Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Isotonic Contraction: Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.GlycogenEnzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalMyography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLFixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A 0 is for no muscle contraction. A 1 is for a flicker or trace of contraction in a muscle. A 2 is for active movement in a ... A 3 is for movement against gravity. A 4 is for active movement against gravity with some resistance. A 5 is for normal muscle ... A 1 is for minimum movement. A 2 is for fair movement but weak execution. A 3 is for normal execution. The first test is an ... muscle strength is tested using the bench press for a variety of spinal cord related injuries with a muscle being assessed on a ...
A 0 is for no muscle contraction. A 1 is for a flicker or trace of contraction in a muscle. A 2 is for active movement in a ... A 3 is for movement against gravity. A 4 is for active movement against gravity with some resistance. A 5 is for normal muscle ... muscle strength is tested using the bench press for a variety of spinal cord related injuries with a muscle being assessed on a ... poke and prod their muscles with their hands and with pins. The system had no built in privacy safeguards and players being ...
The contraction of the muscles must be willed." A few sources, such as the Model Penal Code, provide a more thorough treatment ... Omission involves a failure to engage in a necessary bodily movement resulting in injury. As with commission acts, omission ... Various common law jurisdictions define act differently but generally, an act is a "bodily movement whether voluntary or ... a bodily movement that otherwise is not a product of the effort or the determination of the actor, either conscious or habitual ...
He attributed this muscle contraction to irritability, which he described as being an inherent power. He particularly made the ... some iatrophysicists such as Borelli focused on explaining how muscles worked in conjunction together to form movements with ... One example is the muscle and contraction. Various explanations on a macroscopic and microscopic scale were made to explain how ... and differences in muscles across living things and his understanding of the underlying mechanism of muscle contraction, ...
These movements unleash a muscle contraction which compresses deep veins. If a perforator valve is incompetent then a reflux ... triggers a muscle contraction in the leg, in order to maintain posture. This maneuver is very useful for studying deep vein ... Here it enters the popliteal space which is located between the two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle where it usually drains ... It can also but rarely, drain in the vein of the semimembranosus (thigh muscle) (shown below). Usually though, it connects with ...
When the brain tells a given muscle to contract, it simultaneously silences muscles that would oppose the intended movement. It ... that affects a muscle or group of muscles in a specific part of the body, causing involuntary muscular contractions and ... is thought to cause contractions. This misfiring may result from impaired inhibitory mechanisms during muscle contraction. ... He finds that the glove stops the involuntary finger movements. He says it works for him but does not suggest that it may work ...
Signals cause either relaxation and contraction of muscles, thereby enabling movement. Mixed nerves, which contain both sensory ... Sensory fibers are, amongst other things, responsible for sensation, proprioception and the sense of movement. Motor nerves, ... which carry the information from the central nervous system to peripheral organs, especially the muscles. ...
The contraction moves." Martha Graham, 1991 A classic Graham contraction is a movement originating from the deep pelvic muscles ... "Pull, pull on the contraction. Do not cave in. And the contraction is not a position. It is a movement into something. It is ... The fundamental movement of Graham technique is the cycle between "contraction" and subsequent "release", which developed as a ... These muscles, along with the abdominal muscles, pull the spine into a concave arc from the coccyx to the nape of the neck, ...
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contraction leading to abnormal posture, ... and abnormal and sustained involuntary muscle contraction. This may cause twisting or jerking movements of the body or a body ... These movements may fluctuate over hours and temporarily dissipate in response to reassurance, and the individual episodes may ... Tardive dyskinesias are involuntary movements of the lips, tongue, face, trunk, and extremities which occur in patients with ...
The globular head is well conserved, and is key to contraction. Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle ... Molloy JE, Burns JE, Kendrick-Jones J, Tregear RT, White DC (November 1995). "Movement and force produced by a single myosin ... Muscle contraction is caused by the sliding action of thick filaments over thin filaments of the myofibril. Myosin is a major ... "Structure of the actin-myosin complex and its implications for muscle contraction". Science. 261 (5117): 58-65. doi:10.1126/ ...
