Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
A fibromatosis of the palmar fascia characterized by thickening and contracture of the fibrous bands on the palmar surfaces of the hand and fingers. It arises most commonly in men between the ages of 30 and 50.
Permanent fixation of the hip in primary positions, with limited passive or active motion at the hip joint. Locomotion is difficult and pain is sometimes present when the hip is in motion. It may be caused by trauma, infection, or poliomyelitis. (From Current Medical Information & Technology, 5th ed)
A type of permanent damage to muscles and nerves that results from prolonged lack blood flow to those tissues. It is characterized by shortening and stiffening of the muscles.
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The shrinkage of the foreign body encapsulation scar tissue that forms around artificial implants imbedded in body tissues.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-positive, strongly proteolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It contains several forms of COLLAGENASE whose action can lead to GAS GANGRENE in humans and HORSES.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.
Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
3 beta,5,14-Trihydroxy-19-oxo-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. The aglycone cardioactive agent isolated from Strophanthus Kombe, S. gratus and other species; it is a very toxic material formerly used as digitalis. Synonyms: Apocymarin; Corchorin; Cynotoxin; Corchorgenin.
Plantar declination of the foot.
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.
Muscular rigidity which develops in the cadaver usually from 4 to 10 hours after death and lasts 3 or 4 days.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)

The clinical manifestations and pathomechanics of contracture of the extensor mechanism of the knee. (1/325)

Experience with thirty-eight Asian children and adolescents who presented with either stiffness of the knee, genu recurvatum, habitual dislocation of the patella or congenital lateral dislocation of the patella showed that all those disorders were manifestations of contracture of the extensor mechanism, which fell into two groups according to the components involved. In Group I the main components affected were in the midline of the limb, namely rectus femoris and vastus intermedius; these patients presented with varying degrees of stiffness of the knee, or worse, with genu recurvatum. In Group II the main components involved were lateral to the midline of the limb, namely vastus lateralis and the ilio-tibial band; these patients presented with habitual dislocation of the patella, or worse, congenital lateral dislocation of the patella. In both groups untreated patients developed secondary adaptive changes such as subluxation of the tibia or marked genu valgum which made operative procedures more formidable and less effective. Release of the contracture should therefore be performed as early as possible.  (+info)

Plasma from human mothers of fetuses with severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita causes deformities in mice. (2/325)

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterized by fixed joint contractures and other deformities, sometimes resulting in fetal death. The cause is unknown in most cases, but some women with fetuses affected by severe AMC have serum antibodies that inhibit fetal acetylcholine receptor (AChR) function, and antibodies to fetal antigens might play a pathogenic role in other congenital disorders. To investigate this possibility, we have established a model by injecting pregnant mice with plasma from four anti-AChR antibody-positive women whose fetuses had severe AMC. We found that human antibodies can be transferred efficiently to the mouse fetus during the last few days of fetal life. Many of the fetuses of dams injected with AMC maternal plasmas or Ig were stillborn and showed fixed joints and other deformities. Moreover, similar changes were found in mice after injection of a serum from one anti-AChR antibody-negative mother who had had four AMC fetuses. Thus, we have confirmed the role of maternal antibodies in cases of AMC associated with maternal anti-AChR, and we have demonstrated the existence of pathogenic maternal factors in one other case. Importantly, this approach can be used to look at the effects of other maternal human antibodies on development of the fetus.  (+info)

Dominant hereditary inclusion-body myopathy gene (IBM3) maps to chromosome region 17p13.1. (3/325)

We recently described an autosomal dominant inclusion-body myopathy characterized by congenital joint contractures, external ophthalmoplegia, and predominantly proximal muscle weakness. A whole-genome scan, performed with 161 polymorphic markers and with DNA from 40 members of one family, indicated strong linkage for markers on chromosome 17p. After analyses with additional markers in the region and with DNA from eight additional family members, a maximum LOD score (Zmax) was detected for marker D17S1303 (Zmax=7.38; recombination fraction (theta)=0). Haplotype analyses showed that the locus (Genome Database locus name: IBM3) is flanked distally by marker D17S945 and proximally by marker D17S969. The positions of cytogenetically localized flanking markers suggest that the location of the IBM3 gene is in chromosome region 17p13.1. Radiation hybrid mapping showed that IBM3 is located in a 2-Mb chromosomal region and that the myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene cluster, consisting of at least six genes, co-localizes to the same region. This localization raises the possibility that one of the MHC genes clustered in this region may be involved in this disorder.  (+info)

Bethlem myopathy: a slowly progressive congenital muscular dystrophy with contractures. (4/325)

Bethlem myopathy is an early-onset benign autosomal dominant myopathy with contractures caused by mutations in collagen type VI genes. It has been reported that onset occurs in early childhood. We investigated the natural course of Bethlem myopathy in five previously published kindreds and two novel pedigrees, with particular attention to the mode of onset in 23 children and the progression of weakness in 36 adult patients. Our analysis shows that nearly all children exhibit weakness or contractures during the first 2 years of life. Early features include diminished foetal movements, neonatal hypotonia and congenital contractures which are of a dynamic nature during childhood. The course of Bethlem myopathy in adult patients is less benign than previously thought. Due to slow but ongoing progression, more than two-thirds of patients over 50 years of age use a wheelchair.  (+info)

Pentazocine-induced fibromyositis and contracture. (5/325)

We report a case of myopathy, accompanied by widespread contractures predominantly involving the elbow and knee joints, following long-standing pentazocine abuse.  (+info)

The medial approach for operative release of post-traumatic contracture of the elbow. (6/325)

We treated post-traumatic contracture of the elbow in 13 consecutive patients (14 elbows) by operative release. Through a single medial approach, the posterior oblique bundle of the medial collateral ligament was resected, followed by posterior and anterior capsulectomies. An additional lateral release through a separate incision was required in only four elbows. The results were assessed at a mean interval of 57 months after operation. Before surgery active extension lacked 43 degrees which improved to 17 degrees after operation. Active flexion before operation was 89 degrees, which improved to 127 degrees. The mean arc of movement increased from 46 degrees to 110 degrees. All 14 elbows showed scarring of the posterior oblique bundle of the medial collateral ligament. Neither the interval from injury to operative release nor the age of the patient affected the results. A medial approach is useful to reveal and excise the pathological changes in the medial collateral ligament. It is a safe and effective route through which to correct post-traumatic contracture of the elbow.  (+info)

The effectiveness of turnbuckle splinting for elbow contractures. (7/325)

We have treated 22 patients with an elbow contracture using a static progressive turnbuckle splint for a mean of 4.5 +/- 1.8 months. All had failed to improve with supervised physiotherapy and splinting. The mean range of flexion before splintage was from 32 +/- 10 degrees to 108 +/- 19 degrees and afterwards from 26 + 10 (p = 0.02) to 127 +/- 12 degrees (p = 0.0001). A total of 11 patients gained a 'functional arc of movement,' defined as at least 30 degrees to 130 degrees. In eight patients movement improved with turnbuckle splinting, but the functional arc was not achieved. Six of these were satisfied and did not wish to proceed with surgical treatment and two had release of the elbow contracture. In three patients movement did not improve with the use of the turnbuckle splint and one subsequently had surgical treatment. Our findings have shown that turnbuckle splinting is a safe and effective treatment which should be considered in patients whose established elbow contractures have failed to respond to conventional physiotherapy.  (+info)

A case of congenital inverse Duane's retraction syndrome. (8/325)

Inverse Duane's retraction syndrome is very uncommon. Congenital cases are even more unusual. A 6-year-old girl with convergent squint along with severe restriction on abduction is described. On attempted abduction, a narrowing of the palpebral fissure, upshoot and retraction of the eyeball were observed. Brain and orbit MRI demonstrated no intracranial or intraorbital mass, fracture, or entrapment of the medial rectus. Forced duction test was strongly positive. The primary lesion was found to be a tight medial rectus with shortening and soft tissue contracture. Surgical tenotomy of the medial rectus led to successful postoperative motility, but some limitation at full adduction and abduction persisted. This is a case reported with congenital medial rectus shortening, suggesting that this condition may be one of the etiologies of the rare inverse Duane's retraction syndrome.  (+info)

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Dupuytren contracture is a medical condition that affects the hand, specifically the fascia, which is a layer of connective tissue beneath the skin of the palm. In this condition, the fascia thickens and shortens, causing one or more fingers to bend towards the palm and making it difficult to straighten them. The ring finger and little finger are most commonly affected, but the middle finger and thumb can also be involved.

