Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.
Glucose in blood.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The period following a surgical operation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The consumption of edible substances.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A major orthodox system of Hindu philosophy based on Sankhya (metaphysical dualism) but differing from it in being theistic and characterized by the teaching of raja-yoga as a practical method of liberating the self. It includes a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being with liberation of the self and union with the universal spirit. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Material prepared from plants.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.

Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon--the first year's experience. (1/236)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: On October 27, 1997, Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide. We collected data on all terminally ill Oregon residents who received prescriptions for lethal medications under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act and who died in 1998. The data were obtained from physicians' reports, death certificates, and interviews with physicians. We compared persons who took lethal medications prescribed under the act with those who died from similar illnesses but did not receive prescriptions for lethal medications. RESULTS: Information on 23 persons who received prescriptions for lethal medications was reported to the Oregon Health Division; 15 died after taking the lethal medications, 6 died from underlying illnesses, and 2 were alive as of January 1, 1999. The median age of the 15 patients who died after taking lethal medications was 69 years; 8 were male, and all 15 were white. Thirteen of the 15 patients had cancer. The case patients and controls were similar with regard to sex, race, urban or rural residence, level of education, health insurance coverage, and hospice enrollment. No case patients or controls expressed concern about the financial impact of their illness. One case patient and 15 controls expressed concern about inadequate control of pain (P=0.10). The case patients were more likely than the controls to have never married (P=0.04) and were more likely to be concerned about loss of autonomy due to illness (P=0.01) and loss of control of bodily functions (P=0.02). At death, 21 percent of the case patients and 84 percent of the controls were completely disabled (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon, the decision to request and use a prescription for lethal medication was associated with concern about loss of autonomy or control of bodily functions, not with fear of intractable pain or concern about financial loss. In addition, we found that the choice of physician-assisted suicide was not associated with level of education or health insurance coverage.  (+info)

Should Zelen pre-randomised consent designs be used in some neonatal trials? (2/236)

My aim is to suggest that there is a case for using a randomised consent design in some neonatal trials. As an example I use the trials of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates suffering pulmonary hypertension. In some trials the process of obtaining consent has the potential to harm the subject, for example, by disappointing those who end in the control group and by creating additional anxiety at times of acute illness. An example of such were the trials of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates suffering pulmonary hypertension. Pre-randomised consent could avoid or lessen these harms. However, a number of ethical objections are made to these research designs. They involve denial of information, using people, denial of choice, and "overselling" of allocated treatment. Furthermore, they are the wrong response; better communication might be the answer, for example. I argue that these objections are not completely persuasive. However, they are enough to suggest caution in the use of such designs.  (+info)

Ethical considerations in international HIV vaccine trials: summary of a consultative process conducted by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (3/236)

Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of trials are now being conducted or planned in other countries, including several that are considered "developing" countries. Safeguarding the rights and welfare of individuals participating as research subjects in developing countries is a priority. In September, 1997, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) embarked on a process of international consultation; its purpose was further to define the important ethical issues and to formulate guidance that might facilitate the ethical design and conduct of HIV vaccine trials in international contexts. This paper summarises the major outcomes of the UNAIDS consultative process.  (+info)

Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson's disease. (4/236)

BACKGROUND: Transplantation of human embryonic dopamine neurons into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease has proved beneficial in open clinical trials. However, whether this intervention would be more effective than sham surgery in a controlled trial is not known. METHODS: We randomly assigned 40 patients who were 34 to 75 years of age and had severe Parkinson's disease (mean duration, 14 years) to receive a transplant of nerve cells or sham surgery; all were to be followed in a double-blind manner for one year. In the transplant recipients, cultured mesencephalic tissue from four embryos was implanted into the putamen bilaterally. In the patients who received sham surgery, holes were drilled in the skull but the dura was not penetrated. The primary outcome was a subjective global rating of the change in the severity of disease, scored on a scale of -3.0 to 3.0 at one year, with negative scores indicating a worsening of symptoms and positive scores an improvement. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) scores on the global rating scale for improvement or deterioration at one year were 0.0+/-2.1 in the transplantation group and -0.4+/-1.7 in the sham-surgery group. Among younger patients (60 years old or younger), standardized tests of Parkinson's disease revealed significant improvement in the transplantation group as compared with the sham-surgery group when patients were tested in the morning before receiving medication (P=0.01 for scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; P=0.006 for the Schwab and England score). There was no significant improvement in older patients in the transplantation group. Fiber outgrowth from the transplanted neurons was detected in 17 of the 20 patients in the transplantation group, as indicated by an increase in 18F-fluorodopa uptake on positron-emission tomography or postmortem examination. After improvement in the first year, dystonia and dyskinesias recurred in 15 percent of the patients who received transplants, even after reduction or discontinuation of the dose of levodopa. CONCLUSIONS: Human embryonic dopamine-neuron transplants survive in patients with severe Parkinson's disease and result in some clinical benefit in younger but not in older patients.  (+info)

Disabled picket Medical Research Council.(5/236)

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Who is my brother's keeper? (6/236)

Clinical and research practices designed by developed countries are often implemented in host nations of the Third World. In recent years, a number of papers have presented a diversity of arguments to justify these practices which include the defence of research with placebos even though best proven treatments exist; the distribution of drugs unapproved in their country of origin; withholding of existing therapy in order to observe the natural course of infection and disease; redefinition of equipoise to a more bland version, and denial of post-trial benefits to research subjects. These practices have all been prohibited in developed, sponsoring countries, even though they invariably have pockets of poverty where conditions comparable to the Third World prevail. Furthermore, the latest update of the Declaration of Helsinki clearly decries double ethical standards in research protocols. Under these circumstances, it does not seem appropriate that First World scholars should propose and defend research and clinical practices with less stringent ethical standards than those mandatory in their own countries. Recent years have witnessed frequent reports of less stringent ethical standards being applied to both clinical and research medical practices, for the most part in the field of drug trials and drug marketing, initiated by developed countries in poorer nations. Still more unsettling, a number of articles have endorsed the policy of employing ethical norms in these host countries, which would be unacceptable to both the legislations and the moral standards of the sponsor nations. Also, these reformulations often contravene the Declaration of Helsinki or one of its updates. This paper is not so much concerned with the actual practices, which have been subjected to frequent scrutiny and publicly decried when gross misconduct occurred. Rather, my concern relates to the approval and support such practices have found in the literature on bioethics from authors who might be expected to use their energy and scholarship to explore and endorse the universalisability of ethics rather than to develop ad hoc arguments that would allow exceptions and variations from accepted moral standards. To this purpose, issue will be taken with arguments in three fields: medical and pharmaceutical practices, research strategies, and local application of research results.  (+info)

Assessing the outcome of compulsory psychiatric treatment in the community: epidemiological study in Western Australia. (7/236)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether community treatment orders for psychiatric patients reduce subsequent use of health services in comparison with control patients not placed on an order. DESIGN: Epidemiological study with a before and after, two stage design of matching and multivariate analysis, controlling for sociodemographic variables, clinical features, and psychiatric history. SETTING: All community based and inpatient psychiatric services in Western Australia, covering a population of 1.7 million people. PARTICIPANTS: 228 subjects placed on a community treatment order, matched with an equal number of controls to give a total of 456 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inpatient admissions, bed days, and outpatient contacts one year after subjects were placed on a community treatment order or the index date of matched controls. RESULTS: Both subjects and their matched controls had reduced inpatient admissions and bed days in hospital. Subjects had significantly more outpatient contacts. Multivariate analysis indicated that being placed on a community treatment order was associated with increased outpatient contacts in the subsequent year compared with the control group. Otherwise, orders did not affect subsequent use of health services. Other factors associated with increased use of health services were age and inpatient admissions, bed days, and outpatient contacts before the order or index date. No covariates were shown to be associated with changes in within pair differences in inpatient admissions or bed days. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of compulsory treatment in the community does not lead to reduced use of health services.  (+info)

Mutation analysis of the inhibin alpha gene in a cohort of Italian women affected by ovarian failure. (8/236)

BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a secondary hypergonadotrophic amenorrhoea affecting 1-3% of females, whose aetiology is almost unknown. However, inhibin alpha gene (INHalpha) has recently been indicated as candidate in POF pathogenesis. METHODS: We analysed patients affected by POF (n = 157) for the missense mutation (769G-->A transition) in the exon 2 of the INHalpha gene. The same analysis was carried out on early menopause (EM) (n = 36) and primary amenorrhoea (n = 12) patients. RESULTS: The incidence of the mutation was significantly more frequent within both POF (7/157, 4.5%) (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.030) and primary amenorrhoea (3/12, 25%) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001) patients, compared with the control population of women (0/100), who experienced physiological menopause. No mutation was found in EM patients. Furthermore, the likelihood of finding the mutation was statistically significant in familial (5/65; 7.7%) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.01) but not in sporadic (2/92; 2.2%) (Fisher's exact test, P = not significant) POF, compared with the control group. The analysis of pedigrees showing the inheritance of the 769G-->A mutation and POF strengthens the concept of the disease heterogeneity, since the POF phenotype was not always associated with the mutation. Moreover, a higher prevalence of the C allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (129C-->T), located in the 5'-UTR of the INHalpha gene, was observed in POF patients (80.3%) than in the control group (66.7%) (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: These data strengthen the concept of the INHalpha gene as a candidate for ovarian failure.  (+info)

The Suite Home by Hangar Design Group is designed to be a place of relaxation, to be placed by the sea or in the mountains -- a true getaway from urban or
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM) on teaching photosynthesis and respiration concepts. The subjects of the study were 61 8th grade students who enrolled in a primary school in İzmir, Turkey. In this study, a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design was utilized and two instruction methods were employed. Two groups were assigned randomly as experimental and control groups. Dual Situated Learning Model instruction was employed in experimental group whereas traditional one was employed in control group. A photosynthesis and respiration concept achievement test (17 items) and open-ended questions (6 items) were used as a measurement tools. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the groups in favor of the experimental group. In parallel, DSLM has been found to be more effective in eliminating misconceptions than traditional method.. ...
