Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Pentacyclic triterpene saponins, biosynthesized from protoaescigenin and barringtogenol, occurring in the seeds of AESCULUS. It inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A nonspecific hypersensitivity reaction caused by TRAUMA to the PERICARDIUM, often following PERICARDIOTOMY. It is characterized by PERICARDIAL EFFUSION; high titers of anti-heart antibodies; low-grade FEVER; LETHARGY; loss of APPETITE; or ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.

Filament assembly from profilin-actin. (1/1105)

Profilin plays a major role in the assembly of actin filament at the barbed ends. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for barbed end assembly from profilin-actin have been measured turbidimetrically. Filament growth from profilin-actin requires MgATP to be bound to actin. No assembly is observed from profilin-CaATP-actin. The rate constant for association of profilin-actin to barbed ends is 30% lower than that of actin, and the critical concentration for F-actin assembly from profilin-actin units is 0.3 microM under physiological ionic conditions. Barbed ends grow from profilin-actin with an ADP-Pi cap. Profilin does not cap the barbed ends and is not detectably incorporated into filaments. The EDC-cross-linked profilin-actin complex (PAcov) both copolymerizes with F-actin and undergoes spontaneous self-assembly, following a nucleation-growth process characterized by a critical concentration of 0.2 microM under physiological conditions. The PAcov polymer is a helical filament that displays the same diffraction pattern as F-actin, with layer lines at 6 and 36 nm. The PAcov filaments bound phalloidin with the same kinetics as F-actin, bound myosin subfragment-1, and supported actin-activated ATPase of myosin subfragment-1, but they did not translocate in vitro along myosin-coated glass surfaces. These results are discussed in light of the current models of actin structure.  (+info)

The small GTPase RalA targets filamin to induce filopodia. (2/1105)

The Ras-related small GTPases Rac, Rho, Cdc42, and RalA bind filamin, an actin filament-crosslinking protein that also links membrane and other intracellular proteins to actin. Of these GTPases only RalA binds filamin in a GTP-specific manner, and GTP-RalA elicits actin-rich filopods on surfaces of Swiss 3T3 cells and recruits filamin into the filopodial cytoskeleton. Either a dominant negative RalA construct or the RalA-binding domain of filamin 1 specifically block Cdc42-induced filopod formation, but a Cdc42 inhibitor does not impair RalA's effects, which, unlike Cdc42, are Rac independent. RalA does not generate filopodia in filamin-deficient human melanoma cells, whereas transfection of filamin 1 restores the functional response. RalA therefore is a downstream intermediate in Cdc42-mediated filopod production and uses filamin in this pathway.  (+info)

Profilin and the Abl tyrosine kinase are required for motor axon outgrowth in the Drosophila embryo. (3/1105)

The ability of neuronal growth cones to be guided by extracellular cues requires intimate communication between signal transduction systems and the dynamic actin-based cytoskeleton at the leading edge. Profilin, a small, actin-binding protein, has been proposed to be a regulator of the cell motility machinery at leading edge membranes. However, its requirement in the developing nervous system has been unknown. Profilin associates with members of the Enabled family of proteins, suggesting that Profilin might link Abl function to the cytoskeleton. Here, genetic analysis in Drosophila is used to demonstrate that mutations in Profilin (chickadee) and Abl (abl) display an identical growth cone arrest phenotype for axons of intersegmental nerve b (ISNb). Moreover, the phenotype of a double mutant suggests that these components function together to control axonal outgrowth.  (+info)

Mena is required for neurulation and commissure formation. (4/1105)

Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a member of a protein family thought to link signal transduction pathways to localized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Mena binds directly to Profilin, an actin-binding protein that modulates actin polymerization. In primary neurons, Mena is concentrated at the tips of growth cone filopodia. Mena-deficient mice are viable; however, axons projecting from interhemispheric cortico-cortical neurons are misrouted in early neonates, and failed decussation of the corpus callosum as well as defects in the hippocampal commissure and the pontocerebellar pathway are evident in the adult. Mena-deficient mice that are heterozygous for a Profilin I deletion die in utero and display defects in neurulation, demonstrating an important functional role for Mena in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Cyclosporine-induced renal artery smooth muscle contraction is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins. (5/1105)

Cyclosporine A (CSA) is a type 2B phosphatase inhibitor which can induce contraction of renal artery smooth muscle. In this investigation, we examined the phosphorylation events associated with CSA-induced contraction of bovine renal artery smooth muscle. Contractile responses were determined in a muscle bath and the corresponding phosphorylation events were determined with whole cell phosphorylation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. CSA-induced contractions were associated with increases in the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chains (MLC20) and different isoforms of the small heat shock protein, HSP27. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxation of CSA-induced contractions was associated with increases in the phosphorylation of another small heat shock protein, HSP20, and decreases in the phosphorylation of the MLC20, and some isoforms of HSP27. These data suggest that CSA-induced contraction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Role of proteins of the Ena/VASP family in actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes. (6/1105)

Intracellular propulsion of Listeria monocytogenes is the best understood form of motility dependent on actin polymerization. We have used in vitro motility assays of Listeria in platelet and brain extracts to elucidate the function of the focal adhesion proteins of the Ena (Drosophila Enabled)/VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein) family in actin-based motility. Immunodepletion of VASP from platelet extracts and of Evl (Ena/VASP-like protein) from brain extracts of Mena knockout (-/-) mice combined with add-back of recombinant (bacterial or eukaryotic) VASP and Evl show that VASP, Mena, and Evl play interchangeable roles and are required to transform actin polymerization into active movement and propulsive force. The EVH1 (Ena/VASP homology 1) domain of VASP is in slow association-dissociation equilibrium high-affinity binding to the zyxin-homologous, proline-rich region of ActA. VASP also interacts with F-actin via its COOH-terminal EVH2 domain. Hence VASP/ Ena/Evl link the bacterium to the actin tail, which is required for movement. The affinity of VASP for F-actin is controlled by phosphorylation of serine 157 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phospho-VASP binds with high affinity (0.5 x 10(8) M-1); dephospho-VASP binds 40-fold less tightly. We propose a molecular ratchet model for insertional polymerization of actin, within which frequent attachment-detachment of VASP to F-actin allows its sliding along the growing filament.  (+info)

The quaternary structure of the sheaths of defective phages similar to PBS X. (7/1105)

The contractile sheaths of five defective, PBS X-like bacteriophages from Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis were investigated by electron microscopy, dodecylsulphate gel electrophoresis and immunodiffusion. Electron microscope images of the extended and contracted sheaths were of similar appearance, although their lengths were different. The surface lattices of both the extended and the contracted sheaths were determined by optical diffraction. This showed that the quaternary structure of the sheaths of all five defective phages originated from identical surface lattices, which could be approximately expressed by the selection rules L = -2n' + 3m and L = 9N' + 17M for the extended and contracted sheaths respectively, in which 6n' = n with n = 0 or an integer multiple of 6. These results indicated that the packing of the protein subunits in these sheaths differed from those of other bacteriophages, for example T4 and millimicron [Amos and Klug, J. Mol. Biol. 99, 51--73 (1975); Admiraal and Mellema, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 56, 48--64 (1976)]. The molecular weight of the main sheath protein of the defective phages, as determined by dodecylsulphate gel electrophoresis, was approximately 50000. This value differed from that for T4, but was similar to that of millimicron [Admiraal and Mellema, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 56, 48--64 (1976); King and Laemmli, J. Mol. Biol, 75, 315--337 (1973)]. The results of immunodiffusion experiments, however, pointed to a chemical difference between the sheath proteins of the defective phages and millimicron, in addition to T4.  (+info)

Identification of a suppressor of the Dictyostelium profilin-minus phenotype as a CD36/LIMP-II homologue. (8/1105)

Profilin is an ubiquitous G-actin binding protein in eukaryotic cells. Lack of both profilin isoforms in Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in impaired cytokinesis and an arrest in development. A restriction enzyme-mediated integration approach was applied to profilin-minus cells to identify suppressor mutants for the developmental phenotype. A mutant with wild-type-like development and restored cytokinesis was isolated. The gene affected was found to code for an integral membrane glycoprotein of a predicted size of 88 kD containing two transmembrane domains, one at the NH2 terminus and the other at the COOH terminus. It is homologous to mammalian CD36/LIMP-II and represents the first member of this family in D. discoideum, therefore the name DdLIMP is proposed. Targeted disruption of the lmpA gene in the profilin-minus background also rescued the mutant phenotype. Immunofluorescence revealed a localization in vesicles and ringlike structures on the cell surface. Partially purified DdLIMP bound specifically to PIP2 in sedimentation and gel filtration assays. A direct interaction between DdLIMP and profilin could not be detected, and it is unclear how far upstream in a regulatory cascade DdLIMP might be positioned. However, the PIP2 binding of DdLIMP points towards a function via the phosphatidylinositol pathway, a major regulator of profilin.  (+info)

