Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.
Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.
Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
A general concept referring to the organization and administration of nursing activities.
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
Health care provided to individuals.
A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.
Any system which allows payors to share some of the financial risk associated with a particular patient population with providers. Providers agree to adhere to fixed fee schedules in exchange for an increase in their payor base and a chance to benefit from cost containment measures. Common risk-sharing methods are prospective payment schedules (PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM), capitation (CAPITATION FEES), diagnosis-related fees (DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS), and pre-negotiated fees.
Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Scotland is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom, located in the northern part of Great Britain. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

The use of targets to improve the performance of health care providers: a discussion of government policy. (1/275)

The aim of this discussion paper is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of employing targets, or performance indicators, to improve the performance of those delivering health care services. The paper is based on an examination of two target-setting policies initiated by Government: the 1992 Health of the Nation strategy and the 1990 General Practitioners' Contract. It is argued that the introduction of both the General Practitioners' Contract and the Health of the Nation have indeed been accompanied by improvements in performance, however, there are a number of problems with targets. They tend to focus on those things that are most easily measured, and they may foster complacency on the part of providers who have already achieved upper target limits, and defensiveness on the part of those performing badly. National targets may skew local priorities; they may also be unrealistic and unattainable for particular, less privileged population groups. They may serve to widen inequalities in health, and can exacerbate the 'inverse care law' by encouraging providers to direct their efforts at the more advantaged sections of society, where such efforts are more likely to pay off in terms of overall improvements in the target level achieved. Finally, the achievement of some targets will not necessarily result in better health outcomes. The paper concludes that a target-setting approach to improving the quality of care must be based on the use of appropriate indicators, and must take account of differences between more and less advantaged sections of society.  (+info)

A taxonomy of health networks and systems: bringing order out of chaos. (2/275)

OBJECTIVE: To use existing theory and data for empirical development of a taxonomy that identifies clusters of organizations sharing common strategic/structural features. DATA SOURCES: Data from the 1994 and 1995 American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, which provide extensive data on hospital involvement in hospital-led health networks and systems. STUDY DESIGN: Theories of organization behavior and industrial organization economics were used to identify three strategic/structural dimensions: differentiation, which refers to the number of different products/services along a healthcare continuum; integration, which refers to mechanisms used to achieve unity of effort across organizational components; and centralization, which relates to the extent to which activities take place at centralized versus dispersed locations. These dimensions were applied to three components of the health service/product continuum: hospital services, physician arrangements, and provider-based insurance activities. DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: We identified 295 health systems and 274 health networks across the United States in 1994, and 297 health systems and 306 health networks in 1995 using AHA data. Empirical measures aggregated individual hospital data to the health network and system level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a reliable, internally valid, and stable four-cluster solution for health networks and a five-cluster solution for health systems. We found that differentiation and centralization were particularly important in distinguishing unique clusters of organizations. High differentiation typically occurred with low centralization, which suggests that a broader scope of activity is more difficult to centrally coordinate. Integration was also important, but we found that health networks and systems typically engaged in both ownership-based and contractual-based integration or they were not integrated at all. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we were able to classify approximately 70 percent of hospital-led health networks and 90 percent of hospital-led health systems into well-defined organizational clusters. Given the widespread perception that organizational change in healthcare has been chaotic, our research suggests that important and meaningful similarities exist across many evolving organizations. The resulting taxonomy provides a new lexicon for researchers, policymakers, and healthcare executives for characterizing key strategic and structural features of evolving organizations. The taxonomy also provides a framework for future inquiry about the relationships between organizational strategy, structure, and performance, and for assessing policy issues, such as Medicare Provider Sponsored Organizations, antitrust, and insurance regulation.  (+info)

Organizational and environmental factors associated with nursing home participation in managed care. (3/275)

OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a model, based on resource dependence theory, that identifies the organizational and environmental characteristics associated with nursing home participation in managed care. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Data for statistical analysis derived from a survey of Directors of Nursing in a sample of nursing homes in eight states (n = 308). These data were merged with data from the On-line Survey Certification and Reporting System, the Medicare Managed Care State/County Data File, and the 1995 Area Resource File. STUDY DESIGN: Since the dependent variable is dichotomous, the logistic procedure was used to fit the regression. The analysis was weighted using SUDAAN. FINDINGS: Participation in a provider network, higher proportions of resident care covered by Medicare, providing IV therapy, greater availability of RNs and physical therapists, and Medicare HMO market penetration are associated with a greater likelihood of having a managed care contract. CONCLUSION: As more Medicare recipients enroll in HMOs, nursing home involvement in managed care is likely to increase. Interorganizational linkages enhance the likelihood of managed care participation. Nursing homes interested in managed care should consider upgrading staffing and providing at least some subacute services.  (+info)

Health insurance in developing countries: lessons from experience. (4/275)

Many developing countries are currently considering the possibility of introducing compulsory health insurance schemes. One reason is to attract more resources to the health sector. If those who, together with their employers, can pay for their health services and are made to do so by insurance, the limited tax funds can be concentrated on providing services for fewer people and thus improve coverage and raise standards. A second reason is dissatisfaction with existing services in which staff motivation is poor, resources are not used to best advantage and patients are not treated with sufficient courtesy and respect. This article describes the historical experience of the developed countries in introducing and steadily expanding the coverage of health insurance, sets out the consensus which has developed about health insurance (at least in Western European countries) and describes the different forms which health insurance can take. The aim is to bring out the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches from this experience, to set out the options for developing countries and to give warnings about the dangers of some approaches.  (+info)

Contracting out of health services in developing countries. (5/275)

Contracting out is emerging as a common policy issue in a number of developing countries. The theoretical case for contracting out suggests many advantages in combining public finance with private provision. However, practical difficulties such as those of ensuring that competition takes place between potential contractors, that competition leads to efficiency and that contracts and the process of contracting are effectively managed, suggest that such advantages may not always be realized. Most countries are likely only to contemplate restricted contracting of small-scale non-clinical services in the short term. Prerequisites of more extensive models appear to be the development of information systems and human resources to that end. Some urban areas of larger countries may have the existing preconditions for more successful large-scale contracting.  (+info)

Managing the health care market in developing countries: prospects and problems. (6/275)

There is increasing interest in the prospects for managed market reforms in developing countries, stimulated by current reforms and policy debates in developed countries, and by perceptions of widespread public sector inefficiency in many countries. This review examines the prospects for such reforms in a developing country context, primarily by drawing on the arguments and evidence emerging from developed countries, with a specific focus on the provision of hospital services. The paper begins with a discussion of the current policy context of these reforms, and their main features. It argues that while current and proposed reforms vary in detail, most have in common the introduction of competition in the provision of health care, with the retention of a public monopoly of financing, and that this structure emerges from the dual goals of addressing current public sector inefficiencies while retaining the known equity and efficiency advantages of public health systems. The paper then explores the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence for and against these reforms, and examines their relevance for developing countries. Managed markets are argued to enhance both efficiency and equity. These arguments are analysed in terms of three distinct claims made by their proponents: that managed markets will promote increased provider competition, and hence, provider efficiency; that contractual relationships are more efficient than direct management; and that the benefits of managed markets will outweigh their costs. The analysis suggests that on all three issues, the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence remain ambiguous, and that this ambiguity is attributable in part to poor understanding of the behaviour of health sector agents within the market, and to the limited experience with these reforms. In the context of developing countries, the paper argues that most of the conditions required for successful implementation of these reforms are absent in all but a few, richer developing countries, and that the costs of these reforms, particularly in equity terms, are likely to pose substantial problems. Extensive managed market reforms are therefore unlikely to succeed, although limited introduction of particular elements of these reforms may be more successful. Developed country experience is useful in defining the conditions under which such limited reforms may succeed. There is an urgent need to evaluate the existing experience of different forms of contracting in developing countries, as well as to interpret emerging evidence from developed country reforms in the light of conditions in developing countries.  (+info)

Clinical audit and the purchaser-provider interaction: different attitudes and expectations in the United Kingdom. (7/275)

OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the views on clinical audit of healthcare purchasers and providers, and in particular the interaction between them, and hence to help the future development of an appropriate interaction between purchasers and providers. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews. SETTING: Four purchaser and provider pairings in the former Northern Region of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. SUBJECTS: Chief executives, contracts managers, quality and audit leaders, directors of public health, consultants, general practitioners, audit support staff, and practice managers (total 42). MAIN MEASURES: Attitudes on the present state and future development of clinical audit. RESULTS: Purchasers and providers shared common views on the purpose of clinical audit, but there were important differences in their views on the level and appropriateness of involvement of health care purchasers, integration with present NHS structures and processes (including contracting and the internal market), priority setting for clinical audit, the effects of clinical audit on service development and purchasing, change in behaviour, and the sharing of information on the outcomes of clinical audit. CONCLUSIONS: There are important differences in attitudes towards, and expectations of, clinical audit between health care purchasers and providers, at least in part due to the limited contact between them on audit to date. The nature of the relation and dialogue between purchasers and providers will be critical in determining whether clinical audit meets the differing aspirations of both groups, while achieving the ultimate goal of improving the quality of patient care.  (+info)

Improving the quality of health care through contracting: a study of health authority practice. (8/275)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate approaches of district health authorities to quality in contracting. DESIGN: Descriptive survey. SETTING: All district health authorities in one health region of England in a National Health Service accounting year. MATERIAL: 129 quality specifications used in contracting for services in six specialties (eight general quality specifications and 121 service specific quality specifications) MAIN MEASURES: Evaluation of the use of quality specifications; their scope and content in relation to established criteria of healthcare quality. RESULTS: Most district health authorities developed quality specifications which would be applicable to their local hospital. When purchasing care outside their boundaries they adopted the quality specifications developed by other health authorities. The service specific quality specifications were more limited in scope than the general quality specifications. The quality of clinical care was referred to in 75% of general and 43% of service specific quality specifications. Both types of specification considered quality issues in superficial and broad terms only. Established features of quality improvement were rarely included. Prerequisites to ensure provider accountability and satisfactory delivery of service specifications were not routinely included in contracts. CONCLUSION: Quality specifications within service contracts are commonly used by health authorities. This study shows that their use of this approach to quality improvement is inconsistent and unlikely to achieve desired quality goals. Continued reliance on the current approach is holding back a more fundamental debate on how to create effective management of quality improvement through the interaction between purchasers and providers of health care.  (+info)

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "contract services" is more commonly used in business and healthcare administration than in clinical medicine. It generally refers to an agreement between a healthcare provider or organization and another entity for the delivery of specific medical services over a defined period of time. The contract outlines the scope, expectations, and compensation for these services.

