Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Escin: Pentacyclic triterpene saponins, biosynthesized from protoaescigenin and barringtogenol, occurring in the seeds of AESCULUS. It inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Postpericardiotomy Syndrome: A nonspecific hypersensitivity reaction caused by TRAUMA to the PERICARDIUM, often following PERICARDIOTOMY. It is characterized by PERICARDIAL EFFUSION; high titers of anti-heart antibodies; low-grade FEVER; LETHARGY; loss of APPETITE; or ABDOMINAL PAIN.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Mycoplasmatales: An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Arthrogryposis: Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.PyridazinesSarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseMyocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.

Filament assembly from profilin-actin. (1/1105)

Profilin plays a major role in the assembly of actin filament at the barbed ends. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for barbed end assembly from profilin-actin have been measured turbidimetrically. Filament growth from profilin-actin requires MgATP to be bound to actin. No assembly is observed from profilin-CaATP-actin. The rate constant for association of profilin-actin to barbed ends is 30% lower than that of actin, and the critical concentration for F-actin assembly from profilin-actin units is 0.3 microM under physiological ionic conditions. Barbed ends grow from profilin-actin with an ADP-Pi cap. Profilin does not cap the barbed ends and is not detectably incorporated into filaments. The EDC-cross-linked profilin-actin complex (PAcov) both copolymerizes with F-actin and undergoes spontaneous self-assembly, following a nucleation-growth process characterized by a critical concentration of 0.2 microM under physiological conditions. The PAcov polymer is a helical filament that displays the same diffraction pattern as F-actin, with layer lines at 6 and 36 nm. The PAcov filaments bound phalloidin with the same kinetics as F-actin, bound myosin subfragment-1, and supported actin-activated ATPase of myosin subfragment-1, but they did not translocate in vitro along myosin-coated glass surfaces. These results are discussed in light of the current models of actin structure.  (+info)

The small GTPase RalA targets filamin to induce filopodia. (2/1105)

The Ras-related small GTPases Rac, Rho, Cdc42, and RalA bind filamin, an actin filament-crosslinking protein that also links membrane and other intracellular proteins to actin. Of these GTPases only RalA binds filamin in a GTP-specific manner, and GTP-RalA elicits actin-rich filopods on surfaces of Swiss 3T3 cells and recruits filamin into the filopodial cytoskeleton. Either a dominant negative RalA construct or the RalA-binding domain of filamin 1 specifically block Cdc42-induced filopod formation, but a Cdc42 inhibitor does not impair RalA's effects, which, unlike Cdc42, are Rac independent. RalA does not generate filopodia in filamin-deficient human melanoma cells, whereas transfection of filamin 1 restores the functional response. RalA therefore is a downstream intermediate in Cdc42-mediated filopod production and uses filamin in this pathway.  (+info)

Profilin and the Abl tyrosine kinase are required for motor axon outgrowth in the Drosophila embryo. (3/1105)

The ability of neuronal growth cones to be guided by extracellular cues requires intimate communication between signal transduction systems and the dynamic actin-based cytoskeleton at the leading edge. Profilin, a small, actin-binding protein, has been proposed to be a regulator of the cell motility machinery at leading edge membranes. However, its requirement in the developing nervous system has been unknown. Profilin associates with members of the Enabled family of proteins, suggesting that Profilin might link Abl function to the cytoskeleton. Here, genetic analysis in Drosophila is used to demonstrate that mutations in Profilin (chickadee) and Abl (abl) display an identical growth cone arrest phenotype for axons of intersegmental nerve b (ISNb). Moreover, the phenotype of a double mutant suggests that these components function together to control axonal outgrowth.  (+info)

Mena is required for neurulation and commissure formation. (4/1105)

Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a member of a protein family thought to link signal transduction pathways to localized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Mena binds directly to Profilin, an actin-binding protein that modulates actin polymerization. In primary neurons, Mena is concentrated at the tips of growth cone filopodia. Mena-deficient mice are viable; however, axons projecting from interhemispheric cortico-cortical neurons are misrouted in early neonates, and failed decussation of the corpus callosum as well as defects in the hippocampal commissure and the pontocerebellar pathway are evident in the adult. Mena-deficient mice that are heterozygous for a Profilin I deletion die in utero and display defects in neurulation, demonstrating an important functional role for Mena in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Cyclosporine-induced renal artery smooth muscle contraction is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins. (5/1105)

Cyclosporine A (CSA) is a type 2B phosphatase inhibitor which can induce contraction of renal artery smooth muscle. In this investigation, we examined the phosphorylation events associated with CSA-induced contraction of bovine renal artery smooth muscle. Contractile responses were determined in a muscle bath and the corresponding phosphorylation events were determined with whole cell phosphorylation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. CSA-induced contractions were associated with increases in the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chains (MLC20) and different isoforms of the small heat shock protein, HSP27. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxation of CSA-induced contractions was associated with increases in the phosphorylation of another small heat shock protein, HSP20, and decreases in the phosphorylation of the MLC20, and some isoforms of HSP27. These data suggest that CSA-induced contraction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Role of proteins of the Ena/VASP family in actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes. (6/1105)

Intracellular propulsion of Listeria monocytogenes is the best understood form of motility dependent on actin polymerization. We have used in vitro motility assays of Listeria in platelet and brain extracts to elucidate the function of the focal adhesion proteins of the Ena (Drosophila Enabled)/VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein) family in actin-based motility. Immunodepletion of VASP from platelet extracts and of Evl (Ena/VASP-like protein) from brain extracts of Mena knockout (-/-) mice combined with add-back of recombinant (bacterial or eukaryotic) VASP and Evl show that VASP, Mena, and Evl play interchangeable roles and are required to transform actin polymerization into active movement and propulsive force. The EVH1 (Ena/VASP homology 1) domain of VASP is in slow association-dissociation equilibrium high-affinity binding to the zyxin-homologous, proline-rich region of ActA. VASP also interacts with F-actin via its COOH-terminal EVH2 domain. Hence VASP/ Ena/Evl link the bacterium to the actin tail, which is required for movement. The affinity of VASP for F-actin is controlled by phosphorylation of serine 157 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phospho-VASP binds with high affinity (0.5 x 10(8) M-1); dephospho-VASP binds 40-fold less tightly. We propose a molecular ratchet model for insertional polymerization of actin, within which frequent attachment-detachment of VASP to F-actin allows its sliding along the growing filament.  (+info)

The quaternary structure of the sheaths of defective phages similar to PBS X. (7/1105)

The contractile sheaths of five defective, PBS X-like bacteriophages from Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis were investigated by electron microscopy, dodecylsulphate gel electrophoresis and immunodiffusion. Electron microscope images of the extended and contracted sheaths were of similar appearance, although their lengths were different. The surface lattices of both the extended and the contracted sheaths were determined by optical diffraction. This showed that the quaternary structure of the sheaths of all five defective phages originated from identical surface lattices, which could be approximately expressed by the selection rules L = -2n' + 3m and L = 9N' + 17M for the extended and contracted sheaths respectively, in which 6n' = n with n = 0 or an integer multiple of 6. These results indicated that the packing of the protein subunits in these sheaths differed from those of other bacteriophages, for example T4 and millimicron [Amos and Klug, J. Mol. Biol. 99, 51--73 (1975); Admiraal and Mellema, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 56, 48--64 (1976)]. The molecular weight of the main sheath protein of the defective phages, as determined by dodecylsulphate gel electrophoresis, was approximately 50000. This value differed from that for T4, but was similar to that of millimicron [Admiraal and Mellema, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 56, 48--64 (1976); King and Laemmli, J. Mol. Biol, 75, 315--337 (1973)]. The results of immunodiffusion experiments, however, pointed to a chemical difference between the sheath proteins of the defective phages and millimicron, in addition to T4.  (+info)

