The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Port Louis. It was discovered by the Portuguese in 1505, occupied by the Dutch 1598-1710, held by the French 1715-1810 when the British captured it, formally ceded to the British in 1814, and became independent in 1968. It was named by the Dutch in honor of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567-1625). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p742 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p341)
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a dorsoventrally flattened body with widely spaced rows of short bristle-like cilia on the dorsal surface.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
One of ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS used especially against BABESIA in livestock. Toxicity has been reported.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Reductive elimination is favored when the newly formed X-Y bond is strong. For reductive elimination to occur the two groups (X ... Kinetic Control Based on Ligand Electronic Effects". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 107 (11): 3148-3160. doi:10.1021 ... Reductive elimination is the key product-releasing step of several reactions that form C-H and C-C bonds. Oxidative additions ... This system is also in chemical equilibrium, with the reverse reaction proceeding by the elimination of hydrogen gas with ...
"Disease Control in Humanitarian Emergencies (English). WHO. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2013 ... "Elimination of Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February ... "Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative" (PDF). Pampers UNICEF 2010 campaign: 2. Archived (PDF) from the original ... "Uganda announces elimination of Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus". Archived from the original on 2015-02-11. Retrieved 2011-07-14. ...
"Pest Control and Pesticide Safety for Consumers. EPA. June 27, 2017.. *^ "Animal Feeding Operations". National Pollutant ... "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2014. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015.. ... which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect ... sediment controls, such as sediment basins and silt fences.[50]. Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and concrete ...
Chemical Control[edit]. Chemical control can be preventative or therapeutic, depending on risk and resources available. ... Elimination of the disease is not possible; therefore, managing the disease is essential to prevent economic and ecological ... and cultural control. Ideally, several methods are used in conjunction to enhance disease control. Any chosen method relies on ... Cultural Control[edit]. Mechanical[edit]. Mechanical separation of the underground root connections will not allow the disease ...
Hazard control[edit]. Employers can conduct hazard control by: *Elimination or substitution: Eliminating the hazard from the ... Engineering controls. *Work practice or administrative controls: Change the how the task was performed to reduce the ... The most effective approach to control mold growth after a natural disaster is to control moisture level. Some ways to prevent ... Human remains: According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "There is no direct risk of contagion or ...
"Elimination or Irrelevance , Arms Control Association". Retrieved 29 November 2011. Cohen, Stephen P. (13 May ... Review of Engaging Security: The Legacy of K Subrahmanyam P V Narasimha Rao and the Bomb, by K Subrahmanyam Elimination or ... Irrelevance, Arms Control Today, 2008 Partnership in a Balance of Power System, by K Subrahmanyam Recommendations of the Kargil ...
The controlling European powers that had defined their mission as the civilization of "uncivilized" peoples; elimination of ...
... nobody wants to see the article run out of control. However, discussion would lead to the elimination of creeping content. I ... it will be out of control. Much of the discussion above has been about trying to get back some control over the creeping ...
Sandidge, J.S. (2009). Brown recluse spiders: A knowledge based guide to control and elimination. McLouth: BRS Pest Control.. ... Spider population control[edit]. Due to increased fear of these spiders prompted by greater public awareness of their presence ... "Brown Recluse Spiders Control - Information, Bites, & More". Retrieved 2020-08-18.. ... On one occasion, a brown recluse survived in controlled captivity for over five seasons without any food at all.[7] ...
Pain control is another means to facilitate the elimination of secretions. A chest wall injury can make coughing painful, ... ISBN 0-7234-2595-7. Danne PD, Hunter M, MacKillop AD (2003). "Airway control". In Moore EE, Feliciano DV, Mattox KL. Trauma. ...
Elimination of the disease has also occurred in Cambodia, the Cook Islands, Egypt, Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Niue, ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). "Lymphatic Filariasis". Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. ... Mwele Malecela, who chairs the programme, said: "We are on track to accomplish our goal of elimination by 2020." In 2010, the ... "Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-28. The ...
In 1948, the Malaria Control in War Areas, a program run by the U.S. Public Health Service, was turned into the Communicable ... "Polio , U.S. Polio Elimination , CDC". 2018-12-19. Retrieved 2019-02-28. CDC (2017-03-22). "Celebrating 7 Decades ... However, an incident in the late 1930s improved the FDA's control over food and drugs. In the 1930s, a new antibacterial drug ... In the 1970s, when the CDC's name changed to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), the organization continued to advocate for ...
Anaerobic digestion technologies improves the local environment and community health, and helps in disease control, through ... effective hazardous waste disposal; fertilizer production; disease destruction; pollution prevention; odor elimination; and ...
ISBN 0-471-11995-4. Amimoto, Perry Y. (1981). Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook. State of California. p. 109. Kerb Inlet, ... "Combined Sewer Overflow Frequent Questions". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2017-12-20. American City & ... Larvicides or disruptive larval hormones, sometimes released from "mosquito biscuits", have been used to control mosquito ... "Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Control Policy." Federal Register, 59 FR 18688. April 19, 1994. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (1972). ...
Seymour Ginsburg; Michael A. Harrison (1968). "On the Elimination of Endmarkers". Information and Control. 12 (2): 103-115. doi ... Information and Control. 17 (4): 395-409. doi:10.1016/s0019-9958(70)80035-3. Michael A. Harrison; Walter L. Ruzzo; Jeffrey D. ... Information and Control. 11 (1-2): 30-70. doi:10.1016/s0019-9958(67)90369-5. Hervé Gallaire; Jim Gray; Michael A. Harrison; ... Information and Control. 13 (5): 433-470. doi:10.1016/s0019-9958(68)90901-7. Seymour Ginsburg; Michael A. Harrison (1968). "One ...
"NPDES State Program Information". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2018-08-20. Water Pollution Control ... In 1910, USACE used the act to object to a proposed sewer in New York City, but a court ruled that pollution control was a ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. Pub.L. 92-500, October 18, 1972. Clean Water Act of 1977. Pub.L. 95-217 ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 created a comprehensive set of water quality programs that also provided some ...
... which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect ... "Low Impact Development and Other Green Design Strategies". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2014. Archived ... and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms. Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity ... Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quantity of flow. In the United States, best management practices ...
Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. Pub.L. 92-500 Approved October 18, 1972. Amended by the Clean Water Act ... "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System". EPA. 2020-02-21. EPA. "Secondary Treatment Regulation." Code of Federal ... Subpart I - Control of Lead and Copper. 40 CFR 141 "Lead and Copper Rule Implementation Tools". Drinking Water Requirements for ... Water fluoridation, the controlled addition of moderate concentrations of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth ...
