Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
Absence of menstruation.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The unmarried man or woman.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Painful menstruation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Size and composition of the family.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.

Low-oestrogen oral contraceptives.(1/142)


A comparison of the inhibition of ovulation achieved by desogestrel 75 micrograms and levonorgestrel 30 micrograms daily. (2/142)

A randomized, double blind, group comparative study was performed over a 12 month period to compare inhibition of ovulation during the use of two (progestogen-only) oral contraceptives containing doses of 75 micrograms desogestrel or 30 micrograms levonorgestrel. Seventy-one female volunteers with regular cycles and established ovulation by ultrasonography and serum progesterone concentrations were recruited from an out-patient clinic in a university hospital and asked to participate in the study. Transvaginal ultrasonography and serum oestradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) measurements were performed throughout the 7th and 12th 28 day treatment period. Desogestrel at a dose of 75 micrograms showed a significant inhibition of ovulation compared to 30 micrograms levonorgestrel (P < 0.001).  (+info)

Endometrial steroid receptors during decidualization in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta); their modulation by anti-oestrogen CDRI-85/287. (3/142)

With a view to elucidating the hormonal control of decidualization in rhesus monkey, we studied the effects of CDRI-85/287, a potent anti-oestrogen, on endometrial steroid receptors in vivo and in vitro. Compound 85/287 was administered (i.m.) on days 8, 9 and 10 of steroid treatment cycle at a dose of 15 mg/monkey. Deciduoma was induced on day 16. Histological examination of endometrial tissue on days 24 and 30 of the cycle showed an apparent inhibition in uterine epithelial and subepithelial decidual cell plaque formation and a decrease in leukocytic infiltration into the stroma in anti-oestrogen-treated animals. As observed on day 24, a significant decrease in progesterone receptors (PR) (nuclear + cytosolic) was observed in the 85/287-treated group, whereas oestrogen receptor (ER) content remained unaltered. On day 30 total ER as well as total PR content was markedly reduced in treated animals. In-vitro results clearly demonstrated a competitive antagonism of 85/287 at the ER level only. The results are discussed in relation to the histological changes and modulation of steroid receptors, thereby suggesting the decidualization inhibitory activity of anti-oestrogen molecule 85/287 in primate species.  (+info)

Altered reflex control of cutaneous circulation by female sex steroids is independent of prostaglandins. (4/142)

We tested the hypothesis that the shift in the cutaneous vasodilator response to hyperthermia seen with elevated female reproductive hormones is a prostaglandin-dependent resetting of thermoregulation to higher internal temperatures, similar to that seen in the febrile response to bacterial infection. Using water-perfused suits to control body temperature, we conducted heat stress experiments in resting women under conditions of low and high progesterone and estrogen and repeated these experiments after an acute dose of ibuprofen (800 mg). In six women the hormones were exogenous (oral contraceptives); three women had regular menstrual cycles and were tested in the early follicular and midluteal phases. Resting oral temperature (Tor) was significantly elevated with high hormone status (P < 0.05); this was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (P > 0.2). The Tor threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly increased by high hormone status (+0.27 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0. 02); the shift was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (with ibuprofen: +0.29 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P > 0.2 vs. control experiments). The Tor threshold for sweating was similarly increased by high hormone status (+0.22 +/- 0.05 degrees C, P < 0.05); this shift was not influenced by ibuprofen (with ibuprofen: +0.35 +/- 0. 05, P > 0.1 vs. control experiments). Thus the shift in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow and sweating mediated by female reproductive steroids is not sensitive to ibuprofen; it therefore appears that this shift is independent of prostaglandins.  (+info)

Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: A re-analysis of the MediPlus database. (5/142)

In October 1995 the Committee on Safety of Medicines advised UK doctors and pharmacists that oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene were associated with double the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) compared to pills containing other progestogens. In 1997 data was analysed from the MediPlus database of UK general practitioner records, which reported odds ratios for desogestrel and gestodene lower than that for levonorgestrel. Here the results of a more stringent nested case control analysis on the MediPlus database are reported. The study was larger and cases were verified. A crude incidence of idiopathic VTE was found amongst users of combined oral contraceptives of 4.6 per 10 000 exposed women years. Using levonorgestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg as reference, non-significant odds ratios of 1.1 (0.5-2.6) for desogestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg and 1.1 (0.5-2.4) for gestodene 75 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg were found. The results of this study show no significant difference in risk between different formulations of combined oral contraceptive.  (+info)

The differential risk of oral contraceptives: the impact of full exposure history. (6/142)

Previous discussions have indicated that the small increases of risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with newer combined oral contraceptives (third generation, containing desogestrel and gestodene) may be attributed to bias due to cohort effects. In a case-control analysis, this may produce an overestimate of risk of newer preparations. In 10 centres in Germany and the UK, the Transnational Study analysed data from 502 women aged 16-44 years with VTE, and from 1864 controls matched for 5-year age group and region. Information on lifetime exposure history from all subjects was added to the dataset used in previous analyses and entered into a Cox regression model with time-dependent covariates. Based on 17 622 continuous exposure episodes comprising 47 914 person-years of observation, the adjusted hazard ratio (equivalent to odds ratio, OR) of VTE for the comparison of current users of third-generation versus current users of second-generation (primarily levonorgestrel compounds) combined oral contraceptives was 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3). The OR obtained in standard case-control analysis had been 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1). Adjustment for past exposures includes more information and appears more valid than the standard cross-sectional analysis. Using this approach, the Transnational Study data show no evidence for an increased risk of VTE with third- compared with second-generation combined oral contraceptives.  (+info)