Identification of a suppressor of the Dictyostelium profilin-minus phenotype as a CD36/LIMP-II homologue. (8/1105)

Profilin is an ubiquitous G-actin binding protein in eukaryotic cells. Lack of both profilin isoforms in Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in impaired cytokinesis and an arrest in development. A restriction enzyme-mediated integration approach was applied to profilin-minus cells to identify suppressor mutants for the developmental phenotype. A mutant with wild-type-like development and restored cytokinesis was isolated. The gene affected was found to code for an integral membrane glycoprotein of a predicted size of 88 kD containing two transmembrane domains, one at the NH2 terminus and the other at the COOH terminus. It is homologous to mammalian CD36/LIMP-II and represents the first member of this family in D. discoideum, therefore the name DdLIMP is proposed. Targeted disruption of the lmpA gene in the profilin-minus background also rescued the mutant phenotype. Immunofluorescence revealed a localization in vesicles and ringlike structures on the cell surface. Partially purified DdLIMP bound specifically to PIP2 in sedimentation and gel filtration assays. A direct interaction between DdLIMP and profilin could not be detected, and it is unclear how far upstream in a regulatory cascade DdLIMP might be positioned. However, the PIP2 binding of DdLIMP points towards a function via the phosphatidylinositol pathway, a major regulator of profilin.  (+info)

