Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.
An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.
A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.
A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
A preparation of oil that contains covalently bound IODINE. It is commonly used as a RADIOCONTRAST AGENT and as a suspension medium for CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Iodinated pyridine derivatives that are often used as contrast media.
A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.
Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A chronic, acquired, idiopathic, progressive eruption of the skin that occurs in the context of RENAL FAILURE. It is sometimes accompanied by systemic fibrosis. The pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial, with postulated involvement of circulating fibrocytes. There is a strong association between this disorder and the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
An inert iodine-containing agent which is opaque to X-RAYS. It is used mainly for BRAIN and SPINAL CORD visualization.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
Medical and skilled nursing services provided to patients who are not in an acute phase of an illness but who require a level of care higher than that provided in a long-term care setting. (JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
An accumulation of ENDOLYMPH in the inner ear (LABYRINTH) leading to buildup of pressure and distortion of intralabyrinthine structures, such as COCHLEA and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. It is characterized by SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; and sometimes VERTIGO.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
A pathological condition characterized by the presence of a number of COLONIC DIVERTICULA in the COLON. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including colon aging, motor dysfunction, increases in intraluminal pressure, and lack of dietary fibers.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.
Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.
A vascular anomaly that is a collection of tortuous BLOOD VESSELS and connective tissue. This tumor-like mass with the large vascular space is filled with blood and usually appears as a strawberry-like lesion in the subcutaneous areas of the face, extremities, or other regions of the body including the central nervous system.
Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)
A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
A dopamine D1 receptor agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

Regional patterns of myocardial sympathetic denervation in dilated cardiomyopathy: an analysis using carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine and positron emission tomography. (1/6913)

OBJECTIVE: To assess presynaptic function of cardiac autonomic innervation in patients with advanced congestive heart failure using positron emission tomography (PET) and the recently developed radiolabelled catecholamine analogue carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine (HED) as a marker for neuronal catecholamine uptake function. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 29 patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy with moderate to severe heart failure were compared with eight healthy controls. Perfusion scan was followed by HED dynamic PET imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation. The scintigraphic results were compared with markers of disease severity and the degree of sympathetic dysfunction assessed by means of heart rate variability. RESULTS: In contrast to nearly normal perfusions, mean (SD) HED retention in dilated cardiomyopathy patients was abnormal in 64 (32)% of the left ventricle. Absolute myocardial HED retention was 10.7 (1.0)%/min in controls v 6.2 (1.6)%/min in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (p < 0.001). Moreover, significant regional reduction of HED retention was demonstrated in apical and inferoapical segments. HED retention was significantly correlated with New York Heart Association functional class (r = -0.55, p = 0. 002) and ejection fraction (r = 0.63, p < 0.001), but not, however, with plasma noradrenaline concentrations as well as parameters of heart rate variability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, using PET in combination with HED in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, not only global reduction but also regional abnormalities of cardiac sympathetic tracer uptake were demonstrated. The degree of abnormality was positively correlated to markers of severity of heart failure. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the regional differences of neuronal damage as well as the prognostic significance of these findings remain to be defined.  (+info)

3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. (2/6913)

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

3D MRI of the membranous labyrinth. An age related comparison of MR findings in patients with labyrinthine fibrosis and in persons without inner ear symptoms. (3/6913)

PURPOSE: We compared MRI of the membranous labyrinth in patients with chronic non-neoplastic inner ear disease and MR signs of labyrinthine fibrosis and controls depending on their age, in order to establish whether there were any MR differences regarding patient age groups, control age groups and between the patients and controls themselves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical ENT examinations as well as a T2* weighted 3D CISS (Constructive Interference in Steady State) sequence with a slice thickness of 0.7 mm were performed. Our collective was subdivided as follows: 0-19 years (10 controls, 3 patients with chronic non-neoplastic inner ear disease), 20-49 years (55 controls, 8 patients), 50 years and older (40 controls, 22 patients). Detectability of labyrinthine structures (e.g. cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals) and filling defects were evaluated. RESULTS: In the 3 age-groups of the control collective no significant differences were observed in the membranous labyrinth. However differences concerning labyrinthine detectability emerged between controls and patients in both the 20-49 years and 50 years and older age groups. In the patient collective the 3 age groups showed no significant discrepancy in the mean number of lesions. CONCLUSION: Filling defects of the membranous labyrinth on 3D CISS MR images are pathological even in older persons. We would therefore recommend high resolution T2* weighted MRI in the case of suspected labyrinthine fibrosis.  (+info)

Angiographical extravasation of contrast medium in hemorrhagic infarction. Case report. (4/6913)

Leakage of the contrast medium was noted on angiograms of a patient whose autopsied brain disclosed typical pathological findings of hemorrhagic infarction. The case was a 63-year old woman with mitral valve failure, who suddenly had loss of consciousness and right-sided hemiplegia. The left carotid angiography performed six hours after onset demonstrated middle cerebral arterial axis occlusion, and the second angiography performed three days after onset displayed recanalization of the initially occluded artery as well as extravasation of the contrast medium. Fourteen days after onset the patient died and an autopsy was performed. The brain demonstrated perivascular punctate hemorrhages in the area supplied by the middle cerebral artery, and neither hematoma nor microaneurysm was disclosed pathologically. A short discussion is given on the possible relationship between recanalization and hemorrhagic infarction. The clinical assessment of hemorrhagic infarction has not been established successfully.  (+info)

Comparative cytotoxicity of ionic and non-ionic radiocontrast agents on MDCK cell monolayers in vitro. (5/6913)

BACKGROUND: Intravascular radiocontrast agents may cause acute renal failure, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. Direct cytotoxic effects of radiocontrast agents on renal tubular cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. METHODS: We analysed the cytotoxicity of the ionic radiocontrast agents diatrizoate (monomeric) and ioxaglate (dimeric), as well as of the non-ionic radiocontrast agents iohexol (monomeric) and iodixanol (dimeric) on the renal epithelial Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line grown on permeable supports. The toxicity assays assessed cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability between the apical and basal cell culture compartment. In addition, the distribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin was analysed using immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: In all assays the high osmolal ionic compound diatrizoate had significant cytotoxic effects that included the partial redistribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins into a cytoplasmic compartment. To a lesser extent this redistribution also occurred with the dimeric ionic compound ioxaglate, but not with the non-ionic radiocontrast agents. With regards to cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability the radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality were significantly less toxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionic strength. CONCLUSIONS: Physicochemical factors contribute to the cytotoxicity of radiocontrast agents in vitro. The redistribution of tight-junction-associated membrane proteins by the ionic radiocontrast agents corresponds with the loss of the barrier function of the epithelial cell monolayer, which is a major pathophysiological mechanism in acute renal failure. The radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality are less cytotoxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionicity. Hyperosmolality appears to be a more important determinant of the cytotoxicity of diatrizoate than ionic strength.  (+info)

Enhancement of endocytosis due to aminophospholipid transport across the plasma membrane of living cells. (6/6913)

Formation of intracellular vesicles is initiated by membrane budding. Here we test the hypothesis that the plasma membrane surface area asymmetry could be a driving force for vesicle formation during endocytosis. The inner layer phospholipid number was therefore increased by adding exogenous aminophospholipids to living cells, which were then translocated from the outer to the inner layer of the membrane by the ubiquitous flippase. Addition of either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine led to an enhancement of endocytosis, showing that the observed acceleration does not depend on the lipid polar head group. Conversely, a closely related aminophospholipid that is not recognized by the flippase, lyso-alpha-phosphatidylserine, inhibited endocytosis, and similar results were obtained with a cholesterol derivative that also remains in the plasma membrane outer layer. Thus an increase of lipid concentration in the inner layer enhanced internalization, whereas an increase of the lipid concentration in the outer layer inhibited internalization. These experiments suggest that transient asymmetries in lipid concentration might contribute to the formation of endocytic vesicles.  (+info)

Thorotrast associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver. (7/6913)

A case of nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver is described in association with exposure to the radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast. This is the first case in which the pathological findings have been fully documented. It is suggested that NRH may have developed through Thorotrast induced damage to portal vein radicles.  (+info)

Intravaginal saline as a contrast agent for cervical sonography in the obstetric patient. (8/6913)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intravaginal saline alters visualization of the cervix during endovaginal sonographic examinations. DESIGN: A prospective trial with comparison of sonographic measurements of cervical length prior to and after administration of an intravaginal contrast agent. SUBJECTS: Patients with an indication for endovaginal ultrasonographic assessment of the cervix were considered as candidates for the study. METHODS: After assessment of cervical dimensions and contour of the internal cervical os, 10 ml of normal saline was placed intravaginally via a needleless syringe. Pre- and post-contrast sonographic examinations of the cervix were compared. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were enrolled. No differences were observed in the identification of funnelling (37% in each group, p = 1.0) or the quantification of cervical length for the entire cohort (p = 0.95). However, in a subset of patients in whom the external os was not satisfactorily visualized (23%), intravaginal contrast resulted in a mean difference in cervical length pre- and post-saline infusion of 6.4 mm compared to 1.4 mm in patients in whom the external os could be easily identified (p < 0.001). No patient expressed undue discomfort related to the administration of contrast. CONCLUSION: Intravaginal saline assists in visualization of the cervix during endovaginal sonography for selected patients in whom precise identification of the external os is difficult.  (+info)

The term extravasation is commonly used in medical contexts to describe the leakage of fluids or medications from a blood vessel or other body structure. In the context of diagnostic and therapeutic materials, extravasation can refer to the leakage of materials such as contrast agents, medications, or other substances used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

Extravagation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials can have significant consequences, including tissue damage, infection, and systemic toxicity. For example, if a contrast agent used for imaging purposes leaks into the surrounding tissues, it can cause inflammation or other adverse reactions. Similarly, if a medication intended for injection into a specific location leaks into the surrounding tissues or organs, it can cause unintended side effects or toxicity.