Fear of black market means no RU-486 for Canada until US approves drug. (7/142)

Mifepristone, the "abortion pill" that is better known as RU-486, is no closer to arriving in Canada than it was 8 years ago. But that fact hasn't slowed debate about the product.  (+info)

Contraceptive efficacy of daily administration of 0.5 mg mifepristone. (8/142)

The antiprogestin mifepristone has shown potential to be used as a contraceptive. If 200 mg mifepristone is administered immediately after ovulation, the endometrium shows sufficient impairment of secretory development to prevent implantation. Low daily doses of mifepristone have been shown to reduce several of the local factors regarded as crucial for implantation in human endometrium. To find out if this regimen is sufficient to prevent pregnancy, 32 women were recruited for a study where 0.5 mg mifepristone was administered daily. A total of 141 cycles were studied. Five pregnancies occurred, which was significantly less than if no contraceptive method had been used. However, the dose chosen did not seem sufficient to act as a contraceptive although it is probably not possible to increase the dose without disturbing ovulation and bleeding pattern.  (+info)

Consistent reports from several recent studies suggest that users of third generation oral contraceptives OCs containing gestodene and desogestrel may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease VTE. Paradoxically, other reports indicate that these users may be at decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction MI compared with users of...
While millions of women take fifth generation oral contraceptives and have their health in good repair, it is still rumored that a woman may awfully put on weight and grow terribly hairy if she takes to such pills.
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Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women. It is also used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women. The medication is used alone or in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of desogestrel include menstrual irregularities, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness, mood changes, acne, increased hair growth, and others. Desogestrel is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has very weak androgenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. The medication is a prodrug of etonogestrel in the body. Desogestrel was first described in 1975 and was introduced for medical use in Europe in 1981. It became available in the United States in 1992. Desogestrel is sometimes referred to as a third-generation progestin. Along with norethisterone, ...
effect of combined oral contraceptives on arterial bllod flow in the foot as measured by skin temperature by Susan Haldane Download PDF EPUB ...
Little is known about the influence of progestogen-only oral contraceptives on a womans risk of breast cancer. This issue was examined in a national population-based case-control study in New Zealand. A total of 891 women aged 25 to 54 years with a first diagnosis of breast cancer and 1,864 control …
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An individuals capacity central to metabolize desogestrel and rosiglitazone into active metabolites and is known to vary considerably because of genetic polymorphism resulting in phenotypical variability analysis of the cyp2d6 enzyme. Torrent - duloxetine is a small oval blue tablet containing 25mg duloxetine hydrochloride. Patients were allocated to receive desogestrel alone, adapalene alone or a combination of both therap
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Desogestrel Actavis is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Desogestrel Actavis is available on the website.
Prefest (Estradiol / Norgestimate) is effective at treating symptoms related to menopause and bone loss. It has a difficult dosing schedule to follow, but doesnt affect your cholesterol and triglyceride levels as much as other estrogen products. More potential side effects since it exposes your whole body to two hormones, estrogen and norgestimate (a progestin).
Cerazette tablets are a type of hormonal contraceptive commonly known as the mini pill or progestogen-only pill (POP). They contain the active ingredient desogestrel, which is a synthetic progestogen, similar to the natural progestogens produced by the body.
The common side effects of estradiol/norgestimate tablets (also known as Prefest) include headaches, intestinal upset (cramps, bloating, nausea, vomit
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Tamoxifen is both the most widely prescribed drug for breast cancer and preventative therapy worldwide. It is a synthetic derivative of triphenylethylene but was originally screened in a drug development program oriented toward discovering new post-coital contraceptive agents.
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Ethinylestradiol/Desogestrel 0.02 mg/0.15 mg and 0.03 mg/0.15 mg Teva, tablets. Because the drug substance is dissolved before the manufacture of.. Das Östrogen ist meistens Ethinylestradiol in. Norgestimat und Desogestrel sind lediglich. Die Dosis des Ethinylestradiols in der „ Pille liegt.Will metronidazole gel affect birth control metformin for birth control desogestrel ethinyl estradiol mercilon. birth control pills containing ethinyl estradiol.ethinylestradiol 30mcg desogestrel 150 mcg Can you take levothyroxine with birth control levaquin effects birth control chances of multiple births clomid does abilify.Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel? Hier rezeptfrei bestellen! Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel?. 0,030 mg Ethinylestradiol.Desogestrel und Ethinylestradiol (EE) im Verhältnis 2,5: 1 bis zum 10 6 fachen der Humandosis waren nicht letal und führten zu keinerlei toxischen Effekten ...
CONTEXT: Previous studies have reported that users of the third-generation oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the progestins gestodene and desogestrel have about twice the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to users of older OCs containing levonorgestrel. Estimates of the risk for VTE among users of norgestimate-containing OCs compared to other OCs, however, are lacking.. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative information on the risk of nonfatal VTE in women using OCs containing either norgestimate or desogestrel in comparison with women taking OCs containing levonorgestrel.. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Based on information from PharMetrics, a United States-based company that collects and records information on claims paid by managed care plans, we used a nested case-control study design to estimate relative risks of nonfatal VTE among 15- to 39-year-old current users of OCs containing norgestimate with 35 microg of ethinyl estradiol (EE), ...