For example, a hospital may have a contract with a staffing agency to provide nursing personnel on a temporary basis. Or, an insurance company might have a contract with a network of healthcare providers to deliver medical care to their policyholders at agreed-upon rates. These arrangements can help ensure consistent quality and cost control in the delivery of healthcare services.

A medical definition of "contracts" generally refers to a condition in which an organ or tissue shrinks and hardens due to abnormal thickening of its collagen fibers. This process can occur in any type of tissue, but it is most commonly seen in the skin, heart, and lungs. The medical term for this condition is "fibrosis."

In the context of the skin, contracts may refer to a type of scar that forms after an injury or wound healing. These scars can cause the skin to become tight and restrict movement, particularly if they occur around joints.

In the heart, contracts may refer to a condition called "cardiac fibrosis," which occurs when the heart muscle becomes thickened and stiff due to excess collagen deposits. This can lead to heart failure and other cardiovascular complications.

In the lungs, contracts may refer to a condition called "pulmonary fibrosis," which is characterized by scarring and thickening of the lung tissue. This can make it difficult to breathe and can lead to respiratory failure if left untreated.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Home care services, also known as home health care, refer to a wide range of health and social services delivered at an individual's residence. These services are designed to help people who have special needs or disabilities, those recovering from illness or surgery, and the elderly or frail who require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or skilled nursing care.

Home care services can include:

1. Skilled Nursing Care: Provided by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to administer medications, wound care, injections, and other medical treatments. They also monitor the patient's health status, provide education on disease management, and coordinate with other healthcare professionals.
2. Therapy Services: Occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists help patients regain strength, mobility, coordination, balance, and communication skills after an illness or injury. They develop personalized treatment plans to improve the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently.
3. Personal Care/Assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Home health aides and personal care assistants provide assistance with bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and other personal care tasks. They may also help with light housekeeping, meal preparation, and shopping.
4. Social Work Services: Provided by licensed social workers who assess the patient's psychosocial needs, connect them to community resources, and provide counseling and support for patients and their families.
5. Nutritional Support: Registered dietitians evaluate the patient's nutritional status, develop meal plans, and provide education on special diets or feeding techniques as needed.
6. Telehealth Monitoring: Remote monitoring of a patient's health status using technology such as video conferencing, wearable devices, or mobile apps to track vital signs, medication adherence, and symptoms. This allows healthcare providers to monitor patients closely and adjust treatment plans as necessary without requiring in-person visits.
7. Hospice Care: End-of-life care provided in the patient's home to manage pain, provide emotional support, and address spiritual needs. The goal is to help the patient maintain dignity and quality of life during their final days.
8. Respite Care: Temporary relief for family caregivers who need a break from caring for their loved ones. This can include short-term stays in assisted living facilities or hiring professional caregivers to provide in-home support.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

Preventive health services refer to measures taken to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. These services include screenings, vaccinations, and counseling aimed at preventing or identifying illnesses in their earliest stages. Examples of preventive health services include:

1. Screenings for various types of cancer (e.g., breast, cervical, colorectal)
2. Vaccinations against infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia, human papillomavirus)
3. Counseling on lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of chronic diseases (e.g., smoking cessation, diet and exercise counseling, alcohol misuse screening and intervention)
4. Screenings for cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index)
5. Screenings for mental health conditions (e.g., depression)
6. Preventive medications (e.g., aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in certain individuals)

Preventive health services are an essential component of overall healthcare and play a critical role in improving health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and enhancing quality of life.

"Health services for the aged" is a broad term that refers to medical and healthcare services specifically designed to meet the unique needs of elderly individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health services for the aged should be "age-friendly" and "person-centered," meaning they should take into account the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people age, as well as their individual preferences and values.

These services can include a range of medical and healthcare interventions, such as:

* Preventive care, including vaccinations, cancer screenings, and other routine check-ups
* Chronic disease management, such as treatment for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
* Rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy or occupational therapy, to help elderly individuals maintain their mobility and independence
* Palliative care and end-of-life planning, to ensure that elderly individuals receive compassionate and supportive care in their final days
* Mental health services, including counseling and therapy for conditions like depression or anxiety
* Social services, such as transportation assistance, meal delivery, or home care, to help elderly individuals maintain their quality of life and independence.

Overall, the goal of health services for the aged is to promote healthy aging, prevent disease and disability, and provide high-quality, compassionate care to elderly individuals, in order to improve their overall health and well-being.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a system that provides immediate and urgent medical care, transportation, and treatment to patients who are experiencing an acute illness or injury that poses an immediate threat to their health, safety, or life. EMS is typically composed of trained professionals, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders, who work together to assess a patient's condition, administer appropriate medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital or other medical facility for further treatment.

The goal of EMS is to quickly and effectively stabilize patients in emergency situations, prevent further injury or illness, and ensure that they receive timely and appropriate medical care. This may involve providing basic life support (BLS) measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), controlling bleeding, and managing airway obstructions, as well as more advanced interventions such as administering medications, establishing intravenous lines, and performing emergency procedures like intubation or defibrillation.

EMS systems are typically organized and managed at the local or regional level, with coordination and oversight provided by public health agencies, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. EMS providers may work for private companies, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and they may be dispatched to emergencies via 911 or other emergency response systems.

In summary, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a critical component of the healthcare system that provides urgent medical care and transportation to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries. EMS professionals work together to quickly assess, stabilize, and transport patients to appropriate medical facilities for further treatment.

Health Services Administration (HSA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study and practice within healthcare management. Here's a definition that encompasses its meaning:

Health Services Administration (HSA) refers to the planning, directing, coordinating, and supervising of health services in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, public health agencies, and other medical facilities. It involves managing financial resources, developing organizational policies, ensuring quality assurance, maintaining regulatory compliance, and promoting efficient delivery of healthcare services to improve patient outcomes and overall population health. HSA professionals may hold titles such as hospital administrator, clinical director, or healthcare executive.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Services" is not a medical term. It generally refers to the various resources, services, and assistance provided by libraries to help individuals access, use, and manage information. This can include book lending, research assistance, database access, interlibrary loan, literacy programs, and more.

If you're looking for a medical term or concept, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Urban health services refer to the provision of healthcare and public health programs in urban areas, designed to meet the unique needs and challenges of urban populations. These services encompass a wide range of facilities, professionals, and interventions that aim to improve the health and well-being of people living in urban environments. They often address issues such as infectious diseases, chronic conditions, mental health, environmental hazards, and social determinants of health that are prevalent or amplified in urban settings. Examples of urban health services include hospital systems, community health centers, outreach programs, and policy initiatives focused on improving the health of urban populations.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "outsourced services" as it is more commonly used in business and management to describe the practice of contracting certain tasks or operations to an external company or organization. However, in a general healthcare context, outsourced services refer to the contracting of various non-clinical support functions or services to external entities. These may include:

1. Administrative tasks: Billing, coding, transcription, and scheduling can be handled by outside companies specializing in these areas.
2. IT infrastructure management: Healthcare organizations may outsource the maintenance and management of their IT systems, networks, and data storage to external IT service providers.
3. Human resources: Recruitment, employee benefits management, and payroll processing can be managed by third-party human resource firms.
4. Facilities management: Maintenance, cleaning, and security services for healthcare facilities can be contracted to external companies.
5. Biomedical equipment maintenance: Healthcare organizations may outsource the servicing and repair of medical devices and equipment to specialized vendors.
6. Revenue cycle management: Specialized firms can manage the entire revenue cycle process, including claims processing, payment posting, and accounts receivable follow-up.
7. Clinical research support services: Contract research organizations (CROs) provide various services related to clinical trials, such as study design, data management, and biostatistical analysis.
8. Telemedicine platforms: Healthcare organizations may partner with telemedicine companies to offer remote consultations and patient monitoring services.
9. Medical waste disposal: The handling and disposal of medical waste can be contracted to external companies that specialize in this field.
10. Legal, compliance, and risk management services: Law firms or consulting organizations can provide guidance on regulatory requirements, compliance matters, and risk mitigation strategies.

Diagnostic services refer to medical tests, procedures, and evaluations performed by healthcare professionals to identify the nature and cause of a patient's health condition or symptom. These services may include various imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound; laboratory tests such as blood tests, urine tests, and cultures; genetic testing; and specialized diagnostic procedures such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy.

