Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Xanthurenic acid and its salts, formed as byproducts during the metabolism of tryptophan, are collectively referred to as xanthurenates, which can accumulate in conditions like hyperphenylalaninemia and may contribute to oxidative stress and cellular damage.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Absence of menstruation.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.

Postcoital contraception.(1/103)

 (+info)

Levonorgestrel versus the "Yuzpe" regimen.(2/103)

New choices in emergency contraception.  (+info)

Project makes emergency pill more available.(3/103)

 (+info)

Update on oral contraceptive pills. (4/103)

Oral contraceptive pills are widely used and are generally safe and effective for many women. The World Health Organization has developed a risk classification system to help physicians advise patients about the safety of oral contraceptive pills. The choice of pill formulation is influenced by clinical considerations. By choosing appropriately from the available pill formulations, family physicians can minimize negative side effects and maximize noncontraceptive benefits for their patients. Additional monitoring and follow-up are necessary in special populations, such as women over 35 years of age, smokers, perimenopausal women and adolescents. Third-generation progestins are additional options for achieving noncontraceptive benefits, but their use has raised new questions about thrombogenesis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has labeled emergency postcoital contraception for use following unprotected coitus. Oral contraceptive pills are associated with few clinically significant drug interactions, although consideration of interactions remains important.  (+info)

Women's experience and satisfaction with emergency contraception. (5/103)

CONTEXT: If any new contraceptive technology is to become a viable option for decreasing unintended pregnancies, women must be willing to use the method and find it acceptable. However, because emergency contraceptive pills have not been widely used, very little is known about this method's acceptability. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 235 women who had received emergency contraceptive pills through a demonstration project at 13 Kaiser Permanente medical offices in San Diego to assess women's experience and satisfaction with the pills. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of the women (70%) were using a contraceptive method prior to their need for emergency contraception, and 73% of these users were relying on condoms. When asked about the situation that led to unprotected intercourse, 45% reported that their condom broke or slipped, while 23% said they had had unplanned sex. More than three-quarters of the sample (81%) experienced at least one side effect. The overwhelming majority were satisfied with emergency contraceptive pills (91%) and would recommend them to friends and family members (97%). Just one-quarter of the sample (28%) believed that emergency contraceptive pills should be dispensed over the counter, and an even lower proportion agreed that they should be available from vending machines (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Because women were overwhelmingly accepting of emergency contraceptive pills, found them easy to use and did not intend to substitute them for regular contraceptive use, this new method is an important addition to the contraceptive options available to women, providing a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse or method failure.  (+info)

Informed consent for emergency contraception: variability in hospital care of rape victims. (6/103)

There is growing concern that rape victims are not provided with emergency contraceptives in many hospital emergency rooms, particularly in Catholic hospitals. In a small pilot study, we examined policies and practices relating to providing information, prescriptions, and pregnancy prophylaxis in emergency rooms. We held structured telephone interviews with emergency department personnel in 58 large urban hospitals, including 28 Catholic hospitals, from across the United States. Our results showed that some Catholic hospitals have policies that prohibit the discussion of emergency contraceptives with rape victims, and in some of these hospitals, a victim would learn about the treatment only by asking. Such policies and practices are contrary to Catholic teaching. More seriously, they undermine a victim's right to information about her treatment options and jeopardize physicians' fiduciary responsibility to act in their patients' best interests. We suggest that institutions must reevaluate their restrictive policies. If they fail to do so, we believe that state legislation requiring hospitals to meet the standard of care for treatment of rape victims is appropriate.  (+info)

Effect of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception on markers of endometrial receptivity. (7/103)

This exploratory study was designed to determine whether treatment with the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception altered endometrial integrin expression or other markers of uterine receptivity. Nineteen parous women were followed for two menstrual cycles. In the second cycle, each participant took 100 mg ethinyl oestradiol and 1 mg norgestrel on the day of the urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and repeated the dose 12 h later. In both cycles, endometrial biopsy, phlebotomy and vaginal sonogram were performed 8-10 days after the urinary LH surge. No significant difference was found between untreated and treated cycles in most measures of endometrial histology or in endometrial expression of beta3 integrin subunit, leukaemia inhibitory factor, glycodelin, or progesterone receptors assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Five statistically significant changes were noted in treated cycles: a reduction in endometrial MUC-1 expression, an increase in endometrial oestrogen receptor, lower luteal phase serum oestrogen concentration, reduced endometrial thickness, and greater proportion of glandular supranuclear vacuoles. The relationship of these findings to the contraceptive action of the Yuzpe regimen is unclear.  (+info)

Emergency postcoital contraception. (8/103)

Emergency postcoital contraception, a method used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, is a highly effective but underutilized birth control option. Two hormone regimens, ethinyl estradiol (100 microg) with levonorgestrel (0.5 mg) or high-dose levonorgestrel (0.75 mg), given within 72 hours of intercourse and repeated 12 hours later, are available for this purpose. These regimens are packaged as Food and Drug Administration labeled, dedicated products or can be adapted for use from standard oral contraceptive pills. Emergency postcoital contraception should be considered as a primary prevention health service to women of childbearing age.  (+info)

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraception, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are most effective when used within 24 hours of unprotected sex, but can still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after.

There are two main types of postcoital contraceptives:

1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs): These are high-dose hormonal pills that contain levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. Levonorgestrel ECPs are available over-the-counter in many countries, while ulipristal acetate ECPs require a prescription.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small T-shaped device made of copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The copper IUD can be used as emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected sex, and it also provides ongoing contraception for up to 10 years.

It's important to note that postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of contraception. They should only be used in emergency situations where other methods of contraception have failed or were not used. It is also recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any form of emergency contraception.

Postcoital hormonal contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These contraceptives contain hormones and are intended for use in emergency situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or unprotected sex.

The most common type of postcoital hormonal contraceptive is the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), which contains a high dose of synthetic progestin or a combination of progestin and estrogen. The ECP works by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The ECP is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex, ideally within 72 hours, but may still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after intercourse. However, the effectiveness of the ECP decreases over time, and it is not as effective as regular methods of contraception.

It's important to note that postcoital hormonal contraceptives are not intended for routine use as a primary method of contraception and should only be used in emergency situations. They do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should not be used as a substitute for regular condom use or other forms of protection.

If you have any concerns about postcoital hormonal contraceptives or need advice on the best method of contraception for you, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Coitus is the medical term for sexual intercourse, which is typically defined as the act of inserting the penis into the vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. It often involves rhythmic thrusting and movement, and can lead to orgasm in both males and females. Coitus may also be referred to as vaginal sex or penetrative sex.

It's important to note that there are many ways to engage in sexual activity beyond coitus, including oral sex, manual stimulation, and using sex toys. All of these forms of sexual expression can be healthy and normal when practiced safely and with consent.

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Metrorrhagia is defined as uterine bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals, particularly between expected menstrual periods. It can also be described as abnormal vaginal bleeding that is not related to the regular menstrual cycle. The amount of bleeding can vary from light spotting to heavy flow.