"Unique role of skeletal muscle contraction in vertical lymph movement in anurans." Journal of Experimental Biology 2007 Nov;210 ... Muscles of the pinna and the Musculus occipitalis. L M. transversus nuchae. L. -- Facial muscles transformed into tendinous ... The caudal muscles. M. epitrochleo-anconaeus. M. latissimo-condyloideus. M. transversus thoracis (triangularis sterni). M. ... the muscles of the ear, wisdom teeth, the appendix, the coccyx (tail bone), body hair, and the semilunar fold in the corner of ...
There are co-contractions of agonist and antagonist muscles. Spasms usually last for minutes and can recur over hours. Attacks ... In rare cases, facial muscles, hands, feet, and the chest can be affected and unusual eye movements and vertigo occur. There ... Using electromyography, they noted that motor-unit firing suggested that voluntary muscle contractions were occurring in their ... They observed "persistent tonic contraction reflected in constant firing, even at rest" after providing patients with muscle ...
Flexion is typically instigated by muscle contraction. A muscle that flexes a joint is called a flexor. of forearm at elbow ... In anatomy, flexion (from the Latin verb flectere, to bend) is a joint movement that decreases the angle between the bones that ... Psoas major Iliacus muscle Anterior compartment of thigh Rectus femoris (part of the quadriceps muscle group) Sartorius One of ... torso/lumbar vertebrae Rectus abdominis muscle neck at atlanto-occipital joint Longus capitis muscle Anderson, Kenneth N.; et ...
Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ...
Myoclonus (spasmodic muscle contraction) is less frequently seen than in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Many patients also exhibit ... nystagmus (involuntary movement of the eyes), visual disturbances, and even blindness or deafness. The neuropathological ...
It is sometimes referred to as the "pouting muscle." Geniospasm is a genetic movement disorder of the mentalis muscle. Outer ... In conjunction with orbicularis contraction, the mentalis muscle allows the lips to "pout." Externally, mentalis contraction ... In the setting of lip incompetence (the upper and lower lips do not touch each other at rest), the mentalis muscle contraction ... The primary effect of the mentalis contraction is the upward-inward movement of the soft tissue complex of the chin, which ...
This prevents moving muscles from working against the contraction force of antagonist muscles. Thus, during voluntary movement ... which activates the contraction of one muscle, causes relaxation of the other muscles. The autogenic inhibition reflex is a ... Thus, the contraction of the muscle stops. This is an example of a disynaptic reflex, in which the circuitry contains a spinal ... This interneuron excites the alpha motor neuron that causes contraction of the thigh flexor muscle. Also, Group III afferent ...
The term systole is synonymous with contraction (movement or shortening) of a muscle. Electrical systole is the electrical ... Cardiac muscle has automaticity, which means that it is self-excitable. The muscle contractions are generated by the muscle ... The cardiac muscle is composed of myocytes which initiate their own contraction without the help of external nerves (with the ... Ventricular systole is the contraction of the ventricular syncytium of cardiac muscle cells of the left and right ventricles, ...
Isometric are skeletal muscle contractions that do not cause movement of the muscle. However isotonic are skeletal muscles ... The contraction of all the sarcomeres results in the contraction of the whole muscle fiber. This contraction of the myocyte is ... Smooth muscle cells control involuntary movements such as the peristalsis contractions in the oesophagus and stomach. The ... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ...
The former directly drive the contraction of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle via the abducens nerve (sixth cranial nerve ... Importantly, despite the lesions, this muscle remains functional during convergence eye movements. Finally, experiments where ... contraction of this muscle rotates the eye outward (abduction). The latter relay signals from the abducens nucleus to the ... contraction of this muscle rotates the eye inward (adduction). This "wiring" pattern suggests that the main function of the ...
The dewlap moves through extension and contraction. The muscles creating this movement are known as the ceratohyoid muscles ... These muscles controlling movement of the dewlap are around the throat and larynx. This is also where the motorneurons, the ... Lizards usually accompany their dewlap movement with head bobs and other displays. ... neurons signaling the dewlap movement, are found. Though much uncertainty resides around the purpose of these displays, the ...