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by chronic anovulation and androgen excess that occurs in 4-8% of unselected adult women. Although signs and symptoms of the disorder typically appear at the time of puberty, diagnosis is often delayed until adulthood. At least 50% of adult women with PCOS are obese, resulting in a more severe clinical picture. Obesity among adolescents has been increasing in recent years, with overrepresentation of females who show evidence of hyperandrogenism and irregular periods, suggesting an association of obesity and PCOS at an early age. Recent data, however, have drawn attention to the long-term risks of PCOS, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of PCOS and is thought to be the metabolic abnormality most closely linked to an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Traditional treatments with oral contraceptives are associated with reduction in serum ...
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We found no studies that measure, or even estimate, any increase in pregnancy rates in women taking antiepileptic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs known to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzyme cause decreased sex hormone levels in women taking oral contraceptives, raising the potential for decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptives and increased risk of unplanned pregnancy. (Strength of Recommendation [SOR]: C, based on small cohort studies). Antiepileptic drugs that do not induce this hepatic isoenzyme are not thought to compromise the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. (SOR: C, based on small cohort studies and randomized controlled trials ...
Approximately 11.6 million women in the United States use oral contraceptives (OCs) each year. The vast majority of OCs combine both estrogen and a type of progestin, or progesterone-like substance into one pill which is taken daily. Depression or a negative change in mood, apparently resulting from the use of OCs, is thought to be one of the main reasons women miss pills or stop taking their oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) altogether. Clinical observation that some women develop depression when taking progestin only OCs or when adding progestins to menopausal estrogen therapy has led to the speculation that the progestin is the likely culprit of these negative mood changes in women using combined OCPs.. The current study is designed to investigate the role of progestins in the development of mood symptoms in OCP users. Women participating in this study will receive one of two different OCPs for three months. Their mood while taking the OCPs will be compared to their mood prior to using OCPs. In ...
Mircette contains a combination of female hormones (ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel) that prevent ovulation and pregnancy. .Buy Mircette (Desogestrel/Ethinyl estradiol) UK 0.15/0.02 mg price for sale online discount order cheap
Oral contraceptives pass into the breast milk and can change the content or lower the amount of breast milk. Also, they may shorten a womans ability to breast-feed by about 1 month, especially when the mother is only partially breast-feeding. Because the amount of hormones is so small in low-dose contraceptives, your doctor may allow you to begin using an oral contraceptive after you have been breast-feeding for a while. However, it may be necessary for you to use another method of birth control or to stop breast-feeding while taking oral contraceptives.. ...
Mircette contains generic (Desogestrel + Ethinyl estradiol), which is used for the prevention of pregnancy. Buy Mircette online and avail offers.
EDITOR,-In seeking to interpret for women the recent research showing an approximate doubling of the relative risk of venous thromboembolic disease in women taking oral contraceptives containing gestodene or desogestrel1 we need ways in which to explain the complicated and subtle statistical evidence.. John Guillebaud contends that we can reassure a woman who has been taking combined oral contraceptives for a considerable time that as she has not had a venous thrombosis in these years she is particularly unlikely … ...
Ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel is a combination birth control pill containing female hormones that prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary). This medicine also causes changes in your cervical mucus and uterine lining, making it harder for sperm to reach the uterus and harder for a fertilized egg to...
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Comprehensive alcohol & food interactions for desogestrel / ethinyl estradiol. Includes High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), High Cholesterol (Hyperlipoproteinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Sitosterolemia)
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Impact of obesity on oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian activity. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the contraceptive efficacy of the ENG-E2 vaginal ring in women between 18 and 35 years of age based on the number of
Oral contraceptives that contained more than 50 mg of estrogen were withdrawn from the market in the United States in 1989. The newer oral contraceptives have one fourth of the estrogen and one tenth of the progestogen of the original combination agents. The newer progestogens (desogestrel, gestodene and norgestimate) have fewer androgenic metabolic effects, do not adversely affect lipid levels and may be associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Chasan-Taber and Stampfer reviewed the epidemiologic studies of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease performed between 1967 and mid-1997, paying special attention to preparations that contain less than 50 mg of estrogen.. Case-control and cohort studies suggest that much of the excess risk for myocardial infarction in current users of oral contraceptives is attributable to cigarette smoking. Two separate studies showed that the relative risk of myocardial infarction was 39 and 30 in women who smoked 25 or more cigarettes daily ...