Metrorrhagia is different from menorrhagia, which refers to excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding during the menstrual period. Metrorrhagia can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, infection, pregnancy complications, and certain medications or medical conditions.

It is essential to consult a healthcare provider if you experience any abnormal vaginal bleeding to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

Menstruation-inducing agents, also known as menstrual induction agents or abortifacients, are medications or substances that stimulate or induce menstruation and can potentially lead to the termination of an early pregnancy. These agents work by causing the uterus to contract and expel its lining (endometrium), which is shed during menstruation.

Common menstruation-inducing agents include:

1. Hormonal medications: Combination oral contraceptives, containing both estrogen and progestin, can be used to induce menstruation by causing the uterus to shed its lining after a planned break from taking the medication. This is often used in birth control methods like the "birth control pill pack."
2. Prostaglandins: These are naturally occurring hormone-like substances that can cause the uterus to contract. Synthetic prostaglandin analogs, such as misoprostol (Cytotec), can be used to induce menstruation or early pregnancy termination.
3. Mifepristone: This is a synthetic steroid hormone that blocks progesterone receptors in the body. When used in combination with prostaglandins, it can cause the uterus to contract and expel its lining, leading to an abortion or inducing menstruation.

It's important to note that using menstruation-inducing agents without medical supervision or for purposes other than their intended use may pose health risks and should be avoided. Always consult a healthcare professional before using any medication for this purpose.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse. The synthetic postcoital contraceptive is a type of emergency contraception that contains synthetic hormones, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. These hormones work by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The most common synthetic postcoital contraceptive is the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill (LNG-ECP), which contains a high dose of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel. It is usually taken as a single dose within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse, but it is most effective when taken as soon as possible after intercourse.

Another synthetic postcoital contraceptive is ulipristal acetate, which is also taken as a single dose but within 120 hours (5 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate works by delaying ovulation and preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.

It's important to note that synthetic postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of birth control, but rather as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. They should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and should not be used in place of regular contraception.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Contraceptive devices for females refer to medical products designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize an egg. Some common examples of female contraceptive devices include:

1. Diaphragm: A shallow, flexible dome made of silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
2. Cervical Cap: Similar to a diaphragm but smaller in size, the cervical cap fits over the cervix and creates a barrier to sperm entry.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small, T-shaped device made of plastic or copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by changing the chemistry of the cervical mucus and uterine lining to inhibit sperm movement and implantation of a fertilized egg.
4. Contraceptive Sponge: A soft, round sponge made of polyurethane foam that contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse and covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
5. Female Condom: A thin, flexible pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The female condom creates a barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
6. Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring made of plastic that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to release hormones that prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the lining of the uterus.
7. Contraceptive Implant: A small, flexible rod made of plastic that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to prevent pregnancy for up to three years.

It's important to note that while these contraceptive devices can be highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STIs. Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception is recommended to reduce the risk of both pregnancy and STIs.

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

**Norgestrel** is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone **progesterone**. It is a type of **progestin**, which is often used in various forms of hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel works by thickening cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Additionally, norgestrel can also prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) and thin the lining of the uterus, which makes it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Norgestrel is available in various forms, such as oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to discuss potential benefits, risks, and side effects.

Here are some medical definitions related to norgestrel:

1. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone, used in various forms of hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can have varying levels of androgenic, estrogenic, and anti-estrogenic activity. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
2. **Progesterone**: A naturally occurring steroid hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
3. **Hormonal birth control**: A method of preventing pregnancy that uses hormones to regulate ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, or thin the lining of the uterus. Hormonal birth control methods include oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
4. **Emergency contraception**: A form of hormonal birth control used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Emergency contraception is typically more effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, but it can still be effective up to 120 hours afterward. Norgestrel is one of the active ingredients in some emergency contraceptive pills.
5. **Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)**: A form of hormone replacement therapy used to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. MHT typically involves using estrogen and progestin or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Norgestrel is a type of progestin that can be used in MHT.
6. **Androgenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as testosterone and some progestins, that are associated with male characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. Norgestrel has weak androgenic activity.
7. **Estrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as estradiol and some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), that are associated with female characteristics, such as breast development and menstrual cycles. Norgestrel has weak estrogenic activity.
8. **Antiestrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that block or oppose the actions of estrogens. Norgestrel has antiestrogenic activity.
9. **Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)**: A type of drug that acts as an estrogen agonist in some tissues and an estrogen antagonist in others. SERMs can be used to treat or prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. Norgestrel is not a SERM but has antiestrogenic activity.
10. **Progestogen**: A synthetic or natural hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestogens can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestogen.
11. **Progesterone**: A natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and regulates the menstrual cycle. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
12. **Progestin**: A synthetic hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestins can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
13. **Progestational agent**: A drug or hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestational agents can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestational agent.
14. **Progestogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
15. **Progesterone receptor modulator (PRM)**: A type of drug that binds to and activates or inhibits the progesterone receptors in the body. PRMs can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a type of PRM.
16. **Progestogenic activity**: The ability of a drug or hormone to mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone in the body. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
17. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
18. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progestogens in the body. Progestogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
19. **Progesterone agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
20. **Progestogenic agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progestogens in the body. Progesterogenic agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
21. **Progesterone receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterone receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
22. **Progestogenic receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterogenic receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
23. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of progesterone that is used in hormonal contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can be either progesterone agonists or antagonists, depending on their chemical structure and activity at the progesterone receptor. Norgestrel is a progestin.
24. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
25. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibro

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Mestranol is a synthetic form of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and altering the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg or for an already established pregnancy to be implanted.

Mestranol is typically combined with a progestin in birth control pills, such as those known as the "combined oral contraceptives." It's important to note that mestranol has largely been replaced by ethinyl estradiol, which is a more commonly used form of synthetic estrogen in hormonal medications.

As with any medication, there are potential risks and side effects associated with the use of mestranol, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting or changing any hormonal medication.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

A contraceptive vaccine is a type of immunocontraception that uses the immune system to prevent pregnancy. It is a relatively new field of research and development, and there are currently no licensed contraceptive vaccines available on the market. However, several experimental vaccines are in various stages of preclinical and clinical testing.

Contraceptive vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that play a critical role in reproduction. By neutralizing these targets, the vaccine can prevent fertilization or inhibit the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For example, one approach is to develop vaccines that target the zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein layer surrounding mammalian eggs. Antibodies generated against ZP proteins can prevent sperm from binding and fertilizing the egg. Another strategy is to create vaccines that generate antibodies against hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By blocking hCG, the vaccine can prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and induce a miscarriage.

While contraceptive vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies, several challenges remain before they can be widely adopted. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, duration of protection, and public acceptance. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for accidental cross-reactivity with other proteins or hormones, leading to unintended side effects.

