possibility of infections that will be difficult to eradicate. Fortunately, there are new classes of antimicrobials that hold promise for therapeutic success in the future.  (+info)

Systematic review of day hospital care for elderly people. The Day Hospital Group. (3/433)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of day hospital attendance in prolonging independent living for elderly people. DESIGN: Systematic review of 12 controlled clinical trials (available by January 1997) comparing day hospital care with comprehensive care (five trials), domiciliary care (four trials), or no comprehensive care (three trials). SUBJECTS: 2867 elderly people. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death, institutionalisation, disability, global "poor outcome," and use of resources. RESULTS: Overall, there was no significant difference between day hospitals and alternative services for death, disability, or use of resources. However, compared with subjects receiving no comprehensive care, patients attending day hospitals had a lower odds of death or "poor" outcome (0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.99; P<0.05) and functional deterioration (0.61, 0.38 to 0.97; P<0.05). The day hospital group showed trends towards reductions in hospital bed use and placement in institutional care. Eight trials reported treatment costs, six of which reported that day hospital attendance was more expensive than other care, although only two analyses took into account cost of long term care. CONCLUSIONS: Day hospital care seems to be an effective service for elderly people who need rehabilitation but may have no clear advantage over other comprehensive care. Methodological problems limit these conclusions, and further randomised trials are justifiable.  (+info)

Low-molecular-weight heparin in preventing and treating DVT. (4/433)

Low-molecular-weight heparin is a relatively recent addition to the list of therapies for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). As a prophylactic, low-molecular-weight heparin is as effective as standard heparin or warfarin and does not require monitoring of the activated partial thromboplastin time or the International Normalized Ratio. Traditionally, treatment for DVT required patients to be hospitalized for administration of intravenous heparin. With subcutaneous injections of low-molecular-weight heparin, treatment of DVT can be initiated or completed in the outpatient setting with no increased risk of recurrent thromboembolism or bleeding complications. Low-molecular-weight heparin is an attractive option for use in patients with a first episode of DVT, no risk factors for bleeding and the ability to administer injections with or without the help of a visiting nurse or family member.  (+info)

Bipolar disorder in old age. (5/433)

OBJECTIVE: To review the classification, clinical characteristics, and epidemiology of bipolar disorders in old age with a special focus on neurologic comorbidity, high mortality, and management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most available data is gleaned from retrospective chart reviews and cohort studies. Treatment recommendations are based on evidence from younger populations and a few anecdotal case reports and series involving elderly people. MAIN MESSAGE: While relatively rare in the community setting, mania in old age frequently leads to hospitalization. It is associated with late-onset neurologic disorders (especially cerebrovascular disease) involving the right hemisphere and orbitofrontal cortex. Prognosis is relatively poor; morbidity and mortality rates are high. Management of bipolarity includes cautious use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium and divalproex. CONCLUSIONS: Mania in old age should trigger a careful assessment of underlying neurologic disease, especially cerebrovascular disease. Close clinical follow up is essential.  (+info)

New treatments for allergic rhinitis. (6/433)

OBJECTIVE: To review new treatments for allergic rhinitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most studies supporting the principles in this paper are double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Good evidence supports use of antihistamines, nasal steroid sprays, and immunotherapy. Fewer trials have been done on the new antileukotrienes. MAIN MESSAGE: Allergic rhinitis causes significant morbidity, which can be successfully treated. Newer antihistamines, developed to replace terfenadine and astemizole which have potential side effects, include loratadine, cetirizine, and the newest, fexofenadine. Intranasal steroid sprays are also effective, particularly for people with nasal stuffiness. One study showed some growth retardation in children using beclomethasone over a prolonged period (1 year). The newer steroid sprays, such as fluticasone, budesonide, and mometasone furoate aqueous, however, have not been studied in the same way and are usually recommended for shorter periods. The newest group of medications showing real promise are the antileukotrienes, including zafirlukast and montelukast. Taken orally, these medications avoid the discomfort of nasal sprays and seem to have few side effects. Immunotherapy offers a new option: a short-course, preseasonal series of six to 11 injections that reduces the burden on patients for year-round therapy. Combinations of these therapies are also possible. CONCLUSIONS: With new medications and immunotherapy options, family physicians can offer effective treatment to patients with allergic rhinitis.  (+info)