Previously, it has been shown that the human ground-based model consisting of unilateral limb suspension (ULLS) induces atrophy and reduced strength of the affected quadriceps muscle group. Resistance exercise (RE) involving concentric-eccentric actions, in the face of ULLS, is effective in ameliorating these deficits. The goal of the present study was to determine whether alterations in contractile protein gene expression, e.g., myosin heavy chain and actin, as studied at the pretranslational level, provide molecular markers concerning the deficits that occur in muscle mass/volume during ULLS, as well as its maintenance in response to ULLS plus RE. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of 31 middle-aged men and women before and after 5 wk of ULLS, ULLS plus RE, or RE only. The RE paradigm consisted of 12 sessions of 4 sets of 7 concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Our findings show that there were net deficits in total RNA, total mRNA, and actin and myosin heavy chain ...
By Andrew R Bond, Dominga Iacobazzi, Safa Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed Ghorbel, Kate Heesom, Mariangela Wilson, Christopher Gillett, Sarah J George, Massimo Caputo, Saadeh Suleiman and Robert M R Tulloh ...
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During chicken skeletal myogenesis in tissue culture, filamin is found on stress fibers in myoblasts and early myotubes. Approximately one day after fusion and shortly before [alpha]-actinin transits to Z lines, filamin disappears from the cells. The disappearance of filamin is correlated with a cessation of its synthesis. Approximately six days after fusion, filamin reappears at the Z lines of myogenic cells, shortly before desmin and vimentin transit to the Z line. In adult muscle, filamin is found at the periphery of the Z disk, along with desmin and vimentin. Peptide map analysis of the various filamins shows that gizzard and fibroblast filamins are identical while myoblast filamin is quite similar to these two filamins. Cultured myotube and adult myofibril filamins are virtually identical to each other and are quite different polypeptides when compared to gizzard, fibroblast and myoblast filamins. Analysis of terminally differentiated slow and fast muscle shows that both muscle types ...
Pollen profilin function depends on interaction with proline-rich motifs.: The actin binding protein profilin has dramatic effects on actin polymerization in vi
2WA5: Disease-Associated Substitutions in the Filamin B Actin Binding Domain Confer Enhanced Actin Binding Affinity in the Absence of Major Structural Disturbance: Insights from the Crystal Structures of Filamin B Actin Binding Domains.
Mechanical forces are important signals for cell response and development, but detailed molecular mechanisms of force sensing are largely unexplored. The cytoskeletal protein filamin is a key connecting element between the cytoskeleton and transmembrane complexes such as integrins or the von Willebrand receptor glycoprotein Ib. Here, we show using single-molecule mechanical measurements that the recently reported Ig domain pair 20-21 of human filamin A acts as an autoinhibited force-activatable mechanosensor. We developed a mechanical single-molecule competition assay that allows online observation of binding events of target peptides in solution to the strained domain pair. We find that filamin force sensing is a highly dynamic process occurring in rapid equilibrium that increases the affinity to the target peptides by up to a factor of 17 between 2 and 5 pN. The equilibrium mechanism we find here can offer a general scheme for cellular force sensing. ...
Cytokinesis is the process that partitions the cell surface and cytoplasm of one cell to form two cells (for reviews see Glotzer 1997; Gould and Simanis 1997; Field et al. 1999; Hales et al. 1999). To avoid aneuploidy, the cell must successfully coordinate cytokinesis with chromosome segregation. In animal cells, this coordination is achieved, in part, by assembling the cleavage furrow in response to signals from the late anaphase spindle. The exact nature of this signaling remains poorly understood.. In animal cells, the cytoplasm is partitioned by ingression of the cleavage furrow. Cleavage furrow ingression requires a contractile cortical ring of actin and myosin II (for review see Satterwhite and Pollard, 1992; for some more recent examples of the role of myosin II during cytokinesis see Bi et al. 1998, and Lippincott and Li 1998 [Saccharomyces cerevisiae]; Shelton et al. 1999 [Caenorhabditis elegans]; and Benzanilla et al. 2000 [Schizosaccharomyces pombe]). Based on EM studies, filamentous ...
The microfilament system consists of actin filaments as the major component and is regulated by a number of actin binding proteins. It is juxtaposed to the plasma membrane where it forms a dense cortical weave from where it pervades into the cell interior. This filament system has multiple roles and participates in virtually all motile processes where its dynamic activities depend on receptor mediated signaling leading to constant polymerizations and depolymerizations. These activities are now also known to affect gene regulation. This thesis discusses these dynamic reorganizations of the microfilament system and how components are supplied to support these motile processes. The focus is on profilin/profilin:actin, actin polymerization and the localization of the transcripts of these proteins.. The localization of profilin mRNA was examined in relation to the distribution of β-actin mRNA using fluorescent in situ hybridization. It was concluded that both these mRNAs localize to sites of massive ...
Myofibrillar myopathy is a progressive muscle disease characterized by the disintegration of muscle fibers and formation of protein aggregates. Causative mutations have been identified in nine genes encoding Z-disk proteins, including the actin binding protein filamin C (FLNC). To investigate the mechanism of disease in FLNCW2710X myopathy we overexpressed fluorescently tagged FLNC or FLNCW2710X in zebrafish. Expression of FLNCW2710X causes formation of protein aggregates but surprisingly, our studies reveal that the mutant protein localizes correctly to the Z-disk and is capable of rescuing the fiber disintegration phenotype that results from FLNC knockdown. This demonstrates that the functions necessary for muscle integrity are not impaired, and suggests that it is the formation of protein aggregates and subsequent sequestration of FLNC away from the Z-disk that results in myofibrillar disintegration. Similar to those found in patients, the aggregates in FLNCW2710X expressing fish contain the ...
2WA7: Disease-Associated Substitutions in the Filamin B Actin Binding Domain Confer Enhanced Actin Binding Affinity in the Absence of Major Structural Disturbance: Insights from the Crystal Structures of Filamin B Actin Binding Domains.
In the developing aorta, endothelial cell connecting filaments extend from the abluminal surface of the endothelial cell to the subjacent elastic lamina. The connecting filaments are in alignment with intracellular stress fibers and are oriented parallel to the direction of blood flow. In the present study, the composition of the endothelial cell connecting filaments was investigated by indirect immunogold labeling with antibodies to the microfibril proteins, MP340 (fibrillin) and MAGP, and to fibronectin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG). In the subendothelial matrix of both 15-day gestational and 5-day post-natal mouse aortae, the connecting filaments showed moderate immunoreactivity with anti-MP340; however, no significant immunoreaction was seen with anti-MAGP. Anti-fibronectin strongly labeled the connecting filaments and a weak immunoreaction was seen with anti-HSPG. In contrast, the adjacent elastin-associated microfibrils showed a very strong immunoreaction with anti-MP340 and a ...
Our results demonstrate that profilin is required for tip cell growth in plants. Using RNAi to reduce the levels of all profilin genes in moss protonemal cells, we reproducibly observed that profilin RNAi plants are dramatically smaller than control plants, and individual cells are small and rounded. This phenotype is observed with either the CDS-RNAi construct or the UTR-RNAi construct. In addition, the immunofluorescence data support that profilin levels were reduced (Figure 7). Since the CDS-RNAi construct contains a region of sequence from PRFa and the UTR-RNAi construct contains regions of sequence from PRFb and PRFc, we are confident that all profilin function is greatly reduced in these RNAi studies. Thus, the strategy of using one sequence to knock down multiple family members is valid. Furthermore, compared with gene knockouts, this transient RNAi approach is much more rapid. In fact, gene knockouts may not be possible to obtain, since our results strongly suggest that profilin function ...
In this study, we present a functional analysis of several domains of mDia1, a protein linking Rho signaling with actin organization. We demonstrate that complex formation between this mammalian protein with the actin-binding protein profilin is indeed mediated by the proline-rich FH1 domain, in analogy to data described for the budding yeast diaphanous protein (Imamura et al., 1997), and proving previous predictions derived from experiments with full length recombinant mDia1 (Watanabe et al., 1997). The FH1, equipped N-terminally with the first CCD, is both essential and sufficient in binding profilin in vitro and in cells. We found that mDia1 reacts with both profilin isoforms I and IIa, but the nature of our experiments does not preclude a possible differential affinity of mDia1 for either isoform. Mammalian profilin IIa, the predominant neuronal isoform, has a higher affinity for proline-rich sequences than profilin I (Lambrechts et al., 1997; Wittenmayer et al., 2000). Hence, isoform ...
Epitranscriptomic events such as adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by ADAR can recode mRNAs to translate novel proteins. Editing of the mRNA that encodes actin crosslinking protein Filamin A (FLNA) mediates a Q-to-R transition in the interactive C-terminal region. While FLNA editing is conserved among vertebrates, its physiological function remains unclear. Here, we show that cardiovascula...
SHIP-2 interacts with filamin A, B, and C in the yeast two-hybrid system. (A) Optimized alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences of human filamin A, B, a
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Abstract. Filamin-A, also called Actin Binding Protein-280, is not only an essential component of the cytoskeleton networks, but also serves as the scaffold in various signaling networks. It has been shown that filamin-A facilitates DNA repair and filamin-A proficient cells are more resistant to ionizing radiation, bleomycin, and cisplatin. In this study, we assessed the role of filamin-A in modulating cancer cell sensitivity to Topo II poisons, including etoposide and doxorubicin. Intriguingly, we found that cells with filamin-A expression are more sensitive to Topo II poisons than those with defective filamin-A, and filamin-A proficient xenograft melanomas have better response to etoposide treatment than the filamin-A deficient tumors. This is associated with more potent induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by Topo II poisons in filamin-A proficient cells than the deficient cells. Although the expression of filamin-A enables cells a slightly stronger capability to repair DSB, the net ...
The FLNB gene provides instructions for making a protein called filamin B. This protein helps build the network of protein filaments (cytoskeleton) that gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. Filamin B attaches (binds) to another protein called actin and helps the actin to form the branching network of filaments that makes up the cytoskeleton. It also links actin to many other proteins to perform various functions within the cell, including the cell signaling that helps determine how the cytoskeleton will change as tissues grow and take shape during development.. Filamin B is involved in the development of the skeleton before birth. It is active (expressed) in many cells and tissues of the body, including cartilage-forming cells called chondrocytes. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted to bone (a process called ossification), except for the cartilage that continues to cover ...
The cell cytoskeleton plays a role in caveolar organization and trafficking. Actin stress fibers influence the linear distribution of caveolae at the plasma membrane in many cell types. Stress fibers regulated by the tyrosine kinase Abl and the formin mDIA1 play a major role in caveolar organization as well as endocytic trafficking initiated in response to loss of cell adhesion from the substrate [11]. The actin-binding protein Filamin A also plays a crucial role in trafficking of caveolae linked to actin [12]. Microtubules promote recycling of caveolae through local stabilization of microtubules by β1 integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling (reviewed in [13]). The β1 integrin-ILK recruits the actin-binding protein IQGAP1 which together with mDIA1 stabilize microtubules. Thus mDIA1 which regulates both actin and microtubules is crucial for both the internalization and recycling of caveolae.. Caveolae can flatten in response to membrane stretch and this mechanosensitive response of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nephrocystin-conserved domains involved in targeting to epithelial cell-cell junctions, interaction with filamins, and establishing cell polarity.. AU - Donaldson, John C.. AU - Dise, Rebecca S.. AU - Ritchie, Marylyn D.. AU - Hanks, Steven K.. PY - 2002/8/9. Y1 - 2002/8/9. N2 - Nephrocystin is the protein product of the gene mutated in juvenile nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease afflicting children and young adults. Because the normal cellular function of nephrocystin is largely unknown, the molecular defects underlying disease pathogenesis remain obscure. Analysis of nephrocystin amino acid sequences from human and other species revealed three distinct conserved domains including Src homology 3 and coil-coil domains in the N-terminal region, as well as a large highly conserved C-terminal region bearing no obvious homology to other proteins and hence referred to as the nephrocystin homology domain (NHD). The objective of this study was to gain ...
BACKGROUND: Profilins are dominant pan-allergens known to cause cross-sensitization, leading to clinical symptoms such as pollen-food syndrome. This study aimed to determine the T-cell response to Phl p 12 in profilin-sensitized patients, by measuring the prevalence, strength and cross-reactivity to clinically relevant profilins. METHODS: The release of Phl p allergens from pollen was determined by mass spectrometry and immunochemistry. T-cell responses, epitope mapping and cross-reactivity to profilins (Phl p 12, Ole e 2, Bet v 2 and Mal d 4) were measured in vitro using PBMCs from 26 Spanish grass-allergic donors IgE-sensitized to profilin ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer in the developed countries, accounting for more than 50,000 cancer deaths per year. We used microarray to analyze gene expression in patients with different stages of colorectal cancer. Among the 157 metastasis-related genes, RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to verify 11 genes. The roles of anillin (ANLN), one of 11 metastasis-associated genes, in colorectal cancer are not clear. Therefore, we focused on ANLN in this study. We found that the expression levels of anillin are higher in tumor specimens, even in metastasis tumor grade compared with those of adjacent normal tissues by real-time PCR. In order to understand the roles of anillin in tumorigenesis and metastasis of colorectal cancer, we used anillin overexpressed HT29 and shRNA-knockdowned SW480. Our data indicated that anillin overexpressed HT29 showed faster replication kinetics probably due to prolonged G2/M phase. Next, we found that the number and size ...