The exact cause of Dupuytren contracture is not known, but it is more common in men than women and tends to run in families. It is also associated with certain medical conditions such as diabetes, seizures, and alcoholism. There is no cure for Dupuytren contracture, but treatments such as surgery or needle aponeurotomy can help relieve symptoms and improve hand function.

A hip contracture is a condition in which the range of motion in the hip joint is limited due to tightness or shortening of the muscles, tendons, or other soft tissues surrounding the joint. This can make it difficult for the person to perform certain movements, such as flexing the hip or bringing the knee up towards the chest. Hip contractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, surgery, prolonged immobility, cerebral palsy, and other neurological conditions. Treatment may include physical therapy, stretching exercises, and in some cases, surgery.

Ischemic contracture is not a widely recognized medical term, but it seems to be used in the context of pathological conditions that result from reduced blood flow (ischemia) to muscles or other tissues, leading to irreversible shortening and hardening of the affected muscle fibers. This process can cause restricted mobility and deformity in the affected area.

A more commonly used term is "Volkmann's contracture," which refers to a specific type of ischemic contracture that occurs in the forearm as a result of compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by increased pressure within a confined space (compartment) in the body, typically in the arm or leg, leading to insufficient blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscles and nerves within that space. If left untreated, it can cause muscle and nerve damage, resulting in contracture and loss of function.

In summary, ischemic contracture is a less specific term for a condition characterized by reduced blood flow to muscles or other tissues, leading to irreversible shortening and hardening of the affected fibers. Volkmann's contracture is a more commonly used term that refers to a specific type of ischemic contracture in the forearm caused by compartment syndrome.

Arthrogryposis is a medical term that describes a condition characterized by the presence of multiple joint contractures at birth. A contracture occurs when the range of motion in a joint is limited, making it difficult or impossible to move the joint through its full range of motion. In arthrogryposis, these contractures are present in two or more areas of the body.

The term "arthrogryposis" comes from two Greek words: "arthro," meaning joint, and "gyros," meaning curved or bent. Therefore, arthrogryposis literally means "curving of the joints."

There are many different types of arthrogryposis, each with its own specific set of symptoms and causes. However, in general, arthrogryposis is caused by decreased fetal movement during pregnancy, which can be due to a variety of factors such as genetic mutations, nervous system abnormalities, or environmental factors that restrict fetal movement.

Treatment for arthrogryposis typically involves a combination of physical therapy, bracing, and surgery to help improve joint mobility and function. The prognosis for individuals with arthrogryposis varies depending on the severity and type of contractures present, as well as the underlying cause of the condition.

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that can occur in susceptible individuals as a reaction to certain anesthetic drugs or other triggers. The condition is characterized by a rapid and uncontrolled increase in body temperature (hyperthermia), muscle rigidity, and metabolic rate due to abnormal skeletal muscle calcium regulation.

MH can develop quickly during or after surgery, usually within the first hour of exposure to triggering anesthetics such as succinylcholine or volatile inhalational agents (e.g., halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane). The increased metabolic rate and muscle activity lead to excessive production of heat, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and potassium, which can cause severe complications such as heart rhythm abnormalities, kidney failure, or multi-organ dysfunction if not promptly recognized and treated.

The primary treatment for MH involves discontinuing triggering anesthetics, providing supportive care (e.g., oxygen, fluid replacement), and administering medications to reduce body temperature, muscle rigidity, and metabolic rate. Dantrolene sodium is the specific antidote for MH, which works by inhibiting calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle cells, thereby reducing muscle contractility and metabolism.

Individuals with a family history of MH or who have experienced an episode should undergo genetic testing and counseling to determine their susceptibility and take appropriate precautions when receiving anesthesia.

A joint capsule is the fibrous sac that encloses a synovial joint, which is a type of joint characterized by the presence of a cavity filled with synovial fluid. The joint capsule provides stability and strength to the joint, while also allowing for a range of motion. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane. The fibrous layer is made up of dense connective tissue that helps to stabilize the joint, while the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and reduces friction during movement.

Capsular contracture is a complication that can occur after a breast augmentation or reconstruction surgery, where the body forms a capsule (a normal biological response) around the foreign material, such as a breast implant. However, in capsular contracture, this capsule tightens and squeezes the implant, causing the breast to feel hard, painful, and sometimes misshapen. It is classified into four grades (I-IV) based on the severity of symptoms, with grade IV indicating the most severe form, characterized by significant pain, implant palpability, and distortion.

Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that occurs naturally in the leaves, seeds, or fruits of some plants. It can also be produced artificially and added to various products, such as food, drinks, and medications. Caffeine has a number of effects on the body, including increasing alertness, improving mood, and boosting energy levels.

In small doses, caffeine is generally considered safe for most people. However, consuming large amounts of caffeine can lead to negative side effects, such as restlessness, insomnia, rapid heart rate, and increased blood pressure. It is also possible to become dependent on caffeine, and withdrawal symptoms can occur if consumption is suddenly stopped.

Caffeine is found in a variety of products, including coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, and some medications. The amount of caffeine in these products can vary widely, so it is important to pay attention to serving sizes and labels to avoid consuming too much.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

A splint is a device used to support, protect, and immobilize injured body parts, such as bones, joints, or muscles. It can be made from various materials like plastic, metal, or fiberglass. Splints are often used to keep the injured area in a stable position, reducing pain, swelling, and further damage while the injury heals. They come in different shapes and sizes, tailored to fit specific body parts and injuries. A splint can be adjustable or custom-made, depending on the patient's needs. It is essential to follow healthcare professionals' instructions for using and caring for a splint to ensure proper healing and prevent complications.

'Clostridium histolyticum' is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is known to produce several exoenzymes, including collagenases and gelatinases. This organism is commonly found in soil and the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can cause severe soft tissue infections, including gas gangrene, due to its ability to produce powerful toxins that can cause tissue necrosis. 'Clostridium histolyticum' is also used in medical treatments for conditions such as chronic wounds and urinary tract disorders due to its collagenase production.

"Anura" is a term used in the field of zoology, particularly in the study of amphibians. It refers to a order that includes frogs and toads. The name "Anura" comes from the Greek language, with "an-" meaning "without," and "oura" meaning "tail." This is a reference to the fact that members of this order lack tails in their adult form.

The Anura order is characterized by several distinct features:

1. They have short, powerful legs that are well adapted for jumping or leaping.
2. Their forelimbs are smaller and less specialized than their hind limbs.
3. Most anurans have a moist, glandular skin, which helps them to breathe and absorb water.
4. Anura includes both aquatic and terrestrial species, with varying degrees of adaptations for each environment.
5. They lay their eggs in water, and their larvae (tadpoles) are aquatic, undergoing a process called metamorphosis to transform into the adult form.