Farmers can install erosion controls and implement nutrient management plans to control runoff pollution. Leachate treatment ... "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System". EPA. 2020-02-21. "Industrial Effluent Guidelines". EPA. 2020-02-12. Hammer, ... State of the Art Environmental Control". Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation). 56 (4): 378-385. JSTOR 25042250.. Hammer ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. Pub.L. 92-500 Approved October 18, 1972. Amended by the Clean Water Act ...
He has been Epidemiology Advisor to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (as 戴诗磊), Gresham Professor of Physic ... 2012). "Prospects for Tuberculosis Elimination". Annual Review of Public Health. 34: 271-286. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth- ... 2020). "An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China". Science ... Dye, C; Williams, BG (2010). "The Population Dynamics and Control of Tuberculosis". Science. 328 (5980): 856-861. doi:10.1126/ ...
ISBN 978-602-6392-19-0. "Inaugural Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) meeting". Global Alliance for Rabies Control. ... "FAO, OIE and WHO unite for World Rabies Day to call for elimination of disease". FAO. September 27, 2013. Retrieved July 4, ... World Rabies Day - official site Global Alliance for Rabies Control Centers for Disease Control & Prevention - rabies ... The first World Rabies Day campaign took place on 8 September 2007 as a partnership between the Alliance for Rabies Control and ...
Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs (Report). EPA. August 2004. EPA-833-R-04-001. "World Bank Supports ... p. 6. "Combined Sewer Overflow Frequent Questions". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2017-12-20. Monica ... American Society of Civil Engineers and Water Pollution Control Federation. ... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2015-11-16. ...
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. "National Kala-azar Elimination Programme". Ministry of Health ... "Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian ... 10665/205826 National Vector Bourne Disease Control Programme (February 2017), Accelerated Plan for Kala-azar Elimination 2017 ... One part of the elimination strategy was to reduce sandflies as a vector by giving mosquito nets treated with DDT along with ...
The CSO Control Policy required all publicly owned treatment works to have ″nine minimum controls″ in place by January 1, 1997 ... The policy is implemented through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. The policy ... Similar technology, called adaptive traffic control is used to control the flow of vehicles through traffic lights. RT-DSS ... Perciasepe, Robert (1996-11-18). January 1, 1997, Deadline for Nine Minimum Controls in Combined Sewer Overflow Control Policy ...
On 13 February 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments was ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "NPDES Permit Basics". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2017-07-24 ... Although the Safe Drinking Water Act excludes hydraulic fracturing from the Underground Injection Control regulations, the use ... In 1998, Sydney, Australia's water supply, 85% controlled by Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux until 2021, contained high concentrations ...
β-Hydride elimination releases the product. The oxidative Heck was originally reported as a sequential process following ... The regioselectivity of the reaction is controlled by directing groups such as carbonyls, alcohols and amines. Kenneth J. ... Delcamp, J. H.; Brucks, A. P.; White, M. C. (2008). "A General and Highly Selective Chelate-Controlled Intermolecular Oxidative ...
February 2014). "Elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome from the Western hemisphere: the US ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (February 2008). "Multistate measles outbreak associated with an international ... Such care may include oral rehydration solution (slightly sweet and salty fluids), healthy food, and medications to control the ... "Measles". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018. Gowda VK, Sukanya V (November ...
"Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act)". Digest of Federal Resource Laws of Interest to the U.S. Fish and ... Added CWA section 402(p), 33 U.S.C. § 1342(p). EPA (1990-11-16). "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pub.L. 80-845 Approved June 30, 1948. United States. Water Quality Act of 1965. Pub.L. 89- ... Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. Pub.L. 92-500. Approved October 18, 1972. Hogan, Michael C. "Water ...
... the elimination of price controls, wage controls and currency controls; and the elimination of trade subsidies). He reformed ... Exchange rates were controlled at the time and therefore raised little concern. The next February, however, the peso was ... President Alfonsín's efforts to control hyperinflation (which reached 200% a month in July 1989) failed, and led to food riots ...
From the beginning of the 20th century onwards, the elimination or control of disease in tropical countries became a driving ... Centers for Disease Control. Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis in the United States. Archived 23 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine 17 ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 66 (1). 12 April 2017. Barclay, Eliza; Scott, Dylan; Animashaun, Animashaun (7 ... The basic strategies in the control of an outbreak are containment and mitigation. Containment may be undertaken in the early ...
The elimination half-life of levomethamphetamine is between 13.3 and 15 hours, whereas dextromethamphetamine has a half-life of ... AU: S8 (Controlled drug) *CA: Schedule I *DE: Anlage II (Authorized trade only, not prescriptible) ...
September 1997). "A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus ... Elimination half-life. 1.8 ± 0.4 hours. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *(2S)-1-[(2S,4R)-4-benzyl-2-hydroxy-4-{[(1S,2R)-2-hydroxy-2,3- ...
Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... it is possible that the EMT associated with upregulated HIF-1α is controlled by signals from this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. ... "α-catenin is a tumor suppressor that controls cell accumulation by regulating the localization and activity of the ...
Quality controlEdit. The overall performance of PET systems can be evaluated by quality control tools such as the Jaszczak ... The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly ... Studies have been performed examining the state of these receptors in patients compared to healthy controls in schizophrenia, ... subjects can act as their own control) and substantially reduces the numbers of animals required for a given study. ...
Certain states in which there is a Republican-controlled legislature may be forced to expand Medicaid in ways extending beyond ... "party control, the ideology of state citizens, the prevalence of women in legislatures, the line-item veto, and physician ...
The outbreak of war and the invasion of Poland brought a population of 3.5 million Polish Jews under the control of the Nazi ... Elimination of the Jewish National Home in Palestine: The Einsatzkommando of the Panzer army Africa, 1942 by Klaus-Michael ... "was by asserting his total control over the fate of the Jews in the Reich and the east" under the single authority of the RSHA. ... but for Police Battalion 309 participating in the first mass murder of 5,500 Polish Jews in the Soviet-controlled Białystok (a ...
Elimination half-life. 30 to 400 hours (varies by dose and length of treatment). ... Rituximab has been shown to be an effective rheumatoid arthritis treatment in three randomised controlled trials and is now ... The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) from the body, allowing a new ... for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes advantage of the fact that the displayed Fc glycan controls ...
Elimination half-life. 30 to 400 hours (varies by dose and length of treatment). ... Rituximab has been shown to be an effective rheumatoid arthritis treatment in three randomised controlled trials and is now ... The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) from the body, allowing a new ... Placebo-Controlled Trial". Annals of Internal Medicine. doi:10.7326/M18-1451. ISSN 0003-4819.. ...
Boyle, P. R. (2013). "Neural Control of Cephalopod Behavior". In Dennis Willows, A.O. The Mollusca, Volume 8: Neurobiology and ... The haemocytes play an important role in the recognition and elimination of foreign bodies and wound repair. Captive animals ... The gland may be triggered by environmental conditions such as temperature, light and nutrition, which thus control the timing ... In 2017 a German company made an arm with a soft pneumatically controlled silicone gripper fitted with two rows of suckers. It ...