To prevent extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials, healthcare providers must follow proper techniques and protocols for administration and use of these materials. This may include using sterile equipment, following proper injection techniques, and monitoring the patient closely for any signs of complications. In cases where extravasation does occur, prompt treatment and management are essential to minimize potential harm and prevent long-term consequences.

There are several different types of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Maculopapular exanthema (MPE): This is a type of allergic reaction that causes a red, itchy rash to appear on the skin. It can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
2. Exfoliative dermatitis: This is a more severe form of MPE that can cause widespread scaling and peeling of the skin. It is often associated with reactions to antibiotics and other medications.
3. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS): This is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. SJS can cause blisters to form on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as fever and fatigue.
4. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN): This is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. TEN can cause widespread peeling of the skin, as well as fever and fatigue.
5. Anaphylaxis: This is a severe allergic reaction that can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. It can cause symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.

Drug hypersensitivity reactions can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the medication that is causing the reaction, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, itching, and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the reaction.

Prevention of drug hypersensitivity reactions can be challenging, but there are several strategies that can help reduce the risk. These include:

1. Gradual dose escalation: When starting a new medication, it is important to gradually increase the dose over time to allow the body to adjust.
2. Monitoring for signs of a reaction: Patients should be monitored closely for signs of a reaction, such as hives, itching, or difficulty breathing.
3. Avoiding certain medications: In some cases, it may be necessary to avoid certain medications that are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions.
4. Skin testing: Skin testing can be used to determine whether a patient is allergic to a particular medication before starting treatment.
5. Desensitization: In some cases, desensitization therapy may be used to gradually expose the patient to the medication that is causing the reaction, with the goal of reducing the risk of an adverse event.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.

There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.

Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.

The exact cause of NFD is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the buildup of a protein called amyloid in the skin. This buildup leads to inflammation and the deposition of abnormal fibers in the dermis, which causes the skin to thicken and become rigid.

The symptoms of NFD can vary in severity and may include:

1. Thickening and hardening of the skin, particularly on the legs, arms, and torso
2. Limited joint mobility
3. Pain or discomfort in the affected areas
4. Difficulty with everyday activities such as walking, dressing, or bathing
5. Skin tightness and itchiness

There is no cure for NFD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include:

1. Topical creams and ointments to reduce itching and inflammation
2. Physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and strength
3. Pain management medications
4. Surgery to remove excess skin tissue
5. Dialysis-related treatments to address underlying kidney disease

It is important for individuals with NFD to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and helps manage their symptoms. With appropriate care, individuals with NFD can improve their quality of life and maintain their independence.

* Earache (otalgia)
* Fever
* Hearing loss or muffled hearing
* Discharge from the ear
* Redness and swelling around the ear drum
* Fussiness or irritability in infants
* Loss of appetite or difficulty eating
* Difficulty sleeping

Otitis media is caused by a virus or bacteria that enters the middle ear through the Eustachian tube, which connects the back of the throat to the middle ear. The infection can spread quickly and cause inflammation in the middle ear, leading to hearing loss and other symptoms.

There are several types of otitis media, including:

* Acute otitis media: This is a sudden and severe infection that can develop over a few days. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics.
* Otitis media with effusion (OME): This is a condition where fluid accumulates in the middle ear without an infection present. It can cause hearing loss and other symptoms but does not respond to antibiotics.
* Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM): This is a long-term infection that can cause persistent discharge, hearing loss, and other symptoms. It may require ongoing treatment with antibiotics and other therapies.

Otitis media can be diagnosed through a physical examination of the ear and a review of the patient's medical history. A doctor may also use tests such as a tympanocentesis (insertion of a small tube into the ear to collect fluid) or an otoscopic exam to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for otitis media depends on the type and severity of the infection, but may include:

* Antibiotics: To treat bacterial infections
* Pain relief medication: To help manage ear pain and fever
* Eardrops: To help clear fluid from the middle ear and reduce discharge
* Tympanocentesis: To collect fluid from the middle ear for testing or to relieve pressure
* Ventilation tubes: Small tubes that are inserted into the ear drum to allow air to enter the middle ear and help drain fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of otitis media persist or worsen over time, as untreated infections can lead to complications such as mastoiditis (an infection of the bones behind the ear) or meningitis (an infection of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of otitis media can be effectively managed and hearing loss can be prevented.

There are several possible causes of endolymphatic hydrops, including:

1. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
2. Acoustic neuroma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
3. Otosclerosis: This is a condition in which there is abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss and tinnitus.
4. Labyrinthitis: This is an inner ear infection that can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
5. Vestibular migraine: This is a type of migraine that can cause vertigo, nausea, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Symptoms of endolymphatic hydrops can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Vertigo (spinning or swaying sensation)
2. Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
3. Hearing loss or decreased hearing sensitivity
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Balance difficulties
6. Feeling of fullness or pressure in the affected ear

Diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and hearing tests. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications to relieve symptoms, dietary changes, or surgery in more severe cases.

Cicatrix is a term used to describe the scar tissue that forms after an injury or surgery. It is made up of collagen fibers and other cells, and its formation is a natural part of the healing process. The cicatrix can be either hypertrophic (raised) or atrophic (depressed), depending on the severity of the original wound.

The cicatrix serves several important functions in the healing process, including:

1. Protection: The cicatrix helps to protect the underlying tissue from further injury and provides a barrier against infection.
2. Strength: The collagen fibers in the cicatrix give the scar tissue strength and flexibility, allowing it to withstand stress and strain.
3. Support: The cicatrix provides support to the surrounding tissue, helping to maintain the shape of the affected area.
4. Cosmetic appearance: The appearance of the cicatrix can affect the cosmetic outcome of a wound or surgical incision. Hypertrophic scars are typically red and raised, while atrophic scars are depressed and may be less noticeable.

While the formation of cicatrix is a normal part of the healing process, there are some conditions that can affect its development or appearance. For example, keloid scars are raised, thick scars that can form as a result of an overactive immune response to injury. Acne scars can also be difficult to treat and may leave a lasting impression on the skin.

In conclusion, cicatrix is an important part of the healing process after an injury or surgery. It provides protection, strength, support, and can affect the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. Understanding the formation and functions of cicatrix can help medical professionals to better manage wound healing and improve patient outcomes.

There are two main types of Renal Insufficiency:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): This is a sudden and reversible decrease in kidney function, often caused by injury, sepsis, or medication toxicity. AKI can resolve with appropriate treatment and supportive care.
2. Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI): This is a long-standing and irreversible decline in kidney function, often caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, or chronic kidney disease. CRI can lead to ESRD if left untreated.

Signs and symptoms of Renal Insufficiency may include:

* Decreased urine output
* Swelling in the legs and ankles (edema)
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Pain in the back, flank, or abdomen

Diagnosis of Renal Insufficiency is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and a 24-hour urine protein collection. Imaging studies, such as ultrasound or CT scans, may be used to evaluate the kidneys and rule out other possible causes of the patient's symptoms.

Treatment of Renal Insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Treatment may include medications to control blood pressure, manage fluid balance, and reduce proteinuria (excess protein in the urine). In some cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of Renal Insufficiency includes managing underlying conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, avoiding nephrotoxic medications and substances, and maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle. Early detection and treatment of acute kidney injury can also help prevent the development of chronic renal insufficiency.