This study proposed to examine the effectiveness of television instruction as compared with three other methods of instruction. Twenty-six sections of Speech 116 at Purdue University were divided into five groups of five or six sections each. All sections met 3 times weekly, and the research was conducted during a consecutive 8-day period. The students were exposed to expository material on small group discussion through one of four ways: observing a television lecture, listening to the identical lecture read from a manuscript by their regular instructors, reading the televised lecture individually, or receiving normally scheduled instruction by their instructors. A control group received no instruction on the topic. A true experimental pre-test--post-test control group design was employed, with the use of
This chapter summarizes the major findings, restrictions, deductions in the field of nursing instruction, nursing pattern, nursing research and recommendations for farther research.. The survey was conducted with the aims to place the effectivity of cryotherapy prior to passive stretching on the degree of spasticity and manus map among kids with intellectual paralysis in Families for kids, Coimbatore. A quasi experimental, pretest post-test with control group design was adopted for the survey. Purposive sampling technique was used to choose the samples for the survey. Entire figure of samples selected for the survey was 30. The selected samples were indiscriminately assigned to experimental and command group instead. Initially the degree of spasticity and manus map was measured utilizing Ashworth graduated table and Zancolli categorization manus map graduated table before intercession. For experimental group, cryotherapy was given for 20 proceedingss prior to passive stretching on the flexor ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Experimental Research - Group Designs. Population and Sample. Sampling. Sample should be representative of population How representative must a sample be? How does one recruit a representative sample? What is the rationale for the selection of a sample? Slideshow 379988 by amish
View Notes - PSYCH 3204Q2 from PSYCH 3204 at University of Central Florida. PSYCH 3204 CHAPTER 14 QUIZ 1. In an experiment using the independent groups design, there are 10 subjects in one group and
The search for evidence-based math interventions that are easy to use and impact academic achievement are in demand, and the impact that these interventions can have on students who struggle with math achievement is of concern. In this study, the effects of Reflex math computerized intervention to improve the automaticity of basic math facts among male and female middle school students identified as at-risk for academic failure in mathematics was examined according to differences in mean scores and based on gender. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used for the purposes of the study. Convenience sampling among students receiving or qualifying for response to intervention services for math was used to determine the study participants. The Basic Math Operations Task (BMOT) served as the pretest and posttest against which differences in mean scores were determined with analysis of covariance used to examine the differences. Results as well as assumptions,
Adolescence is the phase that comes during the second decade of a human beings life (10-19years).During this period, the growth is accelerated by major physical changes in both boys and girls. In 10- to 12-year-old children, 28% to 61% of the population has clinically diagnosed acne, whereas 79% to 95% of 16- to 18-year-old adolescents are affected. Apart from all the alternative measures, mud therapy was highly effectiveness to prevent acne vulgaris among adolescent girls. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of mud therapy on acne vulgaris among adolescent girls. Quasi-experimental one group Pre and Posttest with control Group design was used. 30 adolescent girls were included in the study. Convenient sampling technique was used in the study. Mud therapy was applied for 45 min once a day for 30 days in experimental group. The data was obtained by using a demographic proforma and global acne assessment scale for adolescent girls. After intervention Results showed in control group 67% of
The effect of non-directive play the rapyon development was examined among mentally challenged children in selected institutions ofCoimbatore. The research design adopted for this study was Quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test control group design. Stratified random sampling was adopted to choose the sample. The population was divided into three strata based on the level of Intelligent Quotient (I.Q) such as mild, moderate and severe mental retardation. There was only one sample in the first strata and it was excluded from the study (mild). The second strata consist of 14 participants (moderate) and third strata consist of 2 participants (severe). On lottery method from each stratum, equal numbers of samples (8) were alternatively allocated to experimental and control group respectively. The developmental level of mentally challenged children was assessed using Developmental Delay Preschool Scale (American speech-language-hearing association 1983). Non-directive play therapy was imparted as an
This is a randomized single-center parallel study with a control group design. A blinded block randomization in groups of four was performed in equal parts toward the treatment (TPC) or the control (regular standard-of-care) group using randomization.com. Group assignment was kept in a closed envelope which was opened by the participant at the end of the baseline visit. Therefore both, the movement disorder specialist as well as the physiotherapist, were blinded to the randomization result for the baseline assessment up to the beginning of the first physiotherapy training session.. Therapeutic effects were evaluated at follow-up visits after 12 weeks (first visit, short-term effect) and after 26 weeks (second visit, long-term effect) comparing standard-of care with the TPC. Clinical evaluation is stated in detail below. Primary outcome assessment of this study was the change between baseline and follow-up assessment in treatment to control group in the spastic paraplegia rating scale (SPRS) ...
Kanker payudara adalah penyakit penyebab kematian yang tinggi di dunia. Salah satu aktivitas yang abnormal terjadi karena Cyclin-D pada tahap siklus sel. Alternatif pengobatan menggunakan umbi keladi tikus yang mengandung asam linoleat. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui ekspresi Cyclin-D pada cell-line kanker payudara T47D dengan perlakuan ekstrak umbi keladi tikus (Typhonium Flagelliforme). Jenis penelitian dengan Post Test Only Control Group Design. Menggunakan subjek penelitian cell-line kanker payudara T47D yang telah confluence 80 % dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok. Kelompok I: sebagai kontrol, Kelompok II : dosis 29,075 µg/ml; kelompok III: dosis 58, 151 µg/ml dan kelompok IV: dosis 116,302 µg/ml. Rerata Ekspresi Cyclin-D dianalisis dengan oneway-Anova dilanjutkan uji Post Hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference). Hasil rerata prosentase ekspresi Cyclin-D kelompok kontrol = 18,20%; kelompok dosis 29,075 = 7,66 %; kelompok dosis 58,151 = 3,33 %; kelompok dosis 116,302 = 6,93 %. Hasil uji ...
Latar Belakang: Bising intermiten bisa menimbulkan stres yang merangsang HPA axis untuk menyebabkan kerusakan duodenum. Akupunktur sudah diindikasikan untuk terapi ulkus duodenum. Tujuan penelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh elektroakupunktur titik Zusanli (ST 36) dan Zhongwan (CV 12) terhadap perbaikan gambaran histologis duodenum tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus) yang terpapar bising intermiten. Metode Penelitian: Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratoris dengan rancangan the post-test only control group design. Subyek penelitian adalah tikus putih jantan (Rattus norvegicus) galur Wistar sebanyak 28 ekor yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok secara random, yaitu Kelompok Kontrol (K) yaitu kelompok yang tidak mendapat perlakuan, Kelompok Perlakuan 1 (P1) yaitu kelompok yang mendapat paparan bising, Kelompok Perlakuan 2 (P2) yaitu kelompok yang mendapat paparan bising dan dibiarkan mengalami recovery fisiologis selama 30 hari, dan Kelompok Perlakuan 3 (P3) yaitu kelompok yang mendapat
AILE group is one of the leading producers of wood-aluminium and aluminium glazed structures in the Baltic States. Since 1994 AILE grupa leads a successful business in Latvia and abroad.
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Important note: This Wiki page is edited by participants of the EOWG. It does not necessarily represent consensus and it may have incorrect information or information that is not supported by other Working Group participants, WAI, or W3C. It may also have some very useful information. ...
This Wiki page is edited by participants of the WCAG Working Group. It does not necessarily represent consensus and it may have incorrect information or information that is not supported by other Working Group participants, WAI, or W3C. It may also have some very useful information. ...
Simona Halep, 17 year old Romanian tennis star, will be having a breast reduction operation this fall. Halep won the junior French Open title last year. She is reported to say, This fall Ill have a breast reduction operation. The breasts make me uncomfortable when I play. Its the weight that troubles me - my ability to react quickly.. Breast reduction (or reduction mammoplasty) is an operation designed to reduce and reshape large breasts. It is a surgical procedure designed to help reduce and in many cases eliminate, the pain and other symptoms associated with large breasts. Discomfort associated with large breasts can include chronic back, neck, and shoulder pain, as well as painful shoulder grooves from bra straps. It can also include chronic rashes under the breasts in the inframammary fold. These are the medical reasons to have a breast reduction. Most insurance companies in the United States will cover breast reduction surgery done for medical reasons. Be sure to check your ...
The decision to have breast reduction surgery is extremely personal. You will have to decide if the benefits will achieve your goals and if the risks of breast reduction surgery and potential complications are acceptable.. Dr. Rocheford and her staff will explain in detail the risks associated with surgery. You will be asked to sign consent forms to ensure that you fully understand the procedure you will undergo and any risks or potential complications. The risks of breast reduction and breast reduction complications include:. ...
INCREASE IN QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER BREAST REDUCTION. Recent medical study shows Breast Reduction Surgery to decrease pain and significantly improve the quality of life.. Large, heavy breasts can cause much physical and psychological pain to women of all backgrounds and ages. Excessive breast size can literally weigh a woman down and throw off her center of gravity and the alignment of her spine. The result is a large array of health problems including chronic back, neck and shoulder pain, strained and overworked muscles, headaches, skin rashes, sagging breasts and stretch marks as well as low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with overall body image. Studies have also shown that women living with this type of physical pain compare their symptoms to other medical conditions with chronic pain such as arthritis, joint pain and low back pain.. Many women who suffer from these physical and emotional problems seek a breast reduction, also known as reduction mammaplasty. This common surgical procedure can ...
Bilateral breast reduction is a surgical procedure performed to remove excess breast tissue from both female breasts for therapeutic or cosmetic indications. The purpose of the breast reduction is to decrease the weight of the breasts and restructure the breast tissue for a more favorable appearance. Typically, a scalpel is used for the skin incision and a traditional electrosurgical device is used to cut away any excess tissue.. The PEAK PlasmaBlade™ uses pulsed radiofrequency (RF) energy and a highly-insulated handpiece design to enable precision cutting and coagulation at the point of application. The PlasmaBlade has received FDA clearance for use in plastic, general, and ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery, and has demonstrated a significantly reduced thermal injury profile in incised tissue compared to traditional electrosurgical devices. It is hypothesized that this benefit may improve the post-operative outcome of patients undergoing bilateral breast reduction.. A total of forty-five ...