Previously, it has been shown that the human ground-based model consisting of unilateral limb suspension (ULLS) induces atrophy and reduced strength of the affected quadriceps muscle group. Resistance exercise (RE) involving concentric-eccentric actions, in the face of ULLS, is effective in ameliorating these deficits. The goal of the present study was to determine whether alterations in contractile protein gene expression, e.g., myosin heavy chain and actin, as studied at the pretranslational level, provide molecular markers concerning the deficits that occur in muscle mass/volume during ULLS, as well as its maintenance in response to ULLS plus RE. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of 31 middle-aged men and women before and after 5 wk of ULLS, ULLS plus RE, or RE only. The RE paradigm consisted of 12 sessions of 4 sets of 7 concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Our findings show that there were net deficits in total RNA, total mRNA, and actin and myosin heavy chain ...
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During chicken skeletal myogenesis in tissue culture, filamin is found on stress fibers in myoblasts and early myotubes. Approximately one day after fusion and shortly before [alpha]-actinin transits to Z lines, filamin disappears from the cells. The disappearance of filamin is correlated with a cessation of its synthesis. Approximately six days after fusion, filamin reappears at the Z lines of myogenic cells, shortly before desmin and vimentin transit to the Z line. In adult muscle, filamin is found at the periphery of the Z disk, along with desmin and vimentin. Peptide map analysis of the various filamins shows that gizzard and fibroblast filamins are identical while myoblast filamin is quite similar to these two filamins. Cultured myotube and adult myofibril filamins are virtually identical to each other and are quite different polypeptides when compared to gizzard, fibroblast and myoblast filamins. Analysis of terminally differentiated slow and fast muscle shows that both muscle types ...
Pollen profilin function depends on interaction with proline-rich motifs.: The actin binding protein profilin has dramatic effects on actin polymerization in vi
2WA5: Disease-Associated Substitutions in the Filamin B Actin Binding Domain Confer Enhanced Actin Binding Affinity in the Absence of Major Structural Disturbance: Insights from the Crystal Structures of Filamin B Actin Binding Domains.
Cytokinesis is the process that partitions the cell surface and cytoplasm of one cell to form two cells (for reviews see Glotzer 1997; Gould and Simanis 1997; Field et al. 1999; Hales et al. 1999). To avoid aneuploidy, the cell must successfully coordinate cytokinesis with chromosome segregation. In animal cells, this coordination is achieved, in part, by assembling the cleavage furrow in response to signals from the late anaphase spindle. The exact nature of this signaling remains poorly understood.. In animal cells, the cytoplasm is partitioned by ingression of the cleavage furrow. Cleavage furrow ingression requires a contractile cortical ring of actin and myosin II (for review see Satterwhite and Pollard, 1992; for some more recent examples of the role of myosin II during cytokinesis see Bi et al. 1998, and Lippincott and Li 1998 [Saccharomyces cerevisiae]; Shelton et al. 1999 [Caenorhabditis elegans]; and Benzanilla et al. 2000 [Schizosaccharomyces pombe]). Based on EM studies, filamentous ...
The microfilament system consists of actin filaments as the major component and is regulated by a number of actin binding proteins. It is juxtaposed to the plasma membrane where it forms a dense cortical weave from where it pervades into the cell interior. This filament system has multiple roles and participates in virtually all motile processes where its dynamic activities depend on receptor mediated signaling leading to constant polymerizations and depolymerizations. These activities are now also known to affect gene regulation. This thesis discusses these dynamic reorganizations of the microfilament system and how components are supplied to support these motile processes. The focus is on profilin/profilin:actin, actin polymerization and the localization of the transcripts of these proteins.. The localization of profilin mRNA was examined in relation to the distribution of β-actin mRNA using fluorescent in situ hybridization. It was concluded that both these mRNAs localize to sites of massive ...
2WA7: Disease-Associated Substitutions in the Filamin B Actin Binding Domain Confer Enhanced Actin Binding Affinity in the Absence of Major Structural Disturbance: Insights from the Crystal Structures of Filamin B Actin Binding Domains.
In the developing aorta, endothelial cell connecting filaments extend from the abluminal surface of the endothelial cell to the subjacent elastic lamina. The connecting filaments are in alignment with intracellular stress fibers and are oriented parallel to the direction of blood flow. In the present study, the composition of the endothelial cell connecting filaments was investigated by indirect immunogold labeling with antibodies to the microfibril proteins, MP340 (fibrillin) and MAGP, and to fibronectin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG). In the subendothelial matrix of both 15-day gestational and 5-day post-natal mouse aortae, the connecting filaments showed moderate immunoreactivity with anti-MP340; however, no significant immunoreaction was seen with anti-MAGP. Anti-fibronectin strongly labeled the connecting filaments and a weak immunoreaction was seen with anti-HSPG. In contrast, the adjacent elastin-associated microfibrils showed a very strong immunoreaction with anti-MP340 and a ...
Our results demonstrate that profilin is required for tip cell growth in plants. Using RNAi to reduce the levels of all profilin genes in moss protonemal cells, we reproducibly observed that profilin RNAi plants are dramatically smaller than control plants, and individual cells are small and rounded. This phenotype is observed with either the CDS-RNAi construct or the UTR-RNAi construct. In addition, the immunofluorescence data support that profilin levels were reduced (Figure 7). Since the CDS-RNAi construct contains a region of sequence from PRFa and the UTR-RNAi construct contains regions of sequence from PRFb and PRFc, we are confident that all profilin function is greatly reduced in these RNAi studies. Thus, the strategy of using one sequence to knock down multiple family members is valid. Furthermore, compared with gene knockouts, this transient RNAi approach is much more rapid. In fact, gene knockouts may not be possible to obtain, since our results strongly suggest that profilin function ...
In this study, we present a functional analysis of several domains of mDia1, a protein linking Rho signaling with actin organization. We demonstrate that complex formation between this mammalian protein with the actin-binding protein profilin is indeed mediated by the proline-rich FH1 domain, in analogy to data described for the budding yeast diaphanous protein (Imamura et al., 1997), and proving previous predictions derived from experiments with full length recombinant mDia1 (Watanabe et al., 1997). The FH1, equipped N-terminally with the first CCD, is both essential and sufficient in binding profilin in vitro and in cells. We found that mDia1 reacts with both profilin isoforms I and IIa, but the nature of our experiments does not preclude a possible differential affinity of mDia1 for either isoform. Mammalian profilin IIa, the predominant neuronal isoform, has a higher affinity for proline-rich sequences than profilin I (Lambrechts et al., 1997; Wittenmayer et al., 2000). Hence, isoform ...
Epitranscriptomic events such as adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by ADAR can recode mRNAs to translate novel proteins. Editing of the mRNA that encodes actin crosslinking protein Filamin A (FLNA) mediates a Q-to-R transition in the interactive C-terminal region. While FLNA editing is conserved among vertebrates, its physiological function remains unclear. Here, we show that cardiovascula...
SHIP-2 interacts with filamin A, B, and C in the yeast two-hybrid system. (A) Optimized alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences of human filamin A, B, a
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Abstract. Filamin-A, also called Actin Binding Protein-280, is not only an essential component of the cytoskeleton networks, but also serves as the scaffold in various signaling networks. It has been shown that filamin-A facilitates DNA repair and filamin-A proficient cells are more resistant to ionizing radiation, bleomycin, and cisplatin. In this study, we assessed the role of filamin-A in modulating cancer cell sensitivity to Topo II poisons, including etoposide and doxorubicin. Intriguingly, we found that cells with filamin-A expression are more sensitive to Topo II poisons than those with defective filamin-A, and filamin-A proficient xenograft melanomas have better response to etoposide treatment than the filamin-A deficient tumors. This is associated with more potent induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by Topo II poisons in filamin-A proficient cells than the deficient cells. Although the expression of filamin-A enables cells a slightly stronger capability to repair DSB, the net ...
The FLNB gene provides instructions for making a protein called filamin B. This protein helps build the network of protein filaments (cytoskeleton) that gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. Filamin B attaches (binds) to another protein called actin and helps the actin to form the branching network of filaments that makes up the cytoskeleton. It also links actin to many other proteins to perform various functions within the cell, including the cell signaling that helps determine how the cytoskeleton will change as tissues grow and take shape during development.. Filamin B is involved in the development of the skeleton before birth. It is active (expressed) in many cells and tissues of the body, including cartilage-forming cells called chondrocytes. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted to bone (a process called ossification), except for the cartilage that continues to cover ...
The cell cytoskeleton plays a role in caveolar organization and trafficking. Actin stress fibers influence the linear distribution of caveolae at the plasma membrane in many cell types. Stress fibers regulated by the tyrosine kinase Abl and the formin mDIA1 play a major role in caveolar organization as well as endocytic trafficking initiated in response to loss of cell adhesion from the substrate [11]. The actin-binding protein Filamin A also plays a crucial role in trafficking of caveolae linked to actin [12]. Microtubules promote recycling of caveolae through local stabilization of microtubules by β1 integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling (reviewed in [13]). The β1 integrin-ILK recruits the actin-binding protein IQGAP1 which together with mDIA1 stabilize microtubules. Thus mDIA1 which regulates both actin and microtubules is crucial for both the internalization and recycling of caveolae.. Caveolae can flatten in response to membrane stretch and this mechanosensitive response of ...