The unique flicking is an uncoiling movement powered by contraction of the striated muscle. The wriggling motion is produced by ... Unlike cydippids, the movements of lobates' combs are coordinated by nerves rather than by water disturbances created by the ... The internal cavity forms: a mouth that can usually be closed by muscles; a pharynx ("throat"); a wider area in the center that ... Both ctenophores and cnidarians have a type of muscle that, in more complex animals, arises from the middle cell layer, and as ...
Unlike the Golgi tendon organs, Golgi receptors report joint position independent of muscle contraction. This helps the body to ... Deep fascia can relax rapidly in response to sudden muscular overload or rapid movements. Golgi tendon organs operate as a ... However, if fascial contraction can be interrupted long enough, a reverse form of fascial remodeling occurs. The fascia will ... What happens during the fight-or-flight response is an example of rapid fascial contraction. In response to a real or imagined ...
The unique flicking is an uncoiling movement powered by contraction of the striated muscle. The wriggling motion is produced by ... Euplokamis' tentilla have three types of movement that are used in capturing prey: they may flick out very quickly (in 40 to 60 ... The tentilla of Euplokamis differ significantly from those of other cydippids: they contain striated muscle, a cell type ... but the coils may be tightened by smooth muscle. There are eight rows of combs that run from near the mouth to the opposite end ...
... crosses the tendon of the popliteus muscle, and passes into the capsule. The muscles responsible for the movement of the knee ... assisted by contraction of the popliteus muscle and the iliotibial tract and is caused by the stretching of the anterior ... The muscles go into spasm and even the slightest movements are painful. X-rays can easily confirm the injury and surgery ... Tendons usually attach muscle to bone. In the knee the quadriceps and patellar tendon can sometimes tear. The injuries to these ...
... and he thought there was reason to believe that the sudden contraction of muscle is produced by its combination with other ... It is also necessary, Mayow inferred, for all muscular movements, ... and is further formed by the combination of these two sets of particles in muscle during violent exertion. In effect, therefore ... combustible (salino-sulphureous) particles in the body; hence the heart, being a muscle, ceases to beat when respiration is ...
... it has to do with the nerves that control the muscles. Furthermore, the theory states:. ● Muscle contractions are initiated by ... This neuron receives messages from your brain, known as conscious movements, and also from your spinal reflexes (unconscious ... which results in excessive muscle contractions (cramps).. Treating Cramps Through Nerve Targeting. If youve ever experienced a ... Neuromuscular Fatigue and Muscle Cramps. The reason behind why electrolytes and hydration has little to no effect has to do ...
The muscles then relax when the movement is complete. When the contraction/relaxation cycles are done repeatedly, as in ... What do muscle cramps feel like?. Muscle cramps are painful, theres no doubt about it. The symptoms of muscle cramps usually ... The most obvious symptom of a muscle cramp is a sharp, acute pain in the affected muscle or muscles. If its a large muscle ... When it comes to muscle cramps, the most commonly affected muscles are the muscles of your upper arms, the muscles behind your ...
A cramp is an unpleasant sensation which is caused by contraction, usually of a muscle. There can be various reasons for a ... Sometimes it has been observed that even the slightest movement that shortens a muscle can trigger a cramp. Although the exact ... A cramp is an unpleasant sensation caused by contraction, generally of a muscle. It can be caused by cold or overexertion. ... A leg cramp is a kind of pain that comes from a muscle in the leg. The leg cramp is due to a muscle spasm which is when a ...
Lower leg muscle cramps are painful contractions, that happen involuntarily. These cramps affect people who train hard and lack ... involuntary contraction of a single muscle or a muscle group. Lower Leg Muscle Cramps frequently occur in the legs of elderly ... Lower Leg Muscle Cramps:Indication a profile is needed. *Any limitations that affect strength, range of movement, and ... Lower Leg Muscle Cramps Diagnosis/Definition. Cramps, painful involuntary muscle contractions, occur commonly in the ...
Voltage dependent charge movement of skeletal muscle: a possible step in excitation-contraction coupling. Nature. 242:244-246. ... Intracellular calcium movements during excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers. ... Intracellular calcium movements during excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers ... Schematic of intra-sarcomeric Ca2+ movements during excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. ...