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The hypothesis of this research study was: Adult surgical patients who receive preoperative teaching based on adult learning principles will exhibit less fear/anxiety than patients who have had incidental preoperative teaching. The research employed a pretest - post test control group design. Twenty subjects admitted to a private hospital for Arthroscopy or Dilation and Curettage - Laparoscopy were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. Demographic data, subjective (State - Trait Anxiety Inventory) and objective (heart rate and blood pressure) data were obtained before and after structure preoperative teaching. The analysis of co-variance program of the Social Science Statistical Package was used to analysis the subjective and objective measures of fear/anxiety. The , .05 level of significance was selected to evaluate the findings. The data analysis indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Implications of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cross-sectional validation study of the FICSIT common data base static balance measures. AU - FICSIT Group. AU - Rossiter-Fornoff, Jane E.. AU - Wolf, Steven L.. AU - Wolfson, Leslie I.. AU - Buchner, David M.. AU - Miller, Philip. AU - Province, Michael A.. AU - Schechtman, Kenneth B.. AU - Arfken, Cynthia L.. AU - Rossiter-Fornoff, Jane E.. AU - Hornbrook, Mark C.. AU - Stevens, Victor J.. AU - Wingfield, Darlene J.. AU - Greenlick, Mervyn R.. AU - Tinetti, Mary E.. AU - Baker, Dorothy I.. AU - Claus, Elizabeth B.. AU - Horwitz, Ralph I.. AU - Buchner, David M.. AU - Wagner, Edward H.. AU - De Lateur, Barbara Jane. AU - Cress, M. Elaine. AU - Wee, Robert. AU - Abrass, Itamar B.. AU - Esselman, Peter. AU - Marguerita, Tony. AU - Murlow, Cynthia D.. AU - Gerety, Meghan B.. AU - Cornell, John E.. AU - Denino, Louis A.. AU - Kanten, Deanna. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Background. Two simple balance scales comprising three or four familiar tests of static balance were developed, ...
Latar Belakang: Hipertensi merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan utama di Indonesia. Salah satu faktor penyebab hipertensi adalah gangguan produksi dan transpor nitric oxide (NO). Di sisi lain, tanaman kersen (Muntingia calabura L.) yang tersebar luas di Indonesia, dipercaya memiliki khasiat antinosiseptik, antioksidan, antihipertensi dan antimikroba. Daun kersen memiliki kandungan phenolic compunds yang tinggi yang diduga memediasi peningkatan produksi NO melalui modulasi nitric oxide synthase (NOS) dan inhibisi reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tujuan: Untuk Menganalisis efek pemberian ekstrak daun kersen (Muntingia calabura L.) terhadap peningkatan NO tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus). Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental yang dilakukan secara in vivo dengan metode post-test only control group design menggunakan alat ukur nitric oxide strips test . Sampel penelitian yaitu tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus) sebanyak 40 ekor dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol ...
Discusses breast reduction surgery to reshape and reduce breast size. Looks at why it is done and how well it works. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks, such as scars and infection. Covers what to think about when having breast reduction.
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BEFORE PHOTOGRAPH: Frontal view of 29 year old who underwent breast reduction with inverted T pattern for symptomatic hypertrophy
Both breast reduction and Breast lift are about re-positioning the nipple areolar complex to a more appropriate level (above the Inframammary fold), tightening the breast tissue and removal of excess s...
Breast reduction surgery reduces overly large breasts by removing excessive breast tissue, which results in smaller, more proportionate breasts.
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Breast Reduction CLICK HERE FOR BEFORE & AFTER PHOTOS Frequently, women with very large or pendulous breasts experience discomfort from bra...
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Girls Next Door turned Kendra star Kendra Wilkinson is considering a breast reduction -- and her public aint happy about it. When Kendra was…
In this paper, we describe the methodology of the case and control selection for the first-wave nested casecontrolstudy within the JACC Study. Among the subjects participating in the cohort, serum samples of 42,249subjects (including 39,242 subjects aged between 40 and 79 at the baseline) were suitable for biochemical analysis.We here selected those who had died by 1997 or who were diagnosed with cancer with sera until 1994 as cases.For each case, 3 to 4 controls with sera were randomly selected, with matching for gender, age (as near aspossible) and residential area. As a result, 3,144 cases and 10,661 controls (2,867 cases and 10,351 controls were40 to 79 years old at the baseline) were selected to measure serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-β1 and sFasvalues and total SOD activity. Cases were older and more likely to be men than the JACC Study subjects.Moreover, they were much older than controls because of the age-dependence of susceptibility to death, especiallyamong men. There were more smokers
CON-HUMO focuses on novel concepts for automatic control, based on data-driven human models and machine learning. This enables innovative control applications that are difficult if not impossible to realize using traditional control and identification methods, in particular in the challenging area of smart human-machine interaction. In order to achieve intuitive and efficient goal-oriented interaction, anticipation is a key. For control selection based on prediction, a dynamic model of the human interaction behavior is required, which, however, is difficult to obtain from first principles. In order to cope with the high complexity of human behavior with unknown inputs and only sparsely available training data, we propose to use machine-learning techniques for statistical modeling of the dynamics. In this new field of human interaction modeling - data-driven and machine-learned - control methods with guaranteed properties do not exist. CON-HUMO addresses this niche. Key methodological innovation ...
Breast reduction FAQs 1. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A BREAST REDUCTION AND A LIFT? IF YOU ARE GOING TO REDUCE MY BREAST SIZE, WILL YOU ALSO LIFT MY BREASTS
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of balance measures and perception of fall risk on gait speed. T2 - A multiple regression analysis. AU - Rogers, Helen L.. AU - Cromwell, Ronita L.. AU - Newton, Roberta A.. N1 - Funding Information: Received 22 February 2004; accepted 21 July 2004. This study was funded in part by grant 1-R03-AG16884-01 from the National Institute on Aging. Address correspondence to Helen L. Rogers, Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Therapy, UTMB-SAHS, 301 University Boulevard, Route 1144, Galveston, TX 77555-1144, USA. E-mail: [email protected] PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Gait speed, commonly modified to adapt to the balance and stability challenges of aging, is related to measures of balance and mobility. This study investigated associations between age, Berg Balance Scale, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, One Question Fear of Falling (1QFOF), and gait speed in adults using regression analysis. Results suggested an interaction between 1QFOF and ABC ...
Methods: in vivo laboratory, experimental research was conducted using posttest only control group design. The samples were 20 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Groups I and II were groups injected using LPS P. gingivalis for 6 w and were decapited on the day 3 and day 7, groups III and IV were the control groups (not injected using LPS P. gingivalis) and decapited on the day 3 and day 7. Subsequently, conducting tissue preparation, staining using haematoxilin eosin, and calculating the number of osteoclasts and osteoblasts cells using a microscope (Optilab) with 400x magnification. The results of osteoblast and osteoclast cell calculation were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD one-way test. ...
Her drains were removed the next day after surgery and she commented that her back and shoulder pain was already better. The tapes from her incisions were removed at 10 days after surgery with no healing problems. At her one month follow-up visit, her breasts had a much better and smaller shape and were higher up on her chest wall. Her incisions had continued to heal well.. There is no reason that breast reduction surgery can not be done on someone in their 60s or even older. Despite the magnitude of the procedure in terms of breast tissue trauma and reshaping, wound healing will occur as well as in someone much younger. More importantly, the improvement in musculoskeletal pain may mean more to an older patient who may already have other joint and muscle pains.. Case Highlights:. 1) Breast reduction can have a dramatic impact on reduction of musculoskeletal pain from large breasts.. 2) Very large breasts can be safely reduced with an inferior pedicle technique without free nipple ...
01 Minimized tissue damages In order to minimize nerve damage, we perform breast reduction accurately through monitoring the nerves and blood vessels of the breasts.. 02 No giant and sagging breasts! Imagine yourself with beautiful and resilient breasts! Our well-experienced specialists create resilient and natural-looking breasts.. 03 No scarring! Breast reduction is known as a much more difficult operation than breast augmentation. Therefore, it should be performed by specialists with extensive experience to minimize scarring and maximize patients satisfaction.. 04 No pain! Rapid recovery! We minimize incisions for less pain and rapid recovery from an operation.. ...
Breast reduction by laser liposuction is a minimally invasive surgical procedure through a 3 mm needle hole, devoid of cut and stitch, which is used to reduce the weight and the size of the breast or change the shape. The sagging skin after laser breast reduction is tightened by laser in the same procedure and the breast is reshaped according to the requirements of the patient.. The surgery is done for various cosmetic and medical reasons and has a number of benefits, such as:. ...
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The candidate for breast reduction is a patient with large breasts with daily physical ( shoulder, neck, back pain) and psychological affects.
Breast reduction is not always a cosmetic choice; it is sometimes a health necessity. In fact, breast enlargement is a common symptom in a number of...
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Breast reduction Surgery is nowadays very popular surgery to give desirable shape, size to the breast. Over-sized breast makes the person looks older than her.
Buffalo area women sometimes come to us for breast reduction when their breasts arent proportionate to their body and to alleviate the discomfort associated with overly large breasts.
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An intervention similar to that of breast reduction is carried out in cases in which the breast, without being excessively large in volume, has suffered a significant fall. In these cases, however, tissue resection is minimal, since they are used - sometimes with the aid of a prosthesis - to give adequate volume and projection to the breast, once it has been remodeled in its ideal position.. The scars are similar to those of breast reduction but generally shorter. Reduced tissue resection results in an even lower incidence of postoperative complications.. ...
Patients with large breasts experience a significant range of symptoms, some severe enough to interfere with activities of daily living. Patients with large heavy breasts commonly report significant neck and shoulder pain.
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Two groups comparable at baseline. At six months, significantly fewer falls occurred in the tai chi group (38 vs 73), with greatest effect achieved after 3 months of training. Also significantly fewer injurious falls in the tai chi group (7 vs 17). Significantly longer time to first fall in tai chi group. Significant intervention effect for the tai chi group on all dynamic balance measures, and significantly lower fear of falling. Benefits appeared sustained six months after end of formal program ...
Sylvia Brickman was 88 years old when she decided to have a breast reduction.Her children were against it, but Brickman, a Philadelphia resident, had gone from a 32A to a 38DD after having children.
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"Sand equivalent test set". Control-Groups.Com. Retrieved 1 September 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Sand ...
Tarvainen, Kyosti (2015). Generating Control groups. The Kepler Conference. Archived from the original on 2016-09-05. Retrieved ...
https://www.thefreelibrary.com/building challenger 2.-a09038700 "Control Systems". Petards Group. Archived from the original on ... Weapon Control System: Upgrades to the fire control computer, fire control panel and gun processing unit. Mobility: Upgrades ... It is fitted with a muzzle reference system and fume extractor, and is controlled by an all-electric control and stabilization ... The engine and gearbox are controlled by a Petards Vehicle Integrated Control System (VICS). Gearbox: David Brown Santasalo ...
