Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic
Contraceptive Agents, Female
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic
Contraceptive Agents, Male
Family Planning Services
Intrauterine Devices, Copper
Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination
Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Reproductive Health Services
Questionnaire study of use of emergency contraception among teenagers.(1/25)(+info)
Provision of emergency contraception in general practice and confidentiality for the under 16's: results of a postal survey by general practitioners in Avon. (2/25)OBJECTIVE: To describe the provision of emergency contraception and confidentiality for the under 16's by general practitioners (GPs) in Avon, in order to inform the development of a health promotion intervention in schools in Avon. DESIGN: Confidential postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: All principals in general practice in Avon Health Authority, South West England. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and eighty general practice principals were sent the questionnaire. RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-six (84%) principals in general practice responded to the questionnaire. Only three (0.6%) GPs did not provide hormonal emergency contraception. Nearly half (232, 47.7%) would fit the intrauterine device (IUD) as emergency contraception. Fitting an IUD was associated with female gender of the GP (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.53-3.71), and whether the GP had a family planning qualification (OR = 4.55, 95% CI 2.41-8.60). Three hundred and fifty-two (72%) respondents would provide emergency contraception on a Sunday if requested to do so by a 14-year-old who reported having had unprotected sex the night before. Practice nurses in 26 (5%) of the respondent's practices were available to provide advice and tablets for patients requesting hormonal emergency contraception. However, 74 (21%) respondents employed a family planning trained practice nurse who was not involved in any way in the provision of emergency contraception. Practice nurses remain an under used resource in this area. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that most GPs provide hormonal emergency contraception. Only eight (1.6%) of respondents would need to ask for parental consent prior to providing hormonal emergency contraception to a 14-year old-girl. Young people need to be informed of GPs widespread adherence to current confidentiality guidelines. (+info)
Emergency hormonal contraception: the community pharmacy perspective. (3/25)OBJECTIVE: To explore the views of community pharmacists in the North West of England towards the deregulation of emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) and to examine their support and training needs. DESIGN: Two focus group discussions. SUBJECTS: Fourteen community pharmacists, of whom eight were currently participating in a scheme to supply EHC free of charge through a patient group direction (PGD). RESULTS: A number of themes emerged from the discussions, which appeared to influence participants' views towards the use of EHC and towards deregulation. A number of participants appeared to lack detailed knowledge about the mode of action of EHC and misunderstandings about this, coupled with erroneously held beliefs about the adverse effects of the drug, appeared to influence their attitudes to deregulation. Participants identified risks associated with pharmacy supply of EHC, both to women and to themselves, in the form of litigation. EHC was accorded a special status which seemed to go beyond its pharmacological properties and risk-benefit profile. A key and recurring theme was abuse, an ill-defined concept which appeared to refer to multiple or repeated use. It is interesting to note that none of those participants supplying EHC under a PGD could provide any examples of such abuse from their own experience. CONCLUSIONS: This small-scale study provides useful insights into the attitudes of these pharmacists towards EHC, the impact of increased availability of the drug, and the type of women who they believed would use EHC. (+info)
Emergency contraception: Who are the users? (4/25)CONTEXT: Data collected from two community family planning services are used to discuss the characteristics of users of emergency contraception (EC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of women attending for emergency contraception. DESIGN: A descriptive survey design was used to collect data. Questionnaires were completed over a 4-week period. Data were analysed using SPSS. SETTING: Community family planning services in South West Surrey and Newham, East London. PARTICIPANTS: Consenting women aged 14-44 years attending for emergency contraception (n = 171). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Description of the users, the current episode and contact with contraceptive services were analysed by age. RESULTS: The age range was 14-37 years (mean 20.2 years). A majority were smokers. Of the women, 97.7% attended the clinic within the 72-hour time frame for issuing oral EC, however only 4% came within 12 hours of intercourse; 55% said that they had used contraception. Condom breakage was the commonest reason for failure. Reasons for not using contraception included getting 'carried away' (35%), not having condoms available (22%) and having drunk alcohol (13%). Of the sample 55.6% were previous users of EC. DISCUSSION: The study demonstrates a high incidence of sexual risk taking and need for EC, especially amongst smokers and drinkers. The message that soonest is best still requires promotion. Providers of EC must co-ordinate their services to ensure access within the 12-hour time frame in a local area. CONCLUSION: Health professionals need to ensure that clients have appropriate information about EC and regular contraceptive methods and that user friendly provision is widely available. (+info)
Use of hormonal emergency contraception at a university health centre over a 6 year period. (5/25)This was a retrospective review of the use of emergency hormonal contraception at a university-based health centre over a 6 year period. Usage was greater than noted in previous studies. Condom problems, or not using any form of contraception, were the main reasons for requests. Users were significantly more likely to be smokers than the base population. (+info)