Anura contains approximately 7,000 known species, making it one of the largest orders of vertebrates. They have a cosmopolitan distribution and can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Anurans play essential roles in many ecosystems as both predators and prey, contributing to the regulation of insect populations and serving as indicators of environmental health.

A fascia is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, that covers, connects, and separates muscles, organs, and other structures in the body. It provides support and stability, allows for smooth movement between structures, and has the ability to transmit forces throughout the body. Fascia is found throughout the body, and there are several layers of it, including superficial fascia, deep fascia, and visceral fascia. Injury, inflammation, or strain to the fascia can cause pain and restriction of movement.

Acquired hand deformities refer to structural changes in the hand or fingers that occur after birth, as a result of injury, illness, or other external factors. These deformities can affect any part of the hand, including the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. Common causes of acquired hand deformities include trauma, infection, degenerative diseases such as arthritis, tumors, and neurological conditions.

The symptoms of acquired hand deformities can vary depending on the severity and location of the deformity. They may include pain, stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion, loss of function, and changes in appearance. Treatment for acquired hand deformities may involve a combination of medical interventions, such as medication, physical therapy, or splinting, as well as surgical procedures to correct the underlying structural problem. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms, improve function, and restore normal appearance and movement to the hand.

The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Brachial plexus neuropathies refer to a group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck and travels down the arm. These nerves are responsible for providing motor and sensory function to the shoulder, arm, and hand.

Brachial plexus neuropathies can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors. The condition can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis in the affected arm and hand.

The specific medical definition of brachial plexus neuropathies is:

"A group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, characterized by damage to the nerves that results in motor and/or sensory impairment of the upper limb. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with causes including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors."

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Halothane is a general anesthetic agent, which is a volatile liquid that evaporates easily and can be inhaled. It is used to produce and maintain general anesthesia (a state of unconsciousness) during surgical procedures. Halothane is known for its rapid onset and offset of action, making it useful for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia.

The medical definition of Halothane is:

Halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) is a volatile liquid general anesthetic agent with a mild, sweet odor. It is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in surgical procedures due to its rapid onset and offset of action. Halothane is administered via inhalation and acts by depressing the central nervous system, leading to a reversible loss of consciousness and analgesia.

It's important to note that Halothane has been associated with rare cases of severe liver injury (hepatotoxicity) and anaphylaxis (a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction). These risks have led to the development and use of alternative general anesthetic agents with better safety profiles.

Birth injuries refer to damages or injuries that a baby suffers during the birthing process. These injuries can result from various factors, such as mechanical forces during delivery, medical negligence, or complications during pregnancy or labor. Some common examples of birth injuries include:

1. Brachial plexus injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and feeling in the arms and hands, often caused by excessive pulling or stretching during delivery.
2. Cephalohematoma: A collection of blood between the skull and the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone), usually caused by trauma during delivery.
3. Caput succedaneum: Swelling of the soft tissues of the baby's scalp, often resulting from pressure on the head during labor and delivery.
4. Fractures: Broken bones, such as a clavicle or skull fracture, can occur due to mechanical forces during delivery.
5. Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding in or around the brain, which can result from trauma during delivery or complications like high blood pressure in the mother.
6. Perinatal asphyxia: A lack of oxygen supply to the baby before, during, or immediately after birth, which can lead to brain damage and other health issues.
7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the eye), often caused by pressure on the head during delivery.
8. Spinal cord injuries: Damage to the spinal cord, which can result in paralysis or other neurological issues, may occur due to excessive force during delivery or medical negligence.

It's important to note that some birth injuries are unavoidable and may not be a result of medical malpractice. However, if a healthcare provider fails to provide the standard of care expected during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, they may be held liable for any resulting injuries.

"Rana pipiens" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for the Northern Leopard Frog, a species of frog that is native to North America. This frog is commonly found in wetlands and near bodies of water in fields and forests. The Northern Leopard Frog is a smooth-skinned frog with large, well-defined spots on its back and legs. It is a common subject of study in biology and ecology due to its widespread distribution and adaptability to different habitats.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information.

Procaine is a local anesthetic drug that is used to reduce the feeling of pain in a specific area of the body. It works by blocking the nerves from transmitting painful sensations to the brain. Procaine is often used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or when a patient needs to have a wound cleaned or stitched up. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help determine the source of pain.

Procaine is administered via injection directly into the area that requires anesthesia. The effects of procaine are relatively short-lived, typically lasting between 30 minutes and two hours, depending on the dose and the individual's metabolism. Procaine may also cause a brief period of heightened sensory perception or euphoria following injection, known as "procaine rush."

It is important to note that procaine should only be administered by trained medical professionals, as improper use can lead to serious complications such as allergic reactions, respiratory depression, and even death.

Tetracaine is a local anesthetic commonly used for surface anesthesia of the eye, ear, and mucous membranes. It functions by blocking the nerve impulses in the area where it's applied, thereby numbing the area and relieving pain. It's available in various forms such as solutions, ointments, and sprays. Please note that all medical procedures and treatments should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Succinylcholine is a neuromuscular blocking agent, a type of muscle relaxant used in anesthesia during surgical procedures. It works by inhibiting the transmission of nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction, leading to temporary paralysis of skeletal muscles. This facilitates endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation during surgery. Succinylcholine has a rapid onset of action and is metabolized quickly, making it useful for short surgical procedures. However, its use may be associated with certain adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, muscle fasciculations, and potentially life-threatening hyperkalemia in susceptible individuals.

Breast implantation is a surgical procedure where breast implants are placed in the body to enhance the size, shape, and/or symmetry of the breasts. The implants can be filled with either saline solution or silicone gel and are inserted through incisions made in various locations on the breast or around the nipple. The goal of the procedure is to improve the appearance of the breasts and may be performed for cosmetic reasons, as part of a breast reconstruction after a mastectomy, or to correct congenital deformities.

The procedure typically involves making an incision in one of several locations:

1. Inframammary fold: This is the most common approach and involves making an incision in the crease beneath the breast.
2. Periareolar: This approach involves making an incision around the areola (the dark-colored skin surrounding the nipple).
3. Transaxillary: This approach involves making an incision in the armpit and creating a tunnel to the breast pocket.
4. Transumbilical: This is the least common approach and involves making an incision in the belly button and creating a tunnel to the breast pocket.

Once the implant is placed, the incisions are closed with sutures or surgical tape. The procedure typically takes 1-2 hours and may be performed as an outpatient procedure or require an overnight hospital stay. Recovery time varies but typically involves wearing a compression garment for several weeks to support the breasts and minimize swelling.

It is important to note that breast implantation carries certain risks, including infection, bleeding, scarring, capsular contracture (scar tissue formation around the implant), implant rupture or deflation, and changes in nipple sensation. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is necessary to monitor for any potential complications.

A finger joint, also known as an articulation, is the point where two bones in a finger connect and allow for movement. The majority of finger joints are classified as hinge joints, permitting flexion and extension movements. These joints consist of several components:

1. Articular cartilage: Smooth tissue that covers the ends of the bones, enabling smooth movement and protecting the bones from friction.
2. Joint capsule: A fibrous sac enclosing the joint, providing stability and producing synovial fluid for lubrication.
3. Synovial membrane: Lines the inner surface of the joint capsule and produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.
4. Volar plate (palmar ligament): A strong band of tissue located on the palm side of the joint, preventing excessive extension and maintaining alignment.
5. Collateral ligaments: Two bands of tissue located on each side of the joint, providing lateral stability and limiting radial and ulnar deviation.
6. Flexor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the palmar side of the finger joints, facilitating flexion movements.
7. Extensor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the dorsal side of the finger joints, enabling extension movements.