BACKGROUND: Profilins are dominant pan-allergens known to cause cross-sensitization, leading to clinical symptoms such as pollen-food syndrome. This study aimed to determine the T-cell response to Phl p 12 in profilin-sensitized patients, by measuring the prevalence, strength and cross-reactivity to clinically relevant profilins. METHODS: The release of Phl p allergens from pollen was determined by mass spectrometry and immunochemistry. T-cell responses, epitope mapping and cross-reactivity to profilins (Phl p 12, Ole e 2, Bet v 2 and Mal d 4) were measured in vitro using PBMCs from 26 Spanish grass-allergic donors IgE-sensitized to profilin ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer in the developed countries, accounting for more than 50,000 cancer deaths per year. We used microarray to analyze gene expression in patients with different stages of colorectal cancer. Among the 157 metastasis-related genes, RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to verify 11 genes. The roles of anillin (ANLN), one of 11 metastasis-associated genes, in colorectal cancer are not clear. Therefore, we focused on ANLN in this study. We found that the expression levels of anillin are higher in tumor specimens, even in metastasis tumor grade compared with those of adjacent normal tissues by real-time PCR. In order to understand the roles of anillin in tumorigenesis and metastasis of colorectal cancer, we used anillin overexpressed HT29 and shRNA-knockdowned SW480. Our data indicated that anillin overexpressed HT29 showed faster replication kinetics probably due to prolonged G2/M phase. Next, we found that the number and size ...
Cancer Council Victoria would like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which we live and work. We would also like to pay respect to the elders past and present and extend that respect to all other Aboriginal people. ...
Expression of FLNA (ABP-280, FLN, FLN1, OPD1, OPD2) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001115, HPA002925 and CAB000356 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of FLNA (ABP-280, FLN, FLN1, OPD1, OPD2) in colon tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001115, HPA002925 and CAB000356 in immunohistochemistry.
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Budnar S, Husain KB, Gomez GA, Naghibosadat M, Varma A, Verma S, Hamilton NA, Morris RG, Yap AS. 2019. Anillin Promotes Cell Contractility by Cyclic Resetting of RhoA Residence Kinetics.. Dev Cell. 49(6):894-906.e12. ...
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CONCLUSIONS: We report the clinical and mutation spectrum as well as MR imaging for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH including two adult males. Our data are reassuring in regard to psychomotor and cognitive development, which is within normal range for the majority of patients. However, a concerning median diagnostic latency of 17 to 20 years was noted between seizure onset and the genetic diagnosis, intensely delaying appropriate medical surveillance for potentially life threatening cardiovascular complications as well as genetic risk assessment and counseling prior to family planning for this X-linked dominant inherited disorder with high perinatal lethality in hemizygous males. ...
Cartault F, Munier P, JaMLcquemont , et al.Expanding the clinical spectrum of B4GALT7 deficiency: homozygous p.R270C mutation with founder effect causes Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015 23:49-53.. Mei H, He R, Liu K, et al. Presumed Larsen syndrome in a child: a case with a 12-year follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2015 24:268-273.. Unger S, Lausch E., Rossi A., et al. Phenotypic features of carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3) deficiency in 24 patients: congenital dislocations and vertebral changes as principal diagnostic features. Am JMed Genet A. 2010;152A:2543-2. Huber C, Oules B, Bertoli M et al: Identification of CANT1 mutations in Desbuquois dysplasia. Am J Hum Genet 2009; 85: 706-710.. Winer N, Kyndt F, Paumier A, David A, Isidor B, Quentin M, Jouitteau B, Sanyas P, Philippe HJ, Hernandez A, Krakow D, Le Caignec C. Prenatal diagnosis of Larsen syndrome caused by a mutation in the filamin B gene. Prenat Diagn. 2009;29:172-4.. Bicknell LS, Farrington-Rock C, ...
The butterfly effect is defined as "the sensitive dependence on initial conditions, where a small change at one place in a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences to a later state." In medicine, the identification of a rare disease or a genetic mutation may provide insights that spread well beyond the initial discovery.. And in genetics, scientists are learning just how widespread the effects are for mutations in one gene: filaminA (FLNA).. FLNA is a common cause of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), a disorder of neuronal migration during brain development. The syndrome was first described by the late Peter Huttenlocher, MD, and the gene was identified by Christopher Walsh, MD, PhD, of Boston Childrens Hospital.. In normal brain development, neurons form in the periventricular region, located around fluid-filled ventricles near the brains center, then migrate outward to form six onion-like layers. In PVNH, some neurons fail to migrate to their proper position ...
In a number of recent studies it has been shown that in vivo part of the EGF receptor (EGFR) population is associated to the actin filament system. In this paper we demonstrate that the purified EGFR can be cosedimented with purified filamentous actin (F-actin) indicating a direct association between EGFR and actin. A truncated EGFR, previously shown not to be associated to the cytoskeleton, was used as a control and this receptor did not cosediment with actin filaments. Determination of the actin-binding domain of the EGFR was done by measuring competition of either a polyclonal antibody or synthetic peptides on EGFR cosedimentation with F-actin. A synthetic peptide was made homologous to amino acid residues 984-996 (HL-33) of the EGFR which shows high homology with the actin-binding domain of Acanthamoeba profilin. A polyclonal antibody raised against HL-33 was found to prevent cosedimentation of EGFR with F-actin. This peptide HL-33 was shown to bind directly to actin in contrast with a ...
Profilin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that plays an active role in the regulation of actin polymerisation. In view of its relatively small molecular mass (12-15kDa), the functions of profilin are complex and diverse. Under some circumstances, the protein sequesters actin monomers and inhibits filament growth; under others, it "desequesters" actin monomers and actively promotes filament growth. Desequestering involves binding of profilin to the fast-growing ends of actin-filaments, which accelerates the exchange of the adenine nucleotide bound to monomeric actin. ATP-actin monomers polymerise faster than ADP-actin, and make stiffer filaments. Therefore, under conditions of rapid filament reorganisation, where large amounts of ADP-actin monomers are produced, and in the presence of a large excess of ATP over ADP, profilin may actually promote polymerisation [1,2]. Profilin is probably also involved in some signalling pathways. It has been shown to bind tightly and specifically to ...
Profilin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that plays an active role in the regulation of actin polymerisation. In view of its relatively small molecular mass (12-15kDa), the functions of profilin are complex and diverse. Under some circumstances, the protein sequesters actin monomers and inhibits filament growth; under others, it "desequesters" actin monomers and actively promotes filament growth. Desequestering involves binding of profilin to the fast-growing ends of actin-filaments, which accelerates the exchange of the adenine nucleotide bound to monomeric actin. ATP-actin monomers polymerise faster than ADP-actin, and make stiffer filaments. Therefore, under conditions of rapid filament reorganisation, where large amounts of ADP-actin monomers are produced, and in the presence of a large excess of ATP over ADP, profilin may actually promote polymerisation [1,2]. Profilin is probably also involved in some signalling pathways. It has been shown to bind tightly and specifically to ...
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Aims Transforming growth aspect- (TGF-) signaling is crucial for the differentiation of even muscles cells (SMCs) into quiescent cells expressing a complete repertoire of contractile proteins. contraction to modify pulse bloodstream and pressure stream. Even muscles cellular material within the arteries and aorta are quiescent, fully differentiated cellular material that harbour a distinctive repertoire of contractile proteins necessary for the cellular material function. Unlike differentiated skeletal and cardiac muscles cellular material terminally, buy Prednisolone acetate SMCs preserve phenotypic plasticity and will de-differentiate into proliferating and artificial cellular material not really expressing contractile protein in response to vascular damage or environmental cues.1 TGF- induces the differentiation of SMCs both in advancement and with phenotypic switching.2 Mouse versions deficient in TGF-1, or its receptors (and also have been identified in sufferers with Loeys-Dietz symptoms ...
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Involved in the regulation of the perinuclear actin network and nuclear shape through interaction with filamins. Plays an essential role in actin cytoskeleton formation in developing cartilaginous cells ...
human Rgl3 protein: a potential binding partner for Rap-family small G-proteins and profilin II; amino acid sequence in first source
Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a disorder of cortical development [1]. PNH is a term used to describe the collections of neurons lining the lateral ventricles that have failed to migrate normally to form the cerebral cortex [1]. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders [2]. Mutations in the filamin A gene (FLNA) result in an X-linked dominant form of this disorder [3]. Mutations in FLNA leading to protein truncation are the predominant cause of the PNH phenotype [2, 4]. Most affected females present with seizures and normal to mildly impaired cognitive function [2, 5]. FLNA-associated PNH may also be associated with other cerebral malformations as well as extra-cerebral features [6]. The condition typically results in prenatal lethality or a more severe phenotype in males although paternal transmission has been documented in the literature [2, 7-9].. Mutations in FLNA are associated with a wide spectrum of disorders including the otopalatodigital syndrome ...