Training and supporting pharmacists to supply progestogen-only emergency contraception. (6/25)OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the training and support provided to the first cohort of community pharmacists to supply progestogen-only emergency contraception (POEC) under a Patient Group Direction (PGD) in Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham, London. DESIGN: The study comprised (a) a systematic analysis of written and oral data from pharmacists before and during training, and at 5 and 13-14 months after launch; (b) analysis of telephone calls to clinical support and (c) analysis of written pharmacy records. SUBJECTS: A total of 20/22 pharmacists in the first training cohort; 6/23 pharmacists who applied but were not accepted were also followed up. RESULTS: A formal course with role-play was a successful training method, and the course also served as a team-building exercise. Subsequent interviews demonstrated that pharmacists had understood the concept of client confidentiality and gained confidence over time in the use of the PGD. The on-call consultants received 152 calls in the first 12 months of the scheme. Over 80% of the calls concerned clinical criteria (notably including 22% that were queries about oral contraceptives). Frequency ranged from one to eight calls per week with 28% made at weekends. In over half (60%) of the calls the pharmacist was subsequently able to make a supply. Queries over client management resulted in several changes in the protocol. The primary expressed concern for all pharmacists at all time points was how clients might 'misuse' or 'abuse' the service, and this remained a concern despite the fact that it also applies to other routes of supply of POEC. However, the PGD cohort was more positive on local benefits than pharmacists who were not selected. CONCLUSIONS: Training and support have enabled this often-underused group of professionals to participate in an extended reproductive health service. Mobile phones are an essential support tool. (+info)
Emergency contraception: lessons learned from the UK. (7/25)CONTEXT: Since January 2001, women aged over 16 years in the UK have been able to purchase progestogen-only emergency hormonal contraception from pharmacists without prescription. This paper outlines the context in which these changes took place, including contraceptive choices in the UK, changes within the pharmacy profession and political pressures. OBSERVATIONS: We chart the multisectoral developments required to make emergency contraception (EC) available without prescription in the UK, from clinical research findings and results on the views and behaviour of health care professionals and users of EC, through to professional and policy developments, including challenges during and after this process. DISCUSSION: Lessons learnt from the innovative experience of the deregulation of EC in the UK apply to other regions currently considering similar change. We extrapolate internationally applicable lessons including the importance of stakeholder partnership, transparency and cautious pace of change, and the vital role of professional groups. CONCLUSION: Although this change brought a new element of reproductive choice to some women, significant barriers to access to EC still remain for young women and women unable to afford the high price ( 24/euro;37/$39) of pharmacy purchase in the UK. (+info)
A national study examining the effect of making emergency hormonal contraception available without prescription. (8/25)BACKGROUND: In January 2001, emergency hormonal contraception was made available for women over the age of 16 years directly from a pharmacist without prescription. It is of interest whether this change in the UK has led to any improvements or deterioration in the service provided for the women who need it. METHODS: Self- completed, anonymous questionnaires were distributed to women requesting emergency hormonal contraception through a single group of pharmacies located throughout England, Wales and Scotland. RESULTS: A total 419 women returned completed questionnaires. A greater proportion of women were able to take emergency contraception within 24 h when they obtained their tablets directly from a pharmacy without a prescription (64% versus 46%, P = 0.029). Women who obtained their drugs directly from the pharmacist were just as well informed, just as likely to arrange regular follow-up and generally preferred this system, although they disliked having to pay. CONCLUSION: Making emergency hormonal contraception available without prescription has improved services to women who need them, but these improvements are quantitatively minimal, preventing only five additional pregnancies per 10,000 users. (+info)
Metrorrhagia can be diagnosed through a pelvic exam, ultrasound or hysteroscopy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition, and may include medications to regulate hormones or shrink fibroids, or surgery to remove polyps or fibroids. It is important for women who experience metrorrhagia to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment to rule out any serious underlying conditions such as endometrial cancer.
Word origin: Greek "metro" meaning month + "rhagia" meaning flow.
Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:
* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.
It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.
Also known as: Menstrual Disorders, Menstrual Abnormalities, Dysmenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea.
STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.
STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.
Some of the most common STDs include:
* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.
It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.
If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.
In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.
There are several possible causes of amenorrhea, including:
1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalance of hormones can prevent the uterus from preparing for menstruation.
2. Pregnancy: Pregnancy is one of the most common causes of amenorrhea.
3. Menopause: Women going through menopause may experience amenorrhea due to the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods or amenorrhea.
5. Thyroid Disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause amenorrhea.
6. Obesity: Women who are significantly overweight may experience amenorrhea due to the hormonal imbalance caused by excess body fat.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
8. Surgery or Trauma: Certain surgeries, such as hysterectomy or removal of the ovaries, can cause amenorrhea. Trauma, such as a severe injury or infection, can also cause amenorrhea.
9. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and chemotherapy drugs, can cause amenorrhea as a side effect.
10. Endocrine Disorders: Disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism can cause amenorrhea.
Amenorrhea can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. No menstrual period
2. Difficulty getting pregnant (infertility)
3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
4. Painful intercourse
5. Weight gain or loss
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
10. Hot flashes
Amenorrhea is typically diagnosed based on a patient's medical history and physical examination. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of amenorrhea, such as:
1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, to evaluate the ovaries and uterus
3. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to visually examine the ovaries and fallopian tubes
4. Hysteroscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus
The treatment of amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:
1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore hormone balance and promote menstruation
2. Medications to stimulate ovulation, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole
3. Surgery to remove fibroids, cysts, or other structural abnormalities that may be contributing to amenorrhea
4. Infertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the patient is experiencing difficulty getting pregnant
5. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or exercise, to improve overall health and promote menstruation
There is no specific way to prevent amenorrhea, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing any underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some tips for prevention include:
1. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
2. Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve overall health
3. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation
4. Getting enough sleep each night
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
6. Maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI) to reduce the risk of developing hormonal imbalances
7. Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders
8. Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins that can disrupt hormone balance.
List of MeSH codes (D27)
Comparison of birth control methods
Human sexual activity
Pregnancy from rape
Contraception after unprotected sex - PubMed
NIH Guide: SYNTHESIS AND TESTING OF NEW ANTIPROGESTATIONAL AGENTS
Profile of the free distribution of emergency contraception for adolescents in São Paulo's counties
Contraceptives postcoital synthetic. Medical search
Emergency contraception : Guidelines, reviews, epidemiology
Search | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia
References - US SPR | CDC
Mechanism of Action
Emergency contraception: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) - Doyle's Space
What is an Abnormal Period? - Causes and Treatment
Skill Checkup: A Woman Expresses Interest in Birth Control
Search | African Index Medicus (AIM)
Study Publications - Early Pregnancy Study (EPS)
Búsqueda | BVS Nicaragua
Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) Diagnosis
Infertility - Learn about INFERTILITY TREATMENT and it's Causes
DailyMed - ELLA- ulipristal acetate tablet
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1995
CDC Science Clips
- Effect of post-coital contraceptive methods on the endometrium and the menstrual cycle. (arhp.org)
- Oral contraceptives (OCs) and IUDs can be used as safe and effective postcoital contraceptive methods. (nih.gov)
- It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. (lookformedical.com)
- It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. (lookformedical.com)
- Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. (lookformedical.com)
- Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION). (lookformedical.com)
- Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures. (lookformedical.com)
- Postcoital contraception does not prevent a pregnancy in every instance. (who.int)
- Pregnancy should be ruled out, if no bleed occurs in the next pill-free period following the use of levonorgestrel after regular hormonal contraception. (who.int)
- In "Explaining Recent Declines in Adolescent Pregnancy in the United States: The Contribution of Abstinence and Improved Contraceptive Use," hereafter "Explaining Recent Declines," researchers John S. Santelli, Laura Duberstein Lindberg, Lawrence B. Finer, and Susheela Singh discuss what led to the major decline in US adolescent pregnancy rates from 1995 to 2002. (asu.edu)
- Working with the Guttmacher Institute, a reproductive health research organization, they found that the decline in US adolescent pregnancy rates between 1995 and 2002 was primarily due to improved contraceptive use. (asu.edu)
- Plan B is a progestin-only emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) that can be taken within seventy-two hours of unprotected sex in order to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. (asu.edu)
- However, research suggests that emergency contraceptives have no long-term effects on the pregnancy or developing baby. (medlineplus.gov)
- Li D, Wilcox AJ, Dunson D. Benchmark Pregnancy Rates and the Assessment of Post-coital Contraceptives: An Update. (nih.gov)
- ella is a progesterone agonist/antagonist emergency contraceptive indicated for prevention of pregnancy following unprotected intercourse or a known or suspected contraceptive failure. (nih.gov)
- A history of ectopic pregnancy is not a contraindication to use of this emergency contraceptive method. (nih.gov)
- Both the hormonal and copper IUDs are >98-99% successful at preventing pregnancy. (dtapclinic.com)
- The researchers were attempting to develop a synthetic form of estrogen for use in the treatment of menopausal symptoms and other hormonal disorders. (doyletatum.com)
- Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations. (nih.gov)