In conclusion, Renal Insufficiency is a common condition that can have significant consequences if left untreated. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of Renal Insufficiency, as well as the treatment and prevention strategies available. With appropriate management, many patients with Renal Insufficiency can recover and maintain their kidney function over time.

It is common for people over the age of 50 to develop diverticulosis as a result of the natural aging process, which can cause weakening of the colon walls. This condition usually does not produce any symptoms unless the diverticula (the pouches or sacs) become inflamed or infected.

Symptoms can include:

* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Nausea
* Vomiting
* Changes in bowel movements
* Rectal bleeding

Treatment for diverticulosis typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infections, and changes to the diet to help manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

IVDD can occur due to various factors such as trauma, injury, degenerative disc disease, or genetic predisposition. The condition can be classified into two main types:

1. Herniated Disc (HDD): This occurs when the soft, gel-like center of the disc bulges out through a tear in the tough outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves.
2. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD): This is a condition where the disc loses its water content and becomes brittle, leading to tears and fragmentation of the disc.

Symptoms of IVDD can include:

* Back or neck pain
* Muscle spasms
* Weakness or numbness in the legs or arms
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Loss of bladder or bowel control (in severe cases)

Diagnosis of IVDD is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment options for IVDD vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches such as pain medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to surgical interventions in severe cases.

In summary, Intervertebral Disc Displacement (IVDD) is a condition where the soft tissue between two adjacent vertebrae in the spine is displaced or herniated, leading to pressure on nearby nerves and potential symptoms such as back pain, muscle spasms, and weakness. It can be classified into two main types: Herniated Disc and Degenerative Disc Disease, and diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches to surgical interventions.

The exact cause of hemangiomas is not known, but they are thought to be caused by an abnormal formation of blood vessels during fetal development. Hemangiomas are more common in infants and children, and they tend to grow rapidly during the first year of life. They are usually small and do not cause any symptoms, but can become larger and more complex over time.

The diagnosis of a hemangioma is based on a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or MRI, and a biopsy. Treatment for hemangiomas may include observation, steroid medications, or surgical removal if the lesion is causing symptoms or is large and unsightly.

The following are some of the key features of hemangioma, cavernous:

1. Location: Hemangiomas can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
2. Composition: Hemangiomas are made up of abnormal and dilated blood vessels.
3. Size: Hemangiomas can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
4. Shape: Hemangiomas can be round or oval in shape, and may have a raised or depressed surface.
5. Color: Hemangiomas are typically red or purple in color, but can also be blue or brown.
6. Symptoms: Hemangiomas may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or bleeding, depending on their location and size.
7. Cause: The exact cause of hemangiomas is not known, but they are thought to be caused by an abnormal formation of blood vessels during fetal development.
8. Treatment: Treatment for hemangiomas may include observation, steroid medications, or surgical removal if the lesion is causing symptoms or is cosmetically unsightly.

The following are some of the key features of hemangioma, capillary:

1. Location: Hemangiomas can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
2. Composition: Hemangiomas are made up of abnormal and dilated capillaries.
3. Size: Hemangiomas can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
4. Shape: Hemangiomas can be round or oval in shape, and may have a raised or depressed surface.
5. Color: Hemangiomas are typically red or purple in color, but can also be blue or brown.
6. Symptoms: Hemangiomas may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or bleeding, depending on their location and size.
7. Cause: The exact cause of hemangiomas is not known, but they are thought to be caused by an abnormal formation of capillaries during fetal development.
8. Treatment: Treatment for hemangiomas usually involves observation and monitoring, but may also include surgical removal or laser therapy in some cases.

It's important to note that while hemangiomas are not cancerous, they can be difficult to distinguish from other types of vascular lesions, and a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. If you suspect you have a hemangioma, it's important to consult with a qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Arachnoiditis can be caused by a variety of factors, such as infection, injury, or certain medical procedures. It is often difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions, and there is no specific test for it. Treatment options are limited and may include pain medication, physical therapy, and other supportive measures.

Arachnoiditis is a rare condition, but it can have a significant impact on quality of life for those affected. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment may improve outcomes.

The exact cause of Meniere disease is not known, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance of fluids within the inner ear. Some research suggests that it may be linked to a virus or autoimmune disorder. There is no cure for Meniere disease, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms, including medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Some of the signs and symptoms of Meniere disease include:

* Episodes of vertigo (spinning) that can last for hours or even days
* Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Hearing loss in one ear
* A feeling of fullness or pressure in the affected ear
* Nausea and vomiting during episodes of vertigo
* Abnormal eye movements (nystagmus)

Meniere disease can have a significant impact on daily life, as it can make it difficult to perform daily activities such as working, driving, and socializing. However, with proper treatment and management, many people are able to lead fulfilling lives despite the condition.

Coronary Thrombosis can cause a range of symptoms including chest pain, shortness of breath, lightheadedness and fatigue. The severity of the symptoms depends on the location and size of the clot. In some cases, the condition may be asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during a medical examination or imaging test.

Diagnosis of Coronary Thrombosis is typically made using electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests and imaging studies such as angiography or echocardiography. Treatment options include medications to dissolve the clot, surgery to open or bypass the blocked artery or other interventional procedures such as angioplasty or stenting.

Prevention of Coronary Thrombosis includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking and diabetes through lifestyle changes and medications. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

There are several potential causes of chylothorax, including:

1. Injury or trauma to the chest wall or lymphatic vessels
2. Cancer, such as lung, breast, or lymphoma
3. Infection, such as tuberculosis or cat-scratch disease
4. Genetic conditions, such as Turner syndrome or Noonan syndrome
5. Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or sarcoidosis
6. Postoperative complications
7. Pancreatitis
8. Abdominal tumors
9. Thoracic injuries

Symptoms of chylothorax may include:

1. Shortness of breath
2. Chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or coughing
3. Coughing up cloudy, milky fluid (chyle)
4. Fever
5. Night sweats
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Swelling in the legs or arms

Diagnosis of chylothorax is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and ultrasound. Treatment options for chylothorax depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Draining the fluid from the pleural space through a procedure called thoracentesis
2. Medications to manage symptoms such as pain and fever
3. Surgery to repair any underlying damage or injuries
4. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat underlying cancer
5. Infection treatment if the chylothorax is caused by an infection
6. Conservative management with supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and respiratory therapy, if the condition is not severe.

Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare but can have serious consequences if they rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.

The symptoms of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm may include headaches, seizures, and visual disturbances.

If an intracranial aneurysm ruptures, it can lead to a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space around the brain), which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Diagnosis of an intracranial aneurysm typically involves imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may also involve catheter angiography.

Treatment for intracranial aneurysms usually involves surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, depending on the size, location, and severity of the aneurysm.

Preventing rupture of intracranial aneurysms is important, as they can be difficult to treat once they have ruptured.

Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the affected artery and a small coil is inserted into the aneurysm, causing it to clot and preventing further bleeding.

Surgical clipping involves placing a small metal clip across the base of the aneurysm to prevent further bleeding.

In addition to these treatments, medications such as anticonvulsants and antihypertensives may be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Examples of how 'Tissue Adhesions' is used in the medical field:

1. In gastrointestinal surgery, tissue adhesions can form between the intestines and other organs, leading to bowel obstruction, inflammation, or other complications.
2. In cardiovascular surgery, tissue adhesions can form between the heart and surrounding tissues, causing impaired heart function and increasing the risk of postoperative complications.
3. In gynecological surgery, tissue adhesions can form between the uterus and other pelvic organs, leading to pain, bleeding, and infertility.
4. In oncologic surgery, tissue adhesions can form between cancerous tissues and surrounding normal tissues, making it difficult to remove the tumor completely.
5. In chronic diseases such as endometriosis, tissue adhesions can form between the uterus and other pelvic structures, leading to pain and infertility.
6. Tissue adhesions can also form within the skin, causing keloids or other types of scarring.

Treatment options for tissue adhesions depend on the location, size, and severity of the adhesions, as well as the underlying cause. Some common treatment options include:

1. Surgical removal of adhesions: This involves surgically removing the fibrous bands or scar tissue that are causing the adhesions.
2. Steroid injections: Injecting steroids into the affected area can help reduce inflammation and shrink the adhesions.
3. Physical therapy: Gentle stretching and exercise can help improve range of motion and reduce stiffness in the affected area.
4. Radiofrequency ablation: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses heat to break down and remove the fibrous bands causing the adhesions.
5. Laser therapy: Laser therapy can be used to break down and remove the fibrous bands causing the adhesions, or to reduce inflammation and promote healing.
6. Natural remedies: Some natural remedies such as turmeric, ginger, and omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and may help reduce inflammation and improve symptoms.