Polymicrogyria (PMG) and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) are two developmental brain malformations that have been described independently in multiple syndromes. Clinically, they present with epilepsy and developmental handicaps in both children and adults. Here we describe their occurrence together as the two major findings in a group of at least three cortical malformation syndromes. We identified 30 patients as having both PNH and PMG on brain imaging, reviewed clinical data and brain imaging studies (or neuropathology summary) for all, and performed mutation analysis of FLNA in nine patients. The group was divided into three subtypes based on brain imaging findings. The frontal-perisylvian PNH-PMG subtype included eight patients (seven males and one female) between 2 days and 10 years of age. It was characterized by PNH lining the lateral body and frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and by PMG most severe in the posterior frontal and perisylvian areas, occasionally with ...
PubMedID: 23151899 | Periventricular nodular heterotopia on prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. | Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | 8/1/2013
Fascin is a actin cross-linking protein.The Fascin gene contains 5 exons and spans 7 kb. It is a 54-58 kilodalton monomeric actin filament bundling…
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Filamin A Antibody (4E1.0-1B2) cited in 10 publications. Validated: WB, ELISA, IHC-P, PLA. Tested Reactivity: Human.
DIC phenotype -- Reduced cleavage furrow ingression in second embryonic division; a phenotype not observed in either single (or36 mutation or zen-4 RNAi) treatments, cf RNAi [cgc4544]:air- ...
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Larsen syndrome (LS) is a congenital disorder discovered in 1950 by Larsen and associates when they observed dislocation of the large joints and face anomalies in six of their patients. Patients with Larsen syndrome normally present with a variety of symptoms, including congenital anterior dislocation of the knees, dislocation of the hips and elbows, flattened facial appearance, prominent foreheads, and depressed nasal bridges. Larsen syndrome can also cause a variety of cardiovascular and orthopedic abnormalities. This rare disorder is caused by a genetic defect in the gene encoding filamin B, a cytoplasmic protein that is important in regulating the structure and activity of the cytoskeleton. The gene that influences the emergence of Larsen syndrome is found in chromosome region, 3p21.1-14.1, a region containing human type VII collagen gene. Larsen syndrome has recently been described as a mesenchyme disorder that affects the connective tissue of an individual. Autosomal dominant and recessive ...
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with periventricular heterotopia information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
A few mutations in the ARFGEF2 gene have been identified in individuals with periventricular heterotopia. These mutations may interfere with vesicle trafficking, which is important in controlling cell migration during the development of the brain. Nerve cells (neurons) that do not migrate properly during development form clumps around fluid-filled cavities (ventricles) near the center of the brain, resulting in the signs and symptoms of periventricular heterotopia.. Mutations in the ARFGEF2 gene may also result in weakening of the attachments (adhesion) between cells that form the lining of the ventricles, by impairing the trafficking of the molecules needed for this adhesion. A weakened ventricular lining could allow some neurons to form clumps around the ventricles while others migrate normally to the exterior of the brain, as seen in periventricular heterotopia. ...
The second goal is to determine the cause of the myopathy. The episodic disorders are characterized by acute loss of strength that can return to normal within. Cytoplasmic body neuromyopathy presenting as respiratory failure and weight loss. for the tensile strength and integrity of myofibrils but not tor myogenic commitment, Muscle fibres are composed of myofibrils, for the development and. a so-called myofibrillar myopathy the myofibrils disintegrate in certain. The heart is more affected by the disease than previously thought, which cause sudden cardiac death. Your Stools Reveal Whether You Can Lose Weight.
... Anna-Karin Johnsson, Roger Karlsson. Department of Cell Biology, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.. We are interested in the dynamics of the microfilament system at the leading edge. Our main focus is to explore how profilin:actin is transported to actin polymer forming sites at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. As a model system to study this process we are overexpressing synaptotagmin 1 in mammalian cells. This leads to a dramatic change in cell morphology with numerous oversized filopodia beeing formed. In addition to using this effect as a model system we are also interested in characterizing the mechanism responsible for this process. We have seen that the synaptotagmin 1 induced filopodia stain positively for profilin and actin and that they are enriched in the phosphatidylinositol lipid PIP2. Through cotransfection with a dominant negative form of Cdc42 we have indications ...
Y. Bao, Hu, G., Flagel, L. E., Salmon, A., Bezanilla, M., Paterson, A. H., Wang, Z., and Wendel, J. F., "Parallel up-regulation of the profilin gene family following independent domestication of diploid and allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium)", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 108, no. 52, pp. 21152-21157, 2011. ...
KBTBD13 is an actin-binding protein that modulates muscle kinetics.. de Winter JM, Molenaar JP, Yuen M, van der Pijl R, Shen S, Conijn S, van de Locht M, Willigenburg M, Bogaards SJ, van Kleef ES, Lassche S, Persson M, Rassier DE, Sztal TE, Ruparelia AA, Oorschot V, Ramm G, Hall TE, Xiong Z, Johnson CN, Li F, Kiss B, Lozano-Vidal N, Boon RA, Marabita M, Nogara L, Blaauw B, Rodenburg RJ, Kϋsters B, Doorduin J, Beggs AH, Granzier H, Campbell K, Ma W, Irving T, Malfatti E, Romero NB, Bryson-Richardson RJ, van Engelen BG, Voermans NC, Ottenheijm CA.. J Clin Invest. 2020 Jan 6. pii: 124000. doi: 10.1172/JCI124000.. editorial-winter-et-al- ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kristofer J Müssar, Muthugapatti K Kandasamy, Elizabeth C McKinney, Richard B Meagher].
F-actin cross-linking protein which is thought to anchor actin to a variety of intracellular structures. This is a bundling protein (By similarity).
Binds to actin and affects the structure of the cytoskeleton. At high concentrations, profilin prevents the polymerization of actin, whereas it enhances it at low concentrations. By binding to PIP2, it inhibits the formation of IP3 and DG.
FLNC_HUMAN] Defects in FLNC are the cause of myopathy myofibrillar type 5 (MFM5) [MIM:609524]. A neuromuscular disorder, usually with an adult onset, characterized by focal myofibrillar destruction and pathological cytoplasmic protein aggregations, and clinical features of a limb-girdle myopathy.[1] Defects in FLNC are the cause of myopathy distal type 4 (MPD4) [MIM:614065]. MPD4 is a slowly progressive muscular disorder characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs. Onset occurs around the third to fourth decades of life, and patients remain ambulatory even after long disease duration. Muscle biopsy shows non-specific changes with no evidence of rods, necrosis, or inflammation.[2] ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated FLNA primer pair, for the Dog genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
A multi-institutional study has identified a potential personalized treatment target for the most common form of ovarian cancer. In the December 8 issue of Cancer Cell, the research team describes finding that a gene called MAGP2 - not previously associated with any type of cancer - was overexpressed in papillary serous ovarian tumors of patients…
spasmin: from spasmoneme organ of ciliated protozoa; do not confuse with spasman combination, a combination of methphenamine & trihexyphenidyl
SMN1 is directly interacting with profilin2a (PFN2 binds to a stretch of proline residues in SMN, which is heavily impaired by a novel SMN2 missense mutation) ...
When compiled on a windows system, the default value of the parameter is a custom input port that returns bytes produced by RtlGenRandom. On other systems the default value of the parameter will be ...
Vrijstaande woning bnr, Mooi Oosterwold - Unieke vrijstaande woningen aan de bosrand op riante percelen, waarbij wijzigingen naar eigen inzicht
Type I allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries where up to 15% of the population suffer from allergic symptoms (rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma). Previously, we identified a cDNA clone that encoded a birch pollen allergen as profilin. Profilins constitute a ubiquitous family of proteins that control actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells; in particular, profilin participates in the acrosomal reaction of animal sperm cells. Although profilins had been unknown in plants so far, our finding led to the assumption that profilins might have similar functions in pollens during plant fertilization and therefore represent allergenic components in almost all pollens. We show that profilins are prominent allergens that can be isolated from tree pollens (Betula verrucosa, birch), from pollens of grasses (Phleum pratense, timothy grass), and weeds (Artemisia vulgaris, mugwort). About 20% of all pollen allergic patients tested (n = 65) displayed immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity ...
Fission yeast cells use Arp2/3 complex and formin to assemble diverse filamentous actin (F-actin) networks within a common cytoplasm for endocytosis, division, and polarization. Although these homeostatic F-actin networks are usually investigated separately, competition for a limited pool of actin monomers (G-actin) helps to regulate their size and density. However, the mechanism by which G-actin is correctly distributed between rival F-actin networks is not clear. Using a combination of cell biological approaches and in vitro reconstitution of competition between actin assembly factors, we found that the small G-actin binding protein profilin directly inhibits Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly. Profilin is therefore required for formin to compete effectively with excess Arp2/3 complex for limited G-actin and to assemble F-actin for contractile ring formation in dividing cells.
Skeletal muscle actin binding protein spin-down assay kit provides G- or F-actin plus positive (α-actinin ) and negative (Bovine Serum Albumin, BSA) binding control proteins. Kit contains skeletal muscle actin.
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by {1:Cappello et al., 2013 ...