Finger joints are essential for hand function and enable activities such as grasping, holding, writing, and manipulating objects.

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

"Gallopamil" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use. It may be a misspelling or a misunderstanding of "Gallopamil," which is the international nonproprietary name (INN) for a pharmaceutical drug known as "Diltiazem."

Diltiazem is a calcium channel blocker, a type of medication used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of the blood vessels and slowing down the heart rate, which can help reduce the force and frequency of heart contractions and improve blood flow.

It's important to note that medications should always be taken under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional, who can provide accurate information about their intended uses, potential side effects, and appropriate dosages based on individual patient needs.

Strophanthidin is not a commonly used medical term, but it is a chemical compound that comes from the seeds of certain plants in the strokehantus family. It's a cardiac glycoside, meaning it has a toxic effect on the heart muscle and can affect its rhythm. In the past, it was used as a medication to treat heart failure and arrhythmias, but it has largely been replaced by other drugs that are safer and more effective.

In modern medical practice, Strophanthidin is not typically used clinically due to its narrow therapeutic index, potential for toxicity, and the availability of safer alternatives. It's important to note that the use of Strophanthidin or any other cardiac glycoside should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Equinus deformity is a condition in which the ankle remains in a permanently plantarflexed position, meaning that the toes are pointing downward. This limitation in motion can occur in one or both feet and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. Acquired equinus deformity can result from conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, trauma, or prolonged immobilization. The limited range of motion in the ankle can cause difficulty walking, pain, and abnormalities in gait. Treatment options for equinus deformity may include physical therapy, bracing, orthotic devices, or surgery.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

"Rigor mortis" is a postmortem change that occurs in muscles, starting to set in between two to six hours after death and becoming fully established within 12 hours. It is derived from Latin, where "rigor" means stiffness and "mortis" means dead. The process involves the depletion of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that normally maintains muscle fibers in a relaxed state. Without ATP, calcium ions flood into muscle cells, causing actin and myosin to bind together and creating rigidity. This stiffness typically lasts for about 24-36 hours before the body begins to decompose and muscles relax again due to autolysis. It is an important indicator in forensic science to help determine the time of death.

Muscle rigidity is a term used to describe an increased resistance to passive movement or muscle tone that is present at rest, which cannot be overcome by the person. It is a common finding in various neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stiff-person syndrome, and tetanus. In these conditions, muscle rigidity can result from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex arc or abnormalities in the basal ganglia circuitry.

Muscle rigidity should be distinguished from spasticity, which is a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone that occurs during voluntary movement or passive stretching. Spasticity is often seen in upper motor neuron lesions such as stroke or spinal cord injury.

It's important to note that the assessment of muscle rigidity requires a careful physical examination and may need to be evaluated in conjunction with other signs and symptoms to determine an underlying cause.

Immobilization is a medical term that refers to the restriction of normal mobility or motion of a body part, usually to promote healing and prevent further injury. This is often achieved through the use of devices such as casts, splints, braces, slings, or traction. The goal of immobilization is to keep the injured area in a fixed position so that it can heal properly without additional damage. It may be used for various medical conditions, including fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and soft tissue injuries. Immobilization helps reduce pain, minimize swelling, and protect the injured site from movement that could worsen the injury or impair healing.

Ketotifen is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer used in the prevention and treatment of allergic reactions. It works by blocking the release of histamine, a substance that causes allergic symptoms, and preventing the activation of mast cells, which play a key role in allergic responses. Ketotifen is available as an oral medication and is often used to treat chronic urticaria (hives) and other allergic conditions. It may also have some benefits in the treatment of asthma.

It's important to note that ketotifen should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, and increased appetite. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting ketotifen.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Lanthanum is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol "La" and atomic number 57. It is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that belongs to the lanthanide series in the periodic table.

However, in medical contexts, lanthanum may be mentioned as a component of certain medications or medical devices. For example, lanthanum carbonate (trade name Fosrenol) is a medication used to treat hyperphosphatemia (elevated levels of phosphate in the blood) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Lanthanum carbonate works by binding to phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract, preventing its absorption into the bloodstream.

It is important to note that lanthanum compounds are not biologically active and do not have any specific medical effects on their own. Any medical uses of lanthanum are related to its physical or chemical properties, rather than its biological activity.

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a specialized type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum found in muscle cells, particularly in striated muscles such as skeletal and cardiac muscles. It is a complex network of tubules that surrounds the myofibrils, the contractile elements of the muscle fiber.

The primary function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is to store calcium ions (Ca2+) and regulate their release during muscle contraction and uptake during muscle relaxation. The SR contains a high concentration of calcium-binding proteins, such as calsequestrin, which help to maintain this storage.

The release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is triggered by an action potential that travels along the muscle fiber's sarcolemma and into the muscle fiber's interior (the sarcoplasm). This action potential causes the voltage-gated calcium channels in the SR membrane, known as ryanodine receptors, to open, releasing Ca2+ ions into the sarcoplasm.

The increased concentration of Ca2+ ions in the sarcoplasm triggers muscle contraction by binding to troponin, a protein associated with actin filaments, causing a conformational change that exposes the active sites on actin for myosin heads to bind and generate force.

After muscle contraction, the calcium ions must be actively transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca2+ ATPase pumps, also known as sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (SERCAs). This process helps to lower the concentration of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasm and allows the muscle fiber to relax.

Overall, the sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a crucial role in excitation-contraction coupling, the process by which action potentials trigger muscle contraction.

Prenylamine is not a medical term in and of itself, but it is the chemical name for a medication that is sometimes used in the medical field. The drug is known as Phenelzine sulfate in its brand name form, with trade names including Nardil.

Phenelzine sulfate (Prenylamine) is a type of medication called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which helps break down certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. By blocking this enzyme's action, phenelzine sulfate increases the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Phenelzine sulfate is used primarily to treat depression that has not responded to other treatments. It may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as anxiety disorders or panic attacks. However, it is important to note that phenelzine sulfate can have serious side effects and interactions with certain foods and medications, so it should only be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

The deltoid muscle is a large, triangular-shaped muscle that covers the shoulder joint. It is responsible for shoulder abduction (raising the arm away from the body), flexion (lifting the arm forward), and extension (pulling the arm backward). The muscle is divided into three sections: the anterior deltoid, which lies on the front of the shoulder and is responsible for flexion and internal rotation; the middle deltoid, which lies on the side of the shoulder and is responsible for abduction; and the posterior deltoid, which lies on the back of the shoulder and is responsible for extension and external rotation. Together, these muscles work to provide stability and mobility to the shoulder joint.

Myofibrils are the basic contractile units of muscle fibers, composed of highly organized arrays of thick and thin filaments. They are responsible for generating the force necessary for muscle contraction. The thick filaments are primarily made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are mainly composed of actin. Myofibrils are surrounded by a membrane called the sarcolemma and are organized into repeating sections called sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle contraction.

Potassium chloride is an essential electrolyte that is often used in medical settings as a medication. It's a white, crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and has a salty taste. In the body, potassium chloride plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction.

Medically, potassium chloride is commonly used to treat or prevent low potassium levels (hypokalemia) in the blood. Hypokalemia can occur due to various reasons such as certain medications, kidney diseases, vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive sweating. Potassium chloride is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids, and it's usually taken by mouth.

It's important to note that potassium chloride should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can be harmful and even life-threatening. Hyperkalemia can cause symptoms such as muscle weakness, irregular heartbeat, and cardiac arrest.