Preventing tissue adhesions is not always possible, but there are some measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of their formation. These include:

1. Proper wound care: Keeping wounds clean and dry, and using sterile dressings can help prevent infection and reduce the risk of adhesion formation.
2. Minimizing trauma: Avoiding unnecessary trauma to the affected area can help reduce the risk of adhesion formation.
3. Gentle exercise: Gentle exercise and stretching after surgery or injury can help improve range of motion and reduce stiffness in the affected area.
4. Early mobilization: Early mobilization after surgery or injury can help reduce the risk of adhesion formation.
5. Avoiding smoking: Smoking can impede wound healing and increase the risk of adhesion formation, so avoiding smoking is recommended.
6. Using anti-adhesive agents: Applying anti-adhesive agents such as silicone or hydrogel to the affected area after surgery or injury can help reduce the risk of adhesion formation.

It's important to note that the most effective method for preventing or treating tissue adhesions will depend on the specific cause and location of the adhesions, as well as the individual patient's needs and medical history. A healthcare professional should be consulted for proper evaluation and treatment.

There are many types of lipoma, with different names depending on their location and the tissues in which they grow. Common types include:

-Intramuscular lipoma: These occur within muscles and can feel firm or hard to the touch.

-Subcutaneous lipoma: These grow just beneath the skin and are usually soft to the touch.

-Mixed lipoma: These contain both fat cells and other types of tissue, such as muscle fibers.

-Spindle cell lipoma: These lipomas have a characteristic spindle or cylindrical shape under a microscope.

There are several ways to diagnose a lipoma, including physical examination, ultrasound imaging, and biopsy. Treatment for lipoma usually involves monitoring the tumor over time, as it will likely shrink or stay the same size without any intervention. However, if a lipoma grows quickly, becomes painful, or is causing discomfort or functional problems, surgical removal may be necessary.

In conclusion, lipomas are noncancerous growths that occur just beneath the skin or within muscles and connective tissues. They are usually painless unless pressed, but they can still cause discomfort or functional problems if large enough. While surgery is sometimes required to remove a lipoma, it is usually not necessary as long as the tumor remains small and doesn't grow rapidly over time.

There are several types of intracranial AVMs, including:

1. Cerebral AVMs: These are the most common type of AVM and occur in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
2. Spinal AVMs: These occur in the spinal cord and are less common than cerebral AVMs.
3. Multiple AVMs: Some people may have multiple AVMs, which can be located in different parts of the brain or spine.

The symptoms of intracranial AVMs can vary depending on the location and size of the malformation. They may include:

1. Seizures: AVMs can cause seizures, which can be a sign of the malformation.
2. Headaches: Patients with AVMs may experience frequent and severe headaches.
3. Weakness or numbness: AVMs can cause weakness or numbness in the arms or legs.
4. Vision problems: AVMs can affect the vision, including blurriness, double vision, or loss of peripheral vision.
5. Confusion or disorientation: Patients with AVMs may experience confusion or disorientation.
6. Seizures: AVMs can cause seizures, which can be a sign of the malformation.
7. Cranial nerve deficits: AVMs can affect the cranial nerves, leading to problems with speech, hearing, or facial movements.
8. Hydrocephalus: AVMs can cause hydrocephalus, which is an accumulation of fluid in the brain.

The diagnosis of intracranial AVMs is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, neuroimaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and angiography. Angiography is a test that uses dye and X-rays to visualize the blood vessels in the brain.

Treatment of intracranial AVMs usually involves a multidisciplinary approach, including neurosurgeons, interventional neuroradiologists, and neurologists. Treatment options may include:

1. Observation: Small AVMs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to see if they grow or change over time.
2. Endovascular embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and directed to the AVM in the brain. Once there, the catheter releases tiny particles that block the flow of blood into the AVM, causing it to shrink or disappear.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the AVM. This is usually done when the AVM is large or in a location that makes it difficult to treat with endovascular embolization.
4. Radiation therapy: This may be used to shrink the AVM before surgery or as a standalone treatment.
5. Chemotherapy: This may be used in combination with radiation therapy to treat AVMs that are caused by a genetic condition called hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

The choice of treatment depends on the location and size of the AVM, as well as the patient's overall health and other medical conditions. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be necessary to achieve the best outcome.

1. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs): These are side effects caused by medications, such as allergic reactions, liver damage, or other systemic problems. ADRs can be a significant cause of iatrogenic disease and can result from taking the wrong medication, taking too much medication, or taking medication for too long.
2. Infections acquired during medical procedures: Patients who undergo invasive medical procedures, such as surgeries or insertion of catheters, are at risk of developing infections. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms that enter the body through the surgical site or the catheter.
3. Surgical complications: Complications from surgery can range from minor issues, such as bruising and swelling, to more serious problems, such as infection, organ damage, or nerve injury. These complications can be caused by errors during the procedure, poor post-operative care, or other factors.
4. Medication overuse or underuse: Medications that are prescribed inappropriately or in excess can cause iatrogenic disease. For example, taking too much medication can lead to adverse drug reactions, while taking too little medication may not effectively treat the underlying condition.
5. Medical imaging complications: Medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans, can sometimes cause iatrogenic disease. For example, excessive radiation exposure from these procedures can increase the risk of cancer.
6. Psychiatric iatrogenesis: This refers to harm caused by psychiatric treatment, such as medication side effects or inappropriate use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
7. Overdiagnosis: Overdiagnosis occurs when a condition is diagnosed that would not have caused symptoms or required treatment during the person's lifetime. This can lead to unnecessary testing, treatment, and other iatrogenic harms.
8. Unnecessary surgery: Surgical procedures that are not necessary can cause harm and increase healthcare costs.
9. Inappropriate referrals: Referring patients for unnecessary tests or procedures can lead to iatrogenic disease and increased healthcare costs.
10. Healthcare provider burnout: Burnout among healthcare providers can lead to errors, adverse events, and other forms of iatrogenic disease.

It is important to note that these are just a few examples of iatrogenic disease, and there may be other factors that contribute to this phenomenon as well. Additionally, while many of the factors listed above are unintentional, some may be due to negligence or other forms of misconduct. In all cases, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent iatrogenic disease and promote high-quality, patient-centered care.

Here are some examples of how 'Aneurysm, Ruptured' is used in different contexts:

1. Medical literature: "The patient was rushed to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe headaches and vomiting."
2. Doctor-patient communication: "You have a ruptured aneurysm, which means that your blood vessel has burst and is causing bleeding inside your body."
3. Medical research: "The study found that patients with a history of smoking are at increased risk of developing a ruptured aneurysm."
4. Emergency medical services: "The patient was transported to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm and was in critical condition upon arrival."
5. Patient education: "To prevent a ruptured aneurysm, it is important to manage high blood pressure and avoid smoking."

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Causes of Female Infertility

There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:

1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Some common types of spinal diseases include:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.

If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries is often caused by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. The plaque can also rupture, causing a blood clot to form, which can completely block the flow of blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.

CAD is the most common type of heart disease and is often asymptomatic until a serious event occurs. Risk factors for CAD include:

* Age (men over 45 and women over 55)
* Gender (men are at greater risk than women, but women are more likely to die from CAD)
* Family history of heart disease
* High blood pressure
* High cholesterol
* Diabetes
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise

Diagnosis of CAD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as:

* Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
* Stress test
* Echocardiogram
* Coronary angiography

Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and quitting smoking. Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgical intervention such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be necessary.

Prevention of CAD includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting regular exercise. Early detection and treatment of CAD can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:

1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.

Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.


The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.


Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.


Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.


Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.


Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

"Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging". Hindawi. "Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of ... Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons since 2006 and ... It covers the areas of contrast agents and molecular imaging, covering all areas of imaging technologies with a special ... Molecular imaging articles concentrate on the potential role played by MRI and PET contrast agents at visualizing, at the ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. MRI contrast agents (All articles ... In the United States, the research has led the FDA to revise its class warnings for all gadolinium-based contrast media. It is ... intravenous contrast agents) Blood pool agents (intravascular contrast agents) Organ specific agents (gastrointestinal contrast ... Taoka, Toshiaki; Naganawa, Shinji (2018-04-10). "Gadolinium-based Contrast Media, Cerebrospinal Fluid and the Glymphatic System ...
Post-Contrast Acute Kidney Injury and Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Adults". ACR Manual on Contrast Media. American College ... The AKIN criteria states that the diagnosis is made if within 48 hours from intravascular contrast medium exposure one of the ... Preventing nephropathy induced by contrast medium". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (4): 379-86. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp050801. PMID 16436769. ... for intra-arterial contrast medium administration with first-pass renal exposure (not passing lungs or peripheral tissue before ...
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in ... "contrast agent" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Thomson, K; Varma, D (2010). "Safe use of radiographic contrast media". ... In x-rays, contrast agents enhance the radiodensity in a target tissue or structure. In MRIs, contrast agents shorten (or in ... Available at "Safe use of radiographic contrast media - Australian Prescriber". Archived from the original on 2011-03-17. ...
"Contrast Medium-Induced Nephropathy (CIN) Gram-Iodine/GFR Ratio to Predict CIN and Strategies to Reduce Contrast Medium Doses ... A small bolus of radio-opaque contrast media is injected into a patient via a peripheral intravenous cannula. Depending on the ... "Iodine-containing contrast medium". InsideRadiology - The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists. Retrieved ... Bae, Kyongtae T. (2010). "Intravenous Contrast Medium Administration and Scan Timing at CT: Considerations and Approaches". ...
ACR Committee on Drugs and Contrast Media (2021). ACR Manual on Contrast Media (PDF). American College of Radiology. p. 9. ISBN ... "Adverse Reactions to Ionic and Nonionic Contrast Media. A Report from the Japanese Committee on the Safety of Contrast Media". ... Iodine-based contrast media used nowadays are water-soluble. These contrast agents are sold as clear, colorless water solutions ... will have six-fold increased risk to low-osmolar contrast media and 10-fold increased risk to high-osmolar contrast media. Over ...
Live cell imaging Phase-contrast imaging Phase-contrast X-ray imaging "The phase contrast microscope". Nobel Media AB. Zernike ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phase contrast microscopy. Optical Microscopy Primer - Phase Contrast Microscopy by ... resulting in low image contrast. In a phase-contrast microscope, image contrast is increased in two ways: by generating ... When light waves travel through a medium other than a vacuum, interaction with the medium causes the wave amplitude and phase ...
2009). "Contrast Media". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference (36th ed.). London: Pharmaceutical Press. p. 1478. ISBN 978-0- ... it is used as a gadolinium-based MRI contrast medium. BOPTA is a derivative of DTPA in which one terminal carboxyl group, -C(O) ... "Novel Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Synthesis and Characterization of the Ligand BOPTA and Its Ln(III) ... providing a mechanism for MRI contrast enhancement. 139La NMR studies on the diamagnetic La-BOPTA2− complex suggest that the Gd ...
Contrast media. A euthanaticum is used for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Euthanasia is not permitted by law in ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pharmaceutical drugs. Drugs & Medications Directory , Curlie Drug Reference Site ...
"Cholegraphic contrast medium". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Duncan, C; Riall, T (2012). "Evidence-Based Current Surgical Practice: ... A radiopaque cholegraphic (contrast) agent, usually iopanoic acid (Telepaque) or its sodium or calcium salt, is orally ... This excreted material will collect in the gallbladder, where reabsorption of water concentrates the excreted contrast. Since ...
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. 8 (1): 57-62. doi:10.1002/cmmi.1494. PMID 23109393. Yen YF, Le Roux P, Mayer D, King R, ... In contrast with conventional MRI, hyperpolarized experiments are inherently dynamic as images must be acquired as the injected ... In contrast with other metabolic imaging methods such as positron emission tomography, hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRI provides ...
"X‐Ray Contrast Media*." The Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1912) The Journal of the American ... Ray Contrast Media* Fantus, Bernard. Collection, [Box 1, Folders 13, 14, 15, 16], Special Collections Research Center, ...
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. 2018: e2483078. doi:10.1155/2018/2483078. ISSN 1555-4309. PMC 6305055. PMID 30627057. ...
Thomsen, Henrik; Muller, Robert N.; Mattrey, Robert F. (2012). Trends in Contrast Media. Springer Science & Business Media. p. ... Nick, Watson; Hefin, Jones (2018). "Introduction to contrast media". Chapman & Nakielny's Guide to Radiological procedures (7th ... Diatrizoate, also known as amidotrizoate, is a contrast agent used during X-ray imaging. This includes visualizing veins, the ... Diatrizoate is considered a high-osmolality contrast agent. Its osmolality ranges from approximately 1500 mOsm/kg (50% solution ...
MRI contrast agent and imaging of a breast cancer xenograft model". Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. 9 (4): 313-322. doi: ...
Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2011 Oct;6(5):346-69. Vp, Zharov; Ei, Galanzha; Ev, Shashkov; Ng, Khlebtsov; Vv, Tuchin (2006-12-15 ... "Advanced contrast nanoagents for photoacoustic molecular imaging, cytometry, blood test, and photothermal theranostics". ... "In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents". Optics Letters. 31 ...
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. 7 (3): 308-19. doi:10.1002/cmmi.499. ISSN 1555-4309. PMC 3883306. PMID 22539401. (Articles ...
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. 7 (4): 403-10. doi:10.1002/cmmi.1465. hdl:11250/2623054. PMID 22649046. Honoré A, Le Corre ...
... (CEUS) is the application of ultrasound contrast medium to traditional medical sonography. ... A bubble echocardiogram is an extension of this that uses simple air bubbles as a contrast medium during this study and often ... When specifically looking for a defect such as this, small air bubbles can be used as a contrast medium and injected ... Commercially available contrast media are gas-filled microbubbles that are administered intravenously to the systemic ...
Miscellaneous triggers include contrast media. Reactions to various foods that cause an allergic and inflammatory response can ... Furthermore, with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the delayed contrast-enhanced images show normal washout in the ...
ACR Manual on Contrast Media v10.3. 2017 (PDF). American College of Radiology. 2017. p. 6. ISBN 9781559030120. Archived (PDF) ... "Nycodenz®: A universal density gradient medium" Archived 2015-02-26 at the Wayback Machine, Axis-Shield Density Gradient Media ... Springer Science & Business Media. p. 235. ISBN 9781447117551. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Broe, Marc E. de; ... It is sold under the brand names Omnipaque,. It is also sold as a density gradient medium under the names Accudenz, Histodenz, ...
Trends in Contrast Media. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-642-59814-2. Davenport, Matthew (2020). "Use of ... Contrast media used for X-ray CT, as well as for plain film X-ray, are called radiocontrasts. Radiocontrasts for CT are, in ... Namasivayam S, Kalra MK, Torres WE, Small WC (Jul 2006). "Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: a primer ... Christiansen C (2005-04-15). "X-ray contrast media - an overview". Toxicology. 209 (2): 185-7. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2004.12.020. ...
Medium blue: Enhances contrast of Moon. Increases contrast of faint shading of Venus clouds. Enhances surface features, clouds ... Increases contrast of ice and polar caps on Mars. Improves visibility of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter and other features in ... Increases contrast of polar caps, clouds, ice and dust storms on Mars. Enhances comet tails. Dark green: Improves cloud ... Filters can be used to increase contrast and enhance the details of the Moon and planets. All of the visible spectrum colors ...
The quality of images made with this drug is equally good as with other low- or medium-osmolarity iodinated contrast agents ... McCormack PL (February 2013). "Iobitridol: a review of its use as a contrast medium in diagnostic imaging". Clinical Drug ... American College of Radiology (2021). "ACR Manual on Contrast Media" (PDF). pp. 45-46. Boehm I (September 2009). "Is ... Bae KT (July 2010). "Intravenous contrast medium administration and scan timing at CT: considerations and approaches". ...
Contrast radiography uses a radiocontrast agent, a type of contrast medium, to make the structures of interest stand out ... ISBN 978-1-85233-617-2. Yu SB, Watson AD (September 1999). "Metal-Based X-ray Contrast Media". Chemical Reviews. 99 (9): 2353- ... An iodine-based contrast is injected into the bloodstream and watched as it travels around. Since liquid blood and the vessels ... This improves the contrast resolution of the image, but also increases radiation exposure for the patient. Detectors can be ...
CT scans, including ones where contrast media is injected intravenously to better show the ureters, and with contrast to better ... Thomas, Adrian M. K.; Banerjee, Arpan K. (2013). "Contrast media and the renal tract". The History of Radiology. OUP Oxford. ... Ureteroscopy is most commonly used for medium to large-sized stones when less invasive methods of removal are not able to be ... even more when Tosten Almen published a ground-breaking thesis in 1969 based on the less toxic low-osmolar contrast media, ...