- Oligo-ovulation may be due to a mild hormonal imbalance in gonadotropin production and regulation and may be caused by polycystic disease of the ovary or abnormalities in the adrenal or thyroid gland that adversely affect hypothalamic-pituitary function. (womens-health-club.com)
- The Government will carry out in vivo biological assays required to establish the antiprogestational activity of compounds submitted to the Contraceptive Development Branch under the auspices of this acquisition. (nih.gov)
- Emergency contraception can be a backup contraceptive method under circumstances of incorrect method use or method failure. (nih.gov)
- Other barriers to emergency contraceptive use are that clinics are closed at night and during the weekend when the need is highest, and the requirements for prescription. (nih.gov)
- Combined OCs (2 doses of 100 mcg ethinyl estradiol + 0.5 mg levonorgestrel taken 12 hours apart) are the most common emergency contraceptive method. (nih.gov)
- Cases of sexual violence are fundamentally attended to, but excluding these cases, there is a drop of 10 to 30 percentage points in the distribution of emergency contraceptive to adolescents in cases of the failure or non-use of the regular contraceptive. (bvsalud.org)
- This position is due in part to health care professionals not being up to date on the laws and federal norms concerning Sexual and Reproductive Health, and also to the lack of knowledge of the method's mechanism action (sometimes identified as dangerous or abortive), as well as the prejudice towards adolescent sexual practices-leading to the purchasing of emergency contraceptive in drugstores and its incorrect use. (bvsalud.org)
- Women who have used enzyme-inducing drugs during the last 4 weeks and need emergency contraception are recommended to use a non-hormonal EC (emergency contraception), i.e. (who.int)
- Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. (medlineplus.gov)
- The use of levonorgestrel does not contraindicate the continuation of regular hormonal contraception. (who.int)
- The hormonal IUD is a soft, flexible plastic device which contains the progestin hormone and releases small amounts of it gradually and regularly into the walls of the uterus. (dtapclinic.com)
- Postcoital contraception within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse or failure of a contraceptive method. (who.int)
- Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- One tablet taken orally as soon as possible, within 120 hours (5 days) after unprotected intercourse or a known or suspected contraceptive failure. (nih.gov)
- There is no relevant use of Tomonil children of prepubertal age in the indication postcoital contraception. (who.int)
- The introduction of oral hormonal contraception and its wide- agents, cyproterone acetate and drospirenone, which are effec- spread acceptance revolutionised the lives of women across tive methods of contraception.9-11 the globe. (who.int)
- Such antagonists should, desirably, also have minimal hormonal and other antihormonal activities for use as contraceptive agents. (nih.gov)
- Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. (lookformedical.com)
- Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading. (lookformedical.com)
- A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents. (lookformedical.com)
- A possible mechanism of action of danazol and an ethinyl estradiol/norgestrel combination used as postcoital contraceptive agents. (arhp.org)
- It was the first contraceptive pill marketed worldwide. (asu.edu)
- The first contraceptive pill, called Enovid, had been on the market since June 1960, and Rock was one of the leading researchers in its development. (asu.edu)
- Katharine Dexter McCormick, who contributed the majority of funding for the development of the oral contraceptive pill, was born to Josephine and Wirt Dexter on 27 August 1875 in Dexter, Michigan. (asu.edu)
- Born on 24 March 1890 in Marlborough, Massachusetts, to Ann and Frank Rock, John Charles Rock was both a devout Catholic and one of the leading investigators involved in the development of the first oral contraceptive pill. (asu.edu)
- Almost 90% (87.3%) indicated that an education intervention regarding hormonal contraception is needed at the university. (who.int)
- U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2016. (cdc.gov)
- Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis. (lookformedical.com)
- Diethylstilbestrol (DES) has also been used in veterinary medicine for a variety of purposes, including the treatment of certain hormonal disorders in dogs and cats, and as an aid in the treatment of some forms of cancer in dogs. (doyletatum.com)
- In cats, DES has been used to treat hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. (doyletatum.com)
- This study aimed to assess the use, knowledge and attitudes regarding hormonal contraception of female first-year students across various health profession courses. (who.int)
- Complex hormonal interactions determine the normal function of the female reproductive tract and require an intact hypothalamicpituitary-ovarian axis system that stimulates and regulates the production of hormones necessary for normal sexual development and function. (womens-health-club.com)
- Hormonal IUD lasts 5 years and Nova-T lasts 2.5 years, after which removal or replacement is necessary. (dtapclinic.com)
- Some men with hormonal problems may note a change in their voice or pattern of hair growth, enlargement of their breasts, or difficulty with sexual function. (womens-health-club.com)
- Mode of action of DL-norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol combination in postcoital contraception. (arhp.org)
- How does the hormonal IUD work? (dtapclinic.com)
- Folger S. Guidance for providers on contraceptive use. (cdc.gov)
- 21 argued that most, if not all, of the contraceptive effect of both combined and progestin-only ECPs can be explained by inhibited or dysfunctional ovulation. (arhp.org)
- Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes. (lookformedical.com)