The goal of diagnostic services is to provide accurate and timely information about a patient's health status, which can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about treatment plans, monitor disease progression, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. Diagnostic services are an essential component of modern medicine and play a critical role in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of various medical conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Nursing services refer to the health care activities and practices performed by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), and other nursing professionals. These services encompass various aspects of patient care, including:

1. Assessment: Nurses evaluate a patient's physical, psychological, social, and emotional status to identify their healthcare needs and establish individualized care plans.
2. Diagnosis: Based on the assessment data, nurses formulate nursing diagnoses that describe the patient's response to health conditions or situations.
3. Outcome identification: Nurses determine expected outcomes for each nursing diagnosis based on evidence-based practice guidelines and best available research.
4. Planning: Nurses develop a plan of care that outlines interventions, resources, and strategies to achieve desired patient outcomes.
5. Implementation: Nurses execute the plan of care by providing direct patient care, administering medications, performing treatments, and coordinating with other healthcare team members.
6. Evaluation: Nurses assess the effectiveness of the interventions and modify the plan of care as needed to ensure optimal patient outcomes.
7. Patient education: Nurses teach patients, families, and caregivers about self-care, disease processes, medication management, and healthy lifestyle choices to promote wellness and prevent complications.
8. Case management: Nurses coordinate services across the healthcare continuum, including referrals to specialists, home health care, and community resources, to ensure comprehensive and cost-effective care.
9. Advocacy: Nurses advocate for patients' rights, preferences, and values in decision-making processes related to their healthcare.
10. Collaboration: Nurses collaborate with other healthcare professionals, such as physicians, social workers, and therapists, to provide integrated and coordinated care.

Nursing services can be provided in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, community health centers, and patients' homes. The primary goal of nursing services is to promote, maintain, or restore patients' health, well-being, and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Financial Management" is not a medical term. Financial management refers to the process of managing the financial resources, such as budgeting, investing, raising funds, and planning for an organization or individual. It involves the application of management principles to the financial functions of an organization.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Personal health services refer to healthcare services that are tailored to an individual's specific needs, preferences, and goals. These services can include preventive care, such as vaccinations and screenings, as well as medical treatments for acute and chronic conditions. Personal health services may be provided by a variety of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals.

The goal of personal health services is to promote the overall health and well-being of the individual, taking into account their physical, mental, emotional, and social needs. This approach recognizes that each person is unique and requires a customized plan of care to achieve their optimal health outcomes. Personal health services may be delivered in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and long-term care facilities.

A capitation fee is a payment model in healthcare systems where physicians or other healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient assigned to their care, per period of time, whether or not that patient seeks care. This fee is intended to cover all the necessary medical services for that patient during that time frame. It is a type of risk-based payment model that encourages providers to manage resources efficiently and provide appropriate care to keep patients healthy and avoid unnecessary procedures or hospitalizations. The amount of the capitation fee can vary based on factors such as the patient's age, health status, and any specific healthcare needs they may have.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

"Marketing of Health Services" refers to the application of marketing principles and strategies to promote, sell, and deliver health care services to individuals, families, or communities. This can include activities such as advertising, public relations, promotions, and sales to increase awareness and demand for health services, as well as researching and analyzing consumer needs and preferences to tailor health services to better meet those needs. The ultimate goal of marketing in health services is to improve access to and utilization of high-quality health care while maintaining ethical standards and ensuring patient satisfaction.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Genetic services refer to specialized healthcare services that focus on the diagnosis, management, and counseling of individuals and families with genetic disorders or conditions that have a strong genetic component. These services may include:

1. Genetic counseling: A process where a trained healthcare professional provides information and support to individuals and families who are at risk of or have a genetic condition. This includes discussing the risks, benefits, and limitations of genetic testing, as well as helping patients understand the medical, psychological, and familial implications of test results.

2. Genetic testing: The analysis of DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins, and other molecules to identify genetic changes or mutations that may cause or increase the risk of developing a specific genetic condition. Testing can be performed on various samples, including blood, saliva, or tissue.

3. Diagnostic testing: Genetic tests used to confirm or rule out a suspected genetic disorder in an individual who has symptoms of the condition. These tests help establish a definitive diagnosis and guide medical management.

4. Predictive and pre-symptomatic testing: Genetic tests performed on individuals who do not have symptoms but are at risk of developing a genetic condition due to their family history or known genetic mutation. The goal is to identify those at risk before symptoms appear, allowing for early intervention and management.

5. Carrier testing: Genetic tests that determine if an individual carries a recessive gene mutation for a particular disorder. Carriers do not typically show symptoms but can pass the mutation on to their offspring, who may develop the condition if they inherit the mutation from both parents.

6. Prenatal and pre-implantation genetic testing: Genetic tests performed during pregnancy or before in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify chromosomal abnormalities or genetic disorders in the fetus or embryo. These tests can help couples make informed decisions about their reproductive options.

7. Genomic medicine and research: The integration of genomic information into clinical care, including pharmacogenomics (the study of how genes affect a person's response to medications) and precision medicine (tailoring treatment plans based on an individual's genetic makeup).

Genetic services are typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals, including medical geneticists, genetic counselors, nurses, social workers, and other specialists as needed. These professionals work together to provide comprehensive care, education, and support for patients and their families throughout the genetic testing and decision-making process.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Private Sector" is not a medical definition. It is an economic and sociopolitical term that refers to businesses and organizations which are not owned or controlled by the government. They can be privately owned and operated for profit, such as corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships, or they can be non-profit organizations, such as charities and advocacy groups. The private sector is distinct from the "Public Sector," which includes entities that are owned and controlled by the government, like public schools, hospitals, and other services provided by the state.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

"Financial Risk Sharing" in a medical context generally refers to the allocation of financial risk between parties involved in the provision, financing, or coverage of healthcare services. This can include arrangements such as capitation payments, where healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient enrolled in their care, regardless of the number of services provided; or reinsurance, where insurance companies share the risk of large claims with other insurers. The goal of financial risk sharing is to create incentives for efficient and cost-effective care while also protecting against unexpectedly high costs.

"Competitive bidding" is not a medical term, but rather a business or procurement concept that can be applied in various industries, including healthcare. In the context of healthcare, competitive bidding typically refers to a process where healthcare providers or suppliers submit bids to provide goods or services to a payer, such as a government agency or insurance company, at the lowest possible price.

The goal of competitive bidding is to promote cost savings and efficiency in the delivery of healthcare services. For example, Medicare uses a competitive bidding program for certain medical equipment and supplies, such as wheelchairs and oxygen equipment, where suppliers submit bids and are awarded contracts based on their ability to provide high-quality items at the lowest price.

However, it's important to note that while competitive bidding can lead to cost savings, it may also have unintended consequences, such as reducing provider participation or limiting access to certain services in some areas. Therefore, it is essential to balance cost savings with quality and access considerations when implementing competitive bidding programs in healthcare.

Occupational Health Services (OHS) refer to a branch of healthcare that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues that arise in the workplace or are caused by work-related factors. These services aim to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

OHS typically includes:

1. Health surveillance and screening programs to identify early signs of work-related illnesses or injuries.
2. Occupational health education and training for employees and managers on topics such as safe lifting techniques, hazard communication, and bloodborne pathogens exposure control.
3. Ergonomic assessments and interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and other work-related injuries.
4. Development and implementation of policies and procedures to address workplace health and safety issues.
5. Case management and return-to-work programs for employees who have been injured or become ill on the job.
6. Medical monitoring and treatment of work-related injuries and illnesses, including rehabilitation and disability management services.
7. Collaboration with employers to identify and address potential health hazards in the workplace, such as chemical exposures, noise pollution, or poor indoor air quality.

Overall, Occupational Health Services play a critical role in protecting the health and safety of workers, reducing the burden of work-related illnesses and injuries, and promoting a healthy and productive workforce.

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

"Reimbursement, Incentive" is not a standard medical term, but I can provide an explanation based on the individual terms:

1. Reimbursement: This refers to the act of paying back or giving compensation for expenses that have already been incurred. In a medical context, this often relates to insurance companies reimbursing patients or healthcare providers for the costs of medical services or supplies after they have been paid.
2. Incentive: An incentive is a motivating factor that encourages someone to do something. In healthcare, incentives can be used to encourage patients to make healthier choices or to participate in certain programs. They can also be used to motivate healthcare providers to follow best practices or to improve the quality of care they provide.

Therefore, "Reimbursement, Incentive" could refer to a payment made after the fact to compensate for expenses incurred, with the added intention of encouraging certain behaviors or actions. For example, an insurance company might offer to reimburse patients for the cost of gym memberships as an incentive to encourage them to exercise regularly.

Fees and charges in a medical context refer to the costs that patients are required to pay for healthcare services, treatments, or procedures. These may include:

1. Professional fees: The amount charged by healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, or therapists for their time, expertise, and services provided during consultations, examinations, or treatments.

2. Hospital charges: The costs associated with a patient's hospital stay, including room and board, nursing care, medications, and diagnostic tests.

3. Facility fees: Additional charges levied by hospitals, clinics, or ambulatory surgery centers to cover the overhead expenses of maintaining the facility and its equipment.

4. Procedure or treatment-specific fees: Costs directly related to specific medical procedures, surgeries, or treatments, such as anesthesia, radiology services, laboratory tests, or surgical supplies.

5. Ancillary fees: Additional costs for items like crutches, slings, or durable medical equipment that patients may need during their recovery process.

6. Insurance copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles: The portion of healthcare expenses that patients are responsible for paying based on their insurance policy terms.

It is essential for patients to understand the fees and charges associated with their medical care to make informed decisions about their treatment options and manage their healthcare costs effectively.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

A Public Sector, in the context of healthcare, refers to the portion of a country's health system that is managed and funded by the government. This sector provides medical services through state-owned hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, as well as through publicly financed programs such as Medicare and Medicaid in the United States or the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The public sector aims to ensure that all citizens have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their ability to pay. It is often funded through taxes and is accountable to the public for its performance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Salaries and Fringe Benefits" is not a medical term or concept.