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Theres still a controversy about whether birth control pills containing desogestrel increase the risk of blood clots. ... Learn more with Pharmacists Letter Canada.
The progestogen-only pill (POP) contains a progestogen hormone which is like the natural progesterone women produce in their ovaries. POP do not contain estrogen like the Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill (COC)
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Special consideration: Adolescents, In general, adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and must have access to a variety of contraceptive choices. Age alone does not constitute a medical reason for denying any method to adolescents. While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents. For example, in some settings, adolescents are also at increased risk for STIs, ...
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While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents ...
Fibrinogen is an acute-phase reactant and can often become significantly increased in conditions involving tissue damage, infection, or inflammation.1 Increased levels may be seen in smokers, during pregnancy, and in women taking oral contraceptives.1 Fib
Start taking the pill on the first day of your next period. It is immediately effective from then on. It will also start to work straightaway if you begin taking it up to the fifth day from the start of your period. (ie if Day 1 is the first day of your period, you can begin taking it on Day 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 and it will work straightaway.) If you start on any other day, you should use additional contraceptive methods (such as using condoms or not having sex) for the first two days. This is until the POP has become effective.. If you have just had a baby, the POP is immediately effective if you start taking it before day 21 after the birth. If you begin taking it after Day 21, use additional contraception (eg, condoms or not having sex) for two days.. You should take the POP at the same time of day, every day. Any time of day will do, but the most important thing is to get into a routine. Do not stop taking it when you have a period. You should take it every day. When you finish one pack, start ...
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This is a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial of the effectiveness of four active treatments and placebo in the management of episodes of breakthrough bleeding in women using the progestogen-only, sub dermal implant contraceptive, Implanon. Implanon provides the near-zero-order release of the progestogen, etonogestrel, over a three year period. Treatment will be randomised to one of five arms. Each treatment will be given twice daily for 5 days in a complex arrangement which allows the following measurements ...
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Besides oral contraceptives, other forms of combined hormonal contraception include contraceptive patches, contraceptive ... In contrast to oral synthetic estrogens, high-dosage polyestradiol phosphate and transdermal estradiol have not been found to ... high doses of ethinylestradiol are no longer used in combined oral contraceptives, and all modern combined oral contraceptives ... Ethinylestradiol is generally used in oral contraceptives instead of estradiol because it has superior oral pharmacokinetics ( ...
Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive Oral contraceptive formulations Annetine Gelijns (1991). Innovation in Clinical ... Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens ( ... The theoretical efficacy is similar to that of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP). However, this pill is taken ... Borgelt-Hansen Laura (2001). "Oral Contraceptives: An Update on Health Benefits and Risks: Progestin-Only Minipill". J Am Pharm ...
The original hormonal method-the combined oral contraceptive pill-was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. In the ensuing ... Progestogen-only contraceptives contain only progesterone or a synthetic analogue (progestin). There is also a non-hormonal ... an oral progestin; off-label use of combined oral contraceptives (Yuzpe regimen); and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). ... Oral Contraceptives, Combined (Vol. 72 ed.). p. 49. "Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives" (PDF). IARC Monographs on ...
This series later comprised the first oral contraceptive pill, which was made by others. The Birch reduction also allows for ... which is widely used in synthetic organic chemistry. The Birch Reduction enables the modification of steroids. In 1948 Birch ...
The main division is between combined oral contraceptive pills, containing both estrogens and synthetic progestogens ( ... Combined oral contraceptive pills also come in varying types, including varying doses of estrogen, and whether the dose of ... Mestranol/noretynodrel (Enovid) - the first oral contraceptive List of progestogens available in the United States List of ... ISBN 0-7817-6488-2. "US Patent:Oral contraceptive:Patent 6451778 Issued on September 17, 2002 Estimated Expiration Date: July 2 ...
ISBN 978-0-683-03631-2. The synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol, more commonly used in oral contraceptives, has a biological ... Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (May 2012). "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing ... Widely employed in the past, oral synthetic estrogens like ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol are no longer used in ... In contrast to estradiol, the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol has about 45% oral bioavailability, around 80- to 200-fold ...
Luis E. Miramontes, co-inventor of the first oral contraceptives. Francisco Gonzalo Bolívar Zapata, Prince of Asturias awardee ... Jesús Romo Armería, National Prize for Arts and Sciences in 1971, synthetic chemist who first developed an economical method to ...
Cotreatment with oral contraceptives can increase its volume of distribution.[medical citation needed] As a glucocorticoid, ... Dexamethasone is a synthetic pregnane corticosteroid and derivative of cortisol (hydrocortisone) and is also known as 1-dehydro ... In Australia, the oral use is category A, meaning it has been frequently used in pregnancy and not been found to cause problems ... Jobe AH, Milad MA, Peppard T, Jusko WJ (March 2020). "Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Intramuscular and Oral ...