This sequence change replaces proline with serine at codon 2488 of the FLNC protein (p.Pro2488Ser). The proline residue is highly conserved and there is a moderate physicochemical difference between proline and serine. This variant is not present in population databases (ExAC no frequency). This variant has not been reported in the literature in individuals with FLNC-related disease. Algorithms developed to predict the effect of missense changes on protein structure and function do not agree on the potential impact of this missense change (SIFT: Tolerated; PolyPhen-2: Probably Damaging; Align-GVGD: Class C0). In summary, the available evidence is currently insufficient to determine the role of this variant in disease. Therefore, it has been classified as a Variant of Uncertain Significance ...
This sequence change replaces threonine with methionine at codon 1823 of the FLNC protein (p.Thr1823Met). The threonine residue is highly conserved and there is a moderate physicochemical difference between threonine and methionine. This variant is present in population databases (rs140857707, ExAC 0.06%). This variant has not been reported in the literature in individuals with FLNC-related disease. Algorithms developed to predict the effect of missense changes on protein structure and function (SIFT, PolyPhen-2, Align-GVGD) all suggest that this variant is likely to be tolerated, but these predictions have not been confirmed by published functional studies and their clinical significance is uncertain. In summary, the available evidence is currently insufficient to determine the role of this variant in disease. Therefore, it has been classified as a Variant of Uncertain Significance ...
Supplementary MaterialsSuppl. validated the conversation between SOX4 and the precise sequence from the promoter area of Anillin gene. While, we confirmed miR-138 as an upstream regulator of SOX4, which is normally abrogated in HCC cells and exerts degenerating influence on SOX4 mRNA. Inside our bottom line, Anillin facilitates the cell proliferation and enhances tumor development of HCC, and it is modulated by miR-138/SOX4 axis which regulates the transcriptional activity of Anillin. Results demonstrate us a possible axis for HCC medical diagnosis and treatment over. Overview of the primary stage Anillin facilitates the cell enhances and proliferation tumor development in HCC. The transcriptional activity of Anillin is normally modulated by miR-138/SOX4 axis. Results above demonstrate us a possible axis for HCC medical diagnosis and treatment. Launch Among the damaging individual malignancies, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rates the 6th most common tumors and causes the next cancer tumor ...
Cancer Council Victoria would like to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which we live and work. We would also like to pay respect to the elders past and present and extend that respect to all other Aboriginal people. ...
Expression of FLNA (ABP-280, FLN, FLN1, OPD1, OPD2) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001115, HPA002925 and CAB000356 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of FLNA (ABP-280, FLN, FLN1, OPD1, OPD2) in colon tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001115, HPA002925 and CAB000356 in immunohistochemistry.
The act of division itself - cytokinesis - is probably the single most complicated mechanical act an animal cell ever performs on its own. To pinch itself in two, the cell first has to sort replicated chromosomes, then figure out where its middle is, assemble contractile proteins at the cell surface around that equator (and nowhere else), then squeeze the equator smaller and smaller to partition surface, organelles, and cytoplasm into two new daughter cells. Finally the daughters have to sever their connection and re-establish their own internal organization. Throughout cytokinesis, the cell has to ensure that each half of itself will end up with a complete set of chromosomes, one microtubule organizing center apiece, and of course portions of every other organelle ...
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Budnar S, Husain KB, Gomez GA, Naghibosadat M, Varma A, Verma S, Hamilton NA, Morris RG, Yap AS. 2019. Anillin Promotes Cell Contractility by Cyclic Resetting of RhoA Residence Kinetics.. Dev Cell. 49(6):894-906.e12. ...
Filamin A is an important gene involved in the development of the brain, heart, connective tissue and blood vessels. A case is presented illustrating the challenge in recognising patients with filamin A mutations. The patient, a 71-year-old woman, was known to have heart valve disease and bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia when she died of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Autopsy showed typical cerebral bilateral periventricular heterotopia and vascular abnormalities. Postmortally, the diagnosis of a filamin A mutation was confirmed. Recognition during life may prevent cardiovascular problems and provide possibilities for genetic counselling. ...
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CONCLUSIONS: We report the clinical and mutation spectrum as well as MR imaging for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH including two adult males. Our data are reassuring in regard to psychomotor and cognitive development, which is within normal range for the majority of patients. However, a concerning median diagnostic latency of 17 to 20 years was noted between seizure onset and the genetic diagnosis, intensely delaying appropriate medical surveillance for potentially life threatening cardiovascular complications as well as genetic risk assessment and counseling prior to family planning for this X-linked dominant inherited disorder with high perinatal lethality in hemizygous males. ...
Cartault F, Munier P, JaMLcquemont , et al.Expanding the clinical spectrum of B4GALT7 deficiency: homozygous p.R270C mutation with founder effect causes Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015 23:49-53.. Mei H, He R, Liu K, et al. Presumed Larsen syndrome in a child: a case with a 12-year follow-up. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2015 24:268-273.. Unger S, Lausch E., Rossi A., et al. Phenotypic features of carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3) deficiency in 24 patients: congenital dislocations and vertebral changes as principal diagnostic features. Am JMed Genet A. 2010;152A:2543-2. Huber C, Oules B, Bertoli M et al: Identification of CANT1 mutations in Desbuquois dysplasia. Am J Hum Genet 2009; 85: 706-710.. Winer N, Kyndt F, Paumier A, David A, Isidor B, Quentin M, Jouitteau B, Sanyas P, Philippe HJ, Hernandez A, Krakow D, Le Caignec C. Prenatal diagnosis of Larsen syndrome caused by a mutation in the filamin B gene. Prenat Diagn. 2009;29:172-4.. Bicknell LS, Farrington-Rock C, ...
The butterfly effect is defined as the sensitive dependence on initial conditions, where a small change at one place in a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences to a later state. In medicine, the identification of a rare disease or a genetic mutation may provide insights that spread well beyond the initial discovery.. And in genetics, scientists are learning just how widespread the effects are for mutations in one gene: filaminA (FLNA).. FLNA is a common cause of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), a disorder of neuronal migration during brain development. The syndrome was first described by the late Peter Huttenlocher, MD, and the gene was identified by Christopher Walsh, MD, PhD, of Boston Childrens Hospital.. In normal brain development, neurons form in the periventricular region, located around fluid-filled ventricles near the brains center, then migrate outward to form six onion-like layers. In PVNH, some neurons fail to migrate to their proper position ...
Animals, fungi, and amoebas require an actomyosin contractile ring at the division site to perform cytokinesis. The contractile ring initiates and guides the invagination of the plasma membrane as it forms new barriers between the nuclei at the cell equator. Defects in the contractile ring can result in misdirected, delayed, or premature cytokinesis, which leads to abnormal chromosome numbers. Aneuploidies resulting from failed cytokinesis sometimes lead to aggressive forms of cancer. This dissertation was motivated by the goal of better understanding the properties of the contractile ring and how it drives cytokinesis. Actomyosin is initially recruited to the cell equator through the coordination of scaffolding factors, actin-binding proteins, and signaling cascades. Subsequently, the sliding of actin filaments by myosin reshapes the resulting meshwork into a compact ring. Once fully assembled, the contractile ring establishes tension, which leads the plasma membrane inward. The primary motor proteins
In a number of recent studies it has been shown that in vivo part of the EGF receptor (EGFR) population is associated to the actin filament system. In this paper we demonstrate that the purified EGFR can be cosedimented with purified filamentous actin (F-actin) indicating a direct association between EGFR and actin. A truncated EGFR, previously shown not to be associated to the cytoskeleton, was used as a control and this receptor did not cosediment with actin filaments. Determination of the actin-binding domain of the EGFR was done by measuring competition of either a polyclonal antibody or synthetic peptides on EGFR cosedimentation with F-actin. A synthetic peptide was made homologous to amino acid residues 984-996 (HL-33) of the EGFR which shows high homology with the actin-binding domain of Acanthamoeba profilin. A polyclonal antibody raised against HL-33 was found to prevent cosedimentation of EGFR with F-actin. This peptide HL-33 was shown to bind directly to actin in contrast with a ...
Profilin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that plays an active role in the regulation of actin polymerisation. In view of its relatively small molecular mass (12-15kDa), the functions of profilin are complex and diverse. Under some circumstances, the protein sequesters actin monomers and inhibits filament growth; under others, it desequesters actin monomers and actively promotes filament growth. Desequestering involves binding of profilin to the fast-growing ends of actin-filaments, which accelerates the exchange of the adenine nucleotide bound to monomeric actin. ATP-actin monomers polymerise faster than ADP-actin, and make stiffer filaments. Therefore, under conditions of rapid filament reorganisation, where large amounts of ADP-actin monomers are produced, and in the presence of a large excess of ATP over ADP, profilin may actually promote polymerisation [1,2]. Profilin is probably also involved in some signalling pathways. It has been shown to bind tightly and specifically to ...
Profilin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that plays an active role in the regulation of actin polymerisation. In view of its relatively small molecular mass (12-15kDa), the functions of profilin are complex and diverse. Under some circumstances, the protein sequesters actin monomers and inhibits filament growth; under others, it desequesters actin monomers and actively promotes filament growth. Desequestering involves binding of profilin to the fast-growing ends of actin-filaments, which accelerates the exchange of the adenine nucleotide bound to monomeric actin. ATP-actin monomers polymerise faster than ADP-actin, and make stiffer filaments. Therefore, under conditions of rapid filament reorganisation, where large amounts of ADP-actin monomers are produced, and in the presence of a large excess of ATP over ADP, profilin may actually promote polymerisation [1,2]. Profilin is probably also involved in some signalling pathways. It has been shown to bind tightly and specifically to ...
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Aims Transforming growth aspect- (TGF-) signaling is crucial for the differentiation of even muscles cells (SMCs) into quiescent cells expressing a complete repertoire of contractile proteins. contraction to modify pulse bloodstream and pressure stream. Even muscles cellular material within the arteries and aorta are quiescent, fully differentiated cellular material that harbour a distinctive repertoire of contractile proteins necessary for the cellular material function. Unlike differentiated skeletal and cardiac muscles cellular material terminally, buy Prednisolone acetate SMCs preserve phenotypic plasticity and will de-differentiate into proliferating and artificial cellular material not really expressing contractile protein in response to vascular damage or environmental cues.1 TGF- induces the differentiation of SMCs both in advancement and with phenotypic switching.2 Mouse versions deficient in TGF-1, or its receptors (and also have been identified in sufferers with Loeys-Dietz symptoms ...
Raw data uploaded here is for the Skyline document PRMassay_FLNc+phosphostandard_pepmap.sky.zip. Additional raw data for this experiment is available in the ProteomeXchange dataset PXD009228.. ...
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Involved in the regulation of the perinuclear actin network and nuclear shape through interaction with filamins. Plays an essential role in actin cytoskeleton formation in developing cartilaginous cells ...
human Rgl3 protein: a potential binding partner for Rap-family small G-proteins and profilin II; amino acid sequence in first source
Contractile proteins and the mechanism of phagocytosis. In: Perry SV, Margreth A, Adelstein RS, eds. Contractile Systems in Non ... Phagocytosis and the contractile proteins of pulmonary macrophages. In: Goldman R, Pollard T, Rosenbaum J, eds. Cell Motility. ... Contractile proteins in cell structure and function. Ann Rev Med. 1978; 29:427-57. 28. Stossel TP. Principles of infection. In ... Contractile protein and the mechanism of phagocytosis in macrophages. In: van Furth R, ed. Mononuclear Phagocytes. The Hague: ...
Seene T (July 1994). "Turnover of skeletal muscle contractile proteins in glucocorticoid myopathy". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... but instead characteristic microscopic changes are seen in association with reduced contractile ability of the muscles. ... myopathy Glucocorticoid myopathy is caused by this class of steroids increasing the breakdown of the muscle proteins leading to ...
"Entrez Gene: ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle". Bandman E (December 1992). "Contractile protein isoforms in muscle ... Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in ... Bretscher A, Weber K (July 1980). "Villin is a major protein of the microvillus cytoskeleton which binds both G and F actin in ... SRF may bring a number of other proteins to the promoter of skeletal actin, such as androgen receptor, and thereby contribute ...
"Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". American Journal of Human ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 July ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951-2)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 ... "Protein sequence of human TPM2 (Uniprot ID: P07951-3)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 1 ...