Salaries and fringe benefits are terms used in the context of employment and compensation. A salary is the amount of money or other forms of compensation paid to an employee by an employer in return for work performed. It is usually expressed as a monthly or annual sum.

Fringe benefits, on the other hand, are additional benefits that employers may provide to their employees, such as health insurance, retirement plans, vacation and sick leave, and other perks. These benefits are offered in addition to the employee's regular salary or wages.

In a medical setting, healthcare professionals may receive salaries and fringe benefits as part of their employment compensation package, but the terms themselves do not have specific medical meanings.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "privatization" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Privatization generally refers to the process of transferring ownership, control, or management of a previously publicly owned or controlled entity, industry, or service to private hands. This concept can apply to various sectors, including healthcare services and institutions, but it does not have a unique medical meaning.

Organizational models in the context of medicine refer to frameworks that are used to describe, analyze, and improve the structure, processes, and outcomes of healthcare organizations. These models provide a systematic way of understanding how different components of an organization interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall performance of the system.

Examples of organizational models in healthcare include:

1. The Donabedian model: This model focuses on the structure, process, and outcome of healthcare as interrelated components that influence the quality of care.
2. The Baldrige Performance Excellence Program: This model provides a framework for organizations to evaluate their performance and identify areas for improvement in seven categories: leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, measurement, analysis, and knowledge management; workforce focus; process management; and results.
3. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) six aims for improvement: The IOM has identified six aims that should be the focus of healthcare quality improvement efforts: safety, timeliness, patient-centeredness, effectiveness, efficiency, and equity.
4. The Lean management system: This model is a process improvement approach that focuses on eliminating waste and maximizing value for customers through continuous improvement and respect for people.
5. The Six Sigma methodology: This model is a data-driven approach to quality improvement that seeks to reduce variation and defects in processes through the use of statistical tools and techniques.

These are just a few examples of organizational models used in healthcare. Each model has its own strengths and limitations, and organizations may choose to adopt one or more models depending on their specific needs and goals.

Reimbursement mechanisms in a medical context refer to the various systems and methods used by health insurance companies, government agencies, or other payers to refund or recompense healthcare providers, institutions, or patients for the costs associated with medical services, treatments, or products. These mechanisms ensure that covered individuals receive necessary medical care while protecting payers from unnecessary expenses.

There are several types of reimbursement mechanisms, including:

1. Fee-for-service (FFS): In this model, healthcare providers are paid for each service or procedure they perform, with the payment typically based on a predetermined fee schedule. This can lead to overutilization and increased costs if providers perform unnecessary services to increase their reimbursement.
2. Capitation: Under capitation, healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient enrolled in their care for a specified period, regardless of the number or type of services provided. This encourages providers to manage resources efficiently and focus on preventive care to maintain patients' health and reduce overall costs.
3. Bundled payments: Also known as episode-based payment, this model involves paying a single price for all the services related to a specific medical event, treatment, or condition over a defined period. This encourages coordination among healthcare providers and can help eliminate unnecessary procedures and costs.
4. Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS): RBRVS is a payment system that assigns relative value units (RVUs) to various medical services based on factors such as time, skill, and intensity required for the procedure. The RVUs are then converted into a monetary amount using a conversion factor. This system aims to create more equitable and consistent payments across different medical specialties and procedures.
5. Prospective payment systems (PPS): In PPS, healthcare providers receive predetermined fixed payments for specific services or conditions based on established diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) or other criteria. This system encourages efficiency in care delivery and can help control costs by setting limits on reimbursement amounts.
6. Pay-for-performance (P4P): P4P models tie a portion of healthcare providers' reimbursements to their performance on specific quality measures, such as patient satisfaction scores or adherence to evidence-based guidelines. This system aims to incentivize high-quality care and improve overall healthcare outcomes.
7. Shared savings/risk arrangements: In these models, healthcare providers form accountable care organizations (ACOs) or other collaborative entities that assume responsibility for managing the total cost of care for a defined population. If they can deliver care at lower costs while maintaining quality standards, they share in the savings with payers. However, if costs exceed targets, they may be required to absorb some of the financial risk.

These various reimbursement models aim to balance the need for high-quality care with cost control and efficiency in healthcare delivery. By aligning incentives and promoting coordination among providers, these systems can help improve patient outcomes while reducing unnecessary costs and waste in the healthcare system.

Health services for Indigenous people refer to medical and healthcare provision that is specifically designed, delivered, and organized to meet the unique cultural, historical, and social needs of indigenous populations. These services aim to address the health disparities and inequalities that often exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. They are typically community-based and involve traditional healing practices, as well as modern medical interventions. Indigenous health services may also incorporate cultural safety training for healthcare providers to ensure respectful and appropriate care.

Managed care programs are a type of health insurance plan that aims to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care by managing the utilization of healthcare services. They do this by using a network of healthcare providers who have agreed to provide services at reduced rates, and by implementing various strategies such as utilization review, case management, and preventive care.

In managed care programs, there is usually a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as the patient's main doctor and coordinates their care within the network of providers. Patients may need a referral from their PCP to see specialists or access certain services. Managed care programs can take various forms, including Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Point-of-Service (POS) plans, and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs).

The goal of managed care programs is to provide cost-effective healthcare services while maintaining or improving the quality of care. They can help patients save money on healthcare costs by providing coverage for a range of services at lower rates than traditional fee-for-service plans, but they may also limit patient choice and require prior authorization for certain procedures or treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "negotiating" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Negotiation is a process in which different parties come together to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement on a particular matter. It is often used in various contexts such as business, politics, and law, but it is not typically used in the context of medical terminology.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Social work is a professional field of practice that promotes social change, problem-solving in human relationships, and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. According to the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), social work involves "the application of social sciences, theory, knowledge, and skills to effect positive changes in individuals, groups, communities, and societies."

Social workers are trained to work with individuals, families, groups, and communities to address a wide range of social, emotional, and practical needs. They help people navigate complex systems, access resources, and advocate for their rights. Social workers may be employed in various settings, including hospitals, mental health clinics, schools, community centers, and government agencies.

In medical settings, social work is often focused on helping patients and their families cope with illness, disability, or injury. Medical social workers provide counseling, support, and advocacy to help patients and families navigate the healthcare system, access needed resources, and make informed decisions about treatment options. They may also assist with discharge planning, coordinating care transitions, and connecting patients with community-based services.

Medical social work is a specialized area of practice that requires knowledge and skills in areas such as psychosocial assessment, crisis intervention, case management, and advocacy. Medical social workers must be able to communicate effectively with healthcare professionals, patients, and families, and have a deep understanding of the social determinants of health and the impact of illness on individuals and communities.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

In the context of healthcare, workload refers to the amount and complexity of tasks or responsibilities that a healthcare professional is expected to perform within a given period. This can include direct patient care activities such as physical assessments, treatments, and procedures, as well as indirect care activities like documentation, communication with other healthcare team members, and quality improvement initiatives.

Workload can be measured in various ways, including the number of patients assigned to a provider, the amount of time spent on direct patient care, or the complexity of the medical conditions being managed. High workloads can impact the quality of care provided, as well as healthcare professional burnout and job satisfaction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage workload effectively to ensure safe and high-quality patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Medical practice management refers to the administrative and operational aspects of running a healthcare organization or medical practice. It involves overseeing and coordinating various business functions such as finance, human resources, marketing, patient scheduling, billing and coding, compliance with regulations, and information technology systems. The goal of medical practice management is to ensure that the practice runs efficiently, effectively, and profitably while delivering high-quality care to patients.

Medical practice managers may be responsible for developing policies and procedures, hiring and training staff, managing patient flow, ensuring regulatory compliance, implementing quality improvement initiatives, and overseeing financial performance. They must have a strong understanding of medical billing and coding practices, healthcare regulations, and electronic health record (EHR) systems. Effective communication skills, leadership abilities, and attention to detail are also important qualities for successful medical practice managers.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