Overall, contraceptive vaccines represent a promising area of research that could provide long-acting, reversible, and user-friendly contraception options in the future. However, further studies are needed to address the remaining challenges and ensure their safe and effective use.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Norethynodrel is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is not commonly used in modern medicine. In the past, it was used in some oral contraceptives to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and altering the cervical mucus and endometrium. Norethynodrel is no longer widely used due to the development of newer and more effective progestins.

Ethynodiol diacetate is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various pharmaceutical products, such as birth control pills, to prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg.

Ethynodiol diacetate works by mimicking the effects of natural progesterone in the body, which helps regulate the menstrual cycle and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. When used as a contraceptive, ethynodiol diacetate is often combined with estrogen to create a hormonal balance that prevents ovulation and fertilization.

It's important to note that while ethynodiol diacetate is generally considered safe and effective when taken as directed, it can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or have certain medical conditions should consult with their healthcare provider before taking any medication containing this ingredient.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Immunologic contraception refers to the use of the immune system to prevent pregnancy. This is achieved by stimulating the production of antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that are essential for fertilization and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. The most well-known example of immunologic contraception is the development of a vaccine that would induce an immune response against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By neutralizing hCG, the immune system could prevent the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. However, this approach is still in the experimental stage and has not yet been approved for use in humans.

Norpregnenes are a class of steroids that are produced by the metabolism of progesterone and other pregnanes. They are characterized by the absence of a double bond between carbons 4 and 5, and the presence of a ketone group at carbon 3. Some examples of norpregnenes include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and pregnenolone. These steroids are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of various hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, and estrogens. They play a role in various physiological processes such as sexual development, immune function, and stress response.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is a formulation that contains a synthetic version of the female sex hormones, estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestin (norgestrel), which are used in various forms of hormonal contraception.

This combination works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is commonly used in oral contraceptives (birth control pills), as well as in some forms of hormonal patches and rings. It is important to note that while this combination is highly effective at preventing pregnancy, it can also increase the risk of certain health problems, such as blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer, especially in women who smoke or have other risk factors.

Therefore, it is essential for individuals using hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination to discuss their medical history and any potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting this form of birth control.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Oral contraceptives, sequential, are a type of birth control medication that involves taking two different hormonal preparations in a specific sequence to mimic the natural menstrual cycle. The first hormone preparation contains estrogen and is taken for 16-21 days, followed by a second hormone preparation containing both estrogen and progestin for 7 days. This regimen causes the lining of the uterus to thin, making it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and also thickens cervical mucus, which can prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Sequential oral contraceptives are not commonly used in the United States due to their higher risk of side effects compared to other forms of oral contraceptives.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Androstenes are a group of steroidal compounds that are produced and released by the human body. They are classified as steroids because they contain a characteristic carbon skeleton, called the sterane ring, which consists of four fused rings arranged in a specific structure. Androstenes are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the gonads (testes and ovaries), adrenal glands, and other tissues.

The term "androstene" refers specifically to compounds that contain a double bond between the 5th and 6th carbon atoms in the sterane ring. This double bond gives these compounds their characteristic chemical properties and distinguishes them from other steroidal compounds.

Androstenes are important in human physiology because they serve as precursors to the synthesis of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. They also have been found to play a role in the regulation of various bodily functions, including sexual behavior, mood, and cognition.

Some examples of androstenes include androstenedione, which is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen; androstenediol, which can be converted into either testosterone or estrogen; and androsterone, which is a weak androgen that is produced in the body as a metabolite of testosterone.

It's worth noting that androstenes are sometimes referred to as "pheromones" because they have been found to play a role in chemical communication between individuals of the same species. However, this use of the term "pheromone" is controversial and not universally accepted, as it has been difficult to demonstrate conclusively that humans communicate using chemical signals in the same way that many other animals do.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Contraceptive devices for males are designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking, killing, or inhibiting the movement of sperm. These devices include:

1. Condoms: Thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or polyisoprene that fit over the penis during sexual intercourse to collect semen and prevent it from entering the partner's body. They also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
2. Diaphragms: Soft, dome-shaped rubber devices fitted to cover the cervix inside the vagina. When used with spermicides, they can help prevent pregnancy by blocking the entry of sperm into the uterus.
3. Cervical Cap: A smaller, thimble-like cup made of silicone or latex that fits over the cervix to block sperm from entering the uterus. It is often used with spermicides for added effectiveness.
4. Spermicides: Chemicals that kill or immobilize sperm. They come in various forms, such as foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories, and can be used alone or in combination with other barrier methods like condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps.
5. Vasectomy: A surgical procedure for male sterilization that involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland. This prevents sperm from mixing with semen during ejaculation. Although vasectomies are considered permanent, in some cases, they can be reversed through surgery or other medical procedures.

It is important to note that while these contraceptive devices can significantly reduce the risk of pregnancy, they may not provide complete protection against STIs. Using multiple methods, like condoms and spermicides together, can increase overall effectiveness in preventing both pregnancy and STIs. Always consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice on contraceptive options.

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Megestrol is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female hormone. It is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer, in postmenopausal women. Megestrol works by blocking the effects of estrogen, a female hormone that can promote the growth of some breast and endometrial cancers.

Megestrol is also used to treat anorexia (loss of appetite) and cachexia (wasting syndrome) in people with AIDS or cancer. It works by increasing appetite and promoting weight gain.

Megestrol is available as a tablet or a suspension that is taken by mouth, usually two to four times a day. The dosage depends on the condition being treated and the individual patient's response to therapy. Common side effects of megestrol include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual periods.

It is important to note that megestrol can cause serious side effects, such as blood clots, fluid retention, and increased risk of certain types of infections. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of megestrol therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

Spermatogenesis-blocking agents are a class of medications or substances that inhibit or block the process of spermatogenesis, which is the production of sperm in the testicles. These agents can work at various stages of spermatogenesis, including reducing the number of spermatozoa (sperm cells) or preventing the formation of mature sperm.

Examples of spermatogenesis-blocking agents include:

1. Hormonal agents: Certain hormones or hormone-like substances can interfere with the production of sperm. For example, analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and antiandrogens can suppress the release of testosterone and other hormones necessary for spermatogenesis.
2. Alkylating agents: These are chemotherapy drugs that can damage DNA and prevent the division and multiplication of cells, including sperm cells. Examples include cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
3. Other chemicals: Certain industrial chemicals, such as ethylene glycol ethers and dibromochloropropane (DBCP), have been shown to have spermatogenesis-blocking properties.
4. Radiation therapy: High doses of radiation can also damage the testicles and inhibit sperm production.

It's important to note that spermatogenesis-blocking agents are often used for medical purposes, such as treating cancer or preventing pregnancy, but they can have significant side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Ovulation inhibition is a term used in reproductive medicine to describe the prevention or delay of ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This can be achieved through various means, such as hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings), injectable hormones, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.

Hormonal contraceptives typically contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progestin, which work together to inhibit the natural hormonal signals that trigger ovulation. By suppressing the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these methods prevent the development and release of a mature egg from the ovaries.