Chaos and the transition to ventricular fibrillation: a new approach to antiarrhythmic drug evaluation. (7/433)

Sudden cardiac death resulting from ventricular fibrillation can be separated into 2 components: initiation of tachycardia and degeneration of tachycardia to fibrillation. Clinical drug studies such as CAST and SWORD demonstrated that focusing exclusively on the first component is inadequate as a therapeutic modality. The hope for developing effective pharmacological therapy rests on a comprehensive understanding of the second component, the transition from tachycardia to fibrillation. We summarize evidence that the transition from tachycardia to fibrillation is a transition to spatiotemporal chaos, with similarities to the quasiperiodic transition to chaos seen in fluid turbulence. In this scenario, chaos results from the interaction of multiple causally independent oscillatory motions. Simulations in 2-dimensional cardiac tissue suggest that the destabilizing oscillatory motions during spiral-wave reentry arise from restitution properties of action potential duration and conduction velocity. The process of spiral-wave breakup in simulated cardiac tissue predicts remarkably well the sequence by which tachycardia degenerates to fibrillation in real cardiac tissue. Modifying action potential duration and conduction velocity restitution characteristics can prevent spiral-wave breakup in simulated cardiac tissue, suggesting that drugs with similar effects in real cardiac tissue may have antifibrillatory efficacy (the Restitution Hypothesis). If valid for the real heart, the Restitution Hypothesis will support a new paradigm for antiarrhythmic drug classification, incorporating an antifibrillatory profile based on effects on cardiac restitution and the traditional antitachycardia profile (classes 1 through 4).  (+info)

Recurrent cystitis in nonpregnant women. (8/433)

Consistent evidence from RCTs shows that antibiotic prophylaxis (either continuous or postcoital), using trimethoprim TMP-SMZ, nitrofurantoin, or a quinolone, reduces infection rates in women with high rates of recurrent cystitis (at least two per year). Limited evidence suggests that intermittent patient-administered treatment (taken at the onset of symptoms) is an effective alternative management strategy to continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in women with high rates of infection (at least two per year). Limited evidence suggests that long-term prophylaxis is likely to benefit women with a baseline rate of more than two infections per year over many years. However, long-term treatment has not yet been evaluated in RCTs. In women who experience recurrent, uncomplicated cystitis, there is no evidence to support routine investigation of the urinary tract with excretory urography, ultrasonography, cystoscopy, or voiding cystourethrography. No specific subgroups of women who would clearly benefit from investigation have yet been adequately defined.  (+info)