Half-life elimination is 6-7 days for people with normal lab results; 9-10 days for people with hypothyroidism; 3-4 days for ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... Elimination half-life. ca. 7 days (in hyperthyroidism 3-4 days, in hypothyroidism 9-10 days). ...
The bacterial cell's control system has a hierarchical organization.[16] The signaling and the control subsystem interfaces ... The principal role of these signaling pathways is to ensure reliable production and elimination of the CtrA protein from the ... Evolutionary conservation of the cell cycle control systemEdit. The control circuitry that directs and paces Caulobacter cell ... with modulation by feedback signals from the controlled system creates a closed loop control system. ...
The Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 amended the Controlled Substances Act and the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act by ... Progressives argue for elimination of the sentencing disparity altogether and believe that the impact of the bill on racial ... According to Gil Kerlikowske, Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, "there is no scientific basis for the ... such as making the law retroactive and complete elimination of the disparity (i.e., enacting a 1:1 sentencing ratio). The use ...
Another example can be seen in the neurally controlled animat. The use of cultured neuronal networks as a model for their in ... formation and elimination of synapses or extension and retraction of neurites and dendritic spines. But these two definitions ... One study, however, did make use of human neural stem cells grown into a network to control a robotic actuator. These cells ... It allows researchers to investigate neuronal activity in a much more controlled environment than would be possible in a live ...
"Controlling Ungulate Populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii" (PDF). Hawaii Conservation Alliance. 22 November 2005. ... They do so by their movement between the time they consume the nutrient and the time they release it through elimination (or, ... and the elimination of species that humans view as threats or competitors.[39] That human populations have become the primary ...
8).[66] Upon heating of KC8, the elimination of potassium atoms results in the conversion in sequence to KC24, KC36, KC48 and ... Potassium hydroxide is a very strong base, and is used to control the pH of various substances.[203][204] Potassium nitrate and ... Under controlled conditions, however, all the alkali metals, with the exception of francium, are known to form their oxides, ... is very diffuse because its single proton cannot easily control both electrons.[123]:15-6 It was expected for some time that ...
In other applications, the primary benefit is the elimination of the reflection itself, such as a coating on eyeglass lenses ... Assume the layer's thickness is controlled precisely, such that it is exactly one quarter of the wavelength of light in the ... systems such as telescopes and microscopes the reduction in reflections also improves the contrast of the image by elimination ...
Since 1986, it has prohibited mandatory retirement in most sectors, with phased elimination of mandatory retirement for tenured ...
However, Sosenka failed a doping control in 2001 and then again in 2008, the latter resulting in a career-ending suspension ... 1967 of 47.493 km but the record was never ratified by the UCI following Anquetil's refusal to take a post race doping control ...
Wethey and other scholars rejected the notion that Crete took any part in his formation and supported the elimination of a ... Authority control *BIBSYS: 14035956. *BNE: XX954012. *BNF: cb12033456h (data). *CANTIC: a10095688. *CiNii: DA03006364 ...
have only been able to obtain ~98% densification by heating at 2150 °C for 9 h (Figure 3).[56] Efforts to control grain size ... Higher densities, cleaner grain boundaries, and elimination of surface impurities can all be achieved with spark plasma ... Sinclair, John (1974). "Compatibility of Refractory Materials for Nuclear Reactor Poison Control Systems". NASA Tm X-2963.. ... This reaction provides for precise stoichiometric control of the materials.[38] At 2000 K, the formation of ZrB2 via ...
3.0.CO;2-G. Parkinson Study, Group (14 February 2006). "Randomized placebo-controlled study of the nicotinic agonist SIB-1508Y ... Reductive elimination gives rise to the desired coupling product. Due to mounting evidence that amines may also be involved in ... complex D undergoes reductive elimination to produce the alkyne, with regeneration of the palladium catalyst. It is suggested ... 3-Diynes Via Sonogashira Coupling of Vinylidene Chloride Followed by Elimination. Preparation of 1,3-Decadiyne" (PDF), Organic ...
Babies have little socialized control over urination within traditions or families that do not practice elimination ... The muscles controlling micturition are controlled by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. During the storage phase the ... Voluntary control. The mechanism by which voluntary urination is initiated remains unsettled.[13] One possibility is that the ... Since elimination of bodily wastes is, of necessity, a subject talked about with toddlers during toilet training, other ...
The elimination half-life is around 2 hours.[8][118] It is moderately bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin.[8] However ... A controlled study with moclobemide and phenelzine". Br J Psychiatry. 161 (3): 353-60. doi:10.1192/bjp.161.3.353. PMID 1393304. ... Silverstone, T. (Jan 1993). "Moclobemide--placebo-controlled trials". Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 7 (3-4): 133-6. doi:10.1097/ ... "Moclobemide: a reversible MAO-A-inhibitor showing weaker antidepressant effect than clomipramine in a controlled multicenter ...
... five weeks after being saved from elimination by the judges. A self-titled debut album was released in 2012 through Concord ... Authority control. *WorldCat Identities. *VIAF: 251085451. *LCCN: no2012085281. *MusicBrainz: 1c6a25b9-22d4-46b6-b931- ... resulting in two eliminations the following week. ...
Hierarchy of hazard controls *Administrative controls. *Engineering controls. *Hazard elimination. *Hazard substitution ... until 2013 when Florida International University assumed operational control.[2] ...
"New scandalous rise in gas prices : the state must regain the control of the situation" (in French). Front National. 1 March ... In a statement about the death of Osama bin Laden, she welcomed his "salutary elimination" and described his execution as "a ... Le Pen called for France to withdraw from the Schengen Area and reinstate border controls, accusing the UMP government of ... she called for France to withdraw from the Schengen Area and reinstate border controls.[32][33] ...
R. J. Peters, Acoustics and Noise Control, Routledge, November 12, 2013, 400 pages, p. 13 ... which allows elimination of the frequency dependence in the analysis by analyzing the system at each frequency independently. ... Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff (1996) Noise Control in Industry: A Practical Guide, Elsevier, 203 pp, p. 7 ... R. Hickling (1999), Noise Control and SI Units, J Acoust Soc Am 106, 3048 ...
Police control. Taylor found there was "no provision" for controlling the entry of spectators into the turnstile area. He ... notably the elimination of fenced standing terraces in favour of all-seater stadiums in the top two tiers of English football.[ ... A police constable radioed control requesting that the game be delayed, as it had been two years before, to ensure the safe ... T]here was no effective leadership either from control or on the pitch to harness and organise rescue efforts. No orders were ...