In addition to preventing ovulation, hormonal contraceptives can also thicken cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus, reducing the likelihood of implantation in case fertilization does occur. It is important to note that while ovulation inhibition is a reliable method of birth control, it may not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Medroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is a female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle and by the placenta during pregnancy. As a medication, medroxyprogesterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

* Abnormal menstrual bleeding
* Endometrial hyperplasia (overgrowth of the lining of the uterus)
* Contraception (birth control)
* Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women
* Prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women
* Treatment of certain types of cancer, such as endometrial and renal cancers

Medroxyprogesterone works by binding to progesterone receptors in the body, which helps to regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and prevent the growth of some types of cancer. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injectable solutions, and depot suspensions for intramuscular injection.

It's important to note that medroxyprogesterone can have significant side effects, and its use should be monitored by a healthcare provider. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take medroxyprogesterone, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting medroxyprogesterone.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Norpregnadienes are a type of steroid hormone that are structurally similar to progesterone, but with certain chemical groups (such as the methyl group at C10) removed. They are formed through the metabolism of certain steroid hormones and can be further metabolized into other compounds.

Norpregnadienes have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of reproductive function and the development of certain diseases such as cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their functions and clinical significance.

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. It allows for a controlled release of medication over a certain period, typically lasting for 1-3 days. This method of administration can offer advantages such as avoiding gastrointestinal side effects, enabling self-administration, and providing consistent therapeutic drug levels. Common examples of transdermal patches include those used to deliver medications like nicotine, fentanyl, estradiol, and various pain-relieving agents.

Ethisterone is a synthetic steroid hormone that has progestogenic and androgenic activity. Its chemical name is pregneninolone acetate, and it is used in some medical treatments, such as for certain types of breast cancer and for the treatment of menstrual disorders. It is not commonly used today due to the availability of other hormonal therapies with more favorable side effect profiles. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Estradiol congeners refer to chemical compounds that are structurally similar to estradiol, which is the most potent and prevalent form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol congeners can be naturally occurring or synthetic and may have similar or different biological activities compared to estradiol.

These compounds can be found in various sources, including plants, animals, and industrial products. Some estradiol congeners are used in pharmaceuticals as hormone replacement therapies, while others are considered environmental pollutants and may have endocrine-disrupting effects on wildlife and humans.

Examples of estradiol congeners include:

1. Estrone (E1): a weak estrogen that is produced in the body from estradiol and is also found in some plants.
2. Estriol (E3): a weaker estrogen that is produced in large quantities during pregnancy.
3. Diethylstilbestrol (DES): a synthetic estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women from the 1940s to the 1970s to prevent miscarriage, but was later found to have serious health effects on their offspring.
4. Zeranol: a synthetic non-steroidal estrogen used as a growth promoter in livestock.
5. Bisphenol A (BPA): a chemical used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, which has been shown to have weak estrogenic activity and may disrupt the endocrine system.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Nonoxynol is a surfactant, or surface-active agent, that has been used in various medical and consumer products. It is a type of chemical compound known as a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, which means it contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) ethylene oxide group and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) alkyl group.

In the medical field, Nonoxynol has been used as a spermicide in various forms of birth control, such as creams, gels, films, and sponges. It works by disrupting the membrane of sperm cells, preventing them from fertilizing an egg. However, its use as a spermicide has declined due to concerns about its potential to cause irritation and inflammation in the genital area, which may increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV transmission.

It's important to note that Nonoxynol is not currently recommended for use as a spermicide or microbicide due to its potential health risks. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product.

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "xanthurenates" is not a recognized term in medicine or physiology. It seems that you might be referring to "xanthurenic acid," which is a metabolic byproduct produced during the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan. An accumulation of xanthurenic acid can occur due to certain genetic disorders, such as Hartnup disease or defects in the coenzyme Q10 synthesis pathway. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a precise definition related to your specific question. If you could provide additional information, I would be happy to help further!

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

Reproductive history is a term used in medicine to describe the past experiences related to reproduction for an individual. This can include information about pregnancies, including the number of pregnancies, outcomes (such as live births, miscarriages, or stillbirths), and any complications that arose during pregnancy or childbirth. It may also include details about contraceptive use, menstrual history, sexually transmitted infections, and any reproductive health issues or surgeries.

This information is often collected by healthcare providers to help assess fertility, plan for future pregnancies, identify potential risks, and provide appropriate care and management of reproductive health conditions. It's also used in research and public health to understand trends and disparities in reproductive outcomes.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

Coitus interruptus, also known as the withdrawal method, is a sexual practice in which a man withdraws his penis from a woman's vagina before ejaculation to prevent pregnancy. This method relies on the self-control of the male partner to withdraw in time and avoid any leakage of semen into the female genital area.

It's important to note that coitus interruptus is not considered a highly effective form of birth control, as there is still a risk of pregnancy due to pre-ejaculate fluid or accidental spillage of semen. Additionally, it provides no protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's recommended to consult healthcare professionals for more reliable and safe contraceptive methods.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

"Men" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It generally refers to adult male human beings. If you are looking for a medical definition related to males, there are several terms that could potentially fit based on the context. Here are some examples:

* Male: A person who is biologically determined to be male, typically having XY chromosomes, testes, and certain physical characteristics such as greater muscle mass and body hair compared to females.
* Men's health: Refers to the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical conditions that are more common or specific to males, such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and erectile dysfunction.
* Menopause: A natural biological process that occurs in women, typically in their 40s or 50s, when their ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods cease. Although not directly related to males, it is worth noting that some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause due to a decline in testosterone levels as they age (a condition known as andropause).

I hope this helps clarify! Let me know if you have any further questions or need more information.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Chlormadinone Acetate is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. It works by suppressing the natural progesterone produced by the ovaries, thereby preventing the buildup of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). This medication is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

It's important to note that Chlormadinone Acetate can cause a range of side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting this medication.