... the contraction is concentric. But if the muscle length lengthens, then the contraction is eccentric. In natural movements that ... In contrast, a muscle contraction is isotonic if muscle length changes but the muscle tension remains the same. If the muscle ... The mechanisms of contraction in these muscle tissues are similar to those in skeletal muscle tissues. Muscle contractions can ... Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does ...
FHD affects the hands and fine finger movements. During fine finger movement, the brain controls muscles in a process called ... Muscle Contraction in Patients With Focal Hand Dystonia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... The stimulation may cause muscle, hand or arm twitching, or may affect movement or reflexes. During the stimulation, the ... Participants will perform a contraction of the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI). At rest, before EMG-onset (premotor), ...
Three different types of muscle contractions occur during this basic leg exercise. ... The leg extension is a single-joint exercise that works your quadricep muscles on the front of your thigh. ... Isometric Contraction. An isometric contraction does not involve any significant movement of the muscle; this type of ... Eccentric Contraction. The eccentric contraction is the most neglected type of muscle contraction. An eccentric contraction ...
... its Contraction (Locomotion & Movement) Biology for preparation of NEET 2019 exam by top faculty at misostudy.com ... This video lecture covers class 11th concepts on Muscle & ... Muscle & its Contraction (Locomotion & Movement) Biology for ... Muscle & its Contraction (Locomotion & Movement) Biology for NEET 2019. Published on 18, Oct 2018 ... This video lecture covers class 11th concepts on Muscle & its Contraction (Locomotion & Movement) Biology for preparation of ...
The movement of body parts in human beings is brought about by the alternate contraction and stretching of the muscles attached ... Muscle is the fibrous tissue in the body that has the ability to contract. ... Muscle Contraction and Movement in Animals. Muscle Contraction and Movement in Animals. June 14, 2018. By Mrs Shilpi Nagpal ... movement in cockroach, movement in earthworm, movement in fish, movement in snail, movement without legs, muscle, relaxed state ...
20 contractions each with similar movement distance and speed) of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in 11 young ... 20 contractions each with similar movement distance and speed) of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in 11 young ... than concentric contraction (CC) of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It ... than concentric contraction (CC) of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It ...
... learners examine muscle cell contraction and relaxation and consider the role of calcium ions. ... In this animated object, the learner examines 17 types of joint movement. ... Muscle Cell Contraction By Barbara Liang In this animated activity, learners examine muscle cell contraction and relaxation and ... In this colorful and interactive object, learners examine the structure and function of muscle and connective tissues. A quiz ...
Time-Resolved Studies of Crossbridge Movement: Why Use X-Rays? Why Use Fish Muscle? ... Structural Changes During Muscle Contraction Studied by X-Ray Diffraction. * Front Matter Pages 389-389 ... Phosphorylation-Contraction Coupling in Smooth Muscle: Role of Caldesmon Gabriele Pfitzert, Wolfgang Fischer, Joseph M. ... Since the monumental discovery by the two Huxleys and coworkers that muscle contraction results from relative sliding between ...
Cytoplasmic Free Concentrations of Ca^,2+, and Mg^,2+, in Skeletal Muscle Fibers at Rest and during Contraction * * Konishi ... Model of calcium movements during activation in the sarcomere of frog skeletal muscle CANNELL MB. ... Regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction with special reference to the Ca^,++,-troponin-tropomyosin system EBASHI S. ... The influence of intracellular pH on contraction, relaxation and [Ca^,2+,]_i in intact single fibres from mouse muscle ...
Muscles give the ability for voluntary movement, and involuntary movement as in muscle spasms and reflexes). At the level of ... Muscle contractionEdit. The nervous system and musculoskeletal system control the majority of mammalian motility. ... Skeletal muscle is the type of muscle you use to move, e.g. the bicep and triceps move the lower arm. Skeletal muscles are ... As the muscles run out of ATP, the muscle fibres become permanently contracted and lock solid. This produces a stiffening ...
My Awe Of The Human Body: Muscle Movement. Acetylcholine (ACh) Is Another Neurotransmitter. ...