Through the endoscope, the physician can see the inside of the stomach and duodenum, and inject a contrast medium into the ... Bottinor, W.; Polkampally, P.; Jovin, I. (2013). "Adverse Reactions to Iodinated Contrast Media". The International Journal of ... disease or other serious morbidity Hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast medium or a history of iodinated contrast dye ... contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) is the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ...
Ferré JC, Shiroishi MS, Law M (November 2012). "Advanced techniques using contrast media in neuroimaging". Magnetic Resonance ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis at Curlie Database for analysis and comparison of ... There are other techniques under development that include contrast agents capable of measuring levels of peripheral macrophages ... Gadolinium can be administered intravenously as a contrast agent to highlight active plaques and, by elimination, demonstrate ...
It is a non-iodinated contrast media. Barium sulfate has been known since the Middle Ages. In the United States it had come ... "Contrast Materials". Archived from the original on 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2014-07-23. "Barium sulfate". Drug Information Portal ... Barium sulfate suspension, often simply called barium, is a contrast agent used during X-rays. Specifically it is used to ... "Choose READI-CAT® 2 Smoothies Oral Contrast for your CT Suite" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-11-29. Retrieved ...
Iodinated contrast medium is routinely used in CT and the main adverse events are anaphylactoid reactions and nephrotoxicity. ... The use of gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnancy is an off-label indication and may be administered only in the lowest ... Webb, Judith AW; Thomsen, Henrik S (July 2013). "Gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation". Acta Radiologica. ... MRI without contrast agents is the imaging mode of choice for pre-surgical, in-utero diagnosis and evaluation of fetal tumors, ...
The starkness of this contrast is evidenced by the many hills and mountains of the lower Highlands such as Ben Vorlich and Ben ... Stirling also has a Gaelic-medium unit situated in the city's Riverside Primary School which teaches pupils from across ... ISBN 0-85976-420-6. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stirling. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Stirling. Stirling ... Stirling and Clackmannanshire through the medium of Scottish Gaelic. Stirling: Gateway to the Highlands (1938) B&W 20 mins ...
In contrast, Chile had only recently began its foray in the art world and was a country with almost no native art movement or ... CADA represented the political opposition of the time and became critics of the media. Promoción 80, or Eighties Prom, was a ... under the tenets of conceptual art and a questioning attitude to the media and to other contemporary groups. Artists forming ...
Matthews, in contrast, became the Head of the Colored Division of the Republican National Committee in 1924. Matthews' position ... "Baseball Media Center: The W.C. Matthews Trophy". Harvard Baseball. Retrieved October 30, 2012. (CS1: Julian-Gregorian ...
In its course, the Marshal warned that, in contrast to the previous government, he will not be "competing" with the ministers ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kazimierz Bartel. Rzuty cechowane Nürnberg. Crimes against humanity (Volume 5) (Russian ...
Newspapers were one of the few mediums of Indies communication to the Dutch parliament, and as editor of the De Locomotief, the ... This announcement was a sharp contrast with the former official doctrine that Indonesia was a wingewest (region for making ...
In contrast, the portrayal of the mythos in Type-0 was praised by RPG Site's Erren Van Duine in an import review of the title, ... ASCII Media Works. 2011-10-27. p. 221. Gifford, Kevin (2011-10-19). "Japan Review Check: Final Fantasy Type-0". ... In contrast to Final Fantasy XIII, Tabata decided against creating any sequels to Final Fantasy XV, instead expanding the base ... The three games and their respective tie-in media were referred to as the "Lightning Saga" by Square Enix staff after the games ...
In contrast, earplugs can provide some attenuation to infrasonic sounds. There are two different types of earmuffs used to ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Earmuffs. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Hearing Protector ... Retrieved March 16, 2018 from ... Retrieved March 16, 2018 from ...
The letter "vav" (ו) was once pronounced like English "w", in contrast to its current pronunciation identical to the letter " ... mainstream secular pronunciations used in the media versus Mizrahi, Arab, or Orthodox Ashkenazi colloquial pronunciations). For ...
ISBN 978-1-317-47729-7. Couldry, Nick (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. London: Polity ... in contrast to such systems as SNA and to a lesser extent X.25 and Coloured Books where the systems are rather more complex." ... The model defined seven layers of computer communications, from physical media in layer 1 to applications in layer 7, which was ... intention was to reiterate that a goal of the Internet Architecture Board was to run IP on every underlying transmission medium ...
... bounded to the south by Syria and Mesopotamia and to the east by that part of Media known as Media Atropatene, which represents ... In contrast the emperors promised freedom of religious practice. Jewish communities in the area collected monies to send to ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient Anatolia. History of Anatolia Prehistory of Anatolia Ancient Regions of Anatolia ... while Armenia was a Main Satrapy within the Great Satrapy of Media. Anatolia remained one of the most principal regions of the ...
By contrast, the sense (or "Sinn") associated with a complete sentence is the thought it expresses. The sense of an expression ... ISBN 9780226224848 Gottlob Frege at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from ...
In contrast, Jenks was perfect for 14 appearances over 27 days (July 17- August 12). His teammate Mark Buehrle broke the record ... MLB Advanced Media. July 1, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.[dead link] "Fields bashes two homers as White Sox deflate M's". ... MLB Advanced Media. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012. Cowley, Joe (December 2, 2010 ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christopher Wylie. Christopher Wylie on Twitter Video interview with The Guardian, ... "in contrast with the contract with Mr. Wylie's entity Eunoia, where Eunoia received all of the page like data as well as dyads ... On March 27, 2018, Wylie provided evidence to the Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee of the UK Parliament that ... media and IP law, and being awarded the Dechert Prize for Property Law. Wylie has a PhD in predicting fashions trends from the ...
In contrast to Leeb and collaborators' other projects, Delerium has included several guest vocalists since the release of ... "Silence" 30-second sample Problems playing this file? See media help. The single "Silence", featuring vocals by Sarah McLachlan ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Special forces of the United Kingdom. Official UKSF (Reserve) website (Open Government ... The government and Ministry of Defence (MOD) have a policy of not commenting on the UKSF, in contrast to other countries ... Andover: Army Media & Communication. Autumn 2014. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2015. Releasable ... Washington: Sightline Media Group. Retrieved 22 January 2022. Brown, Larisa (25 November 2021). "British Army's elite Ranger ...
By contrast, the subjects in section 51 can be legislated on by both state and Commonwealth parliaments. However, in the event ... the enormous growth of electronic media content has given this power a much wider scope than could possibly have been envisaged ... By contrast, the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution contains a prohibition: "nor shall private property be taken ... some strong dissents to the effect that limiting expenditure on political advertising in the electronic media might actually ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Assyria. Ancient Near East Chronology of the ancient Near East History of Mesopotamia ... in contrast to the curly hair of the Assyrians). Inscriptions and annals from Ashurbanipal's time however offer no evidence ... Stellenbosch: African Sun Media. ISBN 978-1991201164. Reade, Julian (2011). "The Evolution of Assyrian Imperial Architecture: ... medium and heavy, with varying weapons, level of armor and responsibilities. While on campaign, the Assyrian army made heavy ...
In contrast to the uniformly plain look of the Amish and Old Order Mennonites, Hutterite clothing can be vividly colored, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hutterites. Christianity portal Amish & Mennonite Heritage Center Anabaptist Museum ( ... "BBC - Inside The Bruderhof - Media Centre". Retrieved October 10, 2019. "Fort Pitt Hutterite Colony (Frenchman ... media, and technology. Alberta Hutterites initially won the right not to have their photographs taken for their driver's ...
Crime is a substantial element in media news reporting. Media research is now determining whether the coverage of crime is ... Blue-collar crime is a term used to identify crime, normally of a small scale nature in contrast to "white-collar crime", and ... A further factor currently being researched is the role of the media in the social construction of "hot spots" or dangerous ...
The one-story Art Deco-style building features a yellow brick façade with contrasting red brick details. A semi-circular entry ... and Accompanying eight photos and Accompanying map Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fifth Street Historic District. ( ...
In contrast with Modern English orthography, that of Old English was reasonably regular, with a mostly predictable ... Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader/An Outline of Anglo-Saxon Grammar Wikimedia Commons has media related to Old English language. Old ...
In contrast, peddlers, for example, may take up a temporary pitch in a public place. Similarly, hawkers tend to be associated ... 2002 136 pages Media related to hawkers at Wikimedia Commons (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, CS1 Spanish-language sources ( ...
In contrast, passing air over several hot objects in series warms the air at each step, so the first may be over-cooled and the ... for physical properties of air, oil and water Wikimedia Commons has media related to Engine cooling. ( ... In contrast, a liquid-cooled engine might dump heat from the engine to a liquid, heating the liquid to 135 °C (Water's standard ...