  • The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. (actgnetwork.org)
  • What is the quality of clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament sprains in adults? (semanticscholar.org)
  • The PATAF trial was a prospective, randomized trial to investigate the effectiveness of aspirin and coumarin in preventing thromboembolism in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation in general practice. (acc.org)
  • They did note whether trials were carried out under good clinical practice, whether an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis had been performed, and if analysis had been per protocol. (york.ac.uk)
  • Three trials were reported as performed under good clinical practice. (york.ac.uk)
  • During the spring of 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) began planning for the development of clinical practice guidelines for VWD in response to the FY 2004 appropriations conference committee report (House Report 108-401) recommendation. (nih.gov)
  • The obesity-asthma phenotype has become an increasingly common situation in our clinical practice. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Dr. Browne is a community mental health nurse the extensive back ground both in clinical practice, teaching and research. (edu.au)
  • Dr. Browne's clinical practice, teaching and research are all informed by the principles of primary health care. (edu.au)
  • He has been the Chair of the RANZCP Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee for Deliberate Self Harm and is a Chief Investigator for the NMHRC Centre for Research Excellence in Suicide Prevention, known as CRESP 2.0. (edu.au)
  • citation needed] In a Good Manufacturing Practice regulated industry, the topic is frequently encountered by its users. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six subjects were randomly assigned to BCG or placebo and compared to self, healthy paired controls (n = 6), or reference subjects with (n = 57) or without (n = 16) type 1 diabetes, depending on the outcome measure. (acc.org)
  • Impact of Funding Source on Clinical Trial Results Including Cardiovascular Outcome Trials. (duke.edu)
  • Conditional power calculations suggested a less than 2% chance that the curcuminoids group would have a significantly better outcome as compared with the placebo group if the trial were continued to completion. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The authors' objective was to evaluate and quantify the effects of dexmedetomidine (0.2 μg·kg -1 ·h -1 ) on local field potentials in patients with Parkinson disease undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery compared with control recording (primary outcome), as well as the effect of propofol at different estimated peak effect site concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 μg/ml) from control recording. (asahq.org)
  • Recently, the possible impacts on clinical outcome of tissue injury, inflammation, and variations in hypertrophy and chamber remodeling have been increasingly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Five studies at low risk of bias comparing penicillin or amoxicillin to placebo provided information on the main outcome: clinical failure rate at 7 to 15 days follow-up, defined as a lack of full recovery or improvement, for participants with symptoms lasting at least seven days. (curehunter.com)
  • Identifying Barriers and Practical Solutions to Conducting Site-Based Research in North America: Exploring Acute Heart Failure Trials As a Case Study. (duke.edu)
  • In these diseases, the clinical picture of acute aortic regurgitation results from a sudden and marked increase in diastolic filling volume, with no chance for the left ventricle or the stiff pericardium to accommodate this increase. (aafp.org)
  • We included trials with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis , confirmed or not by imaging or bacterial culture. (curehunter.com)
  • Whether intravenous lidocaine has a beneficial role in controlling acute pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in currently unknown. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Considers the aerosol or foodborne dissemination of botulinum toxin and provides a variety of facts about botulism/botulinum toxin, including its history as a bioweapon, microbiology, pathogenesis/clinical manifestation, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy, prophylaxis, and decontamination. (osha.gov)
  • The primary endpoint of the trial is the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) and the secondary endpoints are the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scale (NPI). (medindia.net)
  • This combined mechanism of action through PKC epsilon activation gave the Company the confidence to commit to these trials in moderate to severe patients," said Dr. Susanne Wilke , PhD., the Company's Chief Executive Officer. (medindia.net)
  • Results from three randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. (curehunter.com)
  • Effects of an oral MMP-9 and -12 inhibitor, AZD1236, on biomarkers in moderate/severe COPD: a randomised controlled trial. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • On September 11, 2001, following the terrorist incidents in New York City and Washington, DC, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended heightened surveillance for any unusual disease occurrence or increased numbers of illnesses that might be associated with the terrorist attacks. (osha.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 50(41);893-7, (October 19, 2001). (osha.gov)
  • This brief fact sheet provides information about the risks of prescription opioid pain relievers and a summary of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Guideline for Opioid Prescribing for Pain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The Office of Prevention, Education, and Control (OPEC) of the NHLBI coordinated the Panel. (nih.gov)