1A) describe Ca2+ binding to troponin (a transition from state T1 to T2), which triggers movement of tropomyosin (into state T3 ... The chemical energetics of muscle contraction. II. The chemistry, efficiency and power of maximally working sartorius muscles. ... Josephson, R. K. (1985). Mechanical power output from striated muscle during cyclic contraction. J. Exp. Biol. 114,493 -512. ... Curtin, N. and Woledge, R. (1996). Power at the expense of efficiency in contraction of white muscle fibres from dogfish ...
Results: Grades were assigned to Daily Behaviors (overall physical activity: D; daily movement: C; moderate to vigorous ... Re-Education: What Can Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Movement Education Teach Kinesiology? ... "complementary and alternative approaches to movement education" (CAAME). The field of CAAME is as diverse as the field of ... physical activity: F; muscle and bone strength: INC; balance: INC; sedentary behavior: INC; sleep: B−), Individual ...
Functions of Skeletal Muscle • 1. Movement: Moves body parts and materials. • 2. Posture: Maintenance of body positions. • 3. ... Contraction of Cardiac & Smooth Muscle • Although significant differences exist, the basic mechanism in both muscle types ... Types of Skeletal Muscle Fiber • 1. Red muscle fibers • a. Slow twitch, fatigue resistant • - Splits ATP slowly; rich blood ... Contraction of Skeletal Muscle • 1. A nerve signal triggers the release of • acetylcholine into neuromuscular synapse. • 2. ...
Find out how muscles move, how they repair themselves after injury, and why scientists say that antioxidants after exercise ... muscle contraction.. Some smooth muscles are in a permanent state of contraction, and the muscles that line our blood vessels ... Muscles use energy from our food to produce movement. Muscles allow us to consciously move our limbs, jump in the air, and chew ... The contractions that smooth muscles produce tend to be more gradual than those produced by striated muscle. An example is the ...
Involuntary muscle contractions affecting posture and movement. Diagnosis of Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome. Aicardi-Goutieres ... Abnormalities in the movements of the eyes and infant reflexes (eg, sucking) ...
Nerves do not initiate contraction. *Specialized cardiac muscle cells = pacemaker cells= establish regular rate of contraction ... Function is to prevent movement of muscles or muscular organs from distorting lining ... Skeletal muscle tissue can partially repair after injury. *Have a banded or striated appearance (actin & myosin arranged in ...
Reasons for trembling muscles include muscle fatigue, excessive caffeine intake, high levels of stress, advancement in age and ... What causes uncontrollable bowel movements?. * Q: What are some causes of sudden muscle contractions while sleeping?. ... What are some causes of aching muscles and joints?. A: Common causes of aching muscles include stress or tension, overuse of ... They occur when the section of the brain that controls muscle movement dysfunctions. Medication such as amphetamines, ...
It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of ... involuntary rigid muscle contraction, often persistent and often accompanied by pain. ... spasm / ˈspazəm/ • n. a sudden involuntary muscular contraction or convulsive movement. ∎ a sudden and brief spell of an ... spasm, involuntary rigid muscle contraction, often persistent and often accompanied by pain. It usually has some underlying ...
Dystonia - contraction of muscles *Restlessness *Tardive dyskinesia - involuntary, abnormal movements of the face, mouth, and/ ... Catatonic Schizophrenia - waxy flexibility, reduced movement, rigid posture, sometimes too much movement *Paranoid ... This includes lip smacking and chewing movements. About 25-40% of patients who take antipsychotic mediations for several years ... Parkinsons disease-like symptoms - tremor, muscle rigidity, loss of facial expression * ...
  • The sports medicine community and athletes often contribute exercise related muscle cramping to dehydration or an imbalance of electrolytes. (crampfix.com.au)
  • However, in an astonishing study performed by a professor of sports medicine and the director of Ironman South Africa in 1997, the conclusion was drawn that exercise-associated muscle cramping due to dehydration or electrolyte imbalances is a misconception. (crampfix.com.au)
  • This resulted in leading scientists to believe that it was the absence of this electrolyte causing muscles to malfunction rather than dehydration. (crampfix.com.au)
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