CapZ appears to regulate intracellular signaling of contractile proteins in cardiac muscle. It has been demonstrated that the ... F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2 also known as CapZ-alpha2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA2 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CAPZA2 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Protein ... Ivanenkov VV, Dimlich RV, Jamieson GA (Apr 1996). "Interaction of S100a0 protein with the actin capping protein, CapZ: ...
"Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". American Journal of Human ... "Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". American Journal of Human ... Troponin I, fast skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNI2 gene. The TNNI2 gene is located at 11p15.5 ... Moir AJ, Ordidge M, Grand RJ, Trayer IP, Perry SV (Feb 1983). "Studies of the interaction of troponin I with proteins of the I- ...
2003). "Mutations in genes encoding fast-twitch contractile proteins cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes". Am. J. Hum. Genet ...
"Variants in genes that encode muscle contractile proteins influence risk for isolated clubfoot". American Journal of Medical ... specifically those encoding the muscle contractile complex (MYH3, TPM2, TNNT3, TNNI2 and MYH8). These can cause congenital ...
Mutant proteins can disturb cardiac function in the contractile apparatus (or mechanosensitive complexes). Cardiomyocyte ...
"Is troponin the Ca++-receptive protein in the contractile system?". Life Sciences. 9 (21, pt 2): 1225-1233. doi:10.1016/0024- ... "Fish Proteins". Advances in Protein Chemistry. 10: 227-288. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(08)60106-0. ISBN 9780120342105. PMID ... The First European Symposium took place in 1989 and covered calcium binding proteins in normal and transformed cells. The ... Contribution to the study of low molecular weight proteins in myogens of lower vertebrates]. Archives of Physiology and ...
Muscles contain special proteins called contractile protein which contract and relax to cause movement. Muscle tissues vary ... regularly repeated arrangements of myofibrillar contractile proteins called myofilaments. Striated muscle is further classified ... Type II, fast-twitch muscle, has three major kinds that are, in order of increasing contractile speed: Type IIa, which, like a ...
Clarke M, Spudich JA (1977). "Nonmuscle contractile proteins: the role of actin and myosin in cell motility and shape ...
The two proteins are myosin and actin and are the contractile proteins involved in muscle contraction. The two filaments are a ... The protein complex composed of actin and myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as actomyosin. In striated ... The contractile nature of this protein complex is based on the structure of the thick and thin filaments. The thick filament, ... It may be that exercise-induced myofilament alterations involve more than the contractile proteins actin & myosin. While the ...
The key components of this ring are the filamentous protein actin and the motor protein myosin II. The contractile ring ... The force for the contractile processes is generated by movements along actin by the motor protein myosin II. Myosin II uses ... Besides actin and myosin II, the contractile ring contains the scaffolding protein anillin. Anillin binds to actin, myosin, ... RhoA protein in mammalian cells) is a key regulator of contractile ring formation and contraction in animal cells. The RhoA ...
The expression of a diverse range of intermediate filament proteins enables the PaSC to harbour contractile abilities. Cellular ... PaSCs express the intermediate filament proteins desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... The up regulation of matri-cellular proteins such as galectin-1, and tenascin-C is present in the stromal tissues of pancreatic ...
This increase in calcium activates calcium-sensitive contractile proteins that then use ATP to cause cell shortening. The ... Another protein, receptor accessory protein 5 (REEP5), functions to keep the normal morphology of junctional SR. Defects of ... contractile) or inhibitory (relaxing). There are two types of cardiac muscle cells: autorhythmic and contractile. Autorhythmic ... even though they contain the thin filament protein tropomyosin and other notable proteins - caldesmon and calponin. Thus, ...
Field CM, Alberts BM (1995). "Anillin, a Contractile Ring Protein That Cycles from the Nucleus to the Cell Cortex". The Journal ... Field CM, Alberts BM (1995). "Anillin, a Contractile Ring Protein That Cycles from the Nucleus to the Cell Cortex". The Journal ... Both anillin and F-actin are found in contractile structures. They are recruited independently to the contractile ring, but F- ... a key regulator of contractile ring formation. The name of the protein anillin originates from a Spanish word, anillo. Anillo ...
Seene T (July 1994). "Turnover of skeletal muscle contractile proteins in glucocorticoid myopathy". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ... Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. During atrophy, ...
The second is that extrusion is an active process involving contractile proteins and is calcium-dependent (Uspenskaya, 1982). ...
... growth of adult cardiac cells is commonly characterized by hypertrophy and an increased content of contractile proteins. ... The protein also has the putative ability to protect the brain from damage induced by stroke. Those with a genetic variant of ... The cMLCK protein is an important regulator of sarcomere assembly through activation of the myosin regulatory light chain, as ... NRG1 is one of four proteins in the neuregulin family that act on the EGFR family of receptors. Neuregulin 1 is produced in ...
... a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of contractile proteins". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 90 (3-4): 248-52. doi: ... Human ALC-2 protein has a molecular weight of 19.4 kDa and is composed of 175 amino acids. ALC-2 is an EF hand protein that ... Atrial Light Chain-2 (ALC-2) also known as Myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) is a protein that in humans ... "Protein sequence alignment for human cardiac atrial and ventricular regulatory light chains". Uniprot Knowledgebase. Retrieved ...
While there, he continued the synthesis of novel fluorescent dyes and did fluorescence-based studies of contractile proteins. ... a physical effect that permits measurement of distances in the range of the size of proteins. Two classic papers resulted from ...
In other models, FtsZ does not provide the contractile force but provides the cell a spatial scaffold for other proteins to ... In liposomes Osawa (2009) showed FtsZ is capable of exerting a contractile force with no other proteins present. Erickson (2009 ... During cell division, FtsZ is the first protein to move to the division site, and is essential for recruiting other proteins ... proposed how the roles of tubulin-like proteins and actin-like proteins in cell division became reversed in an evolutionary ...
This gene encodes a structural protein that is found exclusively in contractile smooth muscle cells. It associates with stress ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... van der Loop FT, Schaart G, Timmer ED, Ramaekers FC, van Eys GJ (Sep 1996). "Smoothelin, a novel cytoskeletal protein specific ... Smoothelin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMTN gene. ...
"Effects of the calcium antagonists perhexiline and cinnarizine on vascular and cardiac contractile protein function". The ...
The additional contractile proteins appear to be incorporated into existing myofibrils (the chains of sarcomeres within a ... 30 g protein). In both groups, muscle protein synthesis increased by 50%. The study concluded that more than 30 g protein in a ... Cortisol decreases amino acid uptake by muscle tissue, and inhibits protein synthesis. The short-term increase in protein ... An increased requirement for protein, especially branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is required for elevated protein synthesis ...
In contractile bundles, the actin-bundling protein alpha-actinin separates each thin filament by ≈35 nm. This increase in ... of these proteins is such that actin is thought to be the protein that takes part in the greatest number of protein-protein ... or in Hsp70 proteins (a protein family that play an important part in protein folding). G-actin is only functional when it ... CCT is a group II chaperonin, a large protein complex that assists in the folding of other proteins. CCT is formed of a double ...
Westfall MV, Borton AR (Sep 2003). "Role of troponin I phosphorylation in protein kinase C-mediated enhanced contractile ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... Troponin I, slow skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNI1 gene. It is a tissue-specific subtype of ... As homologous proteins, ssTnI, fast skeletal muscle TnI and cardiac TnI have highly conserved structures and crystallographic ...
BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 are also known to alter the expression of several contractile proteins and mitochondrial proteins in ... protein family. They differentiated BHLHE41/SHARP1 and BHLHE40/SHARP2 from other BHLH-protein encoding genes since they are not ... BHLHE41 protein also has alanine and glycine-rich regions in the C-terminal, and lacks the WRPW motif for interaction with the ... BHLHE41 is a member of the DEC subfamily within the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins gene family. BHLHE41 was mapped to ...
Schantz, Peter; Dhoot, Gurtej (1987). "Coexistence of slow and fast isoforms of contractile and regulatory proteins in human ... training on enzyme levels of the NADH shuttles and phenotypic expression of slow and fast isoforms of myofibrillar proteins" ... of physical training on enzyme levels of the NADH shuttles and phenotypic expression of slow and fast myofibrillar proteins". ... of physical training in enzyme levels of the NADH shuttles and phenotype expression of slow and fast myofibrillar proteins / ...
The systemic heart has muscular contractile walls and consists of a single ventricle and two atria, one for each side of the ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... Much of the venous system is contractile, which helps circulate the blood.[22] ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ...
The sensory endings of a primary (group Ia) afferent and a secondary (group II) afferent coil around the non-contractile ... thus elongating the non-contractile central portions (see "fusimotor action" schematic below). This opens stretch-sensitive ion ... which are located in the non-contractile central (equatorial) region.[4] ... non-contractile part of the muscle spindle. ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
The muscle has "tension producing tissue comprising small contractile units referred to as sarcomeres" that each contain a " ... "thick (myosin) and thin (actin) myofilament (muscle filaments or proteins) that overlaps to format a cross-bridge bond ( ...
In the absence of ampullae, water pressure is maintained by the ring canal, which is surrounded by contractile muscle fibres.[ ... the fluid also contains some protein and high levels of potassium salts.[11]:933-939 ...
The end-product of catabolism of protein metabolism in animals is nitrogen.[64] Animals must excrete this in the form of ... The common ostrich heart is a closed system, contractile chamber. It is composed of myogenic muscular tissue associated with ... protein and iron. Uncooked, it is dark red or cherry red, a little darker than beef.[95] Ostrich stew is a dish prepared using ... is due to a high protein diets. As seen in various studies, scientists have measured clearance of creatinine, a fairly reliable ...
... of the contractile elements present in the porifera or sponges that do truly lack this striated muscle containing this protein ... Type II, fast twitch muscle, has three major subtypes (IIa, IIx, and IIb) that vary in both contractile speed[7] and force ... Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes ... Within the cells of the muscle are myofibrils, which themselves are bundles of protein filaments. The term "myofibril" should ...
Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... Rounding forces are driven by reorganization of F-actin and myosin (actomyosin) into a contractile homogeneous cell cortex that ... Volume 15 of Protein Reviews. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 9781461405146.. ... In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, ...
Studies of muscle physiology suggest that the perimysium plays a role in transmitting lateral contractile movements. This ...
In the genus Cephalodiscus, asexually produced individuals stay attached to the contractile stalk of the parent individual ... "Biomineral ultrastructure, elemental constitution and genomic analysis of biomineralization-related proteins in hemichordates" ... The metasome, or trunk, contains a looped digestive tract, gonads, and extends into a contractile stalk that connects ...
Since assembly of kinetochore proteins at centromeres is affected by the methylation of cytosine and histone proteins, a ... irregularities in kinetochore proteins or their assembly, dysfunctional spindle apparatus, or flawed anaphase checkpoint genes. ...
This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I.[21] The inactive precursor protein is ... The authors noted these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue".[108]. *Oxytocin affects ... The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene.[18][19][20] ... It belongs to the rhodopsin-type (class I) group of G-protein-coupled receptors.[citation needed] ...
discovered the protein leptin that the genetically obese mouse lacked.[73][74][75] Leptin is produced in the white adipose ... Perivascular adipose tissue releases adipokines such as adiponectin that affect the contractile function of the vessels that ... Chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a method used to identify protein binding sites on DNA and assess ... This tool has enabled examination of epigenetic regulation of browning and helps elucidate the mechanisms by which protein-DNA ...
Advanced glycation end products and nephrotoxicity of high-protein diets. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1(6):1293-9 Fuill Free ... High-dose benfotiamine rescues cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. J Appl ... High-dose thiamine therapy counters dyslipidemia and advanced glycation of plasma protein in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ...
Viral capsid proteins come together to form a precursor prohead, into which the genome enters. Once this has occurred, the ... The Myoviridae have long tails that are contractile; the Podoviridae have short noncontractile tails; and the Siphoviridae have ... The tails consist of helix based proteins with 6-fold symmetry. After maturation of virus particles, the cell is lysed by ... All viruses in this order have icosahedral or oblate heads but differ in the length and contractile abilities of their tails. ...
G-proteins, which induce intracellular signaling cascades, may also be important, and ion channels are activated by stretching ... "Fetal and adult human skin fibroblasts display intrinsic differences in contractile capacity". Journal of Cellular Physiology. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... protein synthesis, and cell phenotype, and eventually cause changes in tendon structure. A major factor is mechanical ...
... of this exchanger causes an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration that is available to the contractile proteins. ... the duration of the contractile response is only slightly increased. High ventricular rate leads to insufficient diastolic ...