Hand injuries refer to any damage or harm caused to the structures of the hand, including the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, blood vessels, and skin. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Examples of hand injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, cuts, burns, and insect bites. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury, but they often include pain, swelling, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or loss of function in the hand. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Breast implants are medical devices that are inserted into the breast to enhance their size, shape, or fullness. They can also be used for breast reconstruction after a mastectomy or other medical treatments. Breast implants typically consist of a silicone shell filled with either saline (sterile saltwater) or silicone gel.

There are two main types of breast implants:

1. Saline-filled implants: These implants have a silicone outer shell that is filled with sterile saline solution after the implant has been inserted into the breast. This allows for some adjustment in the size and shape of the implant after surgery.
2. Silicone gel-filled implants: These implants have a silicone outer shell that is pre-filled with a cohesive silicone gel. The gel is designed to feel more like natural breast tissue than saline implants.

Breast implants come in various sizes, shapes, and textures, and the choice of implant will depend on several factors, including the patient's body type, desired outcome, and personal preference. It is important for patients considering breast implants to discuss their options with a qualified plastic surgeon who can help them make an informed decision based on their individual needs and goals.

Meningomyelocele is a type of neural tube defect that affects the development of the spinal cord and the surrounding membranes known as meninges. In this condition, a portion of the spinal cord and meninges protrude through an opening in the spine, creating a sac-like structure on the back. This sac is usually covered by skin, but it may be open in some cases.

Meningomyelocele can result in various neurological deficits, including muscle weakness, paralysis, and loss of sensation below the level of the lesion. It can also cause bladder and bowel dysfunction, as well as problems with sexual function. The severity of these symptoms depends on the location and extent of the spinal cord defect.

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing meningomyelocele and preventing further complications. Treatment typically involves surgical closure of the opening in the spine to protect the spinal cord and prevent infection. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other supportive care measures may also be necessary to help individuals with meningomyelocele achieve their full potential for mobility and independence.