A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... Ethinylestradiol and dl-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive. Fertility and sterility, 1977 AA Yuzpe, HJ Thurlow, I Ramzy ... A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... Post coital contraception-A pilot study. The Journal of ..., 1974 A. Albert Yuzpe, Jacques E. Rioux (1973). A manual of ...
In May 1973, in an attempt to restrict off-label use of DES as a postcoital contraceptive to emergency situations such as rape ... In February 1975, the FDA said it had not yet approved DES as a postcoital contraceptive, but would after March 8, 1975, permit ... To discourage off-label use of DES as a postcoital contraceptive, in February 1975 the FDA ordered DES 25 mg (and higher) ... Use as postcoital contraceptive; patient labeling". Fed Regist. 38 (186): 26809-11. FDA (February 26, 1975). "Estrogens for ...
Rubio B, Berman E, Larranaga A, Guiloff E (1970). "A new postcoital oral contraceptive". Contraception. 1 (5): 303-314. doi: ... These formulations are used as emergency contraceptives, normal contraceptives, or in menopausal hormone therapy for the ... Levonorgestrel is currently the most androgenic progestin that is used in contraceptives, and contraceptives containing ... Committee on the Relationship Between Oral Contraceptives and BreastCancer (1 January 1991). Oral Contraceptives and Breast ...
... was used as an oral, once-a-month, or postcoital hormonal contraceptive. Quingestanol acetate is a ... "Further experience with quingestanol acetate as a postcoital oral contraceptive". Contraception. 9 (3): 221-5. doi:10.1016/0010 ... Lara Marks (2010). Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. Yale University Press. pp. 73-. ISBN 978-0-300-16791- ... Donde UM, Virkar KD (June 1975). "Biochemical studies with once-a-month contraceptive pill containing quinestrol-quingestanol ...
To discourage off-label use of DES as a postcoital contraceptive, the FDA in 1975 removed DES 25 mg tablets from the market and ... In 1973, in an attempt to restrict off-label use of DES as a postcoital contraceptive (which had become prevalent at many ... regimen of certain regular combined oral contraceptive pills superseded off-label use of DES as a postcoital contraceptive. In ... postcoital contraceptive use of DES. In 1975, the FDA said it had not actually given (and never did give) approval to any ...
"A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... The contraceptive efficacy of norgestrel was established in the US with the original approval for prescription use in 1973. ... The contraceptive Eugynon is launched in 1966. Neogynon follows in 1970.] Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug ... It has also been used as an emergency contraceptive in the Yuzpe regimen. Norgestrel is a progestogen, or an agonist of the ...
Arteaga's activism favors sexual and reproductive rights, such as the use of post-coital contraceptives. She was part of the ...
The medication has also been investigated as an emergency post-coital contraceptive. The medication is contraindicated in ...
Many unintended pregnancies stem from traditional contraceptive methods or no contraceptive measures. Youth sexual education in ... Sweden also has a high self-reported rate of postcoital pill use. A 2007 anonymous survey of Swedish 18-year-olds showed that ... "Fact Sheet: Contraceptive Use in the United States". Guttmacher Institute. 4 August 2004. Archived from the original on 4 ... Europeans as an aggregate report using the pill and condoms as the most commonly used contraceptives. Sweden has the highest ...
... has been used in Mexican folk medicine as a contraceptive, as a vaginal postcoital rinse. Cultivars ...
"Comparative cross-over pharmacokinetic study on two types of postcoital contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel". ... This was a combination formulation of 2.5 mg NETA and 50 μg ethinylestradiol and was indicated as an oral contraceptive. Other ... NETA is used as a hormonal contraceptive in combination with estrogen, in the treatment of gynecological disorders such as ... NETA has been studied for use as a potential male hormonal contraceptive in combination with testosterone in men. ...
May 1990). "Comparative cross-over pharmacokinetic study on two types of postcoital contraceptive tablets containing ... natural estradiol itself is also used in some hormonal contraceptives, including in estradiol-containing oral contraceptives ... Hormonal contraceptives contain a progestin and/or estrogen and prevent ovulation and thus the possibility of pregnancy by ... Christin-Maitre S, Laroche E, Bricaire L (January 2013). "A new contraceptive pill containing 17β-estradiol and nomegestrol ...
Providing benchmark rates for assessment of post-coital contraceptives". Contraception. 63 (4): 211-15. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824( ...
"A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... Protocol for gaining a history of the use of contraceptives, as a woman's use of birth control pills or other contraceptives ... decrease their future likelihood of using contraceptives such as condoms, and increase their chances of becoming pregnant or ...
"A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... 1]Yuzpe AA, Thurlow HJ, Ramzy I, Leyshon JI (August 1974). "Post coital contraception-A pilot study". J Reprod Med. 13 (2): 53- ... Typically, the Yuzpe regimen uses several doses of combined oral contraceptive pills. It may be preferred in locations where ... In these places, people often self-administer combined oral contraceptives as emergency contraception. Subsequently, the World ...
"A Multicenter Clinical Investigation Employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as a Postcoital Contraceptive ... The rate varies between settings and depends particularly on the extent to which non-barrier contraceptives are being used. In ... after frequency of intercourse and use of modern contraceptives. Forced sex can also result in unintended pregnancy among adult ...
Other associations were noted such as the presence of leukoplakia of the cervix, an intrauterine contraceptive device, cervical ... Postcoital bleeding has been most studied in women in the US. In a large Taiwanese study, the overall incidence of postcoital ... Those with postcoital bleeding had a higher risk of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Benign causes of postcoital ... Postcoital bleeding may occur throughout pregnancy. The presence of cervical polyps may result in postcoital bleeding during ...
Other causes of early pregnancy bleeding include the following: Postcoital bleeding, which is vaginal bleeding after sexual ... or intrauterine contraceptive devices. Vaginal or cervical bleeding, which may arise from many causes including fibroids, ...
Hormonal contraceptives have a possible effect of preventing implantation of a blastocyst, as discussed previously. Use of ... Glasier, Anna (October 9, 1997). "Emergency Postcoital Contraception". New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (15): 1058-1064. ... eds.). Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ed.). New York: Ardent Media. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-9664902-0-6. Trussell, James; ... Plan B is the most widely used emergency contraceptive available. It is important for patients and physicians to clearly ...
... combined contraceptive patches, combined contraceptive vaginal rings, and combined injectable contraceptives; and progestogen- ... At the 0.5 mg/day dose MA does not inhibit ovulation but does reduce sperm motility in post-coital tests (68). Vessey, M.P.; ... Contraceptive vaginal rings and contraceptive patches likewise have been found to increase SHBG levels by 2.5-fold and 3.5-fold ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ...
The C17α acetate ester of nisterime, nisterime acetate (ORF-9326), also exists and was developed as a postcoital contraceptive ...
... "implicitly legitimizes any post-coital contraceptive method, including emergency contraception ... and assisted reproduction ( ... reducing inequalities in family planning services and contraceptive provision. Contraceptive use doubled from 1976, but the ...
The drug was originally synthesized by the fertility control program at Upjohn as a postcoital contraceptive, but was ...
... nonsteroidal estrogen that was developed as a postcoital contraceptive in the 1960s but was never marketed. Synthesized by ... 1407-. ISBN 978-1-351-78989-9. Revaz C, Goldenberg B, Achtari H (1971). "[Critical study of new contraceptive methods]". ... Ortho Pharmaceutical in 1961 and studied extensively, it was coined the "morning-after-pill" or "postcoital antifertility agent ...
... contraceptives, postcoital MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.310.235 - contraceptives, postcoital, hormonal MeSH D27.505.696.875. ... contraceptives, postcoital MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.310.235 - contraceptives, postcoital, hormonal MeSH D27.505.954.705. ... 360.276.310.360 - contraceptives, postcoital, synthetic MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.450 - luteolytic agents MeSH D27.505. ... 360.276.310.360 - contraceptives, postcoital, synthetic MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.450 - luteolytic agents MeSH D27.505. ...