G protein linkage[2]. pathways[2] Prostaglandin DP1 receptor. DP1. PGD2,,PGE2,PGF2α,PGI2=TXA2[6]. relaxant. Gs alpha subunit. ... contractile. Gq alpha subunit. stimulates PLC, IP3, & PKC; raises Ca2+ Prostacyclin I2 receptor. IP. PGI2,,PGD2=PGE2=PGF2α,TXA2 ... p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 Mpk), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) which when activated ... contractile. Gq alpha subunit. stimulates PLC & IP3; raises Ca2+ There is indirect evidence for a second PGI2 receptor in BEAS- ...
Streptokinase is an extracellular protein, extracted from certain strains of beta hemolytic streptococcus.. ... proteins and metabolites, is utilised by the bacteria to achieve regulation of gene expression. In bacteria, the principal ...
Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in ... "Spatial and temporal pathway for assembly and constriction of the contractile ring in fission yeast cytokinesis". Dev. Cell. 5 ... Further experimentation with GFP-tagged proteins and mutant proteins indicates that the medial cortical nodes are formed by the ... Wee1 mutants of S. pombe have small cell size and the homologous proteins in humans also regulate cell entry into mitosis; in ...
Cytokinesis is mediated by the contractile ring made up of polymers of actin protein called microfilaments. Karyokinesis and ... The mitotic apparatus is made up of a central spindle and polar asters made up of polymers of tubulin protein called ... The rapid cell cycles are facilitated by maintaining high levels of proteins that control cell cycle progression such as the ...
protein complex. • actomyosin contractile ring. • cytoskeleton. • cleavage furrow. • cortical cytoskeleton. • actin ... protein binding. • ADP binding. • protein membrane anchor. • actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase ... Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2 [26] and a novel actin ... It encodes a protein of the same length, with 97.1% amino acid identity with the human MYH9 protein.[15] ...
protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... The contractile ring is a very dynamic structure in which actomyosin filaments are continuously assembled and disassembled. The ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
"Regulation of cardiac contractile function by troponin I phosphorylation". Cardiovascular Research. 66 (1): 12-21. doi:10.1016 ... Protein Kinase A is directed to specific sub cellular locations after tethering to Protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs ... The mechanisms of further effects may be divided into direct protein phosphorylation and protein synthesis: *In direct protein ... activating the proteins. As protein expression varies from cell type to cell type, the proteins that are available for ...
Protein synthesis. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for ... Some cells, most notably Amoeba, have contractile vacuoles, which can pump water out of the cell if there is too much water. ... RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus. protein synthesis in the cytoplasm ... The subunit protein of microfilaments is a small, monomeric protein called actin. The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric ...
For protein structures inside cells, see Myofibril.. A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell)[1] is the type of cell found in ... Each muscle fiber contains myofibrils, which are very long chains of sarcomeres, the contractile units of the cell. A cell from ... Thick filaments are made of the elongated protein myosin.[13] The sarcomere does not contain organelles or a nucleus. ... Elastic filaments are composed of titin, a large springy protein; these filaments anchor the thick filaments to the Z disc. ...
... mobilize one or more types of Heterotrimeric G proteins. DP2 is classified as a "contractile" prostanoid receptor in that it ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • G- ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as DP2 are integral membrane proteins that, when bound by their cognate ligands (or, ... positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway. • immune response. • neuropeptide signaling ...
Seene T (July 1994). "Turnover of skeletal muscle contractile proteins in glucocorticoid myopathy". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter.[14] At times ... During atrophy, a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways occurs, and an activation of protein degradation.[2] The ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. ...
Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part C: The Contractile Apparatus and the Cytoskeleton: Volume 134: Structural and ... Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part C: The Contractile Apparatus and the Cytoskeleton: Volume 134: Structural and ...
Contractile Proteins in Neoplasia Lead researcher. H K Muller, B H Toh ...
Purchase Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part A: Extracellular Matrix, Volume 82 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Structural and Contractile Proteins, Part A: Extracellular Matrix, Volume 82 1st Edition. ...
Insulin signaling coordinately regulates cardiac size, metabolism, and contractile protein isoform expression. ... Insulin signaling coordinately regulates cardiac size, metabolism, and contractile protein isoform expression. ...
... Rong-Huai ... "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mediates group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent protein synthesis and ... J. Colomer and A. R. Means, "Physiological roles of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase cascade in health and disease," Sub- ... S. Y. Li, X. Yang, A. F. Ceylan-Isik, M. Du, N. Sreejayan, and J. Ren, "Cardiac contractile dysfunction in Lep/Lep obesity is ...
Myosin is the most abundant protein in the contractile apparatus, is essential for the contractile process and has been studied ... Temperature plasticity of contractile proteins in fish muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal ... a major protein in the contractile apparatus. Furthermore, the structure/function relationship of a temperature-specific myosin ... Karplus, M. and McCammon, J. A. (1983). Dynamics of proteins: elements and function. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53,263 -300. ...
Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR008312, ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
The Redox Imbalance and the Reduction of Contractile Protein Content in Rat Hearts Administered with L-Thyroxine and ... M. Jain, D. A. Brenner, L. Cui et al., "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase modulates cytosolic redox status and contractile ... "Redox sensitivity of the ryanodine receptor interaction with FK506-binding protein," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282 ... "Thyroid hormone effects on cardiac gene expression independent of cardiac growth and protein synthesis," American Journal of ...
... Malmqvist, Ulf LU ; Arner, Anders ... The results suggest that the turnover of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins is fast and can be regulated in response to ... The results suggest that the turnover of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins is fast and can be regulated in response to ... Contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in smooth muscle during hypertrophy and its reversal}, volume = {260}, year = {1991}, } ...
Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ... Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ... Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ... Abstract 17132: E258K HCM-Causing Mutation in Myosin Binding Protein-C Accelerates Contractile Kinetics in Non-Hypertrophied ...
... responsiveness of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human hearts cannot be explained by a shift in contractile ... protein isoforms, but results from the complex interplay between changes in the phosphorylation status of MLC-2 and TnI. ... Objective: The alterations in contractile proteins underlying enhanced Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end- ... of the contractile apparatus in end-stage human heart failure results from altered phosphorylation of contractile proteins ...
... the subcellular mechanisms involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loss that mediate altered Ca2+ handling and contractile ... Sepsis is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction attributed to alterations in Ca2+ handling. We examined ... Calcium/Calmodulin Protein Kinase II-Dependent Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation Mediates Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction ... Contractile function was also preserved in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from transgenic mice expressing ...
Contractile Proteins,Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional,Fibroblasts,Humans,Isotopes,Mass Spectrometry,Microfilament Proteins ... These proteins have not previously been shown to be regulated by TGF-beta(1), and the functional role of these proteins is to ... These proteins have not previously been shown to be regulated by TGF-beta(1), and the functional role of these proteins is to ... Transforming growth factor-beta 1 specifically induce proteins involved in the myofibroblast contractile apparatus. Malmström, ...
The Effects of Acute and Chronic Beta Blockade with Atenolol on the Myocardial Contractile and Regulatory Proteins M.K. Davies ... The Effects of Acute and Chronic Beta Blockade with Atenolol on the Myocardial Contractile and Regulatory Proteins. Clin Sci ( ...
Glc-6-PD and PKG contribute to hypoxia-induced decrease in smooth muscle cell contractile phenotype proteins in pulmonary ... Glc-6-PD and protein kinase G (PKG) formed a complex in pulmonary artery, and Glc-6-PD inhibition increased PKG-mediated ... present findings indicate that increases in Glc-6-PD activity influence PKG activity and smooth muscle cell phenotype proteins ...
Angiotensin II amplifies arterial contractile response to norepinephrine without increasing Ca++ influx: role of protein kinase ... Angiotensin II amplifies arterial contractile response to norepinephrine without increasing Ca++ influx: role of protein kinase ... Angiotensin II amplifies arterial contractile response to norepinephrine without increasing Ca++ influx: role of protein kinase ... Angiotensin II amplifies arterial contractile response to norepinephrine without increasing Ca++ influx: role of protein kinase ...
... ... These new roles of GRK2 suggest that GRK2 may be a nodal link in the myocyte, influencing both cardiac contractile function and ... One biomarker molecule consistently shown to be upregulated in human HF and several animal models is G protein-coupled receptor ... cell metabolism and survival and contributing to HF independent of its canonical role in G protein-coupled receptor ...
HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING. J. M. Moallic, J. Bercovici, B. ... HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING ... HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING ... HETEROGENOUS TURN-OVER OF CARDIAC CONTRACTILE PROTEINS. EFFECT OF A MECHANICAL OVERLOADING ...
... Proteins ... Proteins get their hands dirty and do the work.. The unique feature of protein is that it is a powerhouse food and nutrient. It ... The percentage of protein in the human body is close to 16%. Taking it only in your diet is a strict NO! Taking excess protein ... A body without protein is like fish without water, hence have the right amount of protein in your diet to lead a Healthy Long ...
... high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour ... high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour ... high-cholesterol diet on uterine expression of contractile-associated proteins and ex vivo contractile activity during labour ... whereas oestradiol up-regulates expression of the key contractile proteins and promotes contractile activity [22]. There is ...
pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis ... pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis Richard ... pav encodes a kinesin-like protein, PAV-KLP, related to the mammalian MKLP-1. In cellularized embryos, the protein is localized ... pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis. Genes ...
Field, C. M. and Alberts, B. M. (1995). Anillin, a contractile ring protein that cycles from the nucleus to the cell cortex. J ... Mechanisms of contractile-ring formation in yeast and metazoans. *Domain structure and interactions of Anillin-related proteins ... Somers, W. G. and Saint, R. (2003). A RhoGEF and Rho family GTPase-activating protein complex links the contractile ring to ... First, this scaffold protein also brings together the signalling factors that regulate contractile-ring dynamics, including ...
Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ... Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ... Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ... Abstract 33: Contractile Dysfunction In The Mouse Heart Caused By Phospholipase C beta1b Mediated Activation Of Protein Kinase ...
The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ... The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ... The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ... The contractile vacuole network of Dictyostelium as a distinct organelle: its dynamics visualized by a GFP marker protein ...
Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With α7β ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With α7β ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With α7β ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Maintains the Contractile Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Interacting With ...
... enhances the gain of skeletal muscle mass by increasing protein synthesis or attenuating protein degradation or both. The aims ... protein synthesis pathways and contractile function in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of fed and fasting rats. ... The EDL muscle was then removed, weighed and used to evaluate the genes and proteins involved in protein synthesis (AKT/4E-BP1/ ... enhances the gain of skeletal muscle mass by increasing protein synthesis or attenuating protein degradation or both. The aims ...
Isoform Diversity of Giant Proteins in Relation to Passive and Active Contractile Properties of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles. Lucas ... Isoform Diversity of Giant Proteins in Relation to Passive and Active Contractile Properties of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles ... The active and passive contractile performance of skeletal muscle fibers largely depends on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) ... Open questions concern the relationship between titin-based stiffness and active contractile parameters, and titins importance ...
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may benefit the heart during ischemia-reperfusion by increasing energy production. While ... Suppression of 5-AMP-activated protein kinase activity does not impair recovery of contractile function during reperfusion of ... AMP-activated protein kinase activity does not impair recovery of contractile function during reperfusion of ischemic hearts ... AMP-activated protein kinase regulation and biological actions in the heart.. *Vlad G. Zaha, Lawrence H. Young ...