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"Dupuytren's contracture". Retrieved 12 March 2018. "Dupuytren's Contracture". National Organization for ... "Splinting after contracture release for Dupuytren's contracture (SCoRD): Protocol of a pragmatic, multi-centre, randomized ... In Dupuytren's contracture, the palmar fascia within the hand becomes abnormally thick, which can cause the fingers to curl and ... Dupuytren's contracture can also be experienced as embarrassing in social situations and can affect quality of life People may ...
... is a response of the immune system to foreign materials in the human body. Medically, it occurs mostly in ... Capsular contracture occurs when the collagen-fiber capsule shrinks, tightens and compresses the breast implant, much like the ... Moreover, because capsular contracture is a consequence of the immune system defending the patient's bodily integrity and ... The degree of an incidence of capsular contracture is graded using the four-grade Baker scale: Grade I - the breast is normally ...
Arapov's sign (contracture) is a pain reflex contraction of the right hip joint in appendicitis. Augustin, Goran (12 May 2014 ...
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... 1 (LCCS1), also called Multiple contracture syndrome, Finnish type, is an autosomal ... Pakkasjärvi N, Ritvanen A, Herva R, Peltonen L, Kestilä M, Ignatius J (2006). "Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCC) and ... Herva R, Leisti J, Kirkinen P, Seppänen U (1985). "A lethal autosomal recessive syndrome of multiple congenital contractures". ... "The assignment the lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) locus to chromosome 9q33-34". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61 (suppl): ...
... or (ACD intellectual disability syndrome) is a developmental ... "Alopecia-contractures-dwarfism-intellectual disability syndrome , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an ...
Mercier S, Küry S, Barbarot S (2016) Hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary ... Hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy and pulmonary fibrosis is a rare genetic syndrome ... The main characteristics of this condition are poikiloderma, tendon contractures and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Other ... tendon contracture and pulmonary fibrosis: a new autosomal dominant syndrome? Br J Dermatol 155(5):1057-1061 (Articles lacking ...
More subtle origins of fibrotic contracture in the anterior interval have also been attributed to plica (or naturally occurring ... Paulos LE, Wnorowski DC, Greenwald AE (1994). "Infrapatellar contracture syndrome. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term followup ...
Paulos LE, Wnorowski DC, Greenwald AE (1994). "Infrapatellar contracture syndrome. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term followup ...
"Dupuytren's contracture - Patient UK". Retrieved 2007-12-28. (CS1 maint: location missing publisher, CS1: long volume value, ...
The overlying skin is freely movable, and contracture of the toes does not occur in the initial stages. The typical appearance ... "Dupuytren's Contracture and Plantar Fibromatosis". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2007-12-28. "Plantar ... "Dupuytren's contracture - Patient UK". Retrieved 2007-12-27. Bunion Busters. "Plantar fibromatosis". Retrieved 2007-12-27. ... Fibromatosis Dupuytren's contracture Plantar fasciitis List of cutaneous conditions "OMIM Entry - % 126900 - DUPUYTREN ...
Brody IA (July 1969). "Muscle contracture induced by exercise. A syndrome attributable to decreased relaxing factor". The New ...
Republished as: Kulowski, J (2007). "Flexion contracture of the knee: The mechanics of the muscular contracture and the ... 10-1. ISBN 978-81-8419-181-3. Kulowski, Jacob (July 1932). "Flexion contracture of the knee". The Journal of Bone and Joint ...
"CONTRACTURE POUR ZEBINA" (in French). Le Figaro. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2021. "ZEBINA INCERTAIN CONTRE TOULOUSE" (in ...
The stone heart syndrome (or Ischemic myocardial contracture) is a Global ischemic contracture of the heart, leading to a firm ... Cooley, D. A.; Reul, G. J.; Wukasch, D. C. (1975). "Ischemic myocardial contracture ('stone heart'). A complication of cardiac ... Cooley, Denton A.; Reul, George J.; Wukasch, Don C. (April 1972). "Ischemic contracture of the heart: 'Stone heart'". The ...
The loss of range of motion in the joint may be due to a contracture. In extreme cases when the joint does not move at all it ... Flexibility (anatomy) Contracture Yazici, Y; Pincus, T; Kautiainen, H; Sokka, T (Sep 2004). "Morning stiffness in patients with ...
Splints help to support and keep limbs stretched, which delays or prevents the onset of contractures that commonly affect the ... Passive ROM combined with the use of night splints can significantly improve tendo-Achilles contractures. Virtual reality ... contractures and deformities. Specialized trays, input devices and software may also be prescribed to facilitate computer use. ... and contractures. Occupational and physical therapists address an individual's limitations using meaningful occupations and by ...
Bremer, F (1929). "Tonus and contracture of skeletal muscles". Arch Surg. 18 (4): 1463-1490. doi:10.1001/archsurg. ...
PIP5K1C Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1; 253310; GLE1 Leukemia, acute lymphocytic; 613065; BCR Leukemia, acute ...
Bach HG, Goldberg BA (May 2006). "Posterior capsular contracture of the shoulder". J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 14 (5): 265-77. doi: ... The next step is tightness of the posterior capsule called posterior capsular contracture. This type of problem reduces the ... Ticker JB, Beim GM, Warner JJ (2000). "Recognition and treatment of refractory posterior capsular contracture of the shoulder ...
Described Volkmann's Ischaemic Contracture in 1881. Devised a splint and a spoon which bear his name. His treatment of ...
McIndoe, A. H. (1958). "The surgical management of Dupuytren's contracture". American Journal of Surgery. 95 (2): 197-203. doi: ...
Intramuscular injections may cause fibrosis or contracture. Injections also cause localized bleeding, which may lead to a ... Singh, Dishan (2013). "Nils Silfverskiöld (1888-1957) and gastrocnemius contracture". Foot and Ankle ...
This tilting is due to sternocleidomastoid muscle contracture. FMC tumors are more common in males and the right ...
Capsular contracture is diagnosed through a visual and physical examiniation according to level of increasing severity based on ... Capsular contracture-which should be distinguished from normal capsular tissue-occurs when the collagen-fiber capsule thickens ... Moreover, the capsular contracture incidence rate is slightly greater with subglandular implantation. Subfascial: the breast ... To avoid the issue of capsular contracture, the implant is often covered frontally or completely with a mesh in biomaterial, ...
  • Arthrogryposis Burn scar contracture Capsular contracture Clubfoot Dupuytren's contracture Freeman-Sheldon syndrome Marden-Walker syndrome Muscle contracture Volkmann's contracture Clavet H, Hébert PC, Fergusson D, Doucette S, Trudel G (March 2008). (
  • Dupuytren's Contracture is a painless thickening and contracture of tissue beneath the skin on the palm of the hand and fingers. (
  • Dupuytren's Contracture affects the layer known as the fascia, which lies beneath the skin on the palm of the hand. (
  • Surgery is currently the only treatment available for Dupuytren's Contracture. (
  • The surgical treatment of Dupuytren's Contracture is widely available on the NHS. (
  • Does a 'firebreak' full-thickness skin graft prevent recurrence after surgery for Dupuytren's contracture? (
  • While it's true that the exact causes of Dupuytren's Contracture are yet to be fully determined, research has shown that there are several factors that contribute to its development. (
  • Although the evidence is not as strong as the non-occupational causes, recent research has suggested a possible link between Dupuytren's Contracture and over-use of the hands, through manual labour or regular contact with vibrating tools. (
  • The link with vibration and the hands means that the condition is similar to Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) , with those who suffer from HAVS also likely to be at a higher risk of Dupuytren's Contracture. (
  • As with any other form of work related upper limb disorder, your employer is under a duty to minimise the risk of you developing, or aggravating, a condition such as Dupuytren's Contracture by providing proper training on the use of tools and equipment, making sure that such tools and equipment are safe to use at all times, and that employees are given all the necessary protective gear. (
  • Because there are many prominent causes other than those that are occupational, you may be unsure as to whether you're entitled to compensation for Dupuytren's Contracture. (
  • What is Dupuytren's Contracture? (
  • Dupuytren's contracture is a fairly common disorder of the fingers. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture forms when the palmar fascia tightens, causing the fingers to bend. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture usually affects only the ring and little finger. (
  • No one knows exactly what causes Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • People who smoke have a greater risk of having Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • What does Dupuytren's contracture feel like? (
  • Xiaflex is an orphan-designated, biologic that offers clinicians a nonsurgical medical treatment option for Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • This approval was based on data from two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 374 adults with Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • Dr. Kimberly Young, a board-certified orthopaedic surgeon at Roper St. Francis Healthcare, discusses treatment for the hereditary condition Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture is a disorder of the palm of the hand and fingers. (
  • When the tissue just under the skin of the palm (i.e., the fascia) becomes thicker than normal, it may be a symptom of Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • No one knows what causes Dupuytren's contracture, but there may be some biochemical association with the fascia. (
  • Men over forty, for example, are more likely to develop Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • Usually there is a small lump or series of lumps and pits in the palm of those who have Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • The nodules that show up first may cause a little discomfort when they form, but Dupuytren's contracture isn't usually a painful condition. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture is a thickening of tendons in the fingers, causing one or more bumps in the hand and bending of the fingers. (
  • Graston therapy breaks up adhesions, including those involved with Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • This review aimed to compare injections of collagenase clostridium histolyticum with standard surgical treatments for Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • In Dupuytren's disease connective tissue in the palm of the hand thickens, forming fibrous cords which can cause one or more fingers to bend in towards the palm of the hand - this is called Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • There were 18,222 hospital admissions for Dupuytren's contracture in England between April 2012 and March 2013. (