... is a privately owned group of companies based in Coventry, UK. Zenith Contract Services provide ... Zenith Contract Services has grown from a small family business founded in 2002 by staff who had worked in cleaning, and ... "Coventry Telegraph Article about Zenith Contract Services". Retrieved 30 July 2012. "Coventry Telegraph Article about Zenith ... Zenith Pola Flooring Services Ltd (Renamed from Pola Flooring Services Ltd - Installing epoxy, polyurethane and cementitious ...
... may refer to: employment contract extended warranty Metropolitan Bus Service Contract Programmatic service ... contract in service-oriented architecture standardized service contract - software design principle water service contract ... contract service (economics) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Service contract. If an internal ...
The Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals (ASBCA) is an administrative tribunal within the United States Federal Government ... General Accounting Office, The Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals Has Operated Independently, GAO/NSIAD-85-102 (1985), p ... Contract Disputes Act of 1978 Civilian Board of Contract Appeals United States Court of Federal Claims United States Court of ... The ASBCA's original jurisdiction over claims involving Government contract disputes partially overlaps as concurrent ...
When service contracts clearly express their capabilities, the chance of service duplication is also reduced. Two services ... This facilitates standardized service contracts across the service inventory. The agility promised by a service-oriented ... However, this reusability relates directly to the way the service contract defines service capabilities. A service built on a ... Service Contract, part 2.Date accessed: 12 April 2010. The boundary of the service, i.e., the type of functions the service ...
... is a privately owned construction firm which provides professional services which include ... Suretrack is currently in contract with JICS for the construction of three number classroom blocks in Assin Manso in the ... A major subcontractor on a contract for the construction of classroom blocks in the New Juaben Municipal Assembly. ... Engineering, Design, Planning, Project Management, Construction Management, Real Estate and Consulting services for all aspects ...
A water service contract is a contract between the owner of water supply resources or facilities (generally a government body, ... a water service contract is a type of contract, authorized by the Reclamation Project Act of 1939, whereby water is furnished ... Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition (PDF). Congressional Research Service. ... such as a national state or a municipality) and a water services provider (which may be either a public or a private company). ...
The McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act of 1965 (SCA), codified at 41 U.S.C. §§ 6701-6707, is a US labor law that requires ... The Act requires general contractors and subcontractors performing services on prime contracts in excess of $2,500 to pay ... The SCA requires contractors and subcontractors performing services on covered federal or District of Columbia contracts in ... "McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act - Employee Fringe Benefit Requirements" v t e (1965 in American law, United States federal ...
The Sydney Metropolitan Bus Service Contracts are contracts issued by the Government of New South Wales to metropolitan bus ... The new contract commenced on 1 July 2023, with U-Go Mobility taking over Region 10 services from Transdev NSW and Region 5 ... The new contract commenced on 8 October 2023, with Transit Systems taking over Region 2 services from Interline and Region 15 ... The new contract commenced on 6 August 2023, with Transit Systems taking over Region 13 services from Transdev NSW. Region 4 ...
... may refer to: The EasyCare Vehicle Service Contracts 200 (spring), a NASCAR Craftsman ... Truck Series race held at Atlanta Motor Speedway in March 2004 The EasyCare Vehicle Service Contracts 200 (fall), a NASCAR ... October from 2005 to 2007 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title EasyCare Vehicle Service Contracts ...
Rosoboronzakaz's functions were transferred to the Federal Antimonopoly Service; licensing for other defense contract services ... Federal Service for Defence Contracts of the Russian Federation (Russian: Федеральная служба по оборонному заказу, short name ... supervised Russian central and regional executive authorities and officials when they acted in the area of contracting services ...
... WEC2/98, often referred to as "Steelink", was an important employment case in New ... The employee may resume work when required by the employer under the same terms and conditions as in this contract. While Manu ... Clause 5(b)(ii) is therefore deleted from the collective employment contract. The Court also ruled that Manu was not dismissed ... In September 1995, Steelink provided its employees with individual contracts to replace their collective agreement, which had ...
Thus, if a unit providing the service or benefit is destroyed, the contract is not void. In contemporary Islamic finance, ijara ... In traditional fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), it means a contract for the hiring of persons or services or "usufruct" of a ... Wakalah is a non-binding contract for a fixed fee and the agent or the principal may terminate this agency contract at any time ... bi al dhimma contract is combined with a Istisna contract for construction of whatever it is that will provide the service or ...
Contract Disputes Act of 1978 Civilian Board of Contract Appeals Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals United States Court ... The Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals (PSBCA) is a neutral, independent tribunal with the authority to hear and decide ... However, amendments to the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, effective in January 2007, expressly established a Postal Service ... any appeal from a decision of a contracting officer of the United States Postal Service (USPS) or the Postal Regulatory ...
The Outer Sydney Metropolitan Bus Service Contracts (OSMBSC) are contracts issued by the Government of New South Wales to bus ... "Outer Metropolitan Bus Service Contract - OMBSC010". eTendering NSW. Retrieved 30 June 2022. "Outer Metropolitan Bus Service ... Unlike the Sydney Metropolitan Bus Service Contracts which are put out to open tender, the government has indicated it does not ... "Outer Metropolitan Bus Service Contract - OMBSC001". eTendering NSW. Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved ...
In 2022, the Service entered into its first contract with the Surrey Police Union, which included agreements that new recruits ... "Surrey Police Service inks 1st contract, making officers among the highest paid in Canada". Global News. March 4, 2022. ... "Contract Policing". Royal Canadian Mounted Police. "The RCMP's thin red line: Is contract policing unsustainable?". Globe and ... "Policing Transition". Surrey Police Service. Retrieved July 13, 2022. "Surrey Police Service officer recovering after being ...
"CDMO Services". Laurus Bio. Retrieved 22 August 2023. "Cipla, Kemwell Enter Biosimilars Joint Venture". Contract Pharma. 30 ... Concord Biotech, among other areas, offers contract research and manufacturing services for fermentation products. Concord ... Laurus Bio, among other products and services, also offers CDMO services for microbial precision fermentation. In 2021, Cipla ... "TCS' cutting-edge Genomics Research Services". TATA Consultancy Services. Retrieved 6 September 2023. Reymond, Emilie (4 ...
Contract Vehicles > FTS2001 Bridge > Products (Webarchive template wayback links, History of the Internet, Academic computer ... quality of service, and IPv6. After the expiration of the NSF agreement, the vBNS largely transitioned to providing service to ... The very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) came on line in April 1995 as part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) ... The vBNS+ is now a service of Verizon Business. NSF Solicitation 93-52 Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine - Network ...
... the Insolvency Service announced that agreements to transfer the last of 278 former Carillion contracts to new service ... "Contract Awarded for Forensic Services and Coroner's Complex". Infrastructure Ontario. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2018. " ... "Carillion contracts complete transfer". The Insolvency Service. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2018. Kleinman, Mark (29 ... "Trust seeks to terminate major £200m contract". Health Service Journal. 28 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016. " ...
Contract Services)". Food Management. 37 (4): 9. April 2002. Retrieved 3 October 2017. "Last Straw For Plastic Straws? Cities, ... "Big food-service outfit banning plastic straws at more than 1,000 U.S. eateries". USA Today. Retrieved 2019-07-09. "Bon Appétit ... In May 2018, Bon Appétit became the first food service provider and major restaurant company to ban plastic straws in all of ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Catering and food service companies of the United States, ...
For the service to provide this dual functionality, the service contract must be designed so that it presents functionality ... The application of the standardized service contract principle makes the services interoperable with others, and helps to keep ... For the service to be an efficient service controller as well as a service member, the underlying technology architecture needs ... The application of the service composability principle requires designing services so that they can be used in a service ...
Prior to 2001, the Postal Service contracted with multiple airlines on a regional basis for these services. This contract ... Business Contracts , Justia". contracts.justia.com. Retrieved April 4, 2023. "Aircraft Contract Services". Air Contractors. ... In 2007, the contract was extended until September 2013. In 2013, FedEx Express won a new 7-year contract for the services ... "Usps News Release: U.S. Postal Service, Fedex Express Agree To New Contract For Air Transportation Of Mail". Usps.com. August 1 ...
... contract manufacturing services; and products to treat end-stage kidney disease, or irreversible kidney failure, including ... Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the company expanded to deliver a wider variety of products and services (including vaccines, a ... 75 per patient for referring those patients to its services. Some doctors earned as much as $80,000 a year from the kickbacks, ... "was accused by the government of paying doctors to steer patients to its intravenous drug service" In 1992 Caremark spun off ...
SEIU contracts also cover some non-members, known as agency fee payers, which since 2005 have numbered comparatively about one ... SEIU 32BJ is a politically outspoken building services local based in New York. 32BJ represents over 170,000 property service ... "Building Service Employees' International Union, Local 6 records - Special Collections, UW Libraries". "Service Employees ... and property services (including janitors, security guards and food service workers). SEIU has over 150 local branches. It is ...
"Aloha Contract Services". Aloha Contract Services. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2021. ... Pacific Air Cargo acquired the division in 2008 for $2.2 million and operates it under the name Aloha Contract Services. ... Prior to the shutdown of its passenger services on March 31, 2008, Aloha Airlines provided passenger service to/from the ... Aloha and its creditors sought to auction its profitable cargo and contract services division. ...
"CONTRACT BRIDGE KERNELS". The Mail. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 30 January 1937. p. 5 Section: MAGAZINE. Retrieved ... "State Emergency Services". Healesville and Yarra Glen Guardian (Vic. : 1900 - 1942). Vic.: National Library of Australia. 22 ...
"Contract for services". LIMA Group GmbH. CFB News: Commerz Real Acquires Germany's Largest Solar Park. "CFB-Fonds". "MKG GÖBEL ... allowing tenants to acquire the electricity generated onsite more cheaply than their regular utility contracts stipulate. In ...
Contract & Construction Services". Retrieved 28 October 2020. "Operating Department-An Overview , Konkan Railway". Archived ... The first ever RO-RO service in India was run by Konkan Railway. Konkan Railway passes through tough terrains of India. There ...
North West Ambulance Services. Retrieved 3 April 2014. "North West Ambulance Service loses contract to cover Cheshire". Chester ... the service isn't performing as well as it should) and inadequate (the service is performing badly): Emergency medical services ... Lancashire Ambulance Service; Cheshire and Mersey Ambulance Service; and Greater Manchester Ambulance Service) as part of ... "Ambulance service looks to save millions by leasing BMW i3 electric vehicles". Contract hire and leasing. 27 February 2017. ...