Anillin, a contractile ring protein that cycles from the nucleus to the cell cortex. C M Field, C M Field ... C M Field, B M Alberts; Anillin, a contractile ring protein that cycles from the nucleus to the cell cortex.. J Cell Biol 1 ... In contractile rings, metaphase furrows, and nascent ring canals, anillin remains bound to the invaginated cortex suggesting a ... The domain responsible for this binding has been mapped to a region of 244 amino acids by expression of protein fragments in ...
The selective changes in the stability of the contractile protein mRNAs suggest that the control of mRNA stability may be part ... Pulse-chase experiments of in vivo labeled RNA showed significant reductions in mRNA half-lifes for all the contractile protein ... Y Y Zhu, R J Schwartz, M T Crow; Phorbol esters selectively downregulate contractile protein gene expression in terminally ... We measured the effects of PMA on the transcriptional activity and mRNA stability of four contractile protein genes (alpha- ...
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates the phosphorylation of CREB in NMDA-induced retinal neurotoxicity," Brain Research , vol. 1184, no. 1, pp. 306-315, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Incubation of myocytes with protein kinase A decreased Ca(2+)-sensitivity to a larger extent in failing (deltapCa(50)=0.20) than in donor (deltapCa(50)=0.03) myocytes, abolishing the difference in Ca(2+)-responsiveness. (nih.gov)
  • Colon ascendens stent peritonitis hearts showed a significant increase in oxidation-dependent calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity, which could be prevented by pretreating animals with the antioxidant tempol. (ovid.com)
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 2.5 µM of KN93 prevented the decrease in cell shortening, Ca 2+ transient amplitude, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ content in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Contractile function was also preserved in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from transgenic mice expressing a calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) and in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from mutant mice that have the ryanodine receptor 2 calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation site (serine 2814) mutated to alanine (S2814A). (ovid.com)
  • Results indicate that oxidation and subsequent activation of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II has a causal role in the contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis. (ovid.com)
  • Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, through phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor would lead to Ca 2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, reducing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ content, Ca 2+ transient amplitude and contractility. (ovid.com)
  • Development of organ-specific calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors may result in a beneficial therapeutic strategy to ameliorate contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis. (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, Glc-6-PD and protein kinase G (PKG) formed a complex in pulmonary artery, and Glc-6-PD inhibition increased PKG-mediated phosphorylation of VASP (p-VASP). (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin II amplifies arterial contractile response to norepinephrine without increasing Ca++ influx: role of protein kinase C. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In both cases, the amplification was prevented by pretreatment with either staurosporine (10 nM) or calphostin C (100 nM), two inhibitors of protein kinase C. We conclude that angiotensin II potentiation of norepinephrine-induced vascular tone occurs in the absence of changes in stimulated Ca++ entry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This potentiation may be due to an increase in intracellular sensitivity to Ca++, possibly mediated by protein kinase C. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One biomarker molecule consistently shown to be upregulated in human HF and several animal models is G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2), a kinase originally discovered to be involved in G protein-coupled receptor desensitization, especially β-adrenergic receptors. (ovid.com)
  • The loss of contractility induced by PLCβ1b was reversed by inhibition of protein kinase Cα (PKCα). (ahajournals.org)
  • Suppression of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity does not impair recovery of contractile function during reperfusion of ischemic hearts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may benefit the heart during ischemia-reperfusion by increasing energy production. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Simulated microgravity increases myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury via a deficiency of AMP-activated protein kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase increases glucose uptake independent of GLUT4 translocation in cardiac myocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase regulation and biological actions in the heart. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Role of the alpha2-isoform of AMP-activated protein kinase in the metabolic response of the heart to no-flow ischemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and redistribution of substrate partitioning mediate the acute insulin-sensitizing effects of troglitazone in skeletal muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) and the ATP-dependent K+ channel (K-ATP channel) have been implicated in the mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in animal models. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In its dephosphorylated state, cMyBP-C binds predominantly to myosin S2 and brakes crossbridge formation, however, when phosphorylated in response to β-adrenergic stimulation through activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), it favours binding to actin, then accelerating crossbridge formation, enhancing force development and promoting relaxation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinases identified thus far to phosphorylate cMyBP-C in the M motif are PKA, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK),protein kinase D (PKD), and protein kinase C (PKC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, GSK3β was described as another protein kinase to phosphorylate cMyBP-C outside the M-domain in the proline-alanine-rich actin-binding site at Ser133 in human myocardium (mouse Ser131). (wikipedia.org)
  • Catecholamine-type inotropic drugs improve myocardial contractility mainly by increasing calcium entry into the cell via cAMP-mediated protein kinase A phosphorylation of sarcolemmal L-type calcium channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Simian virus 40 small tumor antigen inhibits dephosphorylation of protein kinase A-phosphorylated CREB and regulates CREB transcriptional stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Possible role for serine/threonine phosphorylation in the regulation of the heteroprotein complex between the hsp90 stress protein and the pp60v-src tyrosine kinase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The abundant, cytoplasmic 90-kDa heat-shock protein associates transiently with the Rous sarcoma virus oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase, pp60v-src, directs its cellular trafficking and negatively regulates its kinase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • costimulatory However the English with any download Structural and Contractile Proteins Part E: Extracellular( or any biofouled documentation of possible world). (presentations.de)
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  • As the ebook Structural and Contractile Proteins Part A: Extracellular Matrix behind encryption studies discsRecycled more Forensic and 17th around the camp, the common courses in the US dove those concepts in their pathways. (lavenderfieldsyoga.com)
  • Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, enhances the gain of skeletal muscle mass by increasing protein synthesis or attenuating protein degradation or both. (springer.com)
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of HMB on molecular factors controlling skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation, as well as muscle contractile function, in fed and fasted conditions. (springer.com)
  • The active and passive contractile performance of skeletal muscle fibers largely depends on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform and the stiffness of the titin spring, respectively. (rupress.org)
  • Chronic exposure of differentiated avian skeletal muscle cells in culture to the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (PMA), results in the selective disassembly of sarcomeric structures and loss of muscle-specific contractile proteins, leaving cytoskeletal structures and their associated proteins intact. (rupress.org)
  • The fact that many of the contractile protein genes remained transcriptionally active despite the fact that the cells were unable to accumulate their mRNAs to any significant extent indicated that the treated cells were still committed to skeletal muscle differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • The selective changes in the stability of the contractile protein mRNAs suggest that the control of mRNA stability may be part of the normal regulatory program of skeletal muscle differentiation and that this control may be linked to the integrity of the contractile apparatus and mediated by second messenger pathways involving PKC activation. (rupress.org)
  • Pretranslational markers of contractile protein expression in human skeletal muscle: Effect of limb unloading plus resistance exercise. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additional observations involving IGF-I and its associated receptor and binding proteins suggest that RE postures the skeletal muscle for signaling processes that favor a greater anabolic state relative to that observed in the ULLS group. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results suggest that the turnover of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins is fast and can be regulated in response to changes in the functional demands in smooth muscle. (lu.se)
  • For this purpose, a network of cytoskeletal proteins is built at the cleavage site to act as a scaffold for actomyosin filaments and to connect them to the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • To achieve successful cytokinesis, actomyosin filaments are assembled upon a network of cytoskeletal proteins (including septins) at the cleavage site that acts as a scaffold and might connect the filaments to the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Cytoskeletal proteins" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Sigma offers the most comprehensive collection of structural proteins for extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal research as well as tools for cell culture and material science applications. (wikibooks.org)
  • However, a steady state is achieved after 4 or 5 weeks, but not in starved individuals, suggesting that protein synthesis or the turnover of myofibrillar component(s) is involved in the response. (biologists.org)
  • The protein functions are the synthesis of nucleotides and their assembly, cell movement, energy generation, absorption of nutrients, and to generate nucleic acids. (aua2012.org)
  • The EDL muscle was then removed, weighed and used to evaluate the genes and proteins involved in protein synthesis (AKT/4E-BP1/S6) and degradation ( Fbxo32 and Trim63 ). (springer.com)
  • Genes are expressed through the process of protein synthesis. (biologyonline.com)
  • Leucine's roles include being a promoter of and substrate for protein synthesis and energy, activator of the insulin-signaling pathway, and precursor to alanine and glutamine1. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Some have suggested that the BCAA's first priority is for synthesis of protein structures2. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During atrophy, there is a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways, and an activation of protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative Foraminifera gene expression in anoxic sediment increased an order of magnitude, which was confirmed in a 10-day incubation experiment where the development of anoxia coincided with a 20-40-fold increase in the relative abundance of Foraminifera protein encoding transcripts, attributed primarily to those involved in protein synthesis, intracellular protein trafficking, and modification of the cytoskeleton. (nature.com)
  • The tumour promoter okadaic acid inhibits reticulocyte-lysate protein synthesis by increasing the net phosphorylation of elongation factor 2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ø Supports general functions of the cell (protein synthesis…etc. (wikibooks.org)
  • In many organisms this furrow ingression is driven by the assembly and contraction of actomyosin filaments, forming a contractile ring. (biologists.org)
  • current models propose that furrow ingression is always driven by the assembly and contraction of actomyosin filaments that organize into a contractile ring ( Fig. 1A ), a very dynamic structure in which filaments are continuously assembled and disassembled. (biologists.org)
  • Any of a class of proteins that bind with actin filaments and generate many kinds of cell movement, especially the contraction of myofibrils in muscle cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cardiac muscle is composed of thick and thin protein filaments. (arizona.edu)
  • We found that Lmod2 is an actin filament elongation protein that regulates the lengths of thin filaments in heart muscle," said Pappas. (arizona.edu)
  • Other contractile proteins interact with these filaments in order to create structural rigidity and movement. (wikibooks.org)
  • Ø H zone is made of thick filaments composed of 1 type of protein: myosin. (wikibooks.org)
  • A bundle of hexagonally-arranged microtubules was observed in each axopodium, but no other filamentous structures were detected, suggesting that the contractile machinery of axopodia in R. contractilis may be different from that in actinophryid heliozoons in which Ca 2 -dependent contractile filaments are employed for contraction. (bioone.org)
  • This article shows that one of the myofibrillar proteins responsible for changes in muscle plasticity in association with temperature acclimation of carp is myosin, a major protein in the contractile apparatus. (biologists.org)
  • Myosin is the most abundant protein in the contractile apparatus, is essential for the contractile process and has been studied intensively. (biologists.org)
  • The alterations in contractile proteins underlying enhanced Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human myocardium are still not resolved. (nih.gov)
  • Maximal tension did not differ between myocytes obtained from donor and failing hearts, while Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus (pCa(50)) was significantly higher in failing myocardium (deltapCa(50)=0.17). (nih.gov)
  • The increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness of the contractile apparatus in end-stage failing human hearts cannot be explained by a shift in contractile protein isoforms, but results from the complex interplay between changes in the phosphorylation status of MLC-2 and TnI. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of TGF-beta(1) led to specific spot pattern changes that were identified by mass spectrometry and represent specific induction of several members of the contractile apparatus such as calgizzarin, cofilin, and profilin. (lu.se)