  • The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of collagenase for adults with Dupuytren's contracture compared with surgery. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture is a progressive stiffening of the bands of fibrous tissue (called fasciae) inside the palms of the hands, causing the contraction of the fingers that can eventually result in a hand with a claw-like appearance. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture, also known as Dupuytren's disease, is a hand condition where the finger/s become difficult to straighten and start to bend inwards towards the palm. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture affects men more than women, with most cases in men over 50 and women over 60. (
  • The surgical approach depends on the position and severity of the Dupuytren's contracture, the condition of the skin and if there has been any previous surgery. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture is thickening of the hand fascia-the fibrous layer of hand tissue. (
  • A Carolina Orthopaedic and Neurosurgical Associates' (CONA) hand specialist prescribes a customized treatment plan to treat Dupuytren's contracture and reduce symptoms. (
  • The Dupuytren's contracture cause is not known. (
  • Surgery may be recommended to treat severe Dupuytren's contracture that does not improve after nonsurgical treatment. (
  • Dupuytren's contracture is an abnormal thickening of the tissue just beneath the skin. (
  • The cause of Dupuytren's contracture is unknown. (
  • There is no proven evidence that hand injuries or specific jobs lead to a higher risk of developing Dupuytren's contracture. (
  • Symptoms of Dupuytren's contracture usually include lumps and pits within the palm. (
  • The lumps can be uncomfortable in some people, but Dupuytren's contracture is not typically painful. (
  • If yes, then you may be suffering from Early Stage Dupuytren's Contracture. (
  • In this article, we will delve into all aspects of early-stage Dupuytren's Contracture, including its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. (
  • Dupuytren's Contracture is a progressive condition that affects the hand's connective tissue, causing the fingers to bend and curl towards the palm, restricting their movement and function. (
  • While the exact cause of Dupuytren's Contracture is unknown, it is more common in men over the age of 50 and those with a family history of the condition. (
  • There are several treatment options available for Dupuytren's Contracture, depending on the severity of the condition. (
  • The early stages of Dupuytren's Contracture can be mild and painless. (
  • In some cases, Dupuytren's Contracture can also cause the formation of small, hard nodules under the skin of the affected hand. (
  • The exact cause of Dupuytren's Contracture is unknown, but certain risk factors increase the likelihood of developing the condition. (
  • While the exact cause of Dupuytren's Contracture is unknown, researchers have identified several potential contributing factors. (
  • Another theory suggests that Dupuytren's Contracture may be caused by a genetic mutation that affects the production of collagen, a protein that helps to form connective tissues in the body. (
  • There are also several medical conditions that have been linked to an increased risk of developing Dupuytren's Contracture. (
  • Dupuytren contracture is a progressive tightening of the bands of fibrous tissue (called fascia) inside the palms, causing a curling in of the fingers that eventually can result in a clawlike hand. (
  • Dupuytren contracture develops in people who are genetically predisposed. (
  • Dupuytren contracture is a common hereditary disorder that occurs particularly in men, especially after age 45. (
  • About 5% of people in the United States have Dupuytren contracture. (
  • Dupuytren contracture is more common among people with diabetes, alcoholism, or epilepsy. (
  • The first symptom of Dupuytren contracture is usually a tender nodule in the palm (most often at the ring or small finger). (
  • The doctor makes the diagnosis of Dupuytren contracture by examining the hand. (
  • Capsular contracture has been one of the most commonly reported complications ofbreast augmentation. (
  • While we're recognized for performing a number of medical procedures with exceptional results, the meticulous precision and caring demeanor of our specialists makes our facility perfect for performing plastic surgery procedures as well as treating complications like capsular contracture. (
  • It is the best option because after surgery, the chest is not vestiges of suffering complications and subsequent contracture rate drops significantly. (
  • The experienced team of board certified plastic surgeons at the practice, with expertise in the area of diagnosis and surgical treatment of capsular contracture and other breast implant complications provides advanced solutions to this problem. (
  • His expertise lies in the area of breast revision surgery, and he has a flawless track record of successful revision procedures to address breast implant complications such capsular contracture . (
  • What is Capsular Contracture (A Common Complication of Breast Augmentation)? (
  • Capsular contracture is the complication of breast implants when the breast tissue surrounding the implant hardens which may cause a deformity of the breast or even cause some breast pain. (
  • Decreasing the risk of developing capsular contracture is the best way to avoid this complication. (
  • For women receiving breast implants during reconstructive or cosmetic breast surgery, scarring around the implant - called capsular contracture - is a common, costly and painful complication. (
  • Contracture is one such complication associated with amputation. (
  • Capsular contracture is the most common complication in interventions of breast implants. (
  • Capsular contracture is the most common complication following breast augmentation. (
  • Capsular contracture is a complication that is most likely to occur in the late stages of the recovery, most commonly four to six weeks after the surgery. (
  • Symptoms of Volkmann contracture affect the forearm, wrist, and hand. (
  • Symptoms of capsular contracture often begin within weeks of the original breast augmentation surgery, but capsular contracture can occur at any time. (
  • The classic triad of symptoms of EDMD that functions in maintaining cellctoccell adc are: early contractures, particularly of the hesion and conduction may be responsible elbows, Achilles tendon, and posterior cerc for arrhythmic involvement [ 5 ]. (
  • Most of the physical therapy, occupational therapy and other exercise regimens targeted towards people with spasticity focuses on trying to prevent contractures from happening in the first place. (
  • Regular movement, range of motion, and stretching exercises can help prevent contractures. (
  • Even in these situations, the early involvement of an occupational or physical therapist can help to prevent contractures from developing in the first place. (
  • If the patient is bedridden, even moving them from the bed to a wheelchair and adjusting their body position can help prevent contractures. (
  • In pathology, a contracture is a shortening of muscles, tendons, skin, and nearby soft tissues that causes the joints to shorten and become very stiff, preventing normal movement. (
  • Contractures develop usually when normally elastic tissues such as muscles or tendons are replaced by inelastic tissues (fibrosis). (
  • A contracture is usually caused by changes in the skin, muscles, tendons, cartilage, or ligaments that surround the joint. (
  • The objective of the present report is to describe the case of a calf with severe contracture of the forelimb flexor tendons and its surgical correction by tenotomy of the forelimb tendons. (
  • Contractures mostly occur in the skin, the tissues underneath, and the muscles, tendons, and ligaments surrounding a joint. (
  • Previously, silicone breast implants were found to have a higher risk of capsular contracture when compared to saline breast implants. (
  • Surgery can help alleviate skin contractures in the form of skin grafts and removal of hypertrophic scars. (
  • For hypertrophic scars, timing is important when considering surgery, as over time scars will mature and may show decreased contractures along with flattening, softening, and repigmentation without surgical intervention. (
  • People with moderate or severe contracture who need major surgery may not regain full function. (
  • Surgery and injections can be performed to release the contracture and restore normal movement of the fingers. (
  • Pain after an injury or surgery may prevent you from regularly moving an affected joint, and lead to a contracture. (
  • The variability of the capsular contracture rate could depend on multiple factors: textured versus smooth breast implants, placement of breast implants underneath or above the pectoral/chest wall muscles, the use of saline or silicone breast implants, and the type of irrigation used during surgery. (
  • Other techniques that have been used to reduce risk for capsular contracture include antibiotics during the surgery. (
  • William Umansky, MD and Dr. Jeffery Umansky always discuss these and other options for avoiding capsular contracture with patients prior to breast augmentation surgery. (
  • We believe that omega-3 supplement is a simple and promising method that could be used to prevent or at least reduce capsular contracture after silicone implant surgery," the researchers write. (
  • Could fish oil help to prevent capsular contracture in women undergoing breast surgery using implants? (
  • Surgery may be helpful for some types of contractures. (
  • Fortunately, capsular contracture requiring additional surgery occurs in only about 5 percent of` women. (
  • Elithon from Tanzania raised $874 to fund burn contracture release surgery. (
  • On February 27th, surgeons at AMH's care center will perform a burn contracture release surgery that will help him use his hand again. (
  • Elithon underwent burn contracture release surgery. (
  • Surgery is commonly used to treat moderate and severe contractures by removing the thickened tissue to release the tightness in the hand. (
  • One of the primary causes that may lead to the need for breast revision surgery is capsular contracture . (
  • The team includes Dr. Seify, a board certified plastic surgeon with expertise in various types of capsular contracture surgery. (
  • Capsular contracture remains a problem following breast implant surgery . (
  • A skin contracture due to a burn is known as a burn scar contracture. (
  • Elithon was diagnosed with burn scar contracture on his right hand, which greatly limited his ability to use his hand and fingers. (
  • Since capsular contracture occurs when the immune system defends a patient's body integrity and health, it can reoccur after corrective treatment. (
  • If a capsular contracture occurs around a gel implant many years after augmentation, it could be a sign of an implant rupture. (
  • Implant studies of how often capsular contracture occurs will vary depending on type of procedure (above or below muscle implant placement) and the type of implant (silicone or saline). (
  • Capsular contracture occurs when the body of the patient completely refuses the foreign substance, which is called an excessive fibrotic reaction to a foreign body. (
  • Once the patient has experienced capsular contracture, the implant and the capsule must be removed. (