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The efficacy of progesterone as an oral contraceptive was never fully tested, because synthetic progestational agents, which ... Early studies on its use as an oral contraceptive showed that, at 300 mg/day (5th to 25th day of the menstrual cycle), ... Ottosson UB (1984). "Oral progesterone and estrogen/progestogen therapy. Effects of natural and synthetic hormones on ... The ovulation-inhibiting (i.e., contraceptive) dosage of oral crystalline (non-micronized) progesterone in women is 300 mg/day ...
"FDA's Approval of the First Oral Contraceptive, Enovid". Cafe, Rebecca (4 December 2011). "BBC News - How the contraceptive ... The development of synthetic chemical methods allowed scientists to systematically vary the structure of chemical substances, ... "Why the Oral Contraceptive Is Just Known as "The Pill"". "BBC News , HEALTH , A short history of the pill ... The history of the development of oral contraceptives is thus closely tied to the birth control movement and the efforts of ...
Diosgenin extracted from Dioscorea composita was instrumental in the development of the combined oral contraceptive pill in the ... It is a source of diosgenin, which is used to prepare synthetic hormones such as progesterone and cortisone. ... and therefore it came to replace the latter in the production of synthetic hormones. Steroidal sapogenin, diosgenin. ...
This eventually led to the development at Syntex of the combined oral contraceptive pill and synthetic cortisone - and to the ... Today, progesterone can be used to make cortisone and oral contraceptives. Mexican Chemical Society at the VI International ...
In addition to its use as an oral contraceptive, mestranol has been used as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for the ... There is no doubt that the conversion of the endometrium with injections of both synthetic and native estrogenic hormone ... This resulted in Enovid by G. D. Searle & Company, the first oral contraceptive and a combination of 9.85 mg noretynodrel and ... Mestranol was employed as the estrogen component in many of the first oral contraceptives, such as mestranol/noretynodrel ( ...
... listing side effects were instated for oral contraceptives-the first PPIs in U.S. history. With the help of a grant from the Ms ... in order protest against the FDA's approval and lack of oversight of synthetic estrogens. The protest was planned for those ... as well as combined oral contraceptive pills. Speakers included Jim Luggen, a widower whose late wife had died of a pulmonary ... when she resigned on principle due to the continued delay of approval of the emergency contraceptive, Plan B. In 2013, the NWHN ...
... and 1970s by chemist Herchel Smith and his colleagues while they were developing progestins for use in oral contraceptives. The ... is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and progestogen of the 19-nortestosterone group related to levonorgestrel ... Methoxydienone is not 17α-alkylated (instead featuring a ketone at the C17 position) and no data exist regarding its oral ...
... contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.443 - contraceptives, oral, synthetic MeSH D27.505.696.875. ... contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.443 - contraceptives, oral, synthetic MeSH D27.505.954.705. ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.100 - contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.277 ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.100 - contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.277 ...
... and eventually as the basis for the combined oral contraceptive pill. This development sparked a barbasco extraction industry ... With the discovery of the chemical properties of the barbasco root, world market prices for steroids and other synthetic ... at this point Mexico had lost its status as a world leader of the synthetic hormone market and the barbasco trade was declining ... was fermented and the diosgenin extracted and sold to pharmaceutical companies such as Syntex who used it to produce synthetic ...
The use of combined hormonal contraceptives (combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch, and the contraceptive ... are methods of contraception that contain both a synthetic estrogen and a synthetic form of progesterone. These methods have ... The use of hormonal methods containing estrogen (combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch or contraceptive ring), ... Archer, David F. (2006). "Menstrual-cycle-related symptoms: a review of the rationale for continuous use of oral contraceptives ...
Although almost all combined oral contraceptives contain the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol, natural estradiol itself is ... including in estradiol-containing oral contraceptives and combined injectable contraceptives. It is formulated in combination ... oral micronized estradiol valerate had been introduced by Schering in 1968. Oral micronized estradiol and oral estradiol ... Parenteral estradiol is largely free of the cardiovascular side effects of the high oral dosages of synthetic estrogens like ...
It has between 93% to 95% pregnancy prevention success, which is lower than oral contraceptives, injectables, or the IUD. ... She switched from polyurethane material to synthetic latex, which overall saves manufacturing costs and makes the condom much ... The female condom is an over the counter contraceptive, which has been FDA approved for over 20 years. The female condom gives ... females an option in choosing the best contraceptive, while remaining sexually active. The female condom contains just as high ...
"FDA's Approval of the First Oral Contraceptive, Enovid".. *^ Cafe, Rebecca (4 December 2011). "BBC News - How the contraceptive ... In 1911 arsphenamine, the first synthetic anti-infective drug, was developed by Paul Ehrlich and chemist Alfred Bertheim of the ... Oral ContraceptivesEdit. Prior to the second world war, birth control was prohibited in many countries, and in the United ... "Why the Oral Contraceptive Is Just Known as "The Pill"". ...
... in combination with an estrogen for contraceptive purposes. MGA is available as 5 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg oral tablets and in oral ... MGA is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of ... It was used at doses of 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, and 5 mg in combined oral contraceptives. MGA is formulated at a dose of 25 mg in ... ISBN 978-0-300-16791-7. MEARS E (1963). "A new type of oral contraceptive". Br Med J. 1 (5341): 1318-20. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5341 ...