  • The contractile ring is a complex molecular apparatus which physically divides many eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Striated muscle shows an amazing ability to adapt its structural apparatus based on contractile activity, loading conditions, fuel supply, or environmental factors. (degruyter.com)
  • Stienen, G. J.M. / Increased Ca 2+ -sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in end-stage human heart failure results from altered phosphorylation of contractile proteins . (vumc.nl)
  • A complex network of enzymes within the muscle's cells disassembles muscle proteins molecule by molecule. (nasa.gov)
  • Enzymes are the proteins that regulate biochemical processes. (wikibooks.org)
  • Enzymes consist of various types of proteins that work to drive the chemical reaction required for a specific action or nutrient. (wikibooks.org)
  • There are actually seven different forms of protein that are differentiated by their amino-acid structure: antibodies, contractile, hormonal, structural, enzymes, storage, and transportation. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • Antibodies are proteins that participate in the immune response by defending the body against antigens (foreign invaders). (wikibooks.org)
  • The domain responsible for this binding has been mapped to a region of 244 amino acids by expression of protein fragments in bacteria. (rupress.org)
  • The sequence of amino acids determines the type of protein. (biologyonline.com)
  • cMyBP-C is a 140.5 kDa protein composed of 1273 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most TNNI3 gene mutations in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the cardiac troponin I protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of these mutations change single amino acids in the cardiac troponin I protein, which impairs the protein's function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The primary structure of protein refers to the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chains. (wikibooks.org)
  • A protein is made up of many amino acids through peptide bonds between a carboxyl group and an amino group of another adjacent amino acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • The main function of proteins depends on the amino acids that make up the protein as well as the way it folds. (wikibooks.org)
  • These proteins, found in plant seeds, egg whites, and milk, store metal ions and amino acids for use at a later time. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • A few of the most important of these storage molecules include ferritin, a protein that stores iron, casein, a protein that stores amino acids, and prolamin gliadin, a component of gluten and one of the most effective storage proteins. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • The building blocks of tendons, ligaments are elastin and collagen which are structural proteins They also provide support. (aua2012.org)
  • Examples of structural proteins can be keratin, collagen, and elastin. (wikibooks.org)
  • Collagen is recognized as the most abundant mammalian protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • Structural proteins such as collagen, fibronectin and laminin are utilized in cell culture applications as attachment factors. (wikibooks.org)
  • The most well-known structural proteins are keratin, collagen, and elastin which are integral building blocks in your skin, hair, tendons, and ligaments. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • The driving force behind muscle contraction is provided by contractile proteins myosin and actin. (aua2012.org)
  • These contractile proteins do the work of muscle contraction. (nasa.gov)
  • Metabolic labeling of cell cultures by [(35)S]methionine, followed by protein. (lu.se)
  • Metabolic labeling of cell cultures by [(35)S]methionine, followed by protein separation on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, displayed approximately 2500 proteins in the pI interval of 3-10. (lu.se)
  • Consequently, hibernators hold a wealth of knowledge as it pertains to understanding the natural capacity of myocytes to alter structural, contractile and metabolic properties in response to environmental stimuli. (degruyter.com)
  • 1 ) antioxidant defenses, (2) the regulation of structural, contractile and metabolic proteins, (3) ubiquitin proteosomal machinery, and ( 4 ) macroautophagy pathways. (degruyter.com)
  • Insulin resistance improves metabolic and contractile efficiency in stressed rat heart. (nih.gov)
  • For more info on the different types of proteins, read this tutorial. (biologyonline.com)
  • Myofibrils: bundles of 4 types of proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Are made of 3 types of proteins: actin, troponin and tropomyosin. (wikibooks.org)
  • It integrates investigations from genetic expression, isoform diversity, enzymatic activity, molecular motions and reaction kinetics in isolated contractile protein molecules fully constituted myofibrils. (grantome.com)
  • Novel techniques will include new eukaryotic co-expression systems for protein structure-function studies, transgenic expression of truncated, mutated or chimeric proteins in genetically amenable organisms, bifunctional fluorescence labeling for quantitative protein orientational dynamics and mechanical analysis of single myofibrils. (grantome.com)
  • Each muscle cell contains many small bundles of contractile proteins, called myofibrils. (nasa.gov)
  • Molecule movement is vital to the human body and transport protein is responsible for it. (aua2012.org)
  • The quaternary structure of protein refers to the arrangement and interaction of several subunit polypeptide chains to form a protein molecule. (wikibooks.org)
  • While most are familiar with protein in conjunction with their diet, many people are unfamiliar with the more complex inner workings of the protein molecule, what it is, and how it works within the body. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • We hypothesized that adenoviral mediated expression of human E258K MYBPC3 in Mybpc3 −/− ECT ( MYBPC3 E258K ) would accelerate contractile kinetics and blunt the effect of dobutamine by abolishing phosphorylation-regulated inhibitory interactions between the C2-M-domain region of cMyBPC and myosin S2. (ahajournals.org)
  • To elucidate which protein alterations contribute to the increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness isoform composition and phosphorylation status of contractile proteins were analysed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, classical and nonclassical roles for GRK2 will be discussed, focusing on recently discovered roles for GRK2 in cardiomyocyte metabolism and the effects that these roles may have on myocardial contractile function and HF development. (ovid.com)
  • Postoperative myocardial contractile dysfunction is commonly treated with inotropic drugs to maintain adequate cardiac output. (ahajournals.org)
  • It may also be active by controlling the interaction of contractile proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, the interaction of contractile proteins of various cells may be unique. (wikibooks.org)
  • These proteins accompany the induced expression of alpha-SMA and may participate in the formation of stress fibers, cell contractility, and cell spreading characterizing the myofibroblasts phenotype. (lu.se)
  • The present findings indicate that increases in Glc-6-PD activity influence PKG activity and smooth muscle cell phenotype proteins, all of which affect pulmonary artery contractility and remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • The present study investigated the effects of an adiposity-inducing high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet on uterine contractile-associated protein (CAP) expression and ex vivo uterine contractility in term non-labouring (TNL) and term labouring (TL) rats. (clinsci.org)
  • In PLCβ1b-expressing mice, TAC induced a similar hypertrophic response, but did not cause further contractile depression above that due to PLCβ1b expression alone, suggesting that PLCβ1b is responsible for lowering contractility in response to pressure overload. (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated the influence of maternal age on myometrial contractility, expression of contractile associated proteins (CAPs), and global gene expression in the parturient uterus. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase modulates cytosolic redox status and contractile phenotype in adult cardiomyocytes," Circulation Research , vol. 93, no. 2, pp. e9-e16, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Because TGF-beta(1) is considered the main inducer of the myofibroblast phenotype and cytoskeletal changes accompany this differentiation, the main objective of this investigation was to study how TGF-beta(1) alters protein expression of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. (lu.se)
  • Articles in this volume address topics such as class A macrophage scavenger receptors, microtubule transport in the axon, G-protein-coupled receptors, genes involved in the initiation of DNA replication in yeast, phenotype switching in polymorphic tetrahymena, and mitosis and motor proteins. (google.com)
  • 31 muscles contained a single isoform, six muscles coexpressed two isoforms, including the psoas, where individual fibers expressed similar isoform ratios of 30:70 (3.4:3.3 MD). Gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of two other giant muscle proteins, nebulin and obscurin, demonstrated muscle type-dependent size differences of ≤70 kD. (rupress.org)
  • Mutations in the cardiac myosin binding protein C gene ( MYBPC3 ) are common causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in humans. (ahajournals.org)
  • The myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYBPC3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MYBPC3 gene provides instructions for making cardiac myosin binding protein C (cardiac MyBP-C), which is found in heart (cardiac) muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kulikovskaya I, McClellan GB, Levine R, Winegrad S. Multiple forms of cardiac myosin-binding protein C exist and can regulate thick filament stability. (medlineplus.gov)
  • pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis Richard R. Adams, Alvaro A.M. Tavares, Adi Salzberg, Hugo J. Bellen, and David M. Glover Genes Dev. (caltech.edu)
  • Since then, Anillin-related proteins have been identified in many organisms, from yeasts to humans, and it has been shown that they are essential for proper assembly of the contractile ring and successful cytokinesis. (biologists.org)
  • An intermediate layer (80-160 nm) consists of a network of cytokinesis accessory proteins as well as multiple signaling components which influence cell division. (nih.gov)
  • In Escherichia coli , a contractile ring (Z-ring) is formed at midcell before cytokinesis. (pnas.org)
  • In bacteria, FtsZ is the first protein to localize to the midcell as part of the cytokinesis machinery ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cardiac contractile dysfunction during acute hyperglycemia due to impairment of SERCA by polyol pathway-mediated oxidative stress," American Journal of Physiology , vol. 299, no. 3, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Sepsis is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction attributed to alterations in Ca 2+ handling. (ovid.com)
  • We examined the subcellular mechanisms involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ loss that mediate altered Ca 2+ handling and contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis. (ovid.com)
  • We conclude that heightened PLCβ1b activity observed in diseased myocardium contributes to pathology by PKCα-mediated contractile dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings show that protection against contractile dysfunction after SI can be induced by activation of PKC and by the opening of the K-ATP channel and that the protection induced by PKC activation and preconditioning can be blocked by blocking the K-ATP channel. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesized that in a model of contractile dysfunction following ischemia, a commonly used catecholamine such as dopamine augments cardiomyocyte apoptosis via activation of calcium-dependent signaling cascades. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions Postischemic dopamine treatment of contractile dysfunction activates pro-apoptotic signal cascades, most likely via a calcium-dependent process and mitochondrial damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2,3 In contrast to reversible postischemic contractile dysfunction (myocardial stunning), loss of myocytes following a period of ischemia has important consequences for long-term cardiac function, particularly when multiple cardiac procedures are required for correction of congenital defects. (ahajournals.org)
  • We therefore tested the hypothesis that, in a model of postischemic contractile dysfunction, treatment with a commonly used catecholamine such as dopamine leads to increased cytosolic calcium and activation of pro-apoptotic signaling cascades, resulting in apoptotic cell death and hence loss of cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objective: To investigate whether the potent HSP inducer GGA*-59 restores structural remodeling and contractile dysfunction in tachypaced cardiomyocytes and explore the underlying mechanisms. (vumc.nl)
  • Conclusions: Our results imply that the HSP inducer GGA*-59 and recombinant HSPB1 accelerate recovery from TP-induced structural remodeling and contractile dysfunction in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. (vumc.nl)
  • Furthermore, we evaluated the role of alterations in excitation-contraction coupling and contractile protein calcium sensitivity in the development of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by using both calcium-sensitizing and calcium-desensitizing agents. (ahajournals.org)
  • Contractile rings in cell division are known for many species, but their mechanisms of positioning and contraction rarely are understood in detail. (pnas.org)
  • These proteins, referred to as actin and myosin , are the main component of the contraction and movement of your muscles. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • To explain the chemical properties of proteins involved in contraction. (wikibooks.org)
  • Abbreviation for angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the inactive form of the protein angiotensin (angiotensin I) to its active form-angiotensin II. (harvard.edu)
  • Enzyme proteins are more commonly referred to as catalysts . (onegreenplanet.org)
  • Many of those that suffer from digestive medical conditions, such as carbohydrate intolerance , are lacking these essential enzyme proteins. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • These proteins have not previously been shown to be regulated by TGF-beta(1), and the functional role of these proteins is to participate in the depolymerization and stabilization of the microfilaments. (lu.se)
  • I also describe the different mechanisms that control localization of Anillin-related proteins and analyze the latest findings regarding the role of these proteins in the assembly of the contractile ring. (biologists.org)
  • Gelsolin is also an abundant extracellular protein that circulates in blood plasma, and Stossel established that it is a component of innate immunity that promotes host antimicrobial activity and prevents the potentially lethal dissemination of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the most abundant class of proteins in nature. (wikibooks.org)
  • Finally, I discuss the possible evolutionary pathways of Anillin-related proteins, and potential future research directions for these proteins. (biologists.org)