  • Capsular contracture (CC) is a breast augmentation problem that can develop when internal scar tissue forms a tight or constricting capsule around a breast implant, causing it to become misshaped and hard. (
  • The cause of excessive capsule formation, or capsular contracture, is not known. (
  • Capsular contracture is a discomforting and painful situation that occurs when the collagen-fiber capsule narrows and shrinks, compressing and squeezing the breast implant, and collapses it. (
  • Capsule contracture developed only on infected rough-textured implants. (
  • Despite high bacterial load and biofilm formation, polyurethane implants are resistant to capsule contracture due to surface characteristics. (
  • The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a reduction in contracture of the selected primary joint (metacarpophalangeal joints [MP] or proximal interphalangeal joints [PIP]) to within 0° to 5° of normal, 30 days after the last injection of that joint on Days 30, 60, or 90 (after up to 3 injections). (
  • Clinical success was defined as a reduction in contracture to between 0° to 5° of normal, 30 days after the last injection. (
  • The condition is also called Volkmann ischemic contracture. (
  • In 1881, Richard von Volkmann attempted to ascribe irreversible contractures of the flexor muscles of the hand to ischemic processes in the forearm, in the belief that the problem was caused by massive venous stasis and simultaneous arterial insufficiency secondary to overly tight bandages. (
  • he was also the first to suggest that elevated tissue pressure may be causally related to ischemic contracture. (
  • Volkmann contracture is a deformity of the hand, fingers, and wrist caused by injury to the muscles of the forearm. (
  • Volkmann contracture occurs when there is a lack of blood flow (ischemia) to the forearm. (
  • In Volkmann contracture, the muscles of the forearm are severely injured. (
  • If the provider suspects Volkmann contracture, detailed questions will be asked about past injury or conditions that affected the arm. (
  • Untreated, Volkmann contracture results in partial or complete loss of function of the arm and hand. (
  • Volkmann contracture (see the image below) is a permanent shortening of forearm muscles, usually resulting from injury, that gives rise to a clawlike deformity of the hand, fingers, and wrist. (
  • Nondisplaced supracondylar fractures rarely cause Volkmann contracture. (
  • Initial treatment for Volkmann contracture consists of removal of occlusive dressings or splitting or removal of casts. (
  • Emergency fasciotomy is required to prevent progression to Volkmann contracture. (
  • Both physical therapy and occupational therapy are vital to the improvement of range of motion and the return of function in patients with Volkmann contracture. (
  • Congenital Volkmann contracture has been desribed but is rare. (
  • In 1909, Thomas reviewed the 112 published cases of Volkmann contracture and found fractures to be the predominant cause. (
  • Since then, much has been learned about the etiologies of Volkmann contracture and, more important, about its preventive therapies. (
  • In 1914, Murphy was the first to suggest that fasciotomy might prevent Volkmann contracture. (
  • During World War II and subsequently, many cases of Volkmann contracture occurred as a result of high-velocity gunshot wounds that caused fractures. (
  • Mild -- contracture of 2 or 3 fingers only, with no or limited loss of feeling. (
  • For mild contracture, muscle stretching exercises and splinting the affected fingers may be done. (
  • Outcome is usually good for people with mild contracture. (
  • Foal with flexor tendon contracture centered at the carpus. (
  • Congenital flexor tendon contracture in forelimbs is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal abnormalities in neonatal calves. (
  • This photo shows the curling in (contracture) of the little finger caused by tightening of bands of fibrous tissue (called fascia) around the tendon inside the palm. (
  • This leads to contracture deformities of the fingers, hand, and wrist. (
  • Being that our fingers are slightly bent when our hand is relaxed, many people put up with the contracture for a long time. (
  • The position of the fingers can sometimes be corrected with mild contractures, or with those that change the finger near the base. (
  • Simple and easy to use, the Palm Contracture Cone is one of many methods of treating and aiding patients at risk of hand contractures or with problematic skin breakdown on their fingers or palms. (
  • The Palm Contracture Cone with Finger Separators, like the regular Palm Contracture Cone, is a highly useful tool to help prevent and aid in the recovery of hand and finger contracture as well as skin deterioration of the palm and fingers. (
  • A sharp blade or a very fine needle is inserted into the fibrous bands of the palm or fingers to divide the thickened connective tissue and release the tightness in the hand that is causing the contracture. (
  • Textured breast implants have been found to have a lower rate of capsular contracture than smooth implants, whether silicone or saline breast implants were used. (
  • With the new generation of silicone breast implants, however, the capsular contracture rate was found to be significantly different (lower rate) from the older ones. (
  • A recent study showed that there was no significant difference between silicone breast implants and saline breast implants with regards to clinically significant capsular contracture. (
  • A recent systematic review of the literature, however, has not elucidated a consensus whether there is a difference in the rate of capsular contracture between saline and silicone breast implants. (
  • Schaub T., Ahmad J., & Rohrich, R. Capsular contracture with breast implants in the cosmetic patient: Saline versus Silicone-A systemic Review of the Literature. (
  • Symptomatic capsular contracture rates appear to be lower with saline implants than with silicone gel implants. (
  • Capsular contracture around silicone miniimplants following bacterial contamination: an in vivo comparative experimental study between textured and polyurethane implants. (
  • A contracture develops when the normally stretchy (elastic) tissues are replaced by nonstretchy (inelastic) fiber-like tissue. (
  • In regards to muscle, these include (but not limited to): Ischemia (restriction of blood flow) leading to the death of muscle tissue, as in Volkmann's contracture. (
  • A contracture is limited movement of a joint. (
  • The proportion of patients who achieved a contracture reduction of the primary joint to 0° to 5° after the first injection compared to placebo was 39% versus 1% in Study 1 and 27% versus 5% in Study 2, respectively. (
  • Campbell TM, Dudek N, Trudel G. Joint contractures. (
  • A person with a below-the-knee amputation, for example, could experience contracture in the knee joint. (
  • Amputation contractures can be caused by damage to the joint area or by inactivity. (
  • Treatment aims to reduce finger joint contractures to improve hand function and activity performance. (
  • We used the COPM (score range 1-10), the QuickDASH (score range 0-100) and measurement of finger joint contracture before and 5 weeks after treatment. (
  • Treatment depends on the cause of your contracture. (
  • Without treatment, the contracture can become so severe that you cannot straighten your finger, and eventually you may not be able to use your hand effectively. (
  • However, research on sustained traction of connective tissue in approaches such as adaptive yoga has demonstrated that contracture can be reduced, at the same time that tendency toward spasticity is addressed. (
  • He also suggested that tissue pressure and fasciotomy were related to the development of contracture. (
  • The contracture is like extra scar tissue just under the skin. (
  • It is only when this scar tissue thickens or contracts and restricts the movement of the implant, that the breast is said to have a contracture. (
  • But in capsular contracture, the tissue hardens into a shell that becomes thicker and firmer over time. (
  • Amputation contractures happen when the soft tissue closest to the point of amputation is shortened, tightening and contracting. (
  • The Palm Contracture Grips differ from our other conical contracture products in that they feature a non-latex elastic strap rather than a snap button foam strap. (
  • The elastic strap featured on the Palm Contracture grips offers a more secure fit and less risk of a patient idly discarding the contracture. (
  • Because amputation contractures are extremely difficult to remedy once they develop, prevention is key. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data provide benchmarks for evaluating impairments in adolescents with CP and support the role of function in contracture development and possibly prevention. (
  • Contracture at the shoulder or elbow can happen in bedridden patients and those with upper limb or extremity amputations. (
  • The good news is that amputation contractures can be prevented with the proper approach and effort by medical practitioners and patients. (
  • Contracture cushions are also effective with patients who fidget and are restless when confined to their bed. (
  • Like other palm contracture products , the Palm Contracture Grips provides a comfortable experience for patients and users. (
  • The Palm Contracture Grips is effective at providing aid to and preventing instances of hand contracture and skin deterioration in patients. (
  • The Palm Contracture Grips provides high risk IV pulling patients with a distraction to keep their idle hands occupied and makes it much more difficult for them to grasp at their IV tubes to pull at them or remove them. (
  • The Palm Contracture Grips places patients' hands in a natural and comfortable position to assist speedy recovery and to prevent skin deterioration from worsening. (
  • This can be useful for patients with more severe cases of skin deterioration, hand contracture, or for restraining patients who are exceptionally at risk of pulling out their IV tubing. (
  • Although completely preventing capsular contracture is impossible for some patients, there are a number of ways to lower the risk of occurrence of capsular contracture. (
  • Air-Foam Ankle Brace Multicast Air Foam Ankle Brace, treats plantar fasciitis, pronation indications, Achilles tendonitis and plantar flexion contractures. (
  • Treats plantar fasciitis, pronation indications, Achilles tendonitis and plantar flexion contractures. (
  • Note the flexion contracture of that knee. (
  • There are a number of signs that indicate a possible capsular contracture in early diagnosis. (
  • It is proven that implants placed behind the muscle pectoralis major have fewer capsular contractures. (
  • We aimed to compare the ability of biofilm formation of implants with different surfaces, under standard conditions and to demonstrate its impact on capsular contracture . (
  • In presence of bacterial contamination , rough-textured implants have the most propensity of developing capsular contracture comparing to fine-textured and polyurethane implants at three months after implantation. (
  • Past research on preventing capsular contracture has focused on reducing bacterial contamination using antibiotics," Dr. Tamburino comments. (
  • Actually, there is nothing that is dangerous about leaving the breast capsular contracture, other than the feeling of intense tightness and pain. (

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