The most prominent, and controversial, service that these companies offer is armed anti-piracy support. The main services ... Floating Armories and Privately Contracted Armed Security Personnel on Board Ships: Balancing Coastal State Security Concerns ... These kinds of armed protection and anti-piracy services at sea are mostly minor operations and only require the presence of ... A Private Maritime Security Company (PMSC) is a form of Private Military Company that offers services in the maritime sector. ...
The DFS has the authority to license and regulate service contract providers. A list of the currently licensed service ... "Service Contract Provider Registration". Department of Financial Services. Retrieved 2022-05-21. Official website Banking, ... have the authority to fine or prosecute unlicensed service contract providers. Financial Services Law § 102. "The legislature ... service contracts; life settlements; budget planners; charitable foundations; check cashers; credit unions; investment ...
Service contract may refer to: employment contract extended warranty Metropolitan Bus Service Contract Programmatic service ... contract in service-oriented architecture standardized service contract - software design principle water service contract ... contract service (economics) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Service contract. If an internal ...
Our testing and manufacturing services span the product cycle from early pre-clinical development to licensed production ... testing services we offer exceptional, risk-mitigating solutions with technical and regulatory expertise to help bring life- ... Contract Manufacturing. Contract Testing. Custom Products. Digital Solutions for Life Science. IVD Development & Manufacturing ... Our BioReliance® Contract Testing Services offer exceptional, risk-mitigating solutions with technical and regulatory expertise ...
The results of the 2021 School Support Service Privatization Survey are in ... 237 districts, or 44.0%, contract out for food service. *Two districts contracted out the service and five districts brought it ... 274 districts, or 50.8%, contract out for custodial service. *Seven districts contracted out the service and six districts ... 160 districts, or 29.7%, contract out for transportation service. *12 districts contracted out the service, and two districts ...
Utility Program & Utility Energy Service Contracts Utility Program & Utility Energy Service Contracts * Federal & Utility ... FEMP Utility Team Utility Energy Service Contract Scope of Support: Outlines activities and services offered by the Federal ... Utility Energy Service Contracts Guide: Key resource for acquisition teams developing UESCs includes a compilation of samples ... Are you a utility wondering how to launch a UESC program for your federal customers? FEMPs Utility Energy Service Contract ...
MDA) announced today that it has signed contract amendments Worth CA$100 million with the Commonwealth of Australia, for the ... extension of Heron I Unmanned Aerial Vehicle surveillance service for the Australian Defence Force in Kandahar Airfield for an ... Home Aerospace Airborne C4ISR Australia Extends UAV ISR Service Contract with MDA ... The current contract was awarded in 2011 and will expire by December 2012. The Australian contract was the second undertaken by ...
Republic Services Teamsters Ratify First Contract. 2024.03.12. Members of Local 104 Triumph Against Anti-Union Tactics, Secure ... "Republic Services utilized every dirty trick in the book in a callous attempt to stop workers from achieving the rights and job ... In 2022, Republic Services CEO Jon Vander Ark took home roughly $19.8 million. It is sad that a company generating such vast ... "After voting to become Teamsters, the company waited a full year to offer us a fair contract," said Mark McCall, a driver at ...
11.1 The liability of GS1 UK in connection with the Services and/or this Service Contract to the Member whether in contract, ... 1.1 All capitalised terms used in these Service Contract Terms and Conditions which are not defined in these Service Contract ... 2. Services. 2.1 In the event of any inconsistency between the Framework Agreement, these Service Contract Terms and Conditions ... 8.1.2 at GS1 UKs sole discretion, the Member has not used the Services in accordance with the Service Contract;. 8.1.3 ...
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Embedding food service requirements into organizational policies can increase the availability and selection of healthier food ... Put Food Service Guidelines into Organizational Policies and Food Vendor Contracts. Print ... Food service management and consumer engagement: Sample Language. The vendor must comply with the following food service ... Food Vendor is primarily responsible for carrying out the provisions included in this food service contract/agreement. The ...
Could a new Google phone, the Nexus One, challenge mobile service contracts? ... points out that providers like Virgin Mobile and Boost are offering unlimited and contract-less service plans for around $50. ... www.csmonitor.com/Business/new-economy/2009/1214/Could-a-new-Google-phone-the-Nexus-One-challenge-mobile-service-contracts ... Second, it would mean that consumers could use the phone on any service that uses GSM technology - that is, runs with a SIM ( ...
... or other related services. These other services may include professional engineering related services, or incidental services ... 2) Contracting for Engineering and Design Services.- - *General Rule.- - Subject to paragraph (3), each contract for program ... INFORMATION: Awarding Engineering and Design Services Contracts Based on Brooks Act Requirements. Date:. December 12, 2005. ... As a result, State and local agencies are no longer entitled to procure engineering and design related service contracts ( ...
The global contract cleaning services market size was valued at USD 343.34 billion in 2022 and is expected to expand at a ... Chapter 4. Contract Cleaning Services Market Service Type Outlook. 4.1. Contract Cleaning Services Market, By Service Type ... 14 Contract Cleaning Services Market, by Service Type: Key Takeaways. Fig. 15 Contract Cleaning Services Market, by Service ... 11 Contract Cleaning Services Market Dynamics. Fig. 12 Contract Cleaning Services Market: PORTERs Analysis. Fig. 13 Contract ...
The City of Cape Town Mayoral Committee recommended on Tuesday morning that the city extend the operating contract of the N2 ... Express MyCiTi bus service for another two years, until June 30, 2026. ... Mayco recommends extension of N2 Express MyCiTi bus service contract till June 2026. The Mayoral Committee recommends extension ... said the current contract with the N2 Express Joint Venture company that is operating the N2 Express service is coming to an ...
US Navy Awards $42.9m Service Contract to Boeing. The US Navy has awarded a $42.9m contract to The Boeing Company to continue ... 42.9m contract to The Boeing Company to continue providing communications network design and technical engineering services on ... Our services are intended for corporate subscribers and you warrant that the email address submitted is your corporate email ... Our services are intended for corporate subscribers and you warrant that the email address submitted is your corporate email ...
The contracted services include programs, events, and activities proposed to occur between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2021. The ... For more information on arts and culture opportunities in Fulton County and the Contracts for Services program, please visit ... Culture Contracts for Services Program (CFS). Funding was approved to provide support for 145 non-profit organizations, public ... Contracts for Services funding program provides unrestricted general operating and project support to non-profit and tax-exempt ...
wpengine2019-12-31T02:33:22-08:00March 14, 2016, ...
Rosfinmonitoring has reported "systemic problems" in the Moscow authorities activities regarding financial contracts, first of ... "Systemic problems" exist primarily at healthcare establishments, departments and hospitals, Chikhanchin said."Contracts are ... head of the Federal Financial Monitoring Service (Rosfinmonitoring) Yury Chikhanchin told Prime Minister Vladimir Putin on ...
Cookies help us to provide you with an excellent service. By using our website, you declare yourself in agreement with our use ... Bora, a contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO) that specializes in modified release (MR) and solvent ... "This latest FDA inspection underlines our commitment to servicing the U.S. market and supporting our own future growth strategy ...
Part 5137 - Service Contracting. Part 5137 - Service Contracting. (Revised 18 October, 2023) ... 5137.104 Personal services contracts.. (b)(i) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) will make the determination as ... 5137.170 Approval of contracts and task orders for services.. 5137.170-2 Approval requirements.. (a) Acquisition of services ... 6) Multi-year contracts. If the acquisition strategy calls for a multi-year service contract as defined in FAR subpart 17.1 ( ...
... enhance our services, and help our community strengthen and increase access to oral health services. NNOHA is a 501(c)(3) non- ...
Recall issued for rapid coronavirus test with $9.5M Alberta Health Services contract. ... Recall issued for rapid coronavirus test with $9.5M Alberta Health Services contract ... Alberta Health Services had announced a partnership worth $9.5 million with Spartan Bioscience in late March. ... Williamson said that the contract with Spartan has not been cancelled, but if the technology is not validated for clinical use ...
... service industry and how the company had to find ways to compete with third-party service providers who offered lower contract ... never shying from an opportunity to talk about biomeds and the service industry, sat down with a member of the GE service ... With features like remote monitoring, would your facility be willing sign a more expensive OEM contract to avoid downtime? Or ... This decreases downtime and acts as a service that the third-part providers cannot offer. ...
... these non-standard contracts must go directly to the Office of Technology Services (OTS) for approval. Contracts can be emailed ... Contracts and agreements will generally involve the University either obtaining or supplying goods or services. Only a ... Grants - all contracts, waivers and agreements that result in the University receiving a grant or funds must be sent to the ... In general, all types of contracts or agreements mentioned above will hereby be classified into four (4) main types:. *Standard ...
The panel will discuss when the service contract applies and best practices for ensuring that your company does not run afoul ... During this webinar, experienced practitioners from Venable LLP and Baker Tilly will discuss the Service Contract Act and its ... James Y. Boland, Esq., Partner, Government Contracts Practice, Venable LLP Jennifer Flickinger, Principal, Baker Tilly Virchow ...
Edge Service, Gold, 5-DAY Depot, New 3 year Contract - Save Now, Call or Chat With Our Expert Staff Today! ... Contracts cover a 5-year period. Depot repair is offered with 2-day turnaround service or advanced exchange. Forty-eight hour ... Honeywell, Voyager 1472G Cordless, Edge Service, Gold, 5-DAY Depot, New 3 year Contract ... Extended warranty service for peace of mind. Honeywells Basic plan offers a 1- or 2- year extension of the original ...
Operations Services (EDOS) contract. The multiple award BPA has a seven-year period of performance and allows Maximus to ... "Through this contract, Maximus is proud to play a role in IRSs journey to a new and improved taxpayer experience for the ... Today we announced the award and signing of a new Blanket Purchase Agreement by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for the ... "The IRS laid out an ambitious plan to transform how the agency provides services and capabilities to improve the taxpayer ...
Contract Services By Capability - NONWOVENS INDUSTRY is the only monthly trade magazine dedicated to the worldwide business of ... Cookies help us to provide you with an excellent service. By using our website, you declare yourself in agreement with our use ...
Torresan Estate Contract Bottling, Packaging & Warehousing. View Listing. Address: 48 Martins Road, McLaren Vale, SA, 5171, ... First Creek Wines & Winemaking Services. View Listing. Address: PO Box 387, Cessnock, NSW, 2325, Australia, T: (02) 4998 7293 & ...
Equipment manufacturers offer different types of maintenance service plans (MSPs) that delineate payment structures between ... Keywords: Maintenance repair, service contracting, co-production, empirical operations management, service chain value, ... Contracting in Medical Equipment Maintenance Services: An Empirical Investigation. ESMT Working Paper No. 14-05 ... Chan, Tian Heong and deVericourt, Francis and Besbes, Omar, Contracting in Medical Equipment Maintenance Services: An Empirical ...