Group 3 Peer Review The page is very good. The introduction is clearly and briefly and it gives a good idea about Elastic Fibres. The structure and components section is clearly, but I think a image would help to understand. Finally, I noticed that you did not put something about history and future researches that would be good in the beginning of the page. The "Assembly of Elastic fibre" is good too, and I really like the draw about the process of elastic fibre assembly. The other image (Role of MFAP-4 in Elastic fiber assembly) was well-chosen too. Finally, I like the step-by-step that you made in the final of section, because it summarizes the process being very informative and the reader can see the images at the same time. However, the images should be referenced correctly. The functions related with organs, like heart, lungs and skin was a great idea. Also, the clinical significance you chose relevant diseases to relate but I think you could explain more deeply how the elastic fibres are ...
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Working model of vertex ring assembly. See text for details. Solid black arrows indicate a strict hierarchical requirement for vertex enrichment. Dotted arrows
انفنی ٹ م گیما رے ریڈیوسرجری سسٹم اب لاطینی امریکہ میں پہلی بار دستیاب ہوگا. سٹی آف انڈسٹری، کیلیفورنیا، 5 ستمبر 2012ء/پی آرنیوزوائر/-. عالمی طبی ٹیکنالوجی میں جدت طراز ادارے MASEP انفنی اور سان …. ...
Seene T (July 1994). "Turnover of skeletal muscle contractile proteins in glucocorticoid myopathy". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ... Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. During atrophy, ...
"Entrez Gene: ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle". Bandman, E (1992). "Contractile protein isoforms in muscle development". ... Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in ... Bretscher A, Weber K (1980). "Villin is a major protein of the microvillus cytoskeleton which binds both G and F actin in a ... SRF may bring a number of other proteins to the promoter of skeletal actin, such as andogen receptor, and thereby contribute to ...
Seene T (July 1994). "Turnover of skeletal muscle contractile proteins in glucocorticoid myopathy". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... but instead characteristic microscopic changes are seen in association with reduced contractile ability of the muscles. ... myopathy Glucocorticoid myopathy is caused by this class of steroids increasing the breakdown of the muscle proteins leading to ...
"Effects of the calcium antagonists perhexiline and cinnarizine on vascular and cardiac contractile protein function". The ...
"Is troponin the Ca++-receptive protein in the contractile system?". Liefe Sciences, Part II. 9 (21): 1225-1233. doi:10.1016/ ... "Fish Proteins". Advances in Protein Chemistry. 10: 227-288. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(08)60106-0. PMID 13282763. Focant, B.; ... The First European Symposium took place in 1989 and covered calcium binding proteins in normal and transformed cells. The ... Contribution to the study of low molecular weight proteins in myogens of lower vertebrates]. Archives of Physiology and ...
Z-disks are the point of contact for the contractile proteins. They provide structural support for transmission of force when ... These proteins include C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and serum amyloid P, which cause a range of systemic effects ... The fat-derived protein called angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) elevates in fat tissues. Higher than normal Angptl2 level ... Inflammation also induces high systemic levels of acute-phase proteins. In acute inflammation, these proteins prove beneficial ...
Seene T (July 1994). "Turnover of skeletal muscle contractile proteins in glucocorticoid myopathy". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter.[14] At times ... During atrophy, a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways occurs, and an activation of protein degradation.[2] The ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. ...
"Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". American Journal of Human ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 July ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951-2)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951-3)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 ...
CapZ appears to regulate intracellular signaling of contractile proteins in cardiac muscle. It has been demonstrated that the ... F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2 also known as CapZ-alpha2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA2 gene. ... Ivanenkov VV, Dimlich RV, Jamieson GA (Apr 1996). "Interaction of S100a0 protein with the actin capping protein, CapZ: ... CAPZA2 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2". "Protein sequence of human CAPZA2 (Uniprot ID: P47755)". ...
"Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". American Journal of Human ... "Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". American Journal of Human ... Troponin I, fast skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNI2 gene. The TNNI2 gene is located at 11p15.5 ... Moir AJ, Ordidge M, Grand RJ, Trayer IP, Perry SV (Feb 1983). "Studies of the interaction of troponin I with proteins of the I- ...
Maximum part of cytoplasm is composed of a contractile protein called Thrombosthenin. These unactivated platelets are biconvex ... These are G protein coupled receptors and they turn on calcium mediated signaling pathways within the platelet, overcoming the ... The platelets from rats were conclusively shown to express tissue factor protein and also it was proved that the rat platelets ... Since fibrinogen is a rod-like protein with nodules on either end capable of binding GPIIb/IIIa, activated platelets with ...
2003). "Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". Am. J. Hum. Genet ...
The key components of this ring are the filamentous protein actin and the motor protein myosin II. The contractile ring ... The force for the contractile processes is generated by movements along actin by the motor protein myosin II. Myosin II uses ... Besides actin and myosin II, the contractile ring contains the scaffolding protein anillin. Anillin binds to actin, myosin, ... RhoA protein in mammalian cells) is a key regulator of contractile ring formation and contraction in animal cells. The RhoA ...
"Variants in genes that encode muscle contractile proteins influence risk for isolated clubfoot". American Journal of Medical ... specifically those encoding the muscle contractile complex (MYH3, TPM2, TNNT3, TNNI2, and MYH8). These can cause congenital ...
Mutant proteins can disturb cardiac function in the contractile apparatus (or mechanosensitive complexes). Cardiomyocyte ...
It also contains the contractile protein molecules responsible for most cell contractions and movements. Cell Cytoplasm ...
doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.017 Field, C. M., & Alberts, B. M. (1995). Anillin, a Contractile Ring Protein That Cycles from the ... doi: 10.1242/dev.01828 Field, C. M., & Alberts, B. M. (1995). Anillin, a Contractile Ring Protein That Cycles from the Nucleus ... Both anillin and F-actin are found in contractile structures. They are recruited independently to the contractile ring, but F- ... a key regulator of contractile ring formation. The name of the protein anillin originates from a Spanish word, anillo. Anillo ...
Clarke M, Spudich JA (1977). "Nonmuscle contractile proteins: the role of actin and myosin in cell motility and shape ...
This gene encodes a structural protein that is found exclusively in contractile smooth muscle cells. It associates with stress ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... van der Loop FT, Schaart G, Timmer ED, Ramaekers FC, van Eys GJ (Sep 1996). "Smoothelin, a novel cytoskeletal protein specific ... Smoothelin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMTN gene. ...
Cytokinesis is mediated by the contractile ring made up of polymers of actin protein called microfilaments. Karyokinesis and ... The mitotic apparatus is made up of a central spindle and polar asters made up of polymers of tubulin protein called ... The rapid cell cycles are facilitated by maintaining high levels of proteins that control cell cycle progression such as the ...
The protein complex composed of actin and myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin". In striated ... The contractile nature of this protein complex is based on the structure of the thick and thin filaments. The thick filament, ... It may be that exercise-induced myofilament alterations involve more than the contractile proteins actin & myosin. While the ... The weakened contractile function of skeletal muscle is also linked to the state of the myofibrils. Recent studies suggest that ...
In contractile bundles, the actin-bundling protein alpha-actinin separates each thin filament by ~35 nm. This increase in ... of these proteins is such that actin is thought to be the protein that takes part in the greatest number of protein-protein ... or in Hsp70 proteins (a protein family that play an important part in protein folding). G-actin is only functional when it ... The most notable of these proteins are gelsolin and cofilin. These proteins first achieve a cut by binding to an actin monomer ...
Westfall MV, Borton AR (Sep 2003). "Role of troponin I phosphorylation in protein kinase C-mediated enhanced contractile ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... Troponin I, slow skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNI1 gene. It is a tissue-specific subtype of ... As homologous proteins, ssTnI, fast skeletal muscle TnI and cardiac TnI have highly conserved structures and crystallographic ...
The expression of a diverse range of intermediate filament proteins enables the PaSC to harbour contractile abilities. Cellular ... PaSCs express the intermediate filament proteins desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... Matri-cellular proteins may therefore directly contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer through stimulating cancer ...
"A Nonerythroid Isoform of Protein 4.1R Interacts with Components of the Contractile Apparatus in Skeletal Myofibers". Mol. Biol ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... Myosin light chain 3, skeletal muscle isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL1 gene. Myosin is a hexameric ... 2001). "Interaction of ADP-ribosylated actin with actin binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 508 (1): 131-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01 ...
This increase in calcium activates calcium-sensitive contractile proteins that then use ATP to cause cell shortening. The ... contractile) or inhibitory (relaxing). There are two types of cardiac muscle cells: autorhythmic and contractile. Autorhythmic ... even though they contain the thin filament protein tropomyosin and other notable proteins - caldesmon and calponin. Thus, ... Once innervated, the protein filaments within each skeletal muscle fiber slide past each other to produce a contraction, which ...
The systemic heart has muscular contractile walls and consists of a single ventricle and two atria, one for each side of the ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... Much of the venous system is contractile, which helps circulate the blood.[22] ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ...