In contrast, the water droplets that make up clouds are of a comparable size to the wavelengths in visible light, and the ... In 1986, P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger extended the Mie model to calculate scattering by a sphere in a homogeneous medium placed ... This is in contrast to Rayleigh scattering for small particles and Rayleigh-Gans-Debye scattering (after Lord Rayleigh, Richard ... 73, 765-767 (1983) C. L. Giles, W. J. Wild, "Fresnel Reflection and Transmission at a Planar Boundary from Media of Equal ...
In contrast, an editorial in the March 2010 issue of the Journal of Association of Physicians of India blamed the emergence of ... Bacteria that produce carbapenemases are often referred to in the news media as "superbugs" because infections caused by them ...
Viz Media licensed the series for an English-language release in North America. After her politician father is disgraced by a ... Manga Life's Ysabet Reinhardt MacFarlane commends the author for "contrasting the emotional moments and the hectic school ... Monkey High! at Viz Media Monkey High! (manga) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia (CS1 uses Japanese-language script (ja), ... "The Official Website for Monkey High!". Viz Media. Retrieved November 5, 2017. Deracomiのお知らせ [Deracomi announcement]. Betsucomi ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cervical cancer. Cervical cancer at Curlie (CS1 errors: missing periodical, CS1 Czech- ... with visual contrast provided by staining the normal tissues a mahogany brown with Lugol's iodine. Medical devices used for ... Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783540709749. Dürst M, Gissmann L, Ikenberg H, zur Hausen H (June 1983). "A ... stage does not incorporate lymph node involvement in contrast to the TNM staging for most other cancers. For cases treated ...
The "We Charge Genocide" petition received more notice in international news than in domestic US media. French and Czech media ... Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor writes that the contrast is a result of systemic injustices carried out over the course of centuries ... Catholic bishops gained media exposure for asserting that Pittsburgh's birth control efforts were a form of covert black ... However, 1973 media revelations about decades of government-sponsored compulsory sterilization led some to say that this was ...
The recording medium is the film itself, digital magnetic or electronic memory. The apparatus is directed towards the target ... Second, because of the high-contrast resolution of muography, a small void of less than 0.001% of the entire volume can be ... The apparatus is a muon-tracking device that consists of muon sensors and recording media. There are several different kinds of ... Electronic tracking data can be processed almost instantly with an adequate computer processor; in contrast, film muography ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pagani Huayra. Official website Pagani Huayra National Geographic - Supercars: Pagani ... The interior is also in contrast with the exterior colour and features white leather seats with turquoise floor mats and centre ...
... organic radiographic iodinated contrast media (ICM) have been among the most commonly prescribed drugs in the history of modern ... High-osmolality contrast media. High-osmolality contrast media consist of a tri-iodinated benzene ring with 2 organic side ... encoded search term (Contrast Medium Reactions) and Contrast Medium Reactions What to Read Next on Medscape ... Adverse reactions to ionic and nonionic contrast media. A report from the Japanese Committee on the Safety of Contrast Media. ...
... routes of contrast media administration, administration of contrast guidelines, reactions to contrast media and emergency ... 2. Discuss the uses of various contrast media. 3. Identify reactions that can occur with the administration of contrast media. ... 4. Explain the signs and symptoms of common reactions to contrast media. 5. Describe appropriate responses to contrast media ... 6. Identify indications and contraindications for contrast media. 7. Administer various forms of contrast media. ...
Thyroid function in very low birthweight infants after intravenous administration of the iodinated contrast medium iopromide ... Thyroid function in very low birthweight infants after intravenous administration of the iodinated contrast medium iopromide ...
... adult female dogs after intravenous injection of a bolus of four different doses of water-soluble iodinated contrast medium ( ... Effect of contrast medium dose and image acquisition timing on ureteral opacification in the normal dog as assessed by computed ... adult female dogs after intravenous injection of a bolus of four different doses of water-soluble iodinated contrast medium ( ...
Comparative Effect of Contrast Media Type on the Incidence of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta- ... Prevention Strategies for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy. * Prevention of contrast media-induced renal dysfunction with ... Treatment of adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media in adults. * Treatment of reactions to radiographic contrast ... Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of neurocutaneous melanosis. * Contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging as compared to contrast-enhanced ...
CONTRAST MEDIUM w kategorii CITADEL: TECHNICAL / FARBY CITADEL / Akcesoria Modelarskie ... Każda farba Contrast nałożona na jasny podkład Contrast zapewnia żywą bazę i realistyczne cieniowanie w jednej aplikacji. ...
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. Journal overview. For authorsFor reviewersFor editorsTable of Contents. Special Issues. ... MRI techniques as its signal is derived from intrinsic tissue contrast and therefore does not require an injection of contrast ... "Engineering of inorganic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents," Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 46, no. ... and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ...
Readymade godard brooklyn, kogi shoreditch hashtag hella shaman kitsch man bun pinterest flexitarian. Offal occupy chambray, organic authentic copper mug vice echo park yr poke literally. Ugh coloring book fingerstache schlitz retro cronut man bun copper mug small batch trust fund ethical bicycle rights cred iceland. Celiac schlitz la croix 3 wolf moon butcher. Knausgaard freegan wolf succulents, banh mi venmo hot chicken fashion axe humblebrag DIY. Waistcoat gluten-free cronut cred quinoa. Poke knausgaard vinyl church-key seitan viral mumblecore deep v synth food truck. Ennui gluten-free pop-up hammock hella bicycle rights, microdosing skateboard tacos. Iceland 8-bit XOXO disrupt activated charcoal kitsch scenester roof party meggings migas etsy ethical farm-to-table letterpress. Banjo wayfarers chartreuse taiyaki, stumptown prism 8-bit tote bag.. ...
ISS serves the biomed community by providing professional, timely and superior support and service for medical contrast ... ISS is dedicated to providing the very best in contrast injector support and service. ...
It is unknown how patients prioritize gadolinium-based contrast media (GBCM) benefits (detection sensitivity) and risks ( ... Prospective multicenter assessment of patient preferences for properties of gadolinium-based contrast media and their potential ...
Cos sweatshirt is refreshed with lively hues of brushed-back French terry and smart contrast stitching. ... s sweatshirt is refreshed with lively hues of brushed-back French terry and smart contrast stitching. ... Cos sweatshirt is refreshed with lively hues of brushed-back French terry and smart contrast stitching. *Relaxed fit; approx. ...
Watch Free JAVHD Madou Media MDX0261 Riding Contrast Black Silk Bitch Su Nianjin High Quality at JAVHDZZ. Beautiful Girl. ... Xingkong Unlimited Media XKG165 My sister is in the bath and my brother breaks in to fuck my sister Ono 01 Jun 2023 ... Jelly Media 91ZCM001 The Temptation of Reminiscing Killing ~ The Sister Langs Ecstasy Squeezes Essence Li Nana 01 Jun 2023 ... Tianmei Media TML017 Punish the wrong employee with a big cock Liang Jiaxin 31 May 2023 ...
Facebook is a social media network that is preferred around the world with over a billion users. It has a series of safety ... A Contrast Of One Of The Most Crucial Social Media Systems. March 9, 2023. by admin Leave a Comment ... The social media platforms of our focus are Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. You can begin work with a social media or ... Facebook is a social media network that is preferred around the world with over a billion users. It has a series of safety ...
Practice talks about prescreening intradermal skin tests cannot predict hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. ... Prescreening intradermal skin tests cannot predict hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Share this page:. * ... Hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is a persistent clinical issue due to widespread use of computed ... Prescreening intradermal skin tests cannot predict hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media ...
Iodinated Contrast Media: *. Cholografin meglumine (iodipamide meglumine, 52%) injection. *. Conray 43 (iothalamate meglumine, ... Iodinated contrast agents (numerous products). Myasthenia gravis exacerbation. FDA is evaluating the need for regulatory action ...
Social media marketing is a kind of online marketing ... A Contrast Of One Of The Most Essential Social Media Sites ... Pages In Social Media. Critically evaluate social media sites as tools for surveillance, administration and control along with ... Social media marketing is a kind of online marketing that focuses on social networks. Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Twitter, ... Even though every business SM strategy might be various, there are certain actions that social media sites groups need to ...
Italian media hand their ratings for Spezia-Juventus: Contrasting Argentines. February 20, 2023 - 12:00 pm ...
In contrast, no changes in cell size and brightness were observed, suggesting that deformability and cell stiffness measured by ... Real-Time Deformability Cytometry Detects Leukocyte Stiffening After Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent Exposure Invest Radiol. ... Objectives: Reports on gadolinium (Gd) retention in soft tissues after administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) raise ... Contrast Media* / chemistry * Gadolinium / chemistry * Gadolinium / pharmacology * Gadolinium DTPA * Humans * Leukocytes * ...