Process groups, sessions and job control. Interprocess communication with pipes and signals. BSD file locking mechanism (POSIX ...
Center for Mobile Detection and Control. Telecommunications Group. Combined Transport Squadron 1/40 "Moselle". (Eurocopter ... 30 January 1945 368th Fighter Group, 5 January-15 April 1945 406th Fighter Group, 2-8 February 1945 371st Fighter Group, 15 ... On 29 May 1945, control of Metz Airfield was returned to the French Air Force. Although under French Air Force Control, the ... Under Luftwaffe control, the airfield was initially used as a night interceptor fighter base, with Nachtjagdgeschwader 4 (NJG 4 ...
Barrau, A., & Bonnabel, S. (2019). Linear observed systems on groups. Systems & Control Letters, 129, 36-42. S. Bonnabel, Ph. ... Consider G {\displaystyle G} a Lie group with identity e {\displaystyle e} , and (local) transformation groups φ g , ψ g , ρ g ... into the Lie group S E 2 ( 3 ) {\displaystyle SE_{2}(3)} defined by the group operation: ( R 1 , v 1 , x 1 ) ⋅ ( R 2 , v 2 , x ... is a group automorphism of G {\displaystyle G} , ⋅ {\displaystyle \cdot } is the group operation and u n {\displaystyle u_{n}} ...
Knowles, Emily (July 2016). Britain's culture of no comment (Report). London: Remote Control; Oxford Research Group. Retrieved ... From that time, the incumbent has had control of both the Army's Special Air Service and the Naval Service's Special Boat ... the Special Forces Support Group, 18 Signal Regiment and the Joint Special Forces Aviation Wing, as well as the supporting No. ... 18 Signal Regiment and the Special Forces Support Group. Approximately 40% of all UK Special Forces personnel are recruited ...
The Control Group/V2 Records. 2002.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Torreano, Bradley. "XL from Coast to Coast ... The Control Group. 2004.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) "Ten Songs in the Key of Betrayal Credits". Allmusic ... To release the album, titled XL from Coast to Coast, Ayers founded The Control Group record label with the album released in ... The band released their fourth and final album, titled Ten Songs in the Key of Betrayal, in 2004 through The Control Group, ...
According to the Control Risks Group, pirate attacks in the Gulf of Guinea had by mid-November 2013 maintained a steady level ... According to the Control Risks Group, pirate attacks in the Strait of Malacca had by mid-November 2013 reached a world high, ... "RiskMap 2014 Report". Control Risks Group. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014. Khan, Sana ... A turf war between rival drug cartels for control of the lake began in March 2010 and has led to a series of armed robberies ...
"Bandcamp- Control Group". Clinical Trials Music (ASCAP). Retrieved March 3, 2018. Jeriaska (August 8, 2011). "Interview: ... Control Group. A childhood friend of Supergiant Games co-founder Amir Rao, Korb was selected to write the music for Bastion. ... Jeriaska (May 19, 2011). "Composing for Independent Games - 3rd Annual Group Chat". IndieGame. Retrieved July 7, 2015. " ...
Tobacco Control. London: BMJ Group. 16 (3): 207-210. doi:10.1136/tc.2007.020024. PMC 2598506. PMID 17565142. ,access-date= ... Myron Levin, Smoker Group's Thick Wallet Raises Questions. Los Angeles Times. March 29, 1998. Retrieved April 22, 2011. v t e. ... The NSA was a public relations group created and funded by the tobacco industry, which operated nationally from 1994 to 1999 to ...
2010). Popular Culture, Crime and Social Control. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84950-733-2. Stevenson, Jack (2000 ... Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8264-2977-3. Vance 2008, p. 35 Lombardi, Frederic (2013). Allan ...
The Control Group. 2004.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Here Is... (booklet). Gosling. V2 Records. 2006.CS1 ... they released the Gosling EP through The Control Group in August 2004. Earlier in the year, they supported Velvet Revolver at ... The group later changed their name to Gosling, after changing their musical style, retaining all members with Watrous switching ... In 2006, The Exies announced that they were to return to the studio to record a new album with Carpenter joining the group to ...
Influenced by the likes of U2, Simple Minds, Duran Duran and Echo & the Bunnymen the group signed with The Control Group and ... The Control Group. 2006.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) "Critics' Top Pickes". The Seattle Times. 2006-09-14 ... The group was formed in 2006, following the breakup of Vendetta Red, former members Zach Davidson, Leif Andersen and Rouse, as ... In 2007 Rouse left the group and was replaced by Andersen's brother, Levi Andersen, on bass. Their second album, Unspeakable ...
"Dispatch and Load Control". The Emerates Group. 2015. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015. ... The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 30. ISBN 9781508188865. Retrieved 13 May 2020. Like most of his ancestors, Peter Middleton ... tunnelling their way into the higher echelons were the Upper Middletons, a new social grouping. Named in honour of their most ...
Influenced by the likes of U2, Simple Minds, Duran Duran and Echo & the Bunnymen the group signed with The Control Group and ... The Control Group. 2006.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) "To The Glorious Lonely at Skylark Cafe & Club in ... Released in 2002 through Nabil Ayers' label The Control Group (which was then picked up and released by V2), XL from Coast to ... Previously, Rouse was a member of a number of Seattle based groups such as Vendetta Red and Sirens Sister while he also has his ...
Jake Edge (November 19, 2014). "Control group namespaces". LWN.net. Retrieved July 3, 2016. "CoreOS documentation: Using Docker ... Serving as a single control host, a Container Linux instance uses the underlying operating-system-level virtualization features ... Container Linux also provides the fleet cluster manager which controls Container Linux's separate systemd instances at the ... Operations available through CoreUpdate include assigning cluster members to different groups that share customized update ...
DIABHYCAR Study Group". Controlled Clinical Trials. 21 (4): 383-96. doi:10.1016/S0197-2456(00)00060-X. PMID 10913814. Parving ... Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and ... Study Group (2009). "Microalbuminuria and risk of venous thromboembolism". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical ...
Knowles, Emily (July 2016). Britain's culture of no comment (Report). London: Remote Control; Oxford Research Group. Retrieved ... The second group was also extracted by an RAF Chinook and the third group made it to Syria and was held there until their ... The Helmand Battle Group had not been informed of the operation until it went wrong; a Quick Reaction Force (QRF) made up of a ... The first group tried to call in coalition strike aircraft but the aircraft could not identify friendly forces because the SBS ...
According to the Control Risks Group, pirate attacks in the Gulf of Guinea had by mid-November 2013 maintained a steady level ... "RiskMap 2014 Report". Control Risks Group. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014. "Piracy ... In August, security firm EOS Risk Group said there had been 34 Nigerian pirate attacks on merchant and fishing vessels in the ... The increasingly violent methods used by these groups is believed to be part of a conscious "business model" adopted by them, ...
"UKWMO Group Controls". Subbrit.org.uk. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2008. "Shrewsbury ... As part of the Woodard Schools group, it is affiliated to the largest group of Church of England schools in the country. Whilst ... The 1980s pop group T'Pau was formed in the town and the band's vocalist Carol Decker was born and educated in the town, along ... Ian Hunter (or Ian Patterson), the lead singer of the 1970s pop group Mott the Hoople, was a resident of 23a Swan Hill in the ...
... : Who We Are Inside the Bloomberg-backed gun-control group's effort to defeat the NRA (Washington Post ... Roig-Franzia, Manuel (August 5, 2009). "A Battle of Goliaths: Michael Bloomberg and His Gun Control Group Take on the NRA". The ... Roig-Franzia, Manuel (August 5, 2009). "A Battle of Goliaths: Michael Bloomberg and His Gun Control Group Take on the NRA". The ... Lynch, Sarah (July 24, 2018). "U.S. Gun Control Groups Seek to Block Distribution of 3-D Gun Blueprints". Retrieved July 25, ...
Rebel groups such as the al-Nusra Front, the Levant Front and the Ahrar al-Sham established Sharia law in areas they controlled ... "Syrian rebels claim control of strategic town". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012. "Competing Groups Vie ... On the 17th of February, they had regained control of the last rebel-held suburbs in Aleppo city, gaining full control for the ... As a result, he said the pro-Syrian government forces had regained control of the districts previously controlled by them. ...
January 2001). "Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups". Science. 291: 478-81. doi:10.1126/science.291.5503.478 ... and head of the Large Animal Research Group at the Department of Zoology of the University of Cambridge, and a fellow of ...
... control, and concession in meerkat groups". Science. 291 (5503): 478-481. Bibcode:2001Sci...291..478C. doi:10.1126/science. ... In the late 1900s, some early research in animal cooperation focused on the benefits of group-living. While living in a group ... For example, in meerkats, larger group size provides a benefit to all the members of that group by increasing survival rates, ... results show that kin groups have higher efficiency rates in growth than non-kin groups do. This is expected to rise out of ...
Button, Kenneth J.; David A. Hensher (2001). Handbook of transport systems and traffic control. Emerald Group Publishing. p. ... Major mapping services that offer turn-by-turn navigation, grouped by map data provider: Nokia. Devices that use HERE ...
"Group Acquires Lionel Control. Roy Cohn Heads Syndicate That Has Bought More Than 200,000 Shares". The New York Times. October ... In October 1959, Cohn and a group of investors stepped in and gained control of the company, having bought 200,000 of the ... Salerno and Paul Castellano at the time controlled the concrete unions in Manhattan and when Donald Trump needed concrete he ... By 1959, Cowen and his son Lawrence had become involved in a family dispute over control of the company. ...
"Surveillance and Control Group". Royal Australian Air Force. Retrieved 10 June 2013. "No. 396 Expeditionary Combat Support Wing ... "Air Combat Group". Royal Australian Air Force. Retrieved 10 June 2013. "No. 452 Squadron". Royal Australian Air Force. ... government decided to move the RAAF's fast jet base in the Northern Territory from Darwin to Tindal to more effectively control ...
Blacker, Coit D.; Duffy, Gloria (1984). International arms control. Stanford Arms Control Group. Stanford University Press. p. ... He told Thule air traffic control that he had a fire on board and requested permission to perform an emergency landing at the ... The line was subsequently used to control decontamination of personnel and vehicles. An ice road was constructed to Thule from ... The test projectile is fired under controlled conditions at a hard surface to measure the reactions and thresholds of different ...