There is tentative concerns that use during pregnancy can result in harm to the baby.[5] Effective birth control is thus ... Elimination half-life. ~14 hours. Excretion. Feces (53%) and urine (18.9%). Identifiers. ...
"WHO , WHO validates elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis in Cuba". Retrieved 2017-12-06 ... Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Cuba. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1536-44. Free ... A 2018 paper using a synthetic control method found that infant mortality increased in the first years of the Castro regime ... The Collaborative Group consisted of the Cuban Ministry of Public Health, Kourí Institute, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... Control and Elimination. Control and Elimination MMWR. Title. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... Progressing Toward Tuberculosis Elimination in Low-Incidence Areas of the United States. MMWR 2002; 51 (No. RR-5). PDFpdf icon ... Tuberculosis Control Laws - United States, 1993.. MMWR 1993; 42 (No. RR-15). PDFpdf icon. [252 KB]. 11/1/1993. ...
... 690075. ... Citation: Cimprich, F., "Elimination of Temperature Induced Nonuniformity in Tires by Air Ring Control," SAE Technical Paper ...
The move from malaria control to elimination - an inception meeting on the malaria elimination initiative. Tashkent, Uzbekistan ... Health topics Communicable diseases Vector-borne and parasitic diseases Activities The move from malaria control to elimination ... The participants adopted the Tashkent Declaration: "The Move from Malaria Control to Elimination", which led to a new regional ... commitment to move from malaria control to elimination at the national level and the availability of effective control ...
... View/. Open. WPR_RC063_Res05_2012_en.pdf (‎11.52Kb)‎ ... Elimination of measles and acceleration of rubella control (‎Resolution)‎  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 063 (‎ ... 2012)‎. Elimination of measles and acceleration of rubella control (‎Resolution)‎. Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western ... Measles and rubella elimination (‎Resolution)‎  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 068 (‎WPR/RC68.R1, 2017)‎ ...
... Guest edited by Somphou Sayasone, Robert Bergquist, ... Therefore, it is urgent to scale up the control efforts to reduce the burden of helminthic zoonotic diseases in GMS countries. ... the socio-ecosystem-packaged strategy in GMS has been proposed in order to explore the transition approaches from control to ... the elimination program on helminth zoonosis in GMS will be accelerated. ...
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... Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2013 Dec;108(8):962-7. doi: ... but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. ... through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors ...
Moving toward Elimination of Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Call to Action - Volume 31 Issue 11 - Denise Cardo, Penelope H ... Dennehy, Paul Halverson, Neil Fishman, Mel Kohn, Cathryn L. Murphy, Richard J. Whitley, HAI Elimination White Paper Writing ... Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:S12-S21.. 24.Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. APIC ... 1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Global disease elimination and eradication as public health strategies. ...
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All three species are zoonotic, which causes concern for their control, as successful elimination not only requires management ... for control that could potentially lead to elimination are highlighted as these can inform researchers and disease control ... Asian Schistosomiasis: Current Status and Prospects for Control Leading to Elimination Catherine A. Gordon 1,†. , Johanna ... Keywords: Asia; control; elimination; epidemiology; Schistosoma japonicum; Schistosoma malayensis; Schistosoma mekongi; ...
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The Hox gene Abdominal-B, required to specify the posterior abdominal segments, controls both down-regulation of the Epidermal ...
Infection Control Today is part of the Global Exhibitions Division of Informa PLC ... New Studies Examine Elimination of Hepatitis B and C. Apr 01, 2009 ... The reduction of HBsAg serum levels leading to HBsAg clearance is the hallmark of a newly achieved immune control of the ...
A framework for malaria elimination , Arabic. Regional plan of action 2019−2023 for implementation of the Global vector control ... 28 November 2017 , Geneva - After unprecedented global success in malaria control, progress has stalled, according to the World ... WHO is calling for increased political commitment and investment in malaria prevention and control to reach the "Zero Malaria" ... WHO is calling for increased political commitment and investment in malaria prevention and control to reach the "Zero Malaria" ...
... gaps in the malaria control programme when moving from control to elimination.[10] ... To chart the way forward for moving malaria programmes from control to elimination the following recommendations are made: ... Malaria Programme Reviews: A Manual for Reviewing the Performance of Malaria Control and Elimination Programmes. Geneva: WHO, ... Effective malaria control is an important precursor to development, with the situation prior to malaria control in SA ...
Although the WHO Region of the Americas1 has sustained measles elimination since 2002, and the WHO Western Pacific Region is on ... track to achieve elimination, large outbreaks of measles are jeopardizing progress in the remaining regions that have these ... Although the WHO Region of the Americas has sustained measles elimination since 2002, and the WHO Western Pacific Region is on ... The new data, published in this weeks edition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)s Morbidity and Mortality ...
Strategy for rapid elimination and continuing control of poliomyelitis and other vaccine preventable diseases of children in ... Strategy for rapid elimination and continuing control of poliomyelitis and other vaccine preventable diseases of children in ... Strategy for rapid elimination and continuing control of poliomyelitis and other vaccine preventable diseases of children in ... Strategy for rapid elimination and continuing control of poliomyelitis and other vaccine preventable diseases of children in ...
Noninfectious Hospital Adverse Events Decline After Elimination of Contact Precautions for MRSA and VRE - Volume 39 Issue 7 - ... Am J Infect Control 2006;34:476-483.. 20. De Angelis, G, Cataldo, MA, De Waure, C, et al. Infection control and prevention ... Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1323-1330.. 7. Edmond, MB, Masroor, N, Stevens, MP, Ober, J, Bearman, G. The impact of ... Am J Infect Control 2003;31:354-356.. 29. Gilligan, P, Quirke, M, Winder, S, Humphreys, H. Impact of admission screening for ...
He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program ... We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program ... Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s-1970s On This Page History of Malaria in Venezuela The Gabaldón Era ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ...
He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program ... We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program ... Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s-1970s On This Page History of Malaria in Venezuela The Gabaldón Era ... Griffing SM, Villegas L, Udhayakumar V. Malaria Control and Elimination, Venezuela, 1800s-1970s. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ...
Sparse Gaussian Elimination with Controlled Fill-in on a Shared Memory Multiprocessor ...