... production of synthetic hormones in the 1950s and 1960s and eventually leading to the invention of combined oral contraceptive ... which included oral trials, the presumption of innocence for defendants, the authority of local police to investigate crime- ...
United States List of estrogens List of estrogen esters Oral contraceptive formulations Estradiol-containing oral contraceptive ... synthetic conjugated estrogens and esterified estrogens. The synthetic conjugated estrogen mixtures are derived from yam or soy ... 140 mg Oral estradiol valerate (except in combination with dienogest as an oral contraceptive) is not available in the U.S. and ... Synthetic conjugated estrogens (Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens A) - 0.625 mg/g (0.0625%) Estradiol (Imvexxy) - 4 μg, 10 μg ...
... of that of a combined oral contraceptive containing 30 μg ethinylestradiol, the maximum equivalent oral dose of ... or synthetic progestogen, of the 19-nortestosterone group, and a synthetic estrane steroid. It is the C17β enanthate ester of ... As such, the exposure to ethinylestradiol was described as markedly lower than that of an oral contraceptive containing 30 μg ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ...
The intake of oral contraceptives as the first-line treatment for menorrhagia may lead to gingival enlargement and bleeding in ... Desmopressin is a synthetic analog of the natural antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. Its overuse can lead to water retention and ... Bleeding will also be induced by iatrogenic factors and poor oral hygiene practices. The frequency of oral hemorrhage by ... estrogen-containing oral contraceptive medications are effective in reducing the frequency and duration of the menstrual ...
"Research activities in the field of oral contraceptives in the People's Republic of China". Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl. ... is a synthetic pregnane steroid and a derivative of progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. It is very close to megestrol ... Korkhov VV (1985). "[Current trends in the development of oral contraception]". Farmakologiia I Toksikologiia (in Russian). 48 ... and as contraceptives [1, 2]. In clinics, drugs of this group are represented by acetomepregenol (AMP), medroxyprogesterone ...
In contrast to oral synthetic estrogens like EE and diethylstilbestrol, high-dosage polyestradiol phosphate and transdermal ... It is most commonly used as contraception in combined oral contraceptives (COC), also known as birth control, to prevent ... In any case, these estrogens are considered to be much safer than oral synthetic estrogens like EE and diethylstilbestrol. In ... The estrogen component of oral contraceptives, which is almost always EE, can cause breast tenderness and fullness. In males, ...
Powell A (April 2017). "Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 64 ... "Synthetic androgens as designer supplements". Current Neuropharmacology (Review). 13 (1): 89-100. doi:10.2174/ ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ...
Combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol have been found to increase circulating SHBG levels by 2- to 4-fold in ... Luthy IA, Begin DJ, Labrie F (1988). "Androgenic activity of synthetic progestins and spironolactone in androgen-sensitive ... Oral, topical. 1977. 3,650,000. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, SC. 1958. ... oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol are effective in treating these conditions, and may be combined with AR ...
The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by FDA in 1960. Oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation and so prevent ... Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole ... As early as 1960, oral contraceptives were available in several different strengths by every manufacturer. In the 1980s and ... a new delivery system for the oral contraceptive via a transdermal patch. In 1982, a new version of the Pill was introduced, ...
Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne»։ Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7): CD004425։ July 2012։ PMID 22786490։ ... Joseph JF, Parr MK (January 2015)։ «Synthetic androgens as designer supplements»։ Current Neuropharmacology (Review) 13 (1): 89 ... Use of oral contraceptives for management of acne vulgaris and hirsutism in women of reproductive and late reproductive age»։ ... Powell A (April 2017)։ «Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens»։ Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review) 64 ( ...
When oral synthetic estrogen or combined estrogen-progestogen treatment is delayed until 5 years from menopause, cohort studies ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Oral. Estradiol. 0.5-1 mg/day. 1-2 mg/day. 2-4 mg/day ... Clot in the greater saphenous vein; oral estrogen is associated ... A 2016 review of clinical research on tibolone - a synthetic medication - found it was more effective than placebo and less ...
Wilson, Stephanie MC; Bivins, Brittney N; Russell, Katelyn A; Bailey, Lynn B (2011). "Oral contraceptive use: Impact on folate ... Pyritinol, a semi-synthetic derivative of pyridoxine, where two pyridoxine moieties are bound by a disulfide bridge. ... Use of oral contraceptives and treatment with certain anticonvulsants, isoniazid, cycloserine, penicillamine, and ... This can be detected based on urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid after an oral tryptophan load. Vitamin B6 deficiency can ...
FDA (1975). "Diethylstilbestrol as posticoital oral contraceptive; patient labeling". Fed Regist. 40 (25): 5451-5.. ; 40 FR ... Synthetic. Steroidal. ?. 2 mg. ?. ?. ?. ? Diethylstilbestrol. Synthetic. Nonsteroidal. 2.5 mg. 20-30 mg. 11 mg. 0.5-2.0 mg. ,5 ... DES is well-absorbed with oral administration.[1] With an oral dosage of 1 mg/day DES, plasma levels of DES at 20 hours ... Relative oral potencies of estrogens Estrogen. Type. HF. VE. UCa. FSH. LH. HDL-C. SHBG. CBG. AGT. Liver ...