Contraceptive legalization began to be an issue for Spanish feminists in the mid-1960s. This was part of their broader interest ... During the mid-1970s, the Catholic Church preached that no physical barrier should be present during sex, and that even post-coital ... Consequently, buying contraceptives would often be dependent on men to acquire them on behalf of their partners. Women were ... UCD got support from the right to ban the sale of contraceptives that were "harmful to the health". PSOE rallied the left, ...
UCD got support from the right to ban the sale of contraceptives that were "harmful to the health". PSOE rallied the left, ... During the mid-1970s, the Catholic Church preached that no physical barrier should be present during sex, and that even post-coital ... During the mid-1970s, the Catholic Church preached that no physical barrier should be present during sex, and that even post-coital ... In the article, he mentioned that contraceptive use was widespread in Spain, with one million women using some form on a ...
Dimenformon Prolongatum has also been investigated as a single injection, "morning after" post-coital contraceptive, and is ...
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Tables & Protocols Emergency Postcoital Contraception * 2001/viewarticle/piroxicam-boosts-success-levonorgestrel-emergency- ... No increased risk was seen with oral contraceptive use 6 to 12 months before the start of pregnancy or if oral contraceptive ... "These associations seemed to be driven by oral combination contraceptives, the most commonly used hormonal contraceptives today ... The authors emphasize that the absolute risk for childhood leukemia remains low and that the safety of hormonal contraceptives ...
There appears to be a link between asthma and oral contraceptives, but the issue is complex and more research is needed, ... Subgroups Might Benefit From Oral Contraceptives In fact, oral contraceptives might be of benefit to some women with asthma. ... Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal Activity * Contraception * Emergency Postcoital Contraception ... "We are not making any recommendations, and we do not suggest that women stop taking oral contraceptives," he added. Rather, the ...
A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... Ethinylestradiol and dl-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive. Fertility and sterility, 1977 AA Yuzpe, HJ Thurlow, I Ramzy ... A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... Post coital contraception-A pilot study. The Journal of ..., 1974 A. Albert Yuzpe, Jacques E. Rioux (1973). A manual of ...
Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Black seed in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995;39:59-62. View abstract. ...
... providing benchmark rates for assessment of post-coital contraceptives. Contraception 2001;63:211-5. http://dx. doi. org/10. ... CDC Contraceptive Guidance for Health Care Providers * US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016 ... Ovarian function with the contraceptive vaginal ring or an oral contraceptive: a randomized study. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2668-73. ... Efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of the combined contraceptive ring, NuvaRing, compared with an oral contraceptive ...
Postcoital Contraceptives: * Morning-after pill: estrogen only or estrogen + progestins. * Typically, treatment within three ... Contraindications/Cautions: Contraceptives. Thrombophlebitis. Thromboembolic history. Cerebrovascular disease history (or ... Capsules: release between 33% and 50% as much steroid as world contraceptive patients * Low hormone levels resulted in: * ... Antibiotics may decrease contraceptive efficacy (associated with a decrease in enterohepatic cycling secondary to decrease in ...
... providing benchmark rates for assessment of post-coital contraceptives. Contraception, 63(4), 211-5. ... 2005b). Menstrual cycle, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use alter attraction to apparent health in faces. Proceedings of the ...
... effective post-coital contraceptive.[2] [3] Preliminary shows show, as well, that mifepristone can act as both a male and ... Contraceptive use of antiprogestin. European J of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 6/99. many women report feeling " ... Contraceptive Research*Picture: Feminist Majority Foundation* In addition to its use in terminating unwanted pregnancies, ... Mifepristone (RU486) compared with high-dose estrogen and progestogen for emergency postcoital contraception. New England J of ...
Postcoital birth control pills ("morning after pills") may be prescribed in an emergency (e.g., following sexual abuse). ... contraceptive pills, no less, to third and fourth generation oral contraceptives and found that the deaths of 20 French women ... Contraceptive and Morning After Pills: Women and Young Girls, Youre On Your Own Dianne N. Irving Copyright April 5, 2013 ... "Contraceptive" and "Morning After" Pills Are Dangerous to Your Health, and Are Abortifacient While the federal judge, as well ...
Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices-Chapter 17 : (IUCDs) & Post-coital Contraception. Hormonal Contraception III- Chapter 16:. ...
... account is the fact that a large proportion of women do not principally use contraception during their travel for contraceptive ... method of hormonal Post Coital Contraception with more side effects uses two high doses of combined oral contraceptives. ... Oral Contraceptives (OCs). Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill (COC). This is the commonest contraceptive pill and contains a ... Contraceptive methods. The following is a few of the contraceptive methods available to travellers. ...
Mifepristone has also been demonstrated to be highly effective as a post-coital contraceptive (morning after pill) when ...
Oral contraceptives nonsmoker**. 0.3. 0.5. 0.9. 1.9. 13.8. 31.6. Oral contraceptives smoker**. 2.2. 3.4. 6.6. 13.5. 51.1. 117.2 ... use as postcoital emergency contraception. Treatment initiated within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse reduces the risk ... This product (like all oral contraceptives) is intended to prevent pregnancy. Oral contraceptives do not protect against ... This product (like all oral contraceptives) is intended to prevent pregnancy. Oral contraceptives do not protect against ...
... "post-coital interception," as the same agency called it in a 1994 report on oral contraceptives. ... He also criticized Health Canadas "deceptiveness" in referring to the morning-after pill as an "emergency contraceptive." A ...
Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal Preferred Concept UI. M0005124. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Postcoital contraceptives ... Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal [D27.505.696.875.360.276.310.235] * Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic [D27.505.696.875 ... Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal [D27.505.954.705.360.276.310.235] * Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic [D27.505.954.705 ... 1991; was see under CONTRACEPTIVES, POSTCOITAL 1975-1990. History Note. 1991(1975); was see under CONTRACEPTIVES, POSTCOITAL ...
Recently post-coital treatment with levonorgestrel (LNG) and the antiprogestin mifepristone has emerged as the most effective ... LNG in a single dose of 1.5mg has become the recommended emergency contraceptive pill. However the mechanism(s) of action of ... However, it was also found that 1-year post-abortion, more than a third consistently did not use a reliable contraceptive ... Instead of blaming couples for contraceptive use failure they should be encouraged to act responsible when asking for EC. ...
This paper considers the benefits, disadvantages, safety, age factors, and effectiveness of the combined oral contraceptive ( ... COC) pill, the postcoital pill, the progestogen-only pill, injectable progestogens, intrauterine devices, barrier methods and ...
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Its a backup option if your regular contraceptive method failed or if you didnt have one in place. Hence the popular brand ... Something your doctor might also refer to as "postcoital contraception." EC is for right after - or a couple of days after - ... And "you never know when youre going to have a [contraceptive] method failure," Dr. Addante said. ... Using hormonal contraceptives and Ella (a common ulipristal brand) simultaneously might lower the effectiveness of both. So if ...