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  • Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. (
  • We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. (
  • Research on vivax malaria needs to be substantially expanded over the next decade to accelerate its elimination and eradication. (
  • Elimination of disease is defined as the reduction to zero of the incidence in a defined geographical area, and eradication is defined as the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent. (
  • To protect public health and to achieve the global goal of malaria eradication, the Chinese Government developed a National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP) in 2010. (
  • Other discussion is which levels of control could be reached like eradication: as global and permanent incidence of zero due to deliberate actions, suspension of surveillance and control, control, reducing the burden of disease at certain levels of magnitude that would be defined, and elimination, zero incidence in a geographical area due to deliberate actions, requiring continued surveillance and control measures (OPS 2009a). (
  • The Center is a pioneer in the elimination and eradication of NTDs, beginning with the bold move in 1986 to tackle Guinea worm eradication and followed by innovations to safely deliver medicines for several diseases at one time. (
  • Inspired by the successful eradication of smallpox, the International Task Force for Disease Eradication (ITFDE) formed at The Carter Center in 1988 to review progress in the field of disease eradication and the status of diseases selected for control or eradication, and recommend action steps. (
  • What's the Difference Between Eradication, Elimination, and Control? (
  • Integrated NTD control and elimination MDA programmes offer safe and efficacious treatments for all seven NTDs. (
  • Regardless of the growing interest in detecting population structures in malarial parasites, there have been limited discussions on how to use this concept in control programmes. (
  • By considering the local dynamics, elimination programmes could cost-effectively use molecular markers. (
  • However, evaluating the importance of genetic structures for control and elimination programmes requires understanding how they provide information with epidemiologic value. (
  • Thus, population structures affect the interpretation of patterns emerging from molecular markers in contexts that are relevant for control and elimination programmes. (
  • It tracks progress in investments in malaria programmes and research, malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment, surveillance, trends in malaria disease burden, malaria elimination, and threats in tackling malaria and safeguarding the investments made. (
  • Data from national malaria control programmes (NMCPs) in Africa indicate that, between 2014 and 2016, 75% of ITNs were distributed through mass distribution campaigns. (
  • Conclusions: Malaria control programmes can detect re-introductions and changes in transmission using rapidly evolving microsatellite loci. (
  • The WHO manual will help countries assess what resources they need to reduce malaria transmission to very low levels, i.e. the point at which focused elimination programmes can start in earnest. (
  • Even from the perspective of a developed country, such as the United States, it is increasingly clear that tuberculosis must be viewed in a global context to have a full understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and to develop effective strategies for its control. (
  • 1,2] The rationale is grounded in the foundations of Cuba's National TB Control Program (PNCT, the Spanish acronym), established at the first meeting of tuberculosis hospitals and dispensaries in 1961 and in the first National Forum on Public Health and Epidemiology in 1962, leading to drafting the Program's guiding document in 1963, the year PNCT implementation began. (
  • Research focuses on antimalarial drug PK/PD in the context of malaria control and elimination, and malaria epidemiology in high-transmission settings recalcitrant to current control measures. (
  • Elimination and substitution are considered the most effective control measures. (
  • Although elimination and substitution are separate controls in the hierarchy of control measures, they are also considered engineering controls because they are designed to remove the hazardous source before the worker makes contact. (
  • Recognize that these controls are less effective in stopping the spread of infection and protecting workers than elimination, substitution, and engineering controls. (
  • Here we reflect on the achievement of some of the diverse activities that have brought malaria under control, highlight key challenges and propose specific health promotion interventions required to move South Africa's malaria programme from control to elimination. (
  • Since then there has been considerable and varied activities with respect to advocacy, health promotion and partnership development in the National Malaria Control Programme to date and although there activities are often not documented and subject to the same scientific scrutiny and rigor as clinical trials to demonstrate its net benefit prior to implementation, they form an important pillar of a successful malaria control programme. (
  • Hubei Province, China, has been operating a malaria elimination programme. (
  • Notwithstanding the successes achieved by the international community in the use of drugs to control the neglected diseases, this paper is of the strong opinion that for sustainability of this programme, national and international communities should re-channel expenditures and activities also on preventive and promotive measures in addressing the issue of these determinants. (
  • WHO's new guide, "From malaria control to malaria elimination: a manual for elimination scenario planning", will provide these countries with a comprehensive framework to assess different scenarios and timelines for moving towards elimination, depending on programme coverage and funding availability. (
  • This long-term view on malaria is critical: it is vital to plan for the period after elimination," says Dr John Reeder, Director of WHO's Global Malaria Programme. (
  • The basis was surveillance data from 2000 to 2014 for leprosy and Buruli ulcer available at the National Control Programme office, community-based surveys and a literature review. (
  • Based on these, we have recommended an integrated surveillance and control strategy of skin-NTDs to the National Control Programme. (
  • When done properly, completing an elimination diet may help you stop dieting forever! (
  • Completing an elimination diet involves removing specific food groups from your diet for a set period of time. (
  • Having said that, I truly believe that completing an elimination diet is the best way to identify these trigger foods because you'll experience the difference for yourself! (
  • There is inadequate understanding of the biology, pathology, transmission, and control of Plasmodium vivax , the geographically most widespread cause of human malaria. (
  • This investigation explores the problem of identifying genetic markers, in this case microsatellites, to unveil Plasmodium genetic structures that could affect decisions in the context of elimination. (
  • Beyond their use as a diagnostic tool for patients with suspected malaria, the detection of Plasmodium antigens in blood samples is also used in in vitro tests of sensitivity to antimalarial drugs, as a marker of clinical severity and to verify the elimination of the parasite after treatment, although the decay of parasite antigens may take longer than the clearance of parasitaemia.2 p. (
  • Escalante, Ananias A. / Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium falciparum genetic variation in Turbo, Colombia : Implications for malaria control and elimination . (
  • THE TWO pronged approaches require for malaria control and elimination with complex and multi-faceted strategies are (1) activities directed at mosquito parasite (plasmodium falciparum) in the blood using drugs and (2) activities directed at the malaria vector (mosquitoes) through well designed vector management techniques to prevent mosquitohuman contact. (
  • Sutherland, who worked on both of the studies, says, "Patterns of malaria disease in Africa and elsewhere across the tropics are becoming much less predictable, and control of malaria needs an appropriate test to identify infected individuals in the populations at risk. (
  • Prevention and control of tuberculosis in U.S. communities with at-risk minority populations: recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis and Prevention and control of tuberculosis among homeless persons: recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. (
  • Modified live virus (MLV) PRRS vaccine was used to control field PRRSV, which then allowed total virus elimination from all populations. (
  • Several topics of mutual interest were explored, notably the prevention of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), global rabies control in dog populations, leading to a drastic decrease in human cases, as well as animal disease information systems, including zoonosis. (