Parke-Davis (June 1961). "Introducing Norlutate...a new oral progestational agent twice as potent as Norlutin". Obstet Gynecol ... Maternal use of androgens or high doses of certain weakly androgenic synthetic progestogens (progestins) structurally related ... except contraceptives) to warn against their use during the first four months of pregnancy because of reports of non-genital ... except contraceptives) to warn against their use during the first four months of pregnancy because of past reports of genital ...
... perhaps more so than a woman who has been on an oral contraceptive or similar for years prior.[72] ... and with the later development of synthetic injectable hormones, this operation fell out of vogue.[65][67] ... contraceptive economy' of a relationship, in which women have maintained responsibility of the contraceptive task up until the ... "Contraceptive Use 2011". UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2012.. ...
In practice, these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1 to 2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It ... Synthetic xenoestrogens (e.g., alkylphenols, bisphenols (e.g., BPA, BPF, BPS), DDT, parabens, PBBs, PHBA, phthalates, PCBs) ... to be used in an oral contraceptive.[12] In 1964, additional contraceptive preparations containing norethisterone in ... Progestogen-only oral contraceptive NET or NETA only. High (e.g., 5 mg, 10 mg). Aygestin, Lupaneta Pack (combination pack with ...
"Health Canada reviewing safety of drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives (Yasmin and Yaz) and risk of venous ... "Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis". BMJ. ... and to treat moderate acne in women at least 14 years of age who choose an oral contraceptive for contraception. The FDA ... to treat symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in women who choose an oral contraceptive for contraception, ...
Hormonal methods of preventing pregnancy (such as oral contraceptives [i.e. 'The pill'], depoprogesterone, hormonal IUDs, the ... and can also be made out of synthetic materials including polyurethane and polyisoprene. ... When anal-oral contact occurs, protection is required since this is a risky sexual behavior in which illnesses as Hepatitis A ... A dental dam (originally used in dentistry) is a sheet of latex used for protection when engaging in oral sex. It is typically ...
Black, TRL (1974). "Oral contraceptive prescription requirements and commercial availability in 45 developing countries". ... Vaccination of female baboons with this synthetic peptide resulted in a reduced fertility in the trial. However, a second study ... "Development of Injectable and Oral Contraceptive Technologies and Their Assessment for Wildlife Population and Disease ... The program hopes to mass-produce a contraceptive vaccine in Indonesia in 2013 at the earliest. While contraceptive vaccines ...
22.1 Contraceptives *22.1.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives. *22.1.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives ... Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes[edit]. *Fludrocortisone. *Hydrocortisone. Androgens[edit]. *Testosteroneα ... Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and availability. ... In acute diarrhoea zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts ...
Oral contraceptives increased AUC values for norethisterone and ethinylestradiol; these increases should be considered when ... Unlike most others, however, it is a completely synthetic compound. HMG-CoA reductase catalyzes the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3- ... selecting an oral contraceptive for a woman taking atorvastatin.[47] Antacids can rarely decrease the plasma concentrations of ... "LIPITOR (atorvastatin calcium) Tablets for oral administration" (PDF). Full Prescribing Information. Pfizer Inc. Retrieved 18 ...
In the case of blister forming, drying treatments such as hand baths containing synthetic tannins or oily-moist preparations ... April 2008). "Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin (9-cis retinoic acid) in patients with severe chronic hand eczema ... women of childbearing-age must use contraceptives and also test for pregnancy each month since, as with all derivatives of ... "Oral alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) therapy for chronic hand dermatitis in patients refractory to standard therapy: ...
Oral contraceptive (anovulatory). 30-100 µg/day. 100-160 µg/day. 320-640 µg/day. 300 µg/day. ND. 40-60 pg/mL. 60-100 pg/mL. 200 ... Synthetic xenoestrogens (e.g., alkylphenols, bisphenols (e.g., BPA, BPF, BPS), DDT, parabens, PBBs, PHBA, phthalates, PCBs) ... Stanczyk FZ, Archer DF, Bhavnani BR (June 2013). "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: ... Oral, sublingual, intranasal, topical/transdermal, vaginal, intramuscular or subcutaneous (as an ester), subdermal implant ...
When oral synthetic estrogen or combined estrogen-progestogen treatment is delayed until 5 years from menopause, cohort studies ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Oral estrogen. 1.4 (1.2-1.7). 1.4 (1.2-1.7). 1.5 (1.1-1.9) E3N-EPIC: Fournier et al. (2008). Oral estrogen alone. 1.32 (0.76- ... Oral. Estradiol alone. ≤1 mg/day. ,1 mg/day. 1.27 (1.16-1.39)*. 1.22 (1.09-1.37)*. 1.35 (1.18-1.55)* ...
DeRossi SS, Hersh EV (October 2002). "Antibiotics and oral contraceptives". Dental Clinics of North America. 46 (4): 653-64. ... Conover to successfully produce tetracycline itself as a synthetic product.[45] In 1955, Conover discovered that hydrogenolysis ... Archer JS, Archer DF (June 2002). "Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked". Journal of the ... Recent research has shown no significant loss of effectiveness in oral contraceptives while using most tetracyclines. Despite ...
Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development. ... SGA is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of ... SGA is only weakly active orally, and is instead given as a subcutaneous implant.[8] The oral bioavailability of SGA has been ... SGA is used as a hormonal contraceptive and in the treatment of endometriosis.[1][4][7] ...
Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational ... and comparisons to synthetic breast milk substitutes.[11][240] Factors related to the mental health of the nursing mother in ... and contraceptives that contain estrogen.[83] ... may restart breastfeeding after a weaning as part of an oral ... "The influence of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity: a commentary". Journal of Human Lactation. 14 (2): 93-8 ...