It is a major contractile protein, converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through the hydrolysis of ATP. Alternative ... Myosin-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYH11 gene. Myosin-11 is a smooth muscle myosin belonging to the myosin ... Myosin-11 is a subunit of a hexameric protein that consists of two heavy chain subunits and two pairs of non-identical light ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (6): 355-64. doi: ...
Each tropomyosin molecule is held in this blocking position by troponin, a smaller, globular protein that is bound to both ... Conversely, removal of calcium from troponin reverses the process, turning off contractile activity. Thus, cytosolic calcium- ...
Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part C: The Contractile Apparatus and the Cytoskeleton: Volume 134: Structural and ... Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part C: The Contractile Apparatus and the Cytoskeleton: Volume 134: Structural and ...
Contractile Proteins in Neoplasia Lead researcher. H K Muller, B H Toh ...
Purchase Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part A: Extracellular Matrix, Volume 82 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part A: Extracellular Matrix, Volume 82 1st Edition. ...
... Rong-Huai ... "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mediates group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent protein synthesis and ... J. Colomer and A. R. Means, "Physiological roles of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase cascade in health and disease," Sub- ... S. Y. Li, X. Yang, A. F. Ceylan-Isik, M. Du, N. Sreejayan, and J. Ren, "Cardiac contractile dysfunction in Lep/Lep obesity is ...
The Redox Imbalance and the Reduction of Contractile Protein Content in Rat Hearts Administered with L-Thyroxine and ... M. Jain, D. A. Brenner, L. Cui et al., "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase modulates cytosolic redox status and contractile ... "Redox sensitivity of the ryanodine receptor interaction with FK506-binding protein," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282 ... "Thyroid hormone effects on cardiac gene expression independent of cardiac growth and protein synthesis," American Journal of ...
Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ... Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ... Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ... Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ...
... the subcellular mechanisms involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loss that mediate altered Ca2+ handling and contractile ... Sepsis is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction attributed to alterations in Ca2+ handling. We examined ... Calcium/Calmodulin Protein Kinase II-Dependent Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation Mediates Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction ... Contractile function was also preserved in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from transgenic mice expressing ...
Contractile Proteins,Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional,Fibroblasts,Humans,Isotopes,Mass Spectrometry,Microfilament Proteins ... These proteins have not previously been shown to be regulated by TGF-beta(1), and the functional role of these proteins is to ... These proteins have not previously been shown to be regulated by TGF-beta(1), and the functional role of these proteins is to ... Transforming growth factor-beta 1 specifically induce proteins involved in the myofibroblast contractile apparatus. Malmström, ...
... ... These new roles of GRK2 suggest that GRK2 may be a nodal link in the myocyte, influencing both cardiac contractile function and ... One biomarker molecule consistently shown to be upregulated in human HF and several animal models is G protein-coupled receptor ... cell metabolism and survival and contributing to HF independent of its canonical role in G protein-coupled receptor ...
HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING. J. M. Moallic, J. Bercovici, B. ... HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING ... HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING ... HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING ...
... Proteins ... Proteins get their hands dirty and do the work.. The unique feature of protein is that it is a powerhouse food and nutrient. It ... The percentage of protein in the human body is close to 16%. Taking it only in your diet is a strict NO! Taking excess protein ... A body without protein is like fish without water, hence have the right amount of protein in your diet to lead a Healthy Long ...
... high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour ... high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour ... high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour ... whereas oestradiol up-regulates expression of the key contractile proteins and promotes contractile activity [22]. There is ...
Field, C. M. and Alberts, B. M. (1995). Anillin, a contractile ring protein that cycles from the nucleus to the cell cortex. J ... Mechanisms of contractile-ring formation in yeast and metazoans. *Domain structure and interactions of Anillin-related proteins ... Somers, W. G. and Saint, R. (2003). A RhoGEF and Rho family GTPase-activating protein complex links the contractile ring to ... First, this scaffold protein also brings together the signalling factors that regulate contractile-ring dynamics, including ...
Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ... Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ... Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ... Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ...
The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ... The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ... The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ... The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ...
Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With α7β ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With α7β ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With α7β ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With ...
... enhances the gain of skeletal muscle mass by increasing protein synthesis or attenuating protein degradation or both. The aims ... protein synthesis pathways and contractile function in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of fed and fasting rats. ... The EDL muscle was then removed, weighed and used to evaluate the genes and proteins involved in protein synthesis (AKT/4E-BP1/ ... enhances the gain of skeletal muscle mass by increasing protein synthesis or attenuating protein degradation or both. The aims ...
Isoform Diversity of Giant Proteins in Relation to Passive and Active Contractile Properties of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles. Lucas ... Isoform Diversity of Giant Proteins in Relation to Passive and Active Contractile Properties of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles ... The active and passive contractile performance of skeletal muscle fibers largely depends on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) ... Open questions concern the relationship between titin-based stiffness and active contractile parameters, and titins importance ...
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may benefit the heart during ischemia-reperfusion by increasing energy production. While ... Suppression of 5-AMP-activated protein kinase activity does not impair recovery of contractile function during reperfusion of ... AMP-activated protein kinase activity does not impair recovery of contractile function during reperfusion of ischemic hearts ... AMP-activated protein kinase regulation and biological actions in the heart.. *Vlad G. Zaha, Lawrence H. Young ...
The cytoskeletal proteins in the contractile tissues of the testis and its excurrent ducts of the passerine bird, Masked Weaver ... The cytoskeletal proteins in the contractile tissues of the testis and its excurrent ducts of the passerine bird, Masked Weaver ... Ultrastructure of the contractile cells in the testicular capsule, peritubular and periductal tissues showed that these cells ... Actin and desmin proteins were co-expressed immunohistochemically in the testicular capsule and seminiferous peritubular smooth ...
Mutational analysis of centrin: an EF-hand protein associated with three distinct contractile fibers in the basal body ... an EF-hand protein associated with three distinct contractile fibers in the basal body apparatus of Chlamydomonas.. J Cell Biol ... the first amino acid of the E-helix of the proteins third EF-hand. This proves that centrin is required to construct the ...
PROTEIN KINASE C, ATP-DEPENDENT K+ CHANNEL, ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING, HUMAN ATRIUM, CONTRACTILE FUNCTION, CORONARY-OCCLUSION, ... DOES ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING IN THE HUMAN INVOLVE PROTEIN-KINASE-C AND THE ATP-DEPENDENT K+ CHANNEL - STUDIES OF CONTRACTILE ... DOES ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING IN THE HUMAN INVOLVE PROTEIN-KINASE-C AND THE ATP-DEPENDENT K+ CHANNEL - STUDIES OF CONTRACTILE ... DOES ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING IN THE HUMAN INVOLVE PROTEIN-KINASE-C AND THE ATP-DEPENDENT K+ CHANNEL - STUDIES OF CONTRACTILE ...
Intricate effects of primary motor neuronopathy on contractile proteins and metabolic muscle enzymes as revealed by label-free ... Intricate effects of primary motor neuronopathy on contractile proteins and metabolic muscle enzymes as revealed by label-free ...
Regulatory and Contractile Proteins. * Introductory Remarks A. Weber. Pages 2-3 * The Structural Basis of Contraction in Muscle ...
  • This perspective essay discusses specific goals for filling critical gaps about post-translational signaling in response to these inherited mutations, especially within sarcomeric proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment of TGF-beta(1) led to specific spot pattern changes that were identified by mass spectrometry and represent specific induction of several members of the contractile apparatus such as calgizzarin, cofilin, and profilin. (lu.se)
  • Mutational analysis of centrin: an EF-hand protein associated with three distinct contractile fibers in the basal body apparatus of Chlamydomonas. (rupress.org)
  • Striated muscle shows an amazing ability to adapt its structural apparatus based on contractile activity, loading conditions, fuel supply, or environmental factors. (degruyter.com)
  • Objective: The alterations in contractile proteins underlying enhanced Ca 2+ -sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human myocardium are still not resolved. (vumc.nl)
  • Results: Maximal tension did not differ between myocytes obtained from donor and failing hearts, while Ca 2+ -sensitivity of the contractile apparatus (pCa 50 ) was significantly higher in failing myocardium (ΔpCa 50 =0.17). (vumc.nl)