Postcoital bleeding While malignancy is the most important concern, most postcoital bleeding is due to a cervical ectropion or ... IMB occurs in 20% of women in the first three months of starting the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and in 30% with ... The traditional five Cs should be considered if the woman is taking the contraceptive pill and has prolonged bleeding: * ... FSRH UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (UK MEC), 2016. *NICE. Heavy menstrual bleeding: assessment and ...
... and significance The efficacy of injection therapy for low back combined with DL-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive agent ...
Post-coital contraception. Congenital or acquired uterine anomaly including fibroids. Acute or history of pelvic inflammatory ... Inform the patient that there is no contraceptive protection if Skyla is displaced or expelled. ...
Known as either the morning-after pill or the emergency contraceptive kit, but more appropriately described as post-coital ... And ECPs (emergency contraceptive pills) work to stop ovulation from taking place, stop the sperm from coming down the tube, or ... Consequently, they should not be called contraceptive pills [italics added]. Conception occurs but the blastocyst does not ...
Postcoital Contraception 100% * Levonorgestrel 90% * Ovulation 76% * Fertile Period 30% * Postcoital Contraceptives 27% ...
  • Mifepristone has also been demonstrated to be highly effective as a post-coital contraceptive (morning after pill) when administered within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. (fsu.edu)
  • This is the commonest contraceptive pill and contains a balance of two hormones, oestrogen and progestogen. (theuiaa.org)
  • Most frequently supplied was the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP). (bmj.com)
  • He also criticized Health Canada's "deceptiveness" in referring to the morning-after pill as an "emergency contraceptive. (theinterim.com)
  • IMB occurs in 20% of women in the first three months of starting the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and in 30% with the progesterone-only pill, and some form of initial irregularity occurs in most women with the contraceptive implant or levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, so it does not require further assessment unless it's prolonged or there are red flag symptoms (see part 1 of this series). (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Why Should You Opt For Emergency Contraceptive Pill To Avoid Pregnancy? (healthy-america.org)
  • What is an Emergency Contraceptive Pill? (healthy-america.org)
  • with the combined oral contraceptive pill. (brainkart.com)
  • This is even more surprising as significant further improvements in hormonal contraception have been made since the introduction of the pill, namely with long acting reversible contraceptives (LARC). (fiapac.org)
  • Plan B is a progestin-only emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) that can be taken within seventy-two hours of unprotected sex in order to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. (asu.edu)
  • These could include the copper coil or hormonal methods including the pill, mini-pill, contraceptive implants and injections, barrier methods such as condoms and caps, or hormonal intrauterine systems like the Mirena device. (virtually.healthcare)
  • Overall, nearly half (45.2%) of contraceptive users rely on long-acting or permanent methods like IUDs, implants, or sterilization, whereas an almost even amount (46.1%) use short-acting methods (eg, pill, injectables, condoms). (medscape.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Combining an estrogen-progesterone oral contraceptive pill (OCP) with the anti-androgen bicalutamide is more effective than an OC alone in treating severe hirsutism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), according to a double-blind randomized controlled trial from Italy. (medscape.com)
  • AA Yuzpe, RP Smith, AW Rademaker A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • If he insists on continuing to take background and significance The efficacy of injection therapy for low back combined with DL-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive agent. (mamapundit.com)
  • Do you want to know if cortisone employing ethyinyl estradiol combined with DL-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive agent. (cheapstorageunit.com)
  • 1] Studies also show that mifepristone is a safe, effective post-coital contraceptive. (chuckiii.com)
  • The assessment was designed to identify problems associated with the distribution of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) by VHT members to improve the integration of this post-coital contraceptive method into existing community-based family planning (CBFP) programs. (advancingpartners.org)
  • Twenty-eight (28) yellow tablets each containing 90 mcg of levonorgestrel (17α)-(-)13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-18, 19-dinorpregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one, a totally synthetic progestogen, and 20 mcg of ethinyl estradiol, (17α)-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-3,17-diol. (rxlist.com)
  • LYBREL (levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradol tablets) is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use oral contraceptives as a method of contraception. (rxlist.com)
  • Emergency Contraceptive Pills: The FDA has concluded that certain combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel or levonorgestrel are safe and effective for use as postcoital emergency contraception. (rxlist.com)
  • But the emergency contraceptive levonorgestrel was actually developed initially as a post-coital method of contraception. (racgp.org.au)
  • Dr Amy Moten, GP and Chair of the RACGP Specific Interests Sexual Health network, says GPs can help to dispel myths around long-acting reversible contraceptives. (racgp.org.au)
  • This "modern coil" gives contraceptive reliability and period control due to the slow release of the progesterone hormone from its stem. (theuiaa.org)
  • 5.Female subjects abstain from either hormonal methods of contraception (including oral or transdermal contraceptives, injectable progesterone, progestin subdermal implants, progesterone-releasing IUDs, postcoital contraceptive methods) or hormone replacement therapy for at least 28 days prior to check-in in Period 1. (who.int)
  • Employment based insured health plans that routinely cover the leading five methods of contraception: diaphragm, implant, injectable, intrauterine device (IUD) and oral contraceptive pills. (cdc.gov)
  • Other methods have more than 100 million users worldwide, and two of them involve hormones: oral contraceptive pills (151 million users) and intrauterine devices (IUDs) (159 million users). (medscape.com)
  • Mifepristone has been shown to be an effective emergency contraceptive up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse with high patient acceptability. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Mifepristone (RU486) compared with high-dose estrogen and progestogen for emergency postcoital contraception. (chuckiii.com)
  • Injectable contraceptives e.g. (who.int)
  • The agency also found that between 2000 and 2011, contraceptive pills were linked to an average of 2,529 annual cases of venous thromboembolism (blood clots) . (lifeissues.net)
  • Since federal officials and "professional" medical societies continue to ignore the serious consequences of even the usual ole "contraceptive" pills for women, to educate themselves women should at least read some of even the most current reports about these dangerous effects: E.g. (lifeissues.net)
  • The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, the IUD, and implants, depend upon the reliability with which they are used. (rxlist.com)
  • Source: Trussell J. Contraceptive efficacy. (rxlist.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate etonogestrel subdermal contraceptive implant's (Implanon) tolerability, efficacy, adverse effects and user continuation rate in women with overweight and obesity. (fiapac.org)
  • A patient's choice of contraceptive method involves factors such as efficacy, safety, noncontraceptive benefits, cost, and personal considerations. (medscape.com)
  • Inserted up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, the copper IUD is the most effective form of emergency contraception, and as a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) can offer protection for up to 10 years. (racgp.org.au)
  • So if she's sexually active and looking at contraceptive options, then promoting LARC. (racgp.org.au)
  • Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis. (lookformedical.com)
  • And studies have shown that polycystic ovary syndrome, when women have menstrual cycles without ovulation, might be associated with a higher risk for asthma, even when women are not taking oral contraceptives. (medscape.com)
  • A nationwide cohort study in more than 1.1 million Danish children shows that the use of combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptives in the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy is associated with a small increase in the risk for any type of childhood leukemia, particularly the nonlymphoid types. (medscape.com)