  • He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. (
  • This article summarizes key knowledge gaps identified by researchers, national malaria control programs, and other stakeholders assembled by the World Health Organization to develop strategies for controlling and eliminating vivax malaria. (
  • In 2000 the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that elimination was reached globally. (
  • The poor rates of diagnosis in the United Kingdom call into question the possibility of achieving the World Health Organization target of hepatitis C elimination by 2030, according to Dr Razavi. (
  • Before beginning this pest elimination job, make sure that areas are cleaned with no grease or oily residue on surfaces about to be treated. (
  • People doing pest control in restaurants, warehouses or rental property where there is an enormous German cockroach problem prefer to finish the job by fogging the entire area with a pyrethrin fog material. (
  • Have you ever overheard an uneducated person say that their pest control technician only 'fed' their roaches? (
  • Type of Pest Control Work? (
  • 123 Pest Control, Inc. (
  • 123 Pest Control is committed to excellence in every aspect of our business. (
  • Chaney will strive to set the highest standards in the pest control industry. (
  • Continuing education is conducted to keep up with new, safe pest control alternative solutions. (
  • We have been using Chaney Pest Elimination for a while now and cannot say enough great things about John and his company! (
  • We took a recommendation to try Chaney Pest Control, so happy we did! (
  • Highly recommend signing up with Chaney Pest Elimination. (
  • He offers excellent customer service and has extensive knowledge of all of your pest control and elimination needs. (
  • And in that time, we've done more than just apply termite and pest control. (
  • From Business: When it comes to pest control, you have a lot of choices. (
  • From Business: Advanced Pest Control, Inc., and its team of experts offer help and service to eliminate vermin infesting your home and office. (
  • From Business: Colony Pest Control in East Hartford, we provide full pest control services. (
  • Pest elimination is something that many people consider to be necessary. (
  • Green Home Pest Control, Inc. (
  • Green Home Pest Control, Inc., in business since 2009 serving Phoenix and the surrounding area. (
  • Crash of Rhinos Pest Control is a new side of an already established and trusted business, with a. (
  • This study aimed at investigating the epidemiologic characteristics of malaria in Hubei Province (2005-2016) to plan resource allocation for malaria elimination. (
  • The numbers of indigenous and imported cases during the disease control (2005-2010) and elimination (2011-2016) stages, as well as their spatiotemporal distribution, were compared. (
  • A total of 8109 malaria cases were reported from 2005 to 2016 (7270 and 839 cases during the control and elimination stages, respectively). (
  • As the NMEP was launched in May 2010, Hubei Province has undergone the change from the disease control (2005-2010) to elimination stage (2011-2016). (
  • While studies on the changes in epidemiological malaria characteristics between disease control and elimination stages have been conducted in China [ 3 , 5 , 12 , 13 ], few of these studies investigated the changes in malaria epidemic characteristics from the control stage (2005-2010) to the elimination stage (2011-2016) in Hubei Province. (
  • In 2016, an estimated US$ 2.7 billion was invested in malaria control and elimination efforts globally by governments of malaria endemic countries and international partners. (
  • The Project has been developed in line with the goals of National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination aiming at elimination of falciparum 1 malaria (the fatal type of malaria infections) by 2016 and all cases of malaria including vivax 2 by 2025. (
  • Methods of control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus using modified live vaccine in a two-site production system. (
  • 2,3 Published elimination programs have used methods that include herd closure, 2,3 mass vaccination with modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, 4,5 temporary off-site weaning, 5 partial depopulation, 6 test-and-remove programs, 7 and deliberate exposure to field virus 2 to control PRRSV activity within a described population of animals, with the goal of ultimately eliminating PRRSV in that population. (
  • A written workplace hazard control program should outline which methods are being used to control the exposure and how these controls will be monitored for effectiveness. (
  • Long term, permanent controls might use engineering methods to remove or isolate the noise source. (
  • In some cases, you may have to first use a chemical method for dealing with a severe infestation, and then switch to natural methods to control the population of fleas. (
  • Elimination is the most effective of the five members of the hierarchy of hazard controls in protecting workers, and where possible should be implemented before all other control methods. (
  • Efforts are underway to harness the momentum of a 2012 London Declaration on NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution as a means to control or in some cases eliminate by 2020 these NTDs that affect children worldwide. (
  • Moreover, the data gathered indicate that the Region may have already achieved the 2020 WHO goal for HB control. (
  • WHO also established the goals of reaching 90% vaccination coverage for a third vaccine dose among infants and 50% for the birth vaccine dose by 2020, and set a target for global elimination of HBV infection as a major public health threat for 2030 [ 5 ]. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) should jointly develop and publish strategic plans to guide U.S. involvement in global tuberculosis control efforts. (
  • Centers for Disease Control (U.S.). Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published Reopening Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Public Spaces, Workplaces, Businesses, Schools, and Homes that includes Cleaning and Disinfecting Your Facility , and FEMA has released Planning Considerations for Organizations in Reconstituting Operations During the COVID-19 Pandemic . (
  • To attain elimination of leprosy it is necessary to find effective interventions to interrupt transmission of M. leprae and practical diagnostic tools to detect levels of infection that can lead to transmission. (
  • The Disparities Elimination through Coordinated Interventions to Prevent and Control Heart and Lung Disease Risk (DECIPHeR) (UG3/UH3 Clinical Trial Optional) Program provides grants for projects that propose to test implementation research strategies for optimally and sustainably delivering evidence-based interventions to reduce or eliminate cardiovascular and/or pulmonary health disparities, and that promote and improve population health in high-burden communities. (
  • Following the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Committee for Chagas Control in Central America and Mexico, novel control interventions, including house improvements, will soon start in priority disease hotspots. (
  • Therefore, it is urgent to scale up the control efforts to reduce the burden of helminthic zoonotic diseases in GMS countries. (
  • After implementation of the collaborative research project among scientists from southeast Asian countries supported by International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada, the socio-ecosystem-packaged strategy in GMS has been proposed in order to explore the transition approaches from control to eliminate of helminth zoonoses transmission, under a broader portfolio of eco-health research integrated with the emerging infectious diseases, climate change, food security and human health. (
  • Strategy for rapid elimination and continuing control of poliomyelitis and other vaccine preventable diseases of children in developing countries. (
  • By virtue of the conditions obtaining in the developing countries mere expansion or acceleration of what is being done now--even with modifications that may achieve a temporary increase in vaccine coverage--cannot achieve the desired rapid elimination and continuing control of these diseases. (
  • Because of its communicable nature, tuberculosis (TB) is treated differently than other airborne infectious diseases, as there are many state laws specific to the control of TB. (
  • In September 2015, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases organized a workshop to address the roles of vaccines in achieving regional and global goals for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control and elimination, a critical step in determining desired product characteristics as well as research and development needs and opportunities. (
  • Fortunately, some drugs developed and donated by pharmaceutical companies are now available for effective control of morbidity as well as reduction in the transmission of many of these neglected diseases. (