  • Following the conference, the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute and the US National Institute of Allergic and Infectious Diseases have continued to explore ways to encourage and support scientists in Cuba and the USA who wish to pursue arbovirus research cooperation to advance scientific discovery to improve disease prevention and control. (scielosp.org)
  • Professor Christensen also leads the LifeSpan trial that will investigate a novel systems approach to suicide prevention in NSW. (edu.au)
  • This randomized clinical trial will compare surgical decompression versus nonsurgical treatment (i.e., physical therapy) of lumbar spinal stenosis. (rutgers.edu)
  • The purpose of pilot trial is to compare the efficacy of lifestyle intervention, metformin intervention, lifestyle combined with metformin intervention in improving assisted reproductive technology in non-polycystic ovary syndrome(pcos) patients with overweight/obesity and insulin resistance compared with conventional clinical education. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subjects who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomized to four groups: lifestyle intervention group, metformin intervention group, lifestyle combined with metformin intervention group, and routine clinical education group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subjects of above three intervention group will start ovulation stimulation treatment after reach the aim or duration of intervention and routine clinical education group has no intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • examining acceptability of the intervention and control conditions. (nih.gov)
  • General methodological limitations included the use of non-equivalent control groups, a lack of linking pre- and post-test samples in multiple cross-sectional surveys, assessment immediately post-intervention, unclear methods used for statistical comparisons, and inappropriate analysis of cluster trials. (who.int)
  • In the CENTRAL 18-month intervention trial, a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diet induced a greater decrease in hepatic fat content than a low-fat diet, conferring beneficial health effects that were beyond the favorable effects of visceral fat loss. (walnuts.org)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, solicits grant applications from institutions/organizations to conduct proof-of- concept Phase II clinical trials that test a novel intervention for a lung disease or a cardiopulmonary disorder from sleep that has the potential to significantly change clinical management. (nih.gov)
  • Stretching exercise as control therapy in older people can lead to beneficial effects and could influence the interpretation of the effect size in the intervention groups. (humankinetics.com)
  • We calculated risk ratios (RRs) for differences between intervention and control groups in whether the treatment failed or not. (curehunter.com)
  • Eighty-one ACD, aged 12 to 20 years, were recruited for a randomized clinical trial evaluating an 8-month transition intervention (MD2Me). (aappublications.org)
  • In addition, both LATUDA dose groups were significantly more effective than placebo on the Clinical Global Impressions Severity scale (CGI-S), the key secondary efficacy endpoint, as early as week one. (drugs.com)
  • Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are being applied widely in patient safety, most frequently to provide alerts intended to prevent medication errors . (ahrq.gov)
  • The Expert Panel members were selected to provide expertise in basic sciences, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, evidence-based medicine, and the clinical management of VWD, including specialists in hematology as well as in family medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, internal medicine, and laboratory sciences. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Barbara Alving, Acting Director of the NHLBI, gave the charge to the Expert Panel to examine the current science in the area of VWD and to come to consensus regarding clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and management of this most common inherited bleeding disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent clinical evidences concerning the treatment of carotid artery stenosis, with a special focus on the endovascular treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first step in the peer-review process involves delivery of the manuscript to 1 to 3 external reviewers with expertise in the paper's topic and/or field. (wjgnet.com)
  • Our review showed that a considerable number of labels has been proposed for trial designs evaluating prognostic and predictive biomarkers which, based on patient flow elements, can be classified into five basic categories. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A rapid review of the biomarker trial designs in the oncology literature suggests substantial variability in the designs, as well as in the terms proposed by authors for labeling them. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Provides links to fact sheets and overviews and information on infection control, laboratory testing, and surveillance and investigation. (osha.gov)
  • In the Scotchbond Universal and Clearfil S 3 Bond Plus groups, the SBSs of surface treatment and control (distilled water) subgroups were not significantly different. (agd.org)
  • Bullowa, nearly fifty years old at the time of his presentation at the New York Academy of Medicine, was a clinical professor at the New York University College of Medicine (Alexander 1944) and co-director, with Milton Rosenblüth, of Harlem Hospital's pneumonia service, then "the largest therapy unit of any hospital in the city" (Maynard 1978, p 41). (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • The current standard clinical approach to therapy includes lower limb compression and debridement, which heals 50 to 60 percent of venous leg ulcers. (ahrq.gov)
  • This symptomatic cohort was divided into 2 groups: 109 were randomly assigned to the experimental (OFM) group and 31 to the control (sham therapy) group. (jaoa.org)