Kim, Da-ye (30 April 2014). "Who controls Semo Group?". The Korea Times. Retrieved 29 May 2014. Park, Eun-jee (24 May 2014). " ... The Music Sales Group. "Michael Nyman Symphony No. 6 "AHAE" Premier". The Music Sales Group. Archived from the original on 22 ... Semo Group filed for bankruptcy with more than ₩300 billion (~US$294 million) in debts amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis, ... "Music Sales Group - The Music Sales Catalogue". Musicsales.com. Retrieved 31 May 2014. "Michael Nyman Through The Only Window ( ...
There may be more than one treatment group, more than one control group, or both. A placebo control group can be used to ... In studies of twins involving just one treatment group and a control group, it is statistically efficient to do this random ... knows to which group each subject belongs. In such cases, a third, non-treatment control group can be used to measure the ... the clinical control group was the diabetic patients that did not receive tight blood pressure control. In order to qualify for ...
Control Group; Storefront for Art & Architecture. ISBN 1499633564. "No. 38 Control Group Inc". Crains New York. Retrieved 22 ... "Control Group 2013 Retail Technology Survey". Control Group. Retrieved 23 April 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... Control Group was a technology and design consultancy firm, founded in 2001 in Lower Manhattan, New York City, by Campbell ... Control Group is designing the platform to deliver real-time information such as route lookup, countdown to train arrivals, and ...
First Draft of TV Control API Specification (Draft Candidate) published by TV Control API Community Group. W3C Team , Posted on ... On 2015-11-19 the TV Control API Community Group published the first draft of the following specification:. *TV Control API ... Tools for this group. Learn about available Community Group tools and how to configure a groups site to include links to tools ... Learn more about how to join a group. Anyone may join this Community Group. All participants in this group have signed the W3C ...
The 546th Aircraft Control and Warning Group is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was assigned to the 33d Air ... Components 792d Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron Tinker AFB, Oklahoma, 16 March-4 June 1951 793d Aircraft Control and ... This command and control organization activated on 19 March 1951, and was responsible for the organization, manning and ... equipping of new Aircraft Control and Warning (Radar) units. It was dissolved with the units being assigned directly to the 33d ...
We used a small-group method of delivering this intervention. We... ... Stimulus control treatment for insomnia, originally developed by Richard Bootzin (1977), was designed to be applied to ... Sleep Disturbance Sleep Disorder Stimulus Control Group Setting Sleep Hygiene These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Lacks P. (1991) Stimulus Control in a Group Setting. In: Hauri P.J. (eds) Case Studies in Insomnia. Critical Issues in ...
The group praised work by the FDA to begin implementing tobacco control legislation, but wanted tougher action on marketing ... "President (Barack) Obama and our leaders in the 111th Congress enacted what will be regarded as the strongest tobacco control ... a major health group said on Thursday. ... a major health group said on Thursday. ...
... Cheri Grigg, DVM1,2, Ndadilnasiya E. Waziri, DVM3, Adebola T. Olayinka ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA. 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888 ... However, group quarantine of contacts in a central location might not be workable on a large scale. ... However, for five contacts with high-risk exposures, group quarantine in an observation unit was preferred because the five had ...
Join the SIAM Activity Group on Control and Systems Theory and explore the applications and topics this group covers, and while ... the activity group awards the SIAM Activity Group on Control and Systems Theory Prize and the SIAM Activity Group on Control ... analysis and control of biomedical systems, risk sensitive control and filtering, control of smart systems, flow control, ... SIAM Activity Group on Computational Science and Engineering Early Career Prize * SIAM Activity Group on Control and Systems ...
Our support group helps people share their own experience. 410 questions, 3598 members, 62 news articles. ... Ask questions and get answers about Birth Control. ... Our support group for Birth Control has 410 questions and 3,598 ... Join the Birth Control group to help and get support from people like you. ... Related Condition Support Groups. Emergency Contraception, Postcoital Contraception. Related Drug Support Groups. Depo-Provera ...
The main objective of the research is to quantify the factors controlling bio-drying and the quality of SRF using a semi- ... While they did not reach the relatively low levels seen in the control soils after 108 days, the difference in numbers between ... There was no statistically significant difference between the control and amended plots at one site, but due to the lower ... 3. Integrated Solution For Air Pollution Control Residues Using Dc Plasma Tech. Funding: DTI Technology Programme. Total value ...
PRNewswire/ -- On Thursday, July 16, ERP Advisors Group hosted a conference call and live podcast to discuss the topic of ... ERP Advisors Group is one of the worlds most trusted enterprise software advisory firms. Helping hundreds of organizations ... DENVER, July 23, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- On Thursday, July 16, ERP Advisors Group hosted a conference call and live podcast to ... As Shawn Windle, the founder and Managing Principal of ERP Advisors Group, explained, These are uncertain times, and internal ...
Westbase Group, leader in cellular networking solutions, has acquired Control Limited to extend its software and ... Bringing Control into the Westbase Group doesnt just enable us to target new industry applications, but also extends our core ... "Bringing Control into the Westbase Group doesnt just enable us to target new industry applications, but also extends our core ... The acquisition of Control also sees its founder, Nathan Sanders, become Technical Director of the Westbase Group. Sanders ...
... Creating illusions of wondrous effects of yoga and meditation on health: A skeptic exposes tricks Posted July 19 ... Posted March 1, 2017 by Shaili Jain, MD in addiction, back pain, bioethics, control group, epidemiology, ethics, mental health ... Posted June 14, 2017 by James Coyne PhD in Amy Cuddy, biomarkers, Clinical trials, Conflict of interest, control group, ... Mindfulness researchs huge problem with uninformative control groups Posted June 23, 2016 by James Coyne PhD in alternative ...
The control group gives a set where the expected outcome is known. So when a variable is changed and if the outcome is the same ... Without a control group, there is no basis for knowing if a particular result is due to the variable being tested or to some ... as the control group, then we know to try a different variable. ... Without a control group, what would you compare your results to ... What is a control group in a science experiment?. A control group is the unaffected group in a science experiment. ...
One-touch transmission and one-touch silencing of a wearable group communication device utilize an end user device body and ... "ONE-TOUCH GROUP COMMUNICATION DEVICE CONTROL," filed 13 Apr. 2016 (Attorney Docket No. 415.0020P). ... A volume control 118 permits adjustment of the sound level generated by speaker 114 (e.g., lowering sound level by depressing ... That is, a device in a communication node linked to a communication group or the like can transmit and receive, but cannot do ...
The intervention arm comprised 2 groups: a primary group and a secondary group. The primary group in each intervention state ... Primary Intervention Groupa, Mean (95% CI) (n = 148). Control Groupb, Mean (95% CI) (n = 419). P Valuec ... d P values calculated by using 2-sided χ2 or t test to test differences between primary intervention group and control group. ... Primary Intervention Groupb (n = 148). Control Groupc (n = 419). P Valued ...
Major American environmental groups have dodged the subject of population control for decades, wary of getting caught up in the ... Some groups also fear whipping up anti-immigrant sentiment and opposition to family planning. Immigration now accounts for ... Some groups, like the World Wildlife Fund and Conservation International, said they worked on population-related issues mostly ... Groups contacted for this article generally declined to discuss the issue or did not return calls. ...
Controlled groups. * Opinion Letter 86-08 Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 86-8 March 24, 1986 RE FERENCE: [*1] 4001(b) ...
... for marketing illegal firearm sales amid pressure from gun control groups. We will not permit people to post offers to… ... Facebook tightens its gun policy under pressure from gun control groups. By Himanshu Arora on March 6, 2014, 16:30 18 comments ... Its a small but auspicious victory for gun control groups like Moms Demand Action (formed after the Sandy Hook Elementary ... for marketing illegal firearm sales amid pressure from gun control groups. "We will not permit people to post offers to sell ...
Collaborative wheelchair assistant and brain controlled wheelchair. *Dynamics and control of 2, 3 and 6 DOF parallel ... Collaborative wheelchair assistant and brain controlled wheelchair. *Dynamics and control of 2, 3 and 6 DOF parallel ... Neural correlates of sensorimotor control in neonates. Preterm babies born with 5 or 6 months have a relatively high risk of ... In order to find a cure for CP it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying motor control in neonates. Furthermore, ...
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ABN Amro acquired control of Kwang Hua Investment Trust for an undisclosed sum, buying an 82% stake in the Taiwan fund manager ... SINGAPORE -- ABN Amro Holding NV has acquired control of Kwang Hua Investment Trust for an undisclosed sum, a senior ABN Amro ... ABN Amro expects to acquire the rest of the fund-management groups equity from its three remaining shareholders in the near ... Frank Kusse, chief executive of ABN Amro Asset Management Asia-Pacific, said Friday that the Dutch group purchased an 82% stake ...
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Response to increases in cigarette prices by race/ethnicity, income, and age groups ... Although some have suggested that African Americans lack interest in tobacco control,7 an increasing number of tobacco control ... influence African American voices in the tobacco control policy process, and obstruct or weaken tobacco control efforts. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fact sheet: African Americans and tobacco. US Department of Health and Human ...
This Hormone Free Birth Control - Womens Health Group page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in ... Get involved! Become a member of this group and let your voice be heard. ...
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control group, P less than 0.05) [5].. *Four children in the steroid group and seven in the control group eventually required ... in the control group vs. 43% in the gadolinium chloride group, 57% for the TNFR-1(-/-) group, and 86% in the PTX group (P , ... Associations of Control Groups with chemical compounds. *A control group of 165 patients received standard medical treatment ... 18 in the control group; P = 0.02), fewer hospital days (43, vs. 128 in the control group; P = 0.02), fewer days in the ...
The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group ... Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention. Claire Townsend Ing,1 ... This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3- ... Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure ...
Fast, Cheap and In Control: Using an Online Diary/Focus Group Methodology to Gauge Meaningful Experiences ... Fast, Cheap and In Control: Using an Online Diary/Focus Group Methodology to Gauge Meaningful Experiences * 1. Fast, Cheap ... Fast, Cheap and In Control: Using an Online Diary/Focus Group Methodology to Gauge Meaningful Experiences ... andIn Control: Using an Online Diary/Focus Group Methodology to Gauge Meaningful Experiences ,br /,David Kozatch and Susanna ...