  • The Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's (PAHO/WHO) Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine-preventable Diseases (TAG), that provides advice, reviews progress of national immunization programs, and promotes regional goals and strategies for immunization, endorsed and, subsequently adapted, WHO recommendations for HB control and elimination to the specificities of the Region (Fig. 1 ) [ 7 ]. (
  • The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has reviewed possibilities of different levels of control for several neglected diseases related with poverty. (
  • Linking NTDs to religion has potential importance because it invites prominent international religious leaders to have a greater role in advocating for and supporting NTD control. (
  • At the local level, religious leaders in churches, mosques, and temples could have important roles in raising awareness about NTDs and their health impact and could even promote indigenous control and elimination efforts. (
  • Addressing the social determinants related to NTDs is a direct way of gaining headway within public health and at the same time is a prerequisite for confronting inequities in NTD control. (
  • These NTDs, together with lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, are currently being targeted for global control and elimination through mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns. (
  • For this PhD thesis, we aimed at determining the current burden of major skin-NTDs in Cameroon and make recommendations for proper control strategies. (
  • Research conducted within the framework of this thesis, has increased our understanding of skin-NTDs, the efforts made in their control, and the challenges faced by the control activities in Cameroon. (
  • Infection Control in Health-Care Settings. (
  • the TB infection-control program should be on · Ensuring proper cleaning and sterilization achieving these three goals. (
  • An infection control practice designed to prevent the transmission of tubercle bacilli. (
  • People who received blood transfusions or blood products prior to the introduction of screening in the United Kingdom in 1992, and people who have received blood or undergone medical procedures in countries with lower infection control standards, could be living with undiagnosed hepatitis C. (
  • The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to amend the Federal meat inspection regulations to eliminate the requirements for both ready-to-eat (RTE) and not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) pork and pork products to be treated to destroy trichinae ( Trichinella spiralis ) because the regulations are inconsistent with the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) regulations, and because these prescriptive regulations are no longer necessary. (
  • Although current regional programs and strategies are making progress to control and perhaps eliminate the disease in some endemic areas, such as India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, workshop participants concluded that vaccines would still be necessary to sustain elimination efforts and ultimately block and reduce transmission. (
  • Alberta Liberal Leader David Swann is calling on the government to protect Alberta's agricultural industry and take action to control and eliminate Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta. (
  • Think of a control measure as an action aimed to eliminate a hazard completely. (
  • While engineering controls seek to eliminate hazards, administrative controls aim to minimize a lab worker's exposure. (
  • Similar in many ways to its siblings in the Ecosorb products line, Muni odor control product uses Van Der Waals forces to chemically react with malodor molecules to eliminate odors combined with a natural formulation that makes it safe to work with. (
  • Many jurisdictions require that an employer eliminate hazards if it is possible, before considering other types of hazard control. (
  • Critical controls: We must continue to recognise fatal risks and the need to eliminate them or upgrade critical controls to be more reliable rather than relying on procedural or behavioural controls. (
  • Despite longstanding insecticide-based control measures to eliminate household infestation, Chagas transmission persists in many rural areas of the region. (
  • A new strategy--namely, bringing the vaccine to the people during annual national days of vaccination--has already been used successfully in some small and large developing countries of Latin America for the rapid elimination and continuing control of polio. (
  • We confirmed that Cameroon attained elimination of leprosy as a public health problem in 2000. (
  • Infection prevention and control (IPC) aims to prevent or stop the spread of infections in healthcare settings. (
  • Quantifying the relative infectiousness of chronic malaria across a range of epidemiological settings would provide essential information for the design of effective malaria elimination strategies. (
  • In accordance with this goal, strategies and measures need to be adjusted from control to elimination. (
  • Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through timely HBV birth dose vaccination, universal infant vaccination, and vaccination of high-risk groups, together with optimal HB diagnosis and treatment, have been identified as crucial strategies for HBV elimination. (
  • Control strategies must combine two general courses of action including prevention of transmission to prevent the occurrence of new cases (these measures are cost effective), as well as opportune diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals in order to prevent the clinical evolution of the disease and to allow them to recuperate their health. (
  • We reviewed the evidence supporting the use of different strategies for control of Chagas disease. (
  • Moving from control to elimination of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa: time to change and adapt strategies. (
  • It benefits the United States to help strengthen tuberculosis control programs globally, particularly in the countries that are the source of most tuberculosis cases imported into the United States. (
  • However, there are a significant number of settings where malaria elimination requires not only good vector control but also a mass drug administration campaign. (
  • The role of vector control in disease elimination. (
  • IVM) is a rational decision making process for optimal use of resources for vector control that is characterized by evidence based decision making and collaboration both within the health sector and between other sectors. (
  • The aim of IVM is to make vector control more efficient, cost effective, ecologically sound and sustainable. (
  • We do hope with more cooperative efforts and sharing the social-ecosystem-packaged strategy in GMS through this special thematic issue, the elimination program on helminth zoonosis in GMS will be accelerated. (
  • This enforced, sudden, and sharp public health refocus is likely to result in the disruption of annual malaria control activities such as distribution of insecticide-impregnated bed nets, indoor residual spraying of insecticide, maintenance of malaria surveillance, and mass provision of antimalarial drugs. (
  • This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. (
  • As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. (
  • The impact of leprosy control on the transmission of M. leprae: is elimination being attained? (
  • In leprosy however, WHO limited elimination to control instead of transmission, by using prevalence instead of incidence of disease. (
  • For the leprosy elimination strategy it was assumed that MDT would reduce transmission of M. leprae, but there is no convincing evidence for this. (
  • Priorities for malaria elimination should include better management of imported malaria cases, prevention of secondary malaria transmission, and ensuring the sustainability of malaria surveillance. (
  • The study was performed in a low-transmission area, which offers a good proxy to better understand problems associated with surveillance at the final stages of malaria elimination. (
  • The achievements of vaccination programs in the Americas suggest that the elimination of perinatal and early childhood HB transmission could be feasible in the short-term. (
  • PAHO's Hepatitis Technical Advisory Committee and PAHO's Core Group on Hepatitis were established in 2015 to support the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat, including elimination of MTCT and early childhood transmission, considered milestones on the road to HBV infection elimination. (
  • In some countries, regional progress may be uneven but in certain locations there are very real prospects to transition from control into interruption of transmission, and ultimately elimination. (
  • The increasing trend in leprosy transmission and the persistence of high-burdened districts were attributed to reduction in key leprosy control activities secondary to waning of resource allocation by the government and support partners. (
  • A cluster randomised controlled trial of two rounds of mass drug administration in Zanzibar, a malaria pre-elimination setting-high coverage and safety, but no significant impact on transmission. (
  • BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) has the potential to interrupt malaria transmission and has been suggested as a tool for malaria elimination in low-endemic settings. (