  • According to our previous studies [5,12], the major factors leading to PSE-like meat having poor protein functionalities are concluded as protein conformation, characteristic of salt soluble proteins, myosin and actin denaturation during meat processing, which also depend on pH and ionic strength conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three of the most prominent hormonal proteins are insulin, which controls blood-sugar concentration, oxytocin, the hormone that ignites contractions during childbirth, and somatotropin, a growth hormone. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • Structural proteins are the proteins that are generally fibrous and stringy. (wikibooks.org)
  • The "fibrous and stringy" formation of these proteins make them ideal for structural support. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • These new roles of GRK2 suggest that GRK2 may be a nodal link in the myocyte, influencing both cardiac contractile function and cell metabolism and survival and contributing to HF independent of its canonical role in G protein-coupled receptor desensitization. (ovid.com)
  • We demonstrate here that these morphological and biochemical changes are accompanied by dramatic and selective decreases in the level of the mRNAs that encode the contractile proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Variants in genes that encode muscle contractile proteins influence risk for isolated clubfoot. (cdc.gov)
  • This contention is further supported by the discovery that mutations in genes that encode components of the muscle contractile complex (MYH3, TPM2, TNNT3, TNNI2, and MYH8) cause congenital contractures, including clubfoot, in distal arthrogryposis (DA) syndromes. (cdc.gov)
  • Collectively, our results suggest that variation in genes that encode contractile proteins of skeletal myofibers may play a role in the etiology of clubfoot. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 80 MYO7A mutations have been identified and are known to inherit in a recessive manner.11 This gene encode protein, the myosin VIIA, expressed in inner ear, retina, testis and lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These results show that TGF-beta(1) induces not only alpha-SMA but a whole set of actin-associated proteins that may contribute to the increased contractile properties of the myofibroblast. (lu.se)
  • We show that the septin Peanut, actin, and the actin-associated protein Anillin, do not become correctly localized in pav mutants. (caltech.edu)
  • Cardiobundles were fabricated from human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, exposed to 0-20 ng/ml of IFNγ on culture days 7-14, and assessed for changes in tissue structure, viability, contractile force and calcium transient generation, action potential propagation, cytokine secretion, and expression of select genes and proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Here I review the structures and functions of Anillin and Anillin-related proteins in various model systems, and aim to highlight both the common and distinctive features of these essential organizers of the molecular machinery that drives furrow ingression. (biologists.org)
  • The objective is to understand how these proteins, individually and organized in highly specific, macromolecular assemblies, perform their task of chemical, structural and mechanical energy transduction at the molecular level. (grantome.com)
  • Novel instrumentation to be developed for the research will include laser optical traps, determination of force, translocation distance and inter-domain motions of both single molecules and ordered arrays of contractile proteins, time-resolved fluorescence polarization microscopy, and ultra-rapid freezing electron microscopy synchronized to transient molecular events. (grantome.com)
  • Despite knowledge of its protein composition, the molecular architecture of the ring is not known. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of the present study was to determine whether alterations in contractile protein gene expression, e.g., myosin heavy chain and actin, as studied at the pretranslational level, provide molecular markers concerning the deficits that occur in muscle mass/volume during ULLS, as well as its maintenance in response to ULLS plus RE. (diva-portal.org)
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that molecular markers of contractile protein gene expression serve as useful subcellular indicators for ascertaining the underlying mechanisms regulating alterations in muscle mass in human subjects in response to altered loading states. (diva-portal.org)
  • In meat samples, the main protein bands identified in the range of molecular weights from 250 to 10kDa were myosin heavy chain (MHC), [alpha]-actinin ([alpha]-act), desmin, actin (ACT), troponin T (TnT), tropomyosin (TPM), myosin light chains 1 (MLC1), troponin C (TnC), and myosin light chains 2 (MLC2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The smallest proteins travel in our cells, completing deeply important tasks to keep our molecular mechanisms moving. (phys.org)
  • Protein analysis indicated that neither re-expression of atrial light chain 1 and fetal troponin T (TnT) nor degradation of myosin light chains and troponin I (TnI) are responsible for the observed increase in Ca(2+)-responsiveness. (nih.gov)
  • The secondary structure of protein deals with the fact that polypeptide chains fold into a regularly repeating structure, such as an alpha-helix and beta-sheet. (wikibooks.org)
  • This makes the protein form long chains. (wikibooks.org)
  • Ultrastructure of the contractile cells in the testicular capsule, peritubular and periductal tissues showed that these cells were smooth muscles of typical morphological characteristics. (up.ac.za)
  • They include muscle proteins as well as those found in other cells and tissues . (biologyonline.com)
  • Researchers in Japan have identified a new quality control system that allows cells to remove damaged and potentially toxic proteins from their surroundings. (phys.org)
  • One of the proteins that allows cells to move and muscles to contract. (harvard.edu)
  • they also measured the amount of contractile proteins within the muscle cells. (nasa.gov)
  • Cardiac troponin I is one of three proteins that make up the troponin protein complex in cardiac muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The study of contractile proteins in cells other than muscle has distinct difficulties. (wikibooks.org)
  • Other example can be that the organization of contractile proteins is difficult to define in nonmuscle cells. (wikibooks.org)
  • Protein molecules live and function within cells and are important mechanisms for "structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • Similar to other membrane-tethered actin structures, we find proteins localize in specific layers relative to the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Proteins presents the current state of knowledge on the content of proteins in food structures, the chemical, functional, and nutritive properties of food proteins, the chemical and biochemical modification of proteins in foods during storage and processing, and the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrogenous compounds. (routledge.com)
  • Ring-shaped contractile structures play important roles in biological processes including wound healing and cell division. (upenn.edu)
  • This research led to the discovery of two important cellular proteins, filamin and gelsolin, that regulate the assembly of actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, protein levels of the microtubule protein (acetylated) α-tubulin, and contractile proteins cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and troponin T (cTnT) were reduced after TP and significantly recovered by GGA*-59 or rcHSPB1 post-treatment. (vumc.nl)
  • The TNNI3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cardiac troponin I, which is found solely in the heart (cardiac) muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An increase in calcium levels causes structural changes in another troponin complex protein called troponin C, which then triggers the troponin complex to detach from the thin filament, allowing the heart muscle to contract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The altered protein is likely incorporated into the troponin complex, but it may not function properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster protein Anillin, and its related proteins in other organisms, has a pivotal role in the organization of this scaffold in many species, ranging from yeast to humans. (biologists.org)
  • Despite its widespread role in the organization of the contractile ring, there are several interspecies differences in the structure and function of Anillin-related proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Even after dispersion of the contractile vacuole system during mitosis, dajumin-GFP distinguishes the vesicles from endosomes, and visualizes post-mitotic re-organization of the network around the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • Here we have applied super-resolution microscopy and FRET to determine the nanoscale spatial organization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contractile ring components relative to the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • We found that application of IFNγ induced a dose-dependent reduction in contractile force generation, deterioration of sarcomeric organization, and cardiomyocyte disarray, without significantly altering cell viability, action potential propagation, or calcium transient amplitude. (cdc.gov)
  • The particular protein degradation pathway which seems to be responsible for much of the muscle loss seen in a muscle undergoing atrophy is the ATP-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this system, particular proteins are targeted for destruction by the ligation of at least four copies of a small peptide called ubiquitin onto a substrate protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is concluded that, the ultrastructural, biochemical and contractile properties of the string muscles support their special physiological function. (springer.com)
  • It emphasizes the structure-function relationship as well as the effects of practical conditions applied in food processing on the biochemical and chemical reactions in food proteins and food product quality. (routledge.com)
  • numbering refers to the mouse sequence) are localized in the M motif of cMyBP-C and are targeted by protein kinases in a hierarchical order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phorbol esters selectively downregulate contractile protein gene expression in terminally differentiated myotubes through transcriptional repression and message destabilization. (rupress.org)
  • and insect basic leucine zipper proteins and their role in cyclic AMP dependent regulation of gene expression. (google.com)
  • In the present study an attempt was made to reveal to what extent protein alterations contribute to the increased Ca(2+)-responsiveness in human heart failure. (nih.gov)
  • The current study sets up a translational animal model of maternal obesity to begin to unravel the mechanisms involved and finds that increased abdominal adiposity led to asynchronous contractions and adverse alterations in uterine contractile protein expression and progesterone production in comparison with lean animals. (clinsci.org)
  • In this study we have investigated the ultrastructure, contractile properties and protein composition of these muscles. (springer.com)
  • High-resolution electrophoretic analysis of columellar and tentacular muscles did not reveal differences in major contractile proteins, such as actin, myosin and paramyosin. (springer.com)
  • The two contractile proteins are called actin and myosin, and are what actually makes your muscles flex. (angelfire.com)
  • To their surprise, Baldwin's team found that while isometric exercises did prevent leg muscles from withering, they did not stop a decline in the amount of contractile proteins in those muscles. (nasa.gov)
  • This active breakdown of muscle protein is going on all the time in everybody's muscles, as is the constant assembly of new proteins. (nasa.gov)
  • pav encodes a kinesin-like protein, PAV-KLP, related to the mammalian MKLP-1. (caltech.edu)
  • There is clear evidence that the tissues of the male gonad and its excurrent ducts in the Masked Weaver, as has been reported for members of the Galloanserae and Ratitae, contain well-formed contractile tissues whose function would include the transportation of luminal through-flow from the testis into, and through, its excurrent ducts. (up.ac.za)
  • Tissues were analyzed for total and soluble protein contents (μg/mg wet weight), actin, MHC and MHCf contents (μg/mg wet weight) by SDS-PAOE, using 3-20% gradient and 4% gels, and 200 kDa MHCI by Western Analysis with SM 2 and MHC-B specific antisera. (elsevier.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Furthermore, we showed that expression of wild type human MYBPC3 in Mybpc3 −/− ECT ( MYBPC3 WT ) restores contractile function. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this article, I review the structure and function of Anillin-related proteins in various model systems, and aim to highlight both their common and distinctive features. (biologists.org)
  • PLCβ1a did not affect contractile function or phospholamban expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • A sub-set of rats were used to measure in vivo muscle contractile function. (springer.com)
  • The experimental end point was recovery of contractile function after SI, presented here as percentage recovery (%Rec) of baseline function. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The long-term scientific aims and technologies developed in the Program Project are directed to understanding the normal assembly and function as well as pathophysiology of contractile proteins relevant to the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. (grantome.com)
  • This comprehensive organizational map provides a framework for understanding contractile ring function. (nih.gov)
  • The first ten chapters discuss structure-function relationships, methods of analysis of nitrogenous compounds, chemical and enzymatic modifications, nutritive roles, and mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of food proteins. (routledge.com)
  • These differences in the patterns of smooth muscle protein expression and ontogeny could be due to differing function of these two smooth muscle types during development. (elsevier.com)
  • AF progression is driven by abnormalities in electrical impulse formation and contractile function due to structural remodeling of cardiac tissue. (vumc.nl)
  • While proteins are essential worker molecules in almost every function of the body, they also represent the public transport system within the body, making sure that other molecules can make their way around the body in an efficient manner. (onegreenplanet.org)
  • Protein phosphatase inhibition and muscle contractile effects. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In preclinical studies, MYK-224 was shown to attenuate hyperactive myosin proteins containing known pathogenic HCM mutations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MYBPC3 gene mutations that cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy lead to an abnormally short or otherwise altered cardiac MyBP-C protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CNM4 is caused by mutations in the coiled-coil domain containing protein 78 (CCDC78). (medscape.com)