an $11.4 million three-year contract to provide Senate state offices with a unified ... 11.4 million three-year contract to provide Senate state offices with a unified communications-as-a-service platform for hosted ... The contract is worth about $3.8 million per year and includes four one-year options with a maximum potential value of $26 ... Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service, Private Policy, and Cookie Policy. ...
  • LOS ANGELES (March 26, 2019) - AECOM, a premier, fully integrated global infrastructure firm, announced that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) awarded the firm a contract to investigate, design and implement environmental remedial actions at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the adjacent Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and other NASA centers nationwide. (aecom.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires physicians to notify them 90 days after deciding to retire or withdraw from Medicare or Medicaid. (medscape.com)
  • Each year, approximately $3.5 billion are spent on contracted goods and services by Alberta Health Services (AHS) through the Contracting, Procurement, Supply Management (CPSM) department, to support the delivery of health care in this province. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) recently released a report based upon U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) data showing that 77% of the 325 contract worker electrocutions that occurred from 2012-2016 involved workers employed in the construction industry (NFPA 2018). (cdc.gov)
  • AECOM will provide architectural and engineering services to develop and implement contamination assessment and remediation requirements for designated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites located on NASA properties. (aecom.com)
  • The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) offers resources to help federal agencies implement utility energy service contracts (UESCs). (energy.gov)
  • Key resource for acquisition teams developing UESCs includes a compilation of samples and templates to help contracting officers implement task orders under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts. (energy.gov)
  • This includes a wide range of goods and services needed to provide health care to over four million Albertans, from hypodermic needles to hospital gowns, and housekeeping services to the provision of long-term care. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • A Revenue Generating Service Contract is a non-Research legally binding agreement setting out the terms and conditions associated with the provision of services to an external party in exchange for fair compensation. (queensu.ca)
  • In 2015 UKTI brought in auditors from RSM to investigate its contract with PA Consulting for the provision of specialist services, for which PA received £18.8million in the first year of a contract due to last three years. (nao.org.uk)
  • 2.6 GS1 UK reserves the right to cancel, delay or terminate the provision of the Services where the Initial Fee have not been received in cleared funds by GS1 UK or the Member does not provide sufficient information to enable GS1 UK to provide the Services. (gs1uk.org)
  • Contract vehicle DIR-TSO-4137 benefits your organization by eliminating the request-for-proposal (RFP) process and accelerating service delivery against your immediate needs. (deloitte.com)
  • This process saves your organization time and money allowing Deloitte to contract directly with eligible entities, including Texas state agencies, public institutions of higher education, public school districts, or other local government entities. (deloitte.com)
  • Evaluation Services of the Pan American Health Organization for the coverage of risk management, control and governance. (who.int)
  • Strategic contracting for health systems and services / Jean Perrot and Eric de Roodenbeke, editors. (who.int)
  • Since the endorsement of resolution EM/RC65/R.3 that requested WHO to "support assessments to identify challenges and opportunities related to the engagement of private care providers in service delivery in order to develop strategic action plans for effective partnership towards achieving universal health coverage", the Regional Office has been supporting Member States to undertake detailed assessments of the private health sector. (who.int)
  • Managed Print Services improve workflow, Xerox® DocuShare for Education makes content management easy, and Xerox® ConnectKey® Apps for education help you be more productive, collaborative, and effective. (eandi.org)
  • The IASB is undertaking a comprehensive project on the accounting for insurance contracts with the objective of developing a comprehensive standard that will address recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure requirements. (deloitte.com)
  • Districts that contracted out typically cited staff shortages. (mackinac.org)
  • We provide testing services for mRNA starting materials, drug substance, and drug product. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The contract is a performance-based, cost-plus award fee contract to provide checkout, assembly, and payload processing services at Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. (spaceref.com)
  • Contracting out with private companies to provide support services has been a time-tested way for school districts to save money and improve their operations. (mackinac.org)
  • We combine the power of specialized STEMCELL Technologies media and reagents with the practical knowledge of our scientists to provide standardized and customized assay services. (stemcell.com)
  • We provide exceptional service through frequent communication, quality products and unparalleled expertise. (stemcell.com)
  • For more information about the services we provide, including data and examples of previous studies, please visit our full contract assay services page. (stemcell.com)
  • Deloitte Consulting LLP (Deloitte) is pleased to be able to provide cloud services to the Texas Department of Information Resources (DIR) customers under this contract. (deloitte.com)
  • Association's community care committee, said many GPs currently did not provide enhanced services. (communitycare.co.uk)
  • Pursuant to the Framework Agreement, the Member requests certain services to be provided by GS1 UK, and GS1 UK agrees to provide such services to the Member in accordance with these service contract terms and conditions and the Framework Agreement ("Service Contract") . (gs1uk.org)
  • 2.4 GS1 UK is not obliged to accept all Order Forms, and reserves the right (prior to the collection of payment) not to provide the Services to the Member for any reason. (gs1uk.org)
  • 2.7 Where the Member fails to provide sufficient information to GS1 UK to complete the Services, this may result in the Member not receiving the Services. (gs1uk.org)
  • Cookies help us to provide you with an excellent service. (contractpharma.com)
  • You'll also need to provide payers with a forwarding address for sending payments after the office closes, and notify your malpractice insurance carrier and any other contracted insurance carriers such as workers' compensation or employee benefit plans. (medscape.com)
  • The agreements that govern us set out guidelines, thresholds and appropriate exceptions which ensure that the contracting process protects vendors and does not limit trade. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • We ultimately persevered and won a great contract that increases wages, improves safety, and protects our rights. (teamster.org)
  • Deloitte has deep experience in the design, deployment, and management of complex enterprise-wide and application-specific public, private, and hybrid cloud solutions across major industries with major cloud services providers. (deloitte.com)
  • In consideration of the broad and diverse needs of the Texas DIR customers, our service offerings as an Amazon Web Services (AWS) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS) provider and cloud services broker is based on the elasticity, flexibility and scalability of our service model to meet the diverse needs of DIR customers. (deloitte.com)
  • Food Services contract search functionality has been upgraded to a dynamic database search based on user-generated terms. (dla.mil)
  • See the new database to search for food service contracts and solicitations by number, vendor, type, region, state, country etc. (dla.mil)
  • For detailed information about the Food Services contracts in your area or for your installation, use the search feature below. (dla.mil)
  • This service allows modernization of applications that are not currently cloud ready (i.e. mainframe applications) through diagnostics, refactoring, and modernization. (deloitte.com)
  • Information graphic details the Air Force Civil Engineer Center's architect and engineering services contracts to support the Air Force's sustainment, restoration and modernization program. (af.mil)
  • For assistance locating or obtaining a soft copy of an active or inactive Service Description or Offer Specification on this website, please contact your regional Dell Technical Support Team . (dell.com)
  • Under the contract, Boeing provides management and technical support of payload processing for the space shuttle, International Space Station and expendable launch vehicle programs. (spaceref.com)
  • Services and support include the planning for and receiving of payloads, maintenance of associated ground support systems, integration of payloads with the space shuttle, launch support and space shuttle post-landing payload activities. (spaceref.com)
  • DLA Troop Support Subsistence provides food services across the globe to all of our customers. (dla.mil)
  • WHO has developed interim guidance to help governments engage with the private health sector as part of a whole-of-society response to the pandemic and to seek its support in maintaining essential health services. (who.int)
  • Other payers may also require 90 days' notice to terminate their contracts. (medscape.com)
  • NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Fla., will extend its Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services contract for three years with Boeing Space Operations Company of Titusville, Fla., a wholly owned subsidiary of The Boeing Company, Chicago. (spaceref.com)
  • Valicare GmbH , a wholly owned subsidiary of Syntegon, now offers additional services along the entire product life cycle of pharmaceutically and biotechnologically produced drugs. (contractpharma.com)
  • Nearly 6.8% of the participants who signed a contract with FDCS received healthcare services from family doctors in China . (bvsalud.org)
  • Many don't think about compliance issues, patient abandonment, or accounts receivable that they need to keep open to collect from billing, which can occur months after the dates of service," said David Zetter, president of Zetter HealthCare management consultants in Pennsylvania. (medscape.com)
  • Nonprofits for hire : the welfare state in the age of contracting / Steven Rathgeb Smith, Michael Lipsky. (who.int)
  • Approaching the adoption of healthy food service guidelines with an equity lens can help address disparities among different populations. (cdc.gov)
  • You can include food service guidelines standards and behavioral design strategies in a variety of different organizational policies. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, some communities and states have adopted local ordinances, state laws, and executive orders requiring government worksites to follow healthier food service guidelines. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's Food Service Guidelines (FSG) Policy Wheel defines seven core elements of a comprehensive FSG policy. (cdc.gov)
  • The term " FSG policy " can include a variety of formal written agreements that seek to prioritize good nutrition and health within any food service operation. (cdc.gov)
  • The nutrition standards the vendor is expected to meet should be clearly stated in the food service guidelines policy or written agreement. (cdc.gov)
  • Standards should be based on the most current nutrition science and operationalized for use in a food service environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Sample language that incorporates nutrition standards for food service guidelines is below but does not include all of the standards in the Food Service Guidelines for Federal Facilities [PDF-3.34MB] . (cdc.gov)
  • Officials at one of the districts that brought services back in-house said that they were dissatisfied with their contractor and those at the other expected to save money from the move. (mackinac.org)
  • The requirements are specified by the "project owner" and the services are delivered by the "contractor" or "service provider. (queensu.ca)