  • The findings suggest that two rounds of MDA in a single year may not be sufficient for a sustained impact on transmission in a pre-elimination setting, especially when the MDA impact is restricted by imported malaria. (
  • An integrated disease control plan will combine community actions to reduce transmission risk factors (such as housing improvements) with access to timely diagnoses and treatment of infected individuals. (
  • Conventionally control of disease is defined as the reduction of disease burden to a locally acceptable level. (
  • But although many countries have the political will to commit to elimination, technical, operational and financial obstacles remain, particularly in countries that have a high disease burden. (
  • It was specially developed to meet the tight budget limitations faced by municipalities without skimping on industrial odor control effectiveness. (
  • This study aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of two rounds of MDA in Zanzibar, a pre-elimination setting. (
  • The National Malaria Advisory Group, the Medical Research Council and the newly constituted Malaria Elimination Committee play a vital role in providing technical recommendations and advocacy for malaria prevention and control. (
  • Many of these laws predate the current public health recommendations for the prevention and control of TB. (
  • 8 Given the current opioid epidemic and ongoing pain management crisis, there is a need to better understand solutions that effectively address chronic pain and support the elimination of oral opioids. (
  • It is concluded that substantial progress has been made to control leprosy, but when elimination of disease is defined as the reduction to zero of the incidence, leprosy is definitely not eliminated. (
  • Prospects for control that could potentially lead to elimination are highlighted as these can inform researchers and disease control managers in other schistosomiasis-endemic areas, particularly in Africa and the Americas. (
  • Schistosomiasis is a water borne parasitic disease of global importance and with ongoing control the disease endemic landscape is changing. (
  • In 1989, CDC published A Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States that was developed by the Advisory Committee (now Council) for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) (1). (
  • With 2017 already winding down, now is the ideal time to look back at the biggest industrial odor control stories for the year. (
  • The LDS 6 laser diode spectrometer supports the effective, safe, and environmentally friendly elimination of odorous gases. (
  • The demonstrated feasibility of malaria elimination, the visible impact intervention, the strong political commitment to move from malaria control to elimination at the national level and the availability of effective control technologies and tools made it feasible to undertake a new elimination effort in the affected countries of the WHO European Region. (
  • NTD control and elimination represents one of the most effective and cost-efficient means to reduce poverty and relieve global suffering" (7/28). (
  • In addition, vaccines would be valuable and even critical tools for other areas of the world, such as east Africa, where treatment options are more limited and control programs for VL are less effective. (
  • There is evidence that oral opioid tapering and elimination may improve pain relief and allow for treatment with a lower effective dose of intrathecal medication compared to a combination of oral and intrathecal treatment. (
  • Food elimination based on IgG antibodies may be effective in reducing IBS symptoms and is worthy of further biomedical research. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) depicts the hierarchy of controls as an inverted pyramid with the most effective types of control measure (elimination) at the top and the least effective (personal protective equipment) at the bottom. (
  • The controls at the top are considered more effective at protecting workers than those at the bottom. (
  • It is the most effective way to control a risk because the hazard is no longer present. (
  • For engineering purposes it is especially useful to be able to predict and control sewer corrosion rates and odor impacts as well as to design effective measures aiming to reduce effects related to hydrogen sulfide formation and release. (
  • Elimination is most effective early in the design process, when it may be inexpensive and simple to implement. (
  • Following a request by the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC) in 2012, the WHO began coordinating the development of a Global Technical Strategy (GTS) for malaria control and elimination for. (
  • All three species are zoonotic, which causes concern for their control, as successful elimination not only requires management of the human definitive host, but also the animal reservoir hosts. (
  • For multiplier herds, successful elimination of PRRSV allows a much greater opportunity for replacement gilt sales. (
  • Ten health districts had not achieved leprosy elimination, and eighteen were high leprosy-burdened according to the Leprosy Burden Score at the end of 2014. (
  • Protocolization of Post-Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Pain Control with Elimination of Benzodiazepines and Long-Acting Opioids. (
  • Medtronic recently launched the Control WorkflowSM, an evidence-based approach for use with the Medtronic pain pump that helps physicians wean patients off oral opioids and assists them in identifying patients likely to have positive outcomes with the Medtronic pain pump. (
  • Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma mekongi and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remains high in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), despite control efforts including mass-drug administratio. (
  • p24) This definition has been useful for elimination efforts directed toward polio, tuberculosis, and syphilis and can be readily adapted to HAIs. (
  • Early control efforts divided Costa-Cordillera into western, central, and eastern sectors. (
  • The United States expand and strengthen its role in global tuberculosis control efforts, contributing to these efforts in a substantial manner through bilateral and multilateral international efforts. (
  • The United States contribute to global tuberculosis control efforts through targeted use of financial, technical, and human resources and research, all guided by a carefully considered strategic plan. (
  • Since 1998, the Center has assisted more than 800,000 eyelid surgeries, the distribution of 203 million doses of azithromycin, the building of more than 3.6 million latrines, and health education efforts in over 6,000 villages to control the world's leading infectious cause of preventable blindness. (
  • Geneva - After unprecedented global success in malaria control, progress has stalled, according to the World malaria report 2017. (
  • Elimination was defined as reducing the global prevalence of the disease to less than 1 case per 10,000. (
  • Although an altruistic argument for promoting the global control of tuberculosis can easily be advanced, worldwide control of this disease is also in the nation's self-interest. (
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis Control and Elimination: Is There a Role for Vaccines in Achieving Regional and Global Goals? (
  • The aim of this Global Fund Round 9 funded project is to expand the work on the containment of artemisinin resistant malaria and to move towards the pre-elimination of malaria in Cambodia. (
  • Global malaria control and elimination : report of a meeting on containment of artemisinin tolerance, 19 January 2008, Geneva, Switzerland. (
  • Elimination will require the implementation of evidence-based practices, the alignment of financial incentives, the closing of knowledge gaps, and the acquisition of information to assess progress and to enable response to emerging threats. (
  • Over recent decades, the Region of the Americas has made significant progress towards hepatitis B elimination. (
  • This progress has led some malaria-endemic countries, even those with historically high burdens of malaria, to start exploring the possibility of elimination. (
  • During the control and elimination stages, the most likely spatial clusters for indigenous cases included 13 and 11 counties, respectively. (
  • The complete elimination of hazards is a major component to the philosophy of Prevention through Design, which promotes the practice of eliminating hazards at the earliest design stages of a project. (
  • The Journal of Malaria chemotherapy, control and Elimination is one of the top online publishing journals for research in the field of malariology. (
  • Primary environmental administrative controls, impacts the largest number controls control the source of infection by of people and is intended primarily to reduce the using local exhaust ventilation (hoods, tents, or risk of uninfected people exposed to people who booths) and dilute and remove contaminated have TB disease. (
  • Falciparum malaria elimination has been achieved much ahead of planned target in the high-burden areas in 9 out of 11 provinces under the project. (