  • In the cavity of the Golgi apparatus, the vessel proteins are modified for export - for example, by having a carbohydrate added to the protein. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • numbering refers to the mouse sequence) are localized in the M motif of cMyBP-C and are targeted by protein kinases in a hierarchical order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topics include: muscle energetics and mechanics, biochemistry of motility, and regulation of contractile proteins. (uvm.edu)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster protein Anillin, and its related proteins in other organisms, has a pivotal role in the organization of this scaffold in many species, ranging from yeast to humans. (biologists.org)
  • Despite its widespread role in the organization of the contractile ring, there are several interspecies differences in the structure and function of Anillin-related proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Even after dispersion of the contractile vacuole system during mitosis, dajumin-GFP distinguishes the vesicles from endosomes, and visualizes post-mitotic re-organization of the network around the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • Here we have applied super-resolution microscopy and FRET to determine the nanoscale spatial organization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contractile ring components relative to the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Other example can be that the organization of contractile proteins is difficult to define in nonmuscle cells. (wikibooks.org)
  • sarcomeric organization of the contractile proteins was observed. (ahajournals.org)
  • According to our previous studies [5, the major factors leading to PSE-like meat having poor protein functionalities are concluded as protein conformation, characteristic of salt soluble proteins, myosin and actin denaturation during meat processing, which also depend on pH and ionic strength conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tissues were analyzed for total and soluble protein contents (μg/mg wet weight), actin, MHC and MHCf contents (μg/mg wet weight) by SDS-PAOE, using 3-20% gradient and 4% gels, and 200 kDa MHCI by Western Analysis with SM 2 and MHC-B specific antisera. (elsevier.com)
  • Albumins are proteins that are soluble in water and in water half-saturated with ammonium sulfate. (britannica.com)
  • The driving force behind muscle contraction is provided by contractile proteins myosin and actin. (aua2012.org)
  • These contractile proteins do the work of muscle contraction. (nasa.gov)
  • Contractile rings in cell division are known for many species, but their mechanisms of positioning and contraction rarely are understood in detail. (pnas.org)
  • To explain the chemical properties of proteins involved in contraction. (wikibooks.org)
  • Figure: Contraction drives PAR protein clustering to break symmetry in a C. elegans embryo. (eurekalert.org)
  • Once cortical contraction stopped, the clusters disassembled, with the proteins spreading out as a gradient along the front/back axis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Despite these findings, the researchers did not observe a direct connection between the contractile fibres and PAR proteins, and this led them to hypothesise that an indirect effect of contraction was responsible for clustering. (eurekalert.org)
  • The major themes of the Program are the structural biology, mechano-chemistry, protein design and sequence specificity of the contractile proteins. (grantome.com)
  • In contrast to antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that inhibit translation of proteins by Watson-Crick base-pairing to their respective messenger RNAs, aptamers bind to existing proteins (and, less commonly, non-protein targets) with high affinity and specificity, analogous to monoclonal antibodies. (mdpi.com)
  • over successive rounds, the pool becomes enriched for ligands that bind the target protein with high affinity and specificity ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • Since then, Anillin-related proteins have been identified in many organisms, from yeasts to humans, and it has been shown that they are essential for proper assembly of the contractile ring and successful cytokinesis. (biologists.org)
  • SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. (mdpi.com)
  • All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. (mdpi.com)
  • The particular protein degradation pathway which seems to be responsible for much of the muscle loss seen in a muscle undergoing atrophy is the ATP-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this system, particular proteins are targeted for destruction by the ligation of at least four copies of a small peptide called ubiquitin onto a substrate protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are proteins that participate in the immune response by defending the body against antigens (foreign invaders). (wikibooks.org)
  • An intermediate layer (80-160 nm) consists of a network of cytokinesis accessory proteins as well as multiple signaling components which influence cell division. (nih.gov)
  • In Escherichia coli , a contractile ring (Z-ring) is formed at midcell before cytokinesis. (pnas.org)
  • In bacteria, FtsZ is the first protein to localize to the midcell as part of the cytokinesis machinery ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The current study sets up a translational animal model of maternal obesity to begin to unravel the mechanisms involved and finds that increased abdominal adiposity led to asynchronous contractions and adverse alterations in uterine contractile protein expression and progesterone production in comparison with lean animals. (clinsci.org)
  • In the present study an attempt was made to reveal to what extent protein alterations contribute to the increased Ca 2+ -responsiveness in human heart failure. (vumc.nl)
  • Glucocorticoids, a class of medications used to treat allergic and other inflammatory conditions can induce muscle atrophy by increasing break-down of muscle proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 31 muscles contained a single isoform, six muscles coexpressed two isoforms, including the psoas, where individual fibers expressed similar isoform ratios of 30:70 (3.4:3.3 MD). Gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of two other giant muscle proteins, nebulin and obscurin, demonstrated muscle type-dependent size differences of ≤70 kD. (rupress.org)
  • however, there are many proteins that work together to form complexes (for example: ribosomes, lipids, nucleic acids, etc. (wikibooks.org)
  • The team of researchers led by Assistant Professor Fumio Motegi, Principal Investigator at MBI and Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, sought to answer this question by observing the movement of fluorescently labelled PAR protein complexes under the microscope in live C. elegans embryos as they underwent polarisation. (eurekalert.org)
  • H., Janin J., Stability and specifity of protein-protein interactions: The case of trypsin-trypsin inhibitor complexes. (ximicat.com)
  • These new roles of GRK2 suggest that GRK2 may be a nodal link in the myocyte, influencing both cardiac contractile function and cell metabolism and survival and contributing to HF independent of its canonical role in G protein-coupled receptor desensitization. (ovid.com)
  • In this review, classical and nonclassical roles for GRK2 will be discussed, focusing on recently discovered roles for GRK2 in cardiomyocyte metabolism and the effects that these roles may have on myocardial contractile function and HF development. (ovid.com)
  • Leucine's roles include being a promoter of and substrate for protein synthesis and energy, activator of the insulin-signaling pathway, and precursor to alanine and glutamine1. (bodybuilding.com)
  • The first ten chapters discuss structure-function relationships, methods of analysis of nitrogenous compounds, chemical and enzymatic modifications, nutritive roles, and mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of food proteins. (routledge.com)
  • Docampo R, Jimenez V , Lander N, Li ZH and Niyogi S. New Insights into the Roles of Acidocalcisomes and the Contractile Vacuole Complex in Osmoregulation in Protists. (fullerton.edu)
  • Vinexin family (SORBS) proteins play different roles in stiffness-sensing and contractile force generation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The secondary structure of protein deals with the fact that polypeptide chains fold into a regularly repeating structure, such as an alpha-helix and beta-sheet. (wikibooks.org)
  • The quaternary structure of protein refers to the arrangement and interaction of several subunit polypeptide chains to form a protein molecule. (wikibooks.org)
  • This makes the protein form long chains. (wikibooks.org)
  • The contractile vacuole system is an osmoregulatory organelle composed of cisternae and interconnecting ducts. (biologists.org)
  • The C-terminal, GFP-tagged region of this transmembrane protein is responsible for sorting to the contractile vacuole complex. (biologists.org)
  • Fluorescent labeled cell-surface constituents are efficiently internalized by endocytosis, while no significant cycling through the contractile vacuole is observed. (biologists.org)
  • Endosomes loaded with yeast particles or a fluid-phase marker indicate sharp separation of the endocytic pathway from the contractile vacuole compartment. (biologists.org)
  • Highly discriminative sorting and membrane fusion mechanisms are proposed to account for the sharp separation of the contractile vacuole and endosomal compartments. (biologists.org)
  • Identification of contractile vacuole proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi . (fullerton.edu)
  • Molecule movement is vital to the human body and transport protein is responsible for it. (aua2012.org)
  • Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Proteins presents the current state of knowledge on the content of proteins in food structures, the chemical, functional, and nutritive properties of food proteins, the chemical and biochemical modification of proteins in foods during storage and processing, and the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrogenous compounds. (routledge.com)
  • Similar to other membrane-tethered actin structures, we find proteins localize in specific layers relative to the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • B ) Conventional fluorescence microscopy images of a contractile ring protein and membrane dye. (nih.gov)
  • Using advanced microscopy techniques, they discovered that certain PAR proteins assembled into clusters at the beginning of polarisation, and these clusters grew in size as polarisation progressed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nevertheless, the ubiquity of contractile proteins and the importance of their interactions presages increase relevancy for physiology and medicine. (wikibooks.org)