  • We used a small-group method of delivering this intervention. (springer.com)
  • Twelve state health departments were paired and randomly assigned to intervention or control condition. (cdc.gov)
  • In mixed models adjusted for participant and state characteristics, the intervention group improved significantly in the overall skill gap ( P = .01) and in 6 skill areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. (hindawi.com)
  • This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • For the health care providers, group visits would take the same amount of time, or possibly less time, than seeing the same patients on an individual basis, and targeted one-to-one medical intervention would be rewarding and less repetitive. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Design Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. (bmj.com)
  • Group CBT associated with pharmacological treatment is an efficacious intervention for reducing ADHD symptoms and functional impairment in adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • To examine clinical and demographic variables that may correspond to differential responses to Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy (e.g., potential mediating and moderating influences such as illness severity, religion and religiosity, level of education, race/ethnicity, level of pre-intervention social support, presence of pain and physical symptom burden). (knowcancer.com)
  • Significant psychiatric disturbance sufficient, in the investigator's judgment, to preclude participation in a group-format intervention (i.e., acute psychiatric symptoms which require individual treatment). (knowcancer.com)
  • Large-scale efforts such as Cancer Control P.L.A.N.E.T. (https://cancercontrolplanet.cancer.gov/) and the Community Guide placed various evidence-based interventions in the hands of cancer control practitioners (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Similarly, another study found that although cancer control practitioners showed a strong preference for programs with proven effectiveness, fewer than half of respondents in that study (48%) had ever used resources on evidence-based interventions (10). (cdc.gov)
  • A national survey of state practitioners in chronic disease control found that only 20% used evidence-based interventions often in their work (11). (cdc.gov)
  • In a Perspective for the New England Journal of Medicine , members of the National Institutes of Health's Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) Vaccines Working Group assess practical considerations and prerequisites for using controlled human infection models (CHIMs), which can be used for human challenge studies, to support SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development. (news-medical.net)
  • Interventions Manual based developmental group therapy programme specifically designed for adolescents who harm themselves, with an acute phase over six weekly sessions followed by a booster phase of weekly groups as long as needed. (bmj.com)
  • Usual and unusual care: existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions. (healthcanal.com)
  • Effective interventions that address these difficulties are desirable, and should aim to provide autistic individuals with skills that enable them to gain improved self-confidence and control over their social lives. (springer.com)
  • Social skills group training (SSGT) is an umbrella term for interventions applying socially instructive techniques and behavioral modification principles in group settings to improve social skills, typically used in the clinical management of children and adolescents with ASD in the normative intellectual range. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the RBM Vector Control Working Group (VCWG) is to align RBM partners on best practices to reach and maintain universal coverage with effective vector control interventions. (malariaconsortium.org)
  • Panostaja Group´s Annual Report for 2019 with financial statements for the financial year November 1, 2018-October 31, 2019 has been published today. (yahoo.com)
  • Additionally, Panostaja Group´s Reward Policy and Report on the Management and Control System for the financial year November 1, 2018-October 31, 2019 have been published today. (yahoo.com)
  • The research group started its work in April 2018. (uni-potsdam.de)
  • 2018 - The Coast News Group. (thecoastnews.com)
  • 2017 - 2018 Lead PMO Planning and Controls specialist on the €100m National Telemetry Programme at Irish Water. (planningplanet.com)
  • Joint Sub-Groups Newsletter - December 2017. (govdelivery.com)
  • Dr. Aline Viol joins the group as a post-doc in May/June 2017, after a new DPG approved research proposal on neural networks. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Positive transcriptional control of mry regulates virulence in the group A streptococcus. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest a model for the regulation of virulence in S. pyogenes where positive transcriptional control of mry in response to environmental stimuli regulates the expression of the M protein. (nih.gov)
  • Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are key regulators of type 2 inflammatory responses. (nih.gov)
  • T-bet-expressing group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1) are believed to play a substantial role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (frontiersin.org)
  • In comparative experiments, members of a control group receive a standard treatment, a placebo, or no treatment at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such cases, a third, non-treatment control group can be used to measure the placebo effect directly, as the difference between the responses of placebo subjects and untreated subjects, perhaps paired by age group or other factors (such as being twins). (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinical control group can be a placebo arm or it can involve an old method used to address a clinical outcome when testing a new idea. (wikipedia.org)
  • 72 participants from a clinical trial register of adults with asthma were randomised to receive 500 mg natural vitamin E or matched placebo for 6 weeks in a placebo controlled, double blind parallel group clinical trial. (bmj.com)
  • In the primary intention to treat analysis the change in PD 20 was similar in the vitamin E and placebo groups with a mean difference of +0.25 doubling doses of methacholine (95% confidence interval −0.67 to +1.16 greater with vitamin E). There was no effect of vitamin E supplementation on any other measure of asthma control, either in the intention to treat or per protocol analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Since these findings suggest that supplementation with vitamin E may also have a beneficial effect on asthma management, we performed a randomised placebo controlled trial of the effect of 6 weeks of regular supplementation with vitamin E on clinical control of asthma. (bmj.com)
  • Arda Lembet, Robert S. McDuffie Jr., and Ronald S. Gibbs, "Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Transplacental Antibiotic Prophylaxis of Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits," Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 355-358, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Such studies would require an adequate number of subjects, a long duration (years, not days), an unvaccinated control group ('placebo' must be truly inactive such as saline, not the adjuvant or everything-but-the-intended-antigen), and consideration of all adverse health events (including neurodevelopment disorders)," the AAPS admits, in no uncertain terms. (naturalnews.com)
  • They refuse to use saline solutions as the placebo because then the toxic effects of the adjuvants would be obvious in the experiment group. (naturalnews.com)
  • Glycemic control at baseline, as assessed by HbA 1c concentrations and by blood glucose profiles, was comparable between the treatment groups in both age strata. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It seeks to promote the development of theory and methods related to modeling, control, estimation, and approximation of complex biological, physical, and engineering systems. (siam.org)
  • Group members are studying control design and analysis, nonsmooth analytic methods, numerical methods, and other cutting edge topics. (lsu.edu)
  • Some of their research involves adaptive control, Hamilton-Jacobi equations, marine robotics , state constrained and delayed systems, tracking and stability problems for bioreactors, and gradient and direct methods in nonlinear programming. (lsu.edu)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -In a randomized controlled clinical trial of 112 patients, 56 patients were allocated to groups of 9 or 10 individuals who participated in group consultations, and 56 patients (considered control subjects) underwent individual visits plus support education. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. (osti.gov)
  • At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. (osti.gov)
  • misc{etde_21555036, title = {Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication} author = {None} abstractNote = {The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. (osti.gov)
  • In a conversation with Dr. Michael Hansen, Senior Scientist Consumer Reports, Elaine McFadden was told that the testing methods used by vector departments can give false positives because of the presence of another virus in the flavivirus group. (prlog.org)
  • Our methods include measures from nonlinear dynamics, network science, bifurcation analysis and control theory. (tu-berlin.de)
  • I was asked by a Danish journalist to examine a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for functional somatic symptoms. (plos.org)
  • To determine the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were in pharmacological treatment but still had persistent symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • The first of these trials was a multi-center trial performed at six German universities with specialized ASD outpatient clinics, in which 228 children and adolescents were randomized to 12 sessions of a group-based cognitive behavioral program or treatment as usual. (springer.com)
  • Members of the BCLG examined the influence of PTSD on cognitive control and auditory attention with a dichotic istening task. (uib.no)
  • The main finding was impaired cognitive control that was partly explained by signs of intrusive memories. (uib.no)
  • However, there are few studies that have examined the effects of cognitive behavioral group therapy on the course of this disorder. (scielo.br)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral group therapy, combined with pharmacotherapy, on the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder, and to compare our results against those from the use of pharmacotherapy alone. (scielo.br)
  • The association of cognitive behavioral group therapy and pharmacological treatment proved to be effective. (scielo.br)
  • Patients who had undergone cognitive behavioral group therapy presented fewer symptoms of mania, depression and anxiety, as well as fewer and shorter mood change episodes. (scielo.br)
  • Cognitive behavioral group therapy sessions substantially contributed to the improvement of depression symptoms. (scielo.br)
  • Conclusions The addition of this targeted group therapy programme did not improve self harm outcomes for adolescents who repeatedly self harmed, nor was there evidence of cost effectiveness. (bmj.com)
  • An earlier investigation in the research programme, however, seemed to find that a style of management (see MANAGEMENT STYLE , LEADERSHIP ) which displayed an interest in workers could help collections of workers to cohere into effective groups, committed to managerial goals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An evaluation of the impact of a large group psycho-education programme (Stress Control) on patient outcome: does empathy make a difference? (cambridge.org)
  • Each year, 443,000 people die from tobacco-related illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure, making tobacco the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (reuters.com)
  • Shortly after Centers for Disease Control stats indicated that 37 percent of U.S. births are unintended, a Conservative Christian group is trying to block the White House Policy which makes insurers cover birth control, set to go into effect Aug. 1. (villagevoice.com)
  • The news comes on the heels of a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that found U.S. abortions fell 5 percent during the recession . (chron.com)
  • In behavioral studies, volunteers are randomly assigned either to investigational behavioral treatments or to comparison groups that often receive what scientists call "usual care. (healthcanal.com)
  • But determining a behavioral treatment's effectiveness requires that comparison groups meet high scientific standards. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. (hindawi.com)
  • There were no significant group differences identified in the mechanical measures, nor were there any significant differences among the three headache categories. (chiro.org)
  • The treatment strategies employed produced statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences in HbA 1c concentrations and blood glucose profiles between the experimental- and standard-group subjects for both adults and adolescents. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An important question is whether these variations in tobacco control policies between countries are correlated with differences in smoking behaviour. (bmj.com)
  • Members of the activity group receive discounted registration. (siam.org)
  • Stay at the forefront of that evolution by reading SIAM books published by our activity group members, along with other books of interest. (siam.org)
  • SIAM Activity Groups provide a more focused forum for SIAM members interested in exploring one of the areas of applied mathematics, computational science, or applications. (siam.org)
  • Our support group for Birth Control has 410 questions and 3,598 members. (drugs.com)
  • The apparent generosity, inclusion, and friendship proffered by the industry extract a price from groups in the health of their members. (bmj.com)
  • Displacement of control group policies is the opposite of spillover, since it involves control group members failing to receive services they would have received in the absence of welfare reform. (hhs.gov)