Contrast media-induced nephropathy: case report and review of the literature focusing on pathogenesis. Posted on September 14, ... Contrast media administration during diagnostic and invasive procedures in high risk patients for nephrotoxicity is a common ... The mechanisms involved in renal function impairment after contrast media administration are not precisely known but are ... This case suggests that even new generation contrast media (including iodixanol) may be severely nephrotoxic, when administered ...
Low osmolar contrast media. [Statutory Authority: RCW 51.04.020, 51.04.030 and 1993 c 159. WSR 93-16-072, § 296-23-150, filed 8 ...
Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 2016, 11, 467-474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Falanga, A.; Vitiello, M.T.; Cantisani, M.; ... In contrast, oncolytic adenovirus-serotype 5 modified to express an SCG3 promoter/ASH1 enhancer driven E1A gene expression, ...
... Contrast Media Iopromide 370 mgI / mL Intravascular Injection Vial 100 mL , 10/Case MCkesson 50419034610 ... Contrast Media Iopromide 370 mgI / mL Intravascular Injection Vial 100 mL , 10/Case MC 50419034610. Ultravist Contrast Media ... Contrast Media Gadoxetate Disodium. 181.43 mg / mL Injection Vial 10 mL , 5/Case MC 50419032005 MC-50419032005. Size: 10ml. ... Contrast Media Iopromide 300 mgI / mL Intravascular Injection Vial 50 mL , 10/Case MC 50419034405 MC-50419034405. Size: 50ml. ...
Thus, ionic radiographic contrast agents have antigenic properties in man. Irradiated mixtures of radiographic contrast media ... Immunologic basis for adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media Stejskal V, Nilsson R, Grepe A. Acta Radiologica 31(6): ... Lymphocytes from patients sensitive to amidotrizoate cross-reacted to structurally related ionic contrast media while non-ionic ... was used to elucidate whether certain side effects induced by radiographic contrast media have an immunologic etiology. Groups ...
Compare, Contrast, And Contradict: The media still doesnt get it. Intransitive - Published by Intransitive ... I could go on (and on and on…) but I think this paints enough of a picture of the status quo to contrast with NYCs…different ... the very mainest of mainstream media tosses around the phrase without a trace of critical analysis, never mind introspection. ...
  • Computed tomography (CT) excretory urography was performed in five adult female dogs after intravenous injection of a bolus of four different doses of water-soluble iodinated contrast medium (100, 200, 400, and 800 mgI/kg). (
  • We present the case of a 72-year old male patient with diabetic nephropathy to whom a new generation iso-osmolar contrast medium (iodixanol) was administered during intravenous pyelography. (
  • The administration of intravenous contrast media (IVCM), a fundamental element of expertise within the radiology field, is an example of such evolution in South Africa (SA). (
  • 2] The administration of intravenous contrast respondents (radiographers) indicated that they are currently media (IVCM), a fundamental area of expertise within the radiology administering IVCM. (
  • and be prepared to promptly recognize and manage any reactions to the contrast media. (
  • This course focuses on pharmacology principles, physiology of the vascular system, types and makeup of various types of contrast media, routes of contrast media administration, administration of contrast guidelines, reactions to contrast media and emergency treatments of contrast media reactions. (
  • 3. Identify reactions that can occur with the administration of contrast media. (
  • 4. Explain the signs and symptoms of common reactions to contrast media. (
  • 5. Describe appropriate responses to contrast media reactions. (
  • It is unknown how patients prioritize gadolinium -based contrast media (GBCM) benefits ( detection sensitivity ) and risks (reactions, gadolinium retention, cost ). (
  • In contrast, nineteen patients who experienced hypersensitivity reactions after ICM challenge had a negative IDT result. (
  • Prospective multicenter assessment of patient preferences for properties of gadolinium-based contrast media and their potential socioeconomic impact in a screening breast MRI setting. (
  • Reports on gadolinium (Gd) retention in soft tissues after administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) raise concerns about Gd-induced changes in the biophysical properties of cells and tissues. (
  • The nonionic monomers are the contrast agents of choice. (
  • Allow us to assist you in establishing your brand-new social media sites design and branding to make sure that your brand corresponds throughout all platforms. (
  • Don't breach any one of the terms of any one of the social media platforms themselves. (
  • By utilizing marketing tools such as Google Analytics, it is simple to determine social media sites platforms that bring the most worth for your organization. (
  • The social media platforms of our focus are Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. (
  • This makes social media platforms the perfect arena for addressing another health concern: the decline in blood donations for critical life-saving interventions. (
  • Critically evaluate social media sites as tools for surveillance, administration and control along with artefacts for innovation, entrepreneurship and cumulative activity. (
  • Contrast media administration during diagnostic and invasive procedures in high risk patients for nephrotoxicity is a common problem in clinical practice. (
  • The mechanisms involved in renal function impairment after contrast media administration are not precisely known but are intensively investigated, and new data have emerged in the literature lately. (
  • Due to the contrast agent administration, the patient developed irreversible acute renal failure and became dialysis-dependent. (
  • A number of clinical practice guidelines are available regarding safe and effective practices for the use of iodinated contrast media. (
  • Facebook is a social media network that is preferred around the world with over a billion users. (
  • Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Twitter, Xing as well as LinkedIn are amongst the presently most extensive social media sites. (
  • Particularly, it is vital to utilize renewable/recyclable biomass media as the support material of form-stable PCMs. (
  • This case suggests that even new generation contrast media (including iodixanol) may be severely nephrotoxic, when administered to high risk patients. (
  • If a person with an iodine allergy is given this type of contrast, nausea or vomiting , sneezing , itching , or hives may occur. (
  • Social media marketing is a kind of online marketing that focuses on social networks. (
  • Perhaps you're new to social media and also have not yet developed your brand name? (
  • However, we do not necessarily support or support all content on any type of feeds or websites stated on our social media channels. (
  • Before you or your youngster subscribe to a social media sites account, ensure you examine it out, consisting of the age demands, as well as are aware of any type of prospective threats. (
  • Nevertheless, given that millions of people use preferred social media sites sites, marketers can gain from the word-of-mouth they produce. (
  • You can begin work with a social media or marketing company as an aide or electronic content author. (
  • This training course will offer you an understanding of existing and also emerging innovation and also the ability to assess the influence of social media sites on commercial, public, as well as 3rd industry organisations in the UK and worldwide. (
  • Get in touch with the College of Nottingham with social media sites and our blog sites. (
  • Even though every business' SM strategy might be various, there are certain actions that social media sites groups need to comply with. (
  • The Office of External Affairs and also Communications recognises the benefits and opportunities that a social media sites presence supplies. (
  • Dakar - Like many countries, Senegal has seen a spike in social media usage during the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • An initiative launched by the Senegalese National Blood Transfusion Centre (CNTS) and supported by World Health Organization (WHO) seeks to capitalize on the country's skyrocketing social media usage to encourage more people to regularly donate blood. (
  • But at the same time, the rise in social media use during the pandemic felt like an opportunity to draw people's attention to a collateral crisis which they actually have the power to prevent. (
  • The CNTS social media campaign has helped those figures to rebound at a rate of 10% year on year. (
  • This medium Lisbona shopper comes in hammered faux leather with a double handle and the contrasting logo print. (
  • Some people have allergies to contrast dye. (
  • In contrast, only five in every 1000 people in low-income countries are blood donors. (
  • Classification of iodinated contrast agents by their molecular structures. (
  • RESEARCH and availability of antimicrobial agents are the same at all or nonresponsive acute otitis media. (
  • The most common type of contrast given into a vein contains iodine. (
  • ISS serves the biomed community by providing professional, timely and superior support and service for medical contrast injectors. (
  • ISS is dedicated to providing the very best in contrast injector support and service. (
  • Hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is a persistent clinical issue due to widespread use of computed tomography (CT) examinations. (
  • Osmotic effects of contrast media that are specific for the kidney include transient decreases in blood flow, filtration fraction, and glomerular filtration rate. (
  • You may not be able to get IV contrast if this is the case. (
  • The reliable sporty look of Style & Co's sweatshirt is refreshed with lively hues of brushed-back French terry and smart contrast stitching. (
  • We complement the meetings with numerous evaluations of exactly how public service media carry out on social networks. (
  • You'll find out everything about this area of expertise and also produce your own tactical as well as persuasive media plan. (
  • Since their introduction in the 1950s, organic radiographic iodinated contrast media (ICM) have been among the most commonly prescribed drugs in the history of modern medicine. (
  • In contrast, no changes in cell size and brightness were observed, suggesting that deformability and cell stiffness measured by real-time deformability cytometry are sensitive to changes in the physical phenotypes of leukocytes after GBCA exposure. (
  • In both populations, antimicrobial prescrip- ered from middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis tions were markedly reduced over time, especially for peni- media in southern Israel over a 6-year period. (
  • And if you're a member of the media, please contact CDC media relations at 404-639-3286, or send an email to media@cdc. (