  • Our BioReliance ® Contract Testing Services offer exceptional, risk-mitigating solutions with technical and regulatory expertise, to help bring life-changing drugs to market. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To locate your service terms, first select the category of service that you purchased from the options on this page, and then choose among the relevant Service Descriptions or Offer Specifications in that category. (dell.com)
  • Please note that the publication of a Service Description or Offer Specification on these pages or merely setting out a heading about a particular Service or Offer on a country webpage does not establish availability of the service offering in your country. (dell.com)
  • Being still a working in progress, the New Social Contract can offer an impetus not only at re-designing the relationships between social partners, governments, unions and businesses but it can also be a source to generate more interest among the population about public life. (ipsnews.net)
  • After voting to become Teamsters, the company waited a full year to offer us a fair contract," said Mark McCall, a driver at Republic Services' North Yard and a member of the negotiating committee. (teamster.org)
  • GPs blame the need to opt out of providing enhanced services on primary care trusts failing to offer them sufficient money to fully reimburse their costs for offering such services. (communitycare.co.uk)
  • When you receive a housing offer from us, the contract end date will in most cases be either the 31 December or the 30 June. (lu.se)
  • The Office provides independent and objective assurance and advisory services, designed to add value to and improve the Organization's operations. (who.int)
  • Deloitte has proven frameworks and accelerators to integrate services onto existing cloud environment allowing clients to maximize investments. (deloitte.com)
  • Could the ongoing debate about a New Social Contract, a concept launched by UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres, help revive one of the essential elements of any democratic society, people's interest and participation in the civic life? (ipsnews.net)
  • Complete the Letter of Participation to sign up for our Xerox contract. (eandi.org)
  • If you have purchased service(s) from Dell or a Dell reseller, your quote, order acknowledgement, invoice or receipt will include the name of the service(s) that you purchased. (dell.com)
  • This does not include Academic Contracts, covered under Section F . (queensu.ca)
  • The new four-year contracts include a 19 percent wage hike, enhanced training pay, a 135 percent hourly rate for vacation, sick leave and holidays, and robust language protections for safety and seniority rights. (teamster.org)
  • Click on any plus sign below to see sample language for vendor contracts, purchasing agreements, or organizational policies. (cdc.gov)
  • The firm-fixed-price, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract has a performance period from February 2019 through February 2024, with a maximum combined value of $300 million. (aecom.com)
  • We found that contracting increased from 31.0% of school districts in 2001 to 69.6% in 2021. (mackinac.org)
  • Additional information about the Deloitte services offered through the program, how to obtain quotes, how to place a purchase order, and warranty information can be found below. (deloitte.com)
  • Section 2704(a) of Title 10 of the U. S. Code directs the Secretary of Defense to notify the Secretary of Health and Human Services of not less than 25 of the most commonly found unregulated hazardous substances at defense facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Once the housing contract is active, the regulations found below will apply when a contract cancellation is requested. (lu.se)
  • Service contract may refer to: employment contract extended warranty Metropolitan Bus Service Contract Programmatic service contract in service-oriented architecture standardized service contract - software design principle water service contract contract service (economics) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Service contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Please refer to the DIR Cooperative Contracts Program page for an overview. (deloitte.com)
  • Forty-two per cent of GPs would opt out of providing "enhanced services" of some sort under the new contract, with substance misusers the worst affected, according to a survey of 300 GPs carried out by Community Care's sister magazine Doctor. (communitycare.co.uk)
  • The International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB"/ "the Board") issued a Discussion Paper, Preliminary Views on Insurance Contracts, in May 2007. (deloitte.com)
  • Medical first aid services were provided by a resident nurse and industrial hygiene services were furnished by an insurance company on a request basis. (cdc.gov)
  • 1. Check your insurance contracts . (medscape.com)
  • With this service Deloitte manages identity and access within our clients' organizations to confirm that the right employees have the right access to the right systems at the right time to do their work. (deloitte.com)
  • Access to the Services shall commence within two (2) Business Days of receipt of payment of the Initial Fee in clear funds. (gs1uk.org)
  • In order for the housing contract to be cancelled without any financial penalties, the student will need to make a contract cancellation request by sending an e-mail to LU Accommodation before the contract start date. (lu.se)
  • You can log into your housing account in order to find out your current contract end date. (lu.se)
  • If you contact us within less than two full calendar months before the contract end date, then you will not be able to cancel your housing contract. (lu.se)
  • UKTI and PA agreed to negotiate a significant change to the contract after the bids were submitted and before the contract was awarded. (nao.org.uk)
  • Four of the districts that started to contract out cited difficulty in finding employees as a reason. (mackinac.org)
  • AHS conducts a fair and open competitive process before awarding a contract for goods or services in keeping with inter-provincial trade agreements, New West Partnership Agreement (NWPTA) and the Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) . (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • The Office of Internal Oversight Services transmits herewith its annual report for the calendar year 2015 for the information of the Health Assembly. (who.int)
  • Rule XII of the Financial Rules - Internal Audit - establishes the mandate of the Office of Internal Oversight Services. (who.int)
  • Valicare is significantly expanding its GxP and consultancy services for the pharma, biotech and ATMP industries to fulfill individual demands regarding products and projects from development to market release. (contractpharma.com)
  • Since workers began organizing with Local 104 in March 2023, Republic Services launched a nasty union-busting campaign that resulted in the Teamsters filing myriad unfair labor practice charges. (teamster.org)
  • The $58.2 billion, publicly traded waste giant headquartered in Phoenix has continued its efforts to try to prevent workers from obtaining a first union contract. (teamster.org)
  • Republic Services utilized every dirty trick in the book in a callous attempt to stop workers from achieving the rights and job security that come with a Teamster contract," said Chuck Stiles, Director of the Teamsters Solid Waste and Recycling Division. (teamster.org)
  • Nationwide, the Teamsters represent more than 7,000 workers at Republic Services. (teamster.org)
  • To underline the extension of the service portfolio, Valicare has recruited Dr. Christin Erbach to join the expert team of engineers and scientists as a senior GMP consultant. (contractpharma.com)
  • The Xerox contract offers a wide breadth of products and a portfolio of advanced document management solutions and services, along with a proven track record of helping E&I members redefine costs and transform core document-driven processes. (eandi.org)
  • It is necessary at times, for some contracts to be entered into without having undergone a public competitive process. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • If his recent re-election at the helm of the United Nations might have dissipated doubts that this new idea was just a fad, what are the chances for this debate surrounding the New Social Contract to become an opportunity to enhance public engagement at local levels without further dividing the gulf between classic liberal democracies on one side and other nations adopting less democratic, more authoritarian political systems? (ipsnews.net)
  • Of Michigan's 539 public school districts, 375 contract out for food, custodial or transportation services, or 69.6% of districts. (mackinac.org)
  • It is clear that, on this contract, both UKTI and PA have fallen well below the standards expected in managing public money. (nao.org.uk)
  • Our wide range of testing services are aimed at ensuring the quality and purity of raw materials. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Districts that brought services back in-house tended to mention that they had problems with contractors' quality. (mackinac.org)
  • Erbach has more than ten years of clinical service experience along with deep knowledge in quality management and legal pharmaceutical requirements. (contractpharma.com)
  • Since 2000, Contract Assay Services has performed hundreds of studies for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, government and academic life science organizations worldwide. (stemcell.com)
  • Deloitte is dedicated to providing outstanding professional services to state and local government organizations in the State of Texas. (deloitte.com)
  • When contracting for any goods or services, AHS abides by stringent and comprehensive contracting processes and policies (e.g. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • Outlines activities and services offered by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility team. (energy.gov)
  • The new focus is on consulting services for the transition of products from the development phase to the GMP compliant manufacturing of investigational medicinal products. (contractpharma.com)
  • Valicare also offers complete solutions for the production of ATMPs as well as consulting and supporting services, right through to the production of the first investigational medicinal products. (contractpharma.com)
  • 2.1 In the event of any inconsistency between the Framework Agreement, these Service Contract Terms and Conditions and the Order Form, the following order of precedence shall apply (1) Service Contract Terms and Conditions (2) Framework Agreement, and (3) Order Form. (gs1uk.org)
  • Contracting has stayed at this level since 2015. (mackinac.org)
  • This is an investigation into the contractual arrangements that UK Trade and Investment (UKTI) had in place since 2013-14 for the outsourcing of sector specialist services with PA Consulting. (nao.org.uk)
  • The National Audit Office has today published its findings from its investigation into the contractual arrangements that UK Trade and Investment (UKTI) had in place since 2013-14 for the outsourcing of sector specialist services with PA Consulting. (nao.org.uk)
  • Contracting out has stayed at around 7 out of every 10 districts for the past 6 years. (mackinac.org)
  • Unlike food and custodial services, transportation contracting increased over the past two years. (mackinac.org)
  • Clarifications by responders in this year's survey resulted in an adjustment to the previous years' results and raised the number of districts that contract out custodial services by one. (mackinac.org)
  • PA received £18.8million in the first year of a contract due to last three years. (nao.org.uk)
  • 2.3 To apply for the Services, the Member must complete an Order Form (agreeing to be bound by this Service Contract), together with providing GS1 UK with any additional information it may require in respect of the Services, as applicable or requested. (gs1uk.org)
  • The new contract could improve services by developing specialist GP-run clinics for these groups on a PCT-wide basis, he added. (communitycare.co.uk)
  • Our testing and manufacturing services span the product cycle from early pre-clinical development to licensed production. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Clients partner with us to meet their needs for biologics safety testing, analytical development, and biomanufacturing services. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Development and Validation of a Model to Predict the Contract Service of Family Doctor: A National Survey in China. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a result, countries are striving to increase their capacity to test, trace and treat COVID-19 patients while maintaining essential health services. (who.int)