  • The increased risk for leukemias was mainly associated with the use of oral combined contraceptive products containing estrogen, and not with progestin-only contraceptives. (medscape.com)
  • It follows chronological age up to the menopause, covering areas such as the reproductive system, puberty, the menstrual cycle, contraceptive methods, and infertility. (allthingsmedicine.com)
  • While malignancy is the most important concern, most postcoital bleeding is due to a cervical ectropion or an endocervical polyp, which can only be assessed in person with a speculum examination. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Mifepristone can be used in the medical management of miscarriage and for induction of labour and is a potent postcoital contraceptive and an effective cervical priming agent. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Today, a dream has come true: for the first time in human history we have the ability to effectively separate fertility from sexuality due to an unprecedented number of highly effective contraceptive methods and the availability of safe abortion. (fiapac.org)
  • Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations. (lookformedical.com)
  • This position is due in part to health care professionals not being up to date on the laws and federal norms concerning Sexual and Reproductive Health, and also to the lack of knowledge of the method's mechanism action (sometimes identified as dangerous or abortive), as well as the prejudice towards adolescent sexual practices-leading to the purchasing of emergency contraceptive in drugstores and its incorrect use. (bvsalud.org)
  • A higher prevalence of unprotected sex, reproductive coercion, and restricted access to regular contraceptive methods during the COVID-19 pandemic are all factors experts anticipate will result in increased demand for emergency contraceptives. (racgp.org.au)
  • But it's not actually caused by any of the contraceptives, and in particular the copper IUD, because it doesn't have any hormones at all. (racgp.org.au)
  • But with many women bypassing their GP and heading straight to the pharmacy for over-the-counter oral contraceptives, Dr Hussainy says pharmacists also have a responsibility. (racgp.org.au)
  • In the control arm, pharmacists advised women to attend their usual contraceptive provider. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Worldwide , female sterilization is the most common contraceptive method, with more than 23% of women using this long-term strategy as of 2019, or about 219 million women globally. (medscape.com)
  • Postcoital bleeding often suggests an ectropion or other cervicitis. (brainkart.com)
  • Subjects agree to use acceptable non-hormonal contraceptive methods such as condom, diaphragm, foams, jellies, or abstinence for at least 14 days prior to check-in in Period 1 until 7 days after the end of study in Period 2. (who.int)
  • It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. (lookformedical.com)
  • These associations seemed to be driven by oral combination contraceptives, the most commonly used hormonal contraceptives today," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • Table 2 lists the typical unintended pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. (rxlist.com)
  • There are a number of contraceptive methods available, however, none of the following forms of contraception, with the exception of condoms, gives any protection against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), including HIV and Hepatitis B and C. (theuiaa.org)
  • The following is a few of the contraceptive methods available to travellers. (theuiaa.org)
  • This contraceptive paradox and the underlying reasons need to be analyzed if we want to use currently available contraceptive methods up to their full potential and effectively reduce unwanted pregnancies. (fiapac.org)
  • Postcoital contraception within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse or failure of a contraceptive method. (who.int)
  • Postcoital contraception is an occasional method. (who.int)
  • The method must never replace a regular contraceptive method. (who.int)
  • If this is your normal contraceptive method, stick with it and if you have plenty of notice of your expedition, you may wish to consider changing to this system. (theuiaa.org)
  • It's a backup option if your regular contraceptive method failed or if you didn't have one in place. (theskimm.com)
  • And "you never know when you're going to have a [contraceptive] method failure," Dr. Addante said. (theskimm.com)
  • Contraceptive Research*Picture: Feminist Majority Foundation* In addition to its use in terminating unwanted pregnancies, MIFEPRISTONE (formerly known as RU-486) also may be effective in treating a range of serious diseases and medical conditions, many of which particularly affect women. (chuckiii.com)
  • Oral contraceptives are highly effective for pregnancy prevention. (rxlist.com)
  • Just as with sanitary towels and tampons, thought must be given on how you propose to dispose of barrier contraceptives after use in a remote area in a developing country with a poor infrastructure. (theuiaa.org)
  • 2] [3] Preliminary shows show, as well, that mifepristone can act as both a male and female contraceptive. (chuckiii.com)
  • To avoid or significantly reduce bleeding, Oral Contraceptives can be taken continuously for several months (but spotting may occur especially after the first three months). (theuiaa.org)
  • Because there are so many formulations of contraceptives, we don't have precise information on which formulation has an impact on which condition, he told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • The risk for asthma is elevated in women taking oral contraceptives, new research shows. (medscape.com)
  • We are not making any recommendations, and we do not suggest that women stop taking oral contraceptives," he added. (medscape.com)
  • Of these women, 2,116,000 (32.4%) were using oral contraceptives and 692,470 (10.6%) carried a diagnosis of lifetime asthma and had been treated with bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • A large prospective study is needed to explore these findings in women of childbearing age who are and are not using oral contraceptives, Zein said, adding that it would need a 20-year follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • In fact, oral contraceptives might be of benefit to some women with asthma. (medscape.com)
  • This paper is primarily intended for doctors, non-medical persons and trekking/expedition operators and takes into account is the fact that a large proportion of women do not principally use contraception during their travel for contraceptive reasons but for regulating and controlling their periods. (theuiaa.org)
  • Introduction: Our previous studies in East Asian women have found that they perceive oral contraceptives to be dangerous and to have too many side effects. (fiapac.org)
  • For women who are not using hormonal contraceptive, midcycle (periovulatory) IMB is usually physiological. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Contraception, Postcoital" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • The authors emphasize that the absolute risk for childhood leukemia remains low and that the safety of hormonal contraceptives is not a major concern. (medscape.com)
  • Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Combinations of cyproterone and estrogen also used as contraceptives are, however, classified in G03HB. (oddb.org)
  • Cases of sexual violence are fundamentally attended to, but excluding these cases, there is a drop of 10 to 30 percentage points in the distribution of emergency contraceptive to adolescents in cases of the failure or non-use of the regular contraceptive. (bvsalud.org)
  • U.S. selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2013: adapted from the World Health Organization selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2nd edition. (cdc.gov)
  • Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: Efforts to challenge and affect attitudes toward teen sex and to prompt residents to prescribe emergency contraception in clinical settings may be needed to encourage more proactive emergency contraceptive practice in accordance with national practice guidelines. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading. (lookformedical.com)
  • Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures. (lookformedical.com)
  • Main Outcome Measures: Emergency contraceptive counseling behavior was assessed by reported frequency of including emergency contraception in routine contraceptive counseling. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • While abortion continued to decline in some countries with good contraceptive access, rates have remained stable or even increased in other countries with reliable abortion statistics, such as the UK, France and Sweden. (fiapac.org)
  • Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. (cdc.gov)