  • An example of displacement would be reductions in job-training services to control group members because of longer waiting lists arising from welfare reform. (hhs.gov)
  • As with spillover, a certain degree of displacement is likely to occur in an experimental evaluation, since the administration of two programs in the same research site may reduce the resources available for administering services to members of the control group. (hhs.gov)
  • The members of the mathematical control theory and optimization group and their current and recent students are listed below. (lsu.edu)
  • Group members have recently been awarded more than $1.6 million as Principal Investigators of federal research grants. (lsu.edu)
  • A total of 22 Ph.D. students received their degrees under the supervision of group members. (lsu.edu)
  • Group members have produced many research publications in the top Automation and Control Systems journals, and have presented many conference presentations and seminars at leading universities. (lsu.edu)
  • During group consultations, patients seen together over 1 h would benefit from longer exposure to interactive techniques, positive dynamics, and identification with other members. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Participants included 193 people with probable or possible AD and 358 healthy control-group members. (pnas.org)
  • Under ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code (the Code), members of the same controlled group have joint and several liability for certain employee benefit liabilities of each group member, including single employer defined benefit plan funding and Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) premiums, medical plan COBRA obligations, and multiemployer pension plan contribution, withdrawal, and termination liability. (morganlewis.com)
  • The ILC3 group has three members depending on the expression of NKp46 and CCR6. (frontiersin.org)
  • CRS Focus Groups are international in scope and include members from industry, academia, and government, interested to exchange knowledge and ideas. (controlledreleasesociety.org)
  • Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members. (omicsonline.org)
  • One such measure is basing pay or bonuses on group output, so as to provide a stimulus to group members to work effectively together and to pressurize recalcitrant members into following group policy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Similarly, the creation of 'semiautonomous work groups' (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN ) with the power to allocate group members' tasks is designed to heighten both group cohesion and commitment to effective task performance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the basis of research of this type managers have attempted to influence group performance by selecting appropriate team members. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • this is done in a way that ensures no participant in the experiment (subject or experimenter) knows to which group each subject belongs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the conclusions drawn from the results of an experiment to have validity, it is essential that the items or patients assigned to treatment and control groups be representative of the same population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why is a control group important in an experiment? (answers.com)
  • Yaple Z., Martinez-Saito M., Feurra M., Klucharev V., Shestakova A. Transcranial alternating current stimulation modulates risky decision making in a frequency controlled experiment // eNeuro. (hse.ru)
  • The first organization Metro-IAF would like to foist their gun control experiment on is the U.S. Army. (nraila.org)
  • On July 20, 2014, the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Nigeria, in a traveler from Liberia ( 1 ), led to an outbreak that was successfully curtailed with infection control, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine measures coordinated through an incident management system ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An evidence-based approach to chronic disease prevention and control can significantly reduce the burden of chronic diseases (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. (bmj.com)
  • the control group without atopic disease. (coursera.org)
  • between those two groups, the group with atopic disease and the group without. (coursera.org)
  • Rapid spread of dog disease can be stopped with diligent infection control. (gsca.org)
  • SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization consists of research articles on the mathematics and applications of control theory and on those parts of optimization theory concerned with the dynamics of deterministic or stochastic systems in continuous or discrete time. (siam.org)
  • Control theory and optimization is one of the core research areas in applied mathematics in the LSU Department of Mathematics. (lsu.edu)
  • In studies of twins involving just one treatment group and a control group, it is statistically efficient to do this random assignment separately for each pair of twins, so that one is in the treatment group and one in the control group. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transaction will not only give us an excellent foundation for further development of the companys market position and product lines, but it will also provide us with the resources necessary to be an infection control leader in a continually changing global healthcare community, said Stuart Heap, who will lead the new business venture and take responsibility for the global Biogel and Hibi brands. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Jorge Luiz und Philipp Lorenz join the group as PhD students in September 2016. (tu-berlin.de)
  • The authors conclude that large, randomized, controlled trials of SARS-CoV-2 are the fastest and most effective path forward for establishing vaccine safety and efficacy . (news-medical.net)
  • Although some have suggested that African Americans lack interest in tobacco control, 7 an increasing number of tobacco control programmes are being implemented by and for black communities. (bmj.com)
  • Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. (osti.gov)
  • However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. (osti.gov)
  • The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. (osti.gov)
  • Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. (osti.gov)
  • ERP Advisors Group is one of the world's most trusted enterprise software advisory firms. (prnewswire.com)
  • After randomization by random table numbers, 56 patients were assigned to six groups of 9 or 10 persons, whereas the other 56 (control subjects) continued with traditional consultations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With few exceptions, baseline demographic, ophthalmologic, renal, and other medical characteristics were evenly distributed by randomization between the two treatment groups in both age strata. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • DENVER , July 23, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- On Thursday, July 16 , ERP Advisors Group hosted a conference call and live podcast to discuss the topic of 'Internal Control Over Financial Reporting with ERP,' especially as it relates to the current economic climate. (prnewswire.com)
  • Accelerating efforts to eliminate measles and control rubella, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, today convened a meeting of an Expert Advisory Group to recommend strategies to end the scourge of these killer and debilitating diseases by 2020. (pib.nic.in)
  • clarification needed] In some medical studies, where it may be unethical not to treat patients who present with symptoms, controls may be given a standard treatment, rather than no treatment at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example in a study released by the British Medical Journal, in 1995 studying the effects of strict blood pressure control versus more relaxed blood pressure control in diabetic patients, the clinical control group was the diabetic patients that did not receive tight blood pressure control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of HDL cholesterol had increased in patients seen in groups but had not increased in control subjects ( P = 0.045). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Physicians spent less time seeing 9-10 patients as a group rather than individually, but patients had longer interaction with health care providers. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study has confirmed that maintaining good metabolic control prevents chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We conclude that diversity of activities and intensity of intellectual activities were reduced in patients with AD as compared with the control group. (pnas.org)
  • The presence of postural, myofascial, and mechanical abnormalities in patients with migraine, tension-type headache, or both headache diagnoses was compared to a headache-free control sample. (chiro.org)
  • Twenty-four control subjects were obtained from a convenience sampling and each was matched by age and sex to three patients with headache (one with migraine [with or without aura], one with tension-type headache, and one with diagnoses of both migraine and tension-type headache [combined diagnosis]) who had been previously assessed by a physical therapist at a headache clinic. (chiro.org)
  • There was a significant difference in the presence of postural abnormalities between the controls and the patients, with posture abnormalities more likely to be present in those with headache. (chiro.org)
  • The patients were also significantly more likely to have active trigger points and trigger points in the neck than were the control subjects. (chiro.org)
  • Allergy Research Group® creates high quality products using scientific evidence-based research, with a focus on hypoallergenic supplements to act as a resource for doctors to improve patients' quality of life. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • One of the issues that is frequently raised at the Patient Safety sub-group is that of patients going home without some of their medicines because they are stored in a different place such as the controlled drugs cupboard or the medicines fridge. (govdelivery.com)
  • The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) is a multicenter, randomized, clinical study designed to determine whether an intensive treatment regimen directed at maintaining blood glucose concentrations as close to normal as possible will affect the appearance or progression of early vascular complications in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Psychotherapy (MCGP) versus a standardized Supportive Group Psychotherapy (SGP) in reducing psychological distress (depression and anxiety), end-of-life despair (hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and suicidal ideation), and improving spiritual well-being and overall quality of life in a sample patients with advanced cancer. (knowcancer.com)
  • Evaluate LX4211 in type 1 patients with poorly controlled blood sugars. (centerwatch.com)
  • But researchers, led by Kenneth E. Freedland, PhD, professor of psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, say that to accurately measure the effectiveness of a new therapy, it is critical to carefully define the comparison - or control - group. (healthcanal.com)
  • The decision to use group quarantine versus home monitoring was made by balancing the practicalities of managing the observation unit effectively while simultaneously administering protocols within the observation unit to minimize risk to the persons housed there. (cdc.gov)
  • On the primary outcome of frequency of self harm, proportional odds ratio of group therapy versus routine care adjusting for relevant baseline variables was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.44, P=0.95) at 6 months and 0.88 (0.59 to 1.33, P=0.52) at 1 year. (bmj.com)
  • To assess the relative impact of Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy on different aspects of spiritual well-being (e.g., a sense of meaning and purpose versus spirituality linked to religious faith). (knowcancer.com)
  • Earlier this week the nation's largest group of obstetricians and gynecologists said birth control pills should be sold over the counter . (chron.com)
  • Petition · Publicize the fact that birth control pills are a Group I carcinogen (in the same group as tobacco) now that women can get them free of charge. (change.org)
  • The free availability of birth control pills (BCP) has received widespread publicity. (change.org)
  • In the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in a treatment group. (wikipedia.org)
  • There may be more than one treatment group, more than one control group, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some experiments, such as many in agriculture or psychology, this can be achieved by randomly assigning items from a common population to one of the treatment and control groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulus control treatment for insomnia, originally developed by Richard Bootzin (1977), was designed to be applied to individuals. (springer.com)
  • The treatment of sleep maintenance insomnia with stimulus control techniques. (springer.com)
  • Short-term stimulus control treatment of insomnia in older adults. (springer.com)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - U.S. leaders took meaningful steps to reduce smoking over the past year, increasing treatment options and giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new power to regulate tobacco, a major health group said on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • When people hear about randomized controlled treatment studies, they usually think about drug trials," Freedland says. (healthcanal.com)
  • Except for an increased incidence of hypoglycemia in the experimental group, the two treatment regimens maintained or improved the clinical well-being of subjects in both groups. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Large psycho-education groups are being increasingly used in mental-health promotion and the treatment of common mental-health problems. (cambridge.org)
  • These findings suggest that large group psycho-education is an effective treatment for mild to moderate mental-health problems, at least in the short term. (cambridge.org)
  • As the majority of the reported studies on PTSD have been conducted on military personnel or other groups trained for possible traumatic experiences, or women exposed to sexual assault, studies on the normal population exposed to different traumatic events are important to fully understand the consequences of trauma exposure and the implications for treatment. (uib.no)
  • Statistical analysis was used to investigate if the groups differed with respect to demographic characteristics and the scores recorded in the pre- and post-treatment stages, as well as during treatment (intra/inter groups). (scielo.br)
  • This presentation uses an iPhone app case study to demonstrate tools and tips for conducting an effective online diary study, combined with an online focus group session. (slideshare.net)
  • it's a beautiful example of a case-control study. (coursera.org)
  • that is what makes a case-control study or series. (coursera.org)
  • In a case-control study, we collected questionnaire data about 26 nonoccupational activities from ages 20 to 60. (pnas.org)
  • This kind of study uses a "usual care" comparison group. (healthcanal.com)
  • Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): Results of Feasibility Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The feasibility phase of the DCCT demonstrated that a complex multicenter, randomized study of the relationship between diabetes control and complications can be performed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2 - 6 The International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project studied the effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking behaviour in an international study comparing the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. (bmj.com)
  • We study the controllability of time-varying networks, develop novel control schemes and test these on empirical networks. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Group therapy for. (bmj.com)
  • Objective To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people. (bmj.com)
  • Total 1 year costs were higher in the group therapy arm (£21 781) than for routine care (£15 372) but the difference was not significant (95% CI −1416 to 10782, P=0.132). (bmj.com)
  • Physical therapy assessment findings were compared among the four groups. (chiro.org)
  • In individual therapy there is a well-established link between therapist empathy, therapeutic relationship and patient outcome but the role of empathy within large psycho-educational groups is unknown. (cambridge.org)
  • Karnofsky Performance Rating Scale score below 50 or physical limitations or illness severity sufficient to preclude participation in outpatient group psychotherapy. (knowcancer.com)
  • President (Barack) Obama and our leaders in the 111th Congress enacted what will be regarded as the strongest tobacco control policies thus far in American history," Charles Connor, president and chief executive of the American Lung Association, said in a statement. (reuters.com)
  • Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. (bmj.com)
  • Of all tobacco control policies of which the TCS is constructed, price policies showed the strongest association with quit ratios, followed by an advertising ban. (bmj.com)
  • Countries with more developed tobacco control policies have higher quit ratios than countries with less developed tobacco control policies. (bmj.com)
  • High and low educated smokers benefit about equally from the nationwide tobacco control policies. (bmj.com)
  • In the past decade many countries have implemented more or less comprehensive tobacco control policies. (bmj.com)
  • Tobacco control policies include, among others, taxes on tobacco products, bans or restrictions on smoking in public places and advertising bans. (bmj.com)
  • The data displayed in the figure above is current to August 2007 and was obtained by conducting a search on SciFinder Scholar using the following terms: 'controlled radical polymn' or 'living radical polymn' (' SUM CRP ' in the figure), 'ATRP or atom transfer (radical) polymn' (i.e. (cmu.edu)
  • 2. A thyristor according to claim 1 wherein the emitter zones in each emitter group are strip-shaped and each emitter zone has first and second parallel gate electrode strips arranged thereover. (patentgenius.com)
  • An alternative is to select controls from a wider population, provided that this population is well-defined and that those presenting with symptoms at the clinic are representative of those in the wider population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another method to reduce ethical concerns would be to test early-onset symptoms, with enough time later to offer real treatments to the control subjects, and let those subjects know the first treatments are "experimental" and might not be as effective as later treatments, again with the understanding there would be ample time to try other remedies. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conducted a multicenter, randomized, rater-blinded, controlled trial between April 2012 and May 2014 in a cohort of 119 adolescents (15-21 years of age). (nih.gov)
  • Stimulus control and imagery training in treating sleepmaintenance insomnia. (springer.com)
  • We conducted a 2-arm, group-randomized trial with baseline data collection and follow-up at 18 to 24 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of psychosocial stress. (bmj.com)
  • Control Group managed creative technology projects from concept design to production and implementation/installation, in addition to support of IT infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • All participants within this group agree that their discussions will follow the General Communications Policies. (w3.org)
  • To provide greater patent protection for this specification, participants in the TV Control API Community Group are now invited make commitments under the W3C Community Final Specification Agreement by completing the commitment form . (w3.org)
  • Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. (hindawi.com)
  • Participants were randomly assigned to 12 manualized group CBT sessions (n = 45) or a waiting list control group (n = 44). (nih.gov)
  • A total of 116 participants were enrolled and divided into 3 groups: community controls, casual [‎laboratory and clinic]‎ contacts and close [‎household]‎ contacts. (who.int)
  • Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, African Americans bear the greatest health burden from preventable tobacco related diseases, 1- 5 which kill approximately 45 000 African Americans yearly. (bmj.com)
  • The GMP standards are applied to a wide variety of procedures associated with the manufacturing of dietary supplements, including receiving, testing, and approval of raw materials, production, and process controls, laboratory testing of labeled and packaged finished product, distribution control and accountability, and shelf life expiration testing to ensure freshness and potency. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • A unique group reporting facility is available allowing laboratory groups or chains to effectively monitor the performance of satellite sites. (randox.com)
  • For each laboratory in the group, the interlaboratory group report displays the %Dev for the last 10 samples along with the RM%Dev. (randox.com)
  • The intronic A4GALT SNP rs5751348 defines a hematopoietic transcription factor-binding site present in P 1 but not P 2 blood group alleles. (bloodjournal.org)
  • TobaccoTactics.org, produced by the award-winning Tobacco Control Research Group, has received a fresh look and new and updated content. (bath.ac.uk)
  • To mark its 10-year anniversary, Tobacco Tactics , which is produced by the award-winning Tobacco Control Research Group in the Department for Health, has had a major facelift. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The group interacts with a larger interdepartmental control and optimization research group that includes engineering faculty . (lsu.edu)
  • Since 1979, Allergy Research Group® has used only the purest raw materials available, and has implemented strict quality control procedures in every stage of production, including inspection of raw materials, manufacturing, packaging, and storing. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Allergy Research Group® is licensed by the State of Utah Department of Agriculture and Food, Certificate of Registration for Food Establishment number 190455 and US FDA registration number 16013952140. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Allergy Research Group® is certified as a GMP manufacturer by NSF International, certificate number C0549130-DS-1. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Allergy Research Group uses only the purest and highest quality raw materials available. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Oxford Research Group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection, Estimation, and Control on Group Manifolds. (dtic.mil)
  • Deminng, M. E., et al (20 20) Accelerating Development of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines - The Role for Controlled Human Infection Models. (news-medical.net)
  • Instead, the vaccine industry tests its vaccines against "controls" that contain all of the same chemicals and ingredients as the vaccines themselves, minus the viral and/or bacterial components that function as these vaccines' active ingredients. (naturalnews.com)
  • View 411 - 418 results for quality control group comic strips. (dilbert.com)
  • Discover the best "Quality Control Group" comics from Dilbert.com. (dilbert.com)
  • Quality Management & Quality Control for. (tuev-sued.de)
  • In addition to our in-house quality control department, we use certified independent analytical laboratories to test raw materials as well as finished products. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • a provider of file-based master quality control for Hollywood studios and production houses. (prweb.com)
  • The Master QC Group, LLC was built and supported by master quality control (QC) experts with over 14 years of experience. (prweb.com)
  • This Working Group develops standards and best practices for quality control (QC) of neuroimaging data, including standardized protocols, easy to use tools and comprehensive manuals. (incf.org)
  • The Working Group aims to develop a comprehensive manual for quality control of neuroimaging data, to develop guidelines and best practices for conducting and reporting QC, to publish protocols for different use cases, and to develop easy to use tools implementing those guidelines and protocols, integrating manuals and educational components when possible. (incf.org)
  • Using functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DTI), this enables us to investigate the brain activity and connectivity during well controlled movement. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Only the control terminals of the functional groups are connected to a collective contact carrying a control voltage. (patentgenius.com)
  • and an electrical connection running from the group common terminal of selected emitter groups to the adjacent common contact, whereby any emitter group which is determined to be non-functional need not be selected to be connected to the common contact. (patentgenius.com)
  • There is a lot of overlap between the terms but the figure does show that there has been a continuous increase in the interest using various controlled polymerization procedures for preparation of functional materials. (cmu.edu)
  • Our hospital offers guidance on a number of parasite control programs. (vcahospitals.com)
  • CORONA, Calif. - Oct. 15, 2015 - PRLog -- The Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control Department is one of the state departments in charge of approving toxic pesticides to be sprayed in Riverside County neighborhoods. (prlog.org)
  • As the tobacco industry expands its global reach, public health advocates should anticipate similar industry efforts to exploit the vulnerabilities of marginalised groups. (bmj.com)
  • The organizations are helping students with funding, logistics, and strategy in anticipation for the "March for Our Lives" event in Washington, D.C. next month where advocates plan to continue calls for increased gun control. (freebeacon.com)
  • The Stoneman Douglas High School shooting prompted backlash from some students and gun control advocates against the National Rifle Association and gun industry for being "complicit. (freebeacon.com)
  • As if misguided anti-gun policies that leave our fighting men and women defenseless stateside weren't enough, some gun control advocates are intent on reviving a Clinton-era gun control tactic that would pose a danger to our military in the field. (nraila.org)
  • OBJECTIVE -To evaluate whether group visits, delivered as routine diabetes care and structured according to a systemic education approach, are more effective than individual consultations in improving metabolic control in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For starters, the group policy settings that I am about to show you are only effective against computers that are running Outlook 2003. (techrepublic.com)
  • Another thing that you need to know is that many of the group policy settings that I will be showing you are only effective against newly created Outlook profiles. (techrepublic.com)
  • Since Windows does not include Outlook related group policy objects by default, you will have to download an administrative template and import it into your effective group policy. (techrepublic.com)
  • However, a question that still nevertheless vexes managers is why some groups are effective whilst others are not. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Research has shown that individual contributions to groups differ, and that in some cases they are effective whilst in others they are not. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is a very large installed base of legacy control systems that don`t meet the international standards for control and reporting, and ETC is perfectly positioned to help those organizations upgrade their systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. (etcusa.com)
  • We have tried and tested strategies that are proven to be effective in eliminating measles and controlling rubella. (pib.nic.in)
  • Effective audit and control is a necessity for all organisations but the time and effort required to meet increasingly stringent requirements can place a considerable drain on resources. (ukoug.org)
  • The Project Controls Expo 2015 is the largest Project Controls event with the clear objective of providing significant practical and theoretical awareness on Project Controls process, tools and techniques to its stakeholders. (ukoug.org)
  • Working group titles are linked to their fact sheet. (crcpd.org)