As thromboembolic and other cardiovascular complications are associated mainly with synthetic oral estrogens like ... "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and risk assessment". ... The cardiovascular toxicity of PEP is far less than that of oral synthetic estrogens like diethylstilbestrol and ... whereas oral synthetic estrogens have a strong influence on liver protein synthesis, the effects of parenteral bioidentical ...
Combined oral contraceptives. Hidden categories: * link with non-standard subpage ... Synthetic xenoestrogens (e.g., alkylphenols, bisphenols (e.g., BPA, BPF, BPS), DDT, parabens, PBBs, PHBA, phthalates, PCBs) ...
This experimental male oral contraceptive is a male hormone like testosterone, and a progestin. Currently conducting research ... A similar proposal consists of yearly subdermal implant administering a synthetic testosterone compound (7α-methyl-19- ... "Vasalgel, a Multi-year Contraceptive". Retrieved 19 Feb 2018.. *^ Finn, Robert (May 1, 2007). "Male Contraceptive Methods Are ... "Safety evaluation of long term oral treatment of methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in ...
Hoberman JM, Yesalis CE (Feb 1995). "The history of synthetic testosterone". Scientific American. 272 (2): 76-81. Bibcode: ... and hormonal contraceptives may affect the variation in testosterone response to sexual thoughts.[51] ... Oral: very low (due to extensive first pass metabolism) Protein binding. 97.0-99.5% (to SHBG and albumin)[1]. ... Breiner M, Romalo G, Schweikert HU (Aug 1986). "Inhibition of androgen receptor binding by natural and synthetic steroids in ...
... production of synthetic hormones in the 1950s and 1960s and eventually leading to the invention of combined oral contraceptive ... which included oral trials, the presumption of innocence for defendants, the authority of local police to investigate crime- ...
Pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptives have been reported as risk factors.[51] Diabetes mellitus and the use of ... "Fungicidal activity of fluconazole against Candida albicans in a synthetic vagina-simulative medium". Antimicrobial Agents and ... History, classification, and clinical presentation". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology. 78 (2): 189-93. doi: ... Oral hygiene can help prevent oral candidiasis when people have a weakened immune system.[5] For people undergoing cancer ...
... children whose mothers have bad oral health are five times as likely to have poor oral health.[27] Poor maintenance of oral ... Increasing contraceptive usage and family planning also improves maternal health through reduction in numbers of higher risk ... Prescription drugs taken during pregnancy such as streptomycin, tetracycline, some antidepressants, progestin, synthetic ... Maternal oral flora can ultimately foretell oral flora in offspring.[32] In addition, other maternal factors such as social, ...
For use as an oral contraceptive in the prevention of pregnancy. Micronovum Pharmacology Norethindrone is a synthetic oral ... As an oral contraceptive, norethindrone is available as either a single agent or in combination with an estrogen. ...
Como un anticonceptivo oral, noretindrona está disponible, ya sea como agente único o en combinación con un estrógeno. ... Para su uso como anticonceptivo oral en la prevención del embarazo. Micronovum Farmacologia Noretindrona es una progestina ... sintética por vía oral. Se utiliza con fines anticonceptivos o para tratar enfermedades tales como amenorrea secundaria, ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. Trace Elements. Micronutrients. Nutrients. Growth Substances. ... Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... The Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes Trial (ECHO). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Compare contraceptive continuation rates among women randomized to DMPA, LNG and copper IUD [ Time Frame: From enrollment to 18 ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Trace Elements. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. ... Contraceptive Agents. Levonorgestrel. Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol combination. Contraceptives, Oral. Copper. Estrogens. ... Comparison of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System, Copper T Intrauterine Device and Oral Contraceptives on Life Quality. The ... Lipid profile (HDL,VLDL,IDL,LDL,Lp(a),VLDL)Lng-ius users, Copper-iud users and combined oral contraceptive users (composite ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... Dose-finding Study for the Ultralow-dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive System (LCS). The safety and scientific ... Levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LCS) releasing 12 microg/24h in vitro. Drug: Levonorgestrel IUS (BAY86-5028, ... Levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LCS) releasing 16 microg/24h in vitro. Drug: Levonorgestrel IUS (BAY86-5028, ...
All contraindications to oral contraceptive use, including: a. Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders; b. Past history of ... Contraceptive Agents. Levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Use of injectable contraceptives during the previous 3 months (e.g. Cyclofem) or 6 months (e.g. DMPA). ... A Randomized Study to Evaluate the Effect of a Contraceptive Vaginal Ring Delivering a Daily Dose of 2500 μg of Ulipristal ...
... injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2- ... Oral, Synthetic / administration & dosage * Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic / pharmacology* * Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic ... injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2- ... Effect of long-acting progestagen-only injectable contraceptives on carbohydrate metabolism and its hormonal profile ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic / pharmacokinetics* * Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic / pharmacology * Drug Interactions * ... Johns Wort on oral contraceptive (OC) therapy with respect to the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ... Johns Wort with oral contraceptives: effects on the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity ... Johns Wort was associated with a significant 13-15% reduction in the dose exposure from the contraceptive. Breakthrough ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic / adverse effects, pharmacology*. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. ... After participation in an open-label, continuous oral contraceptive (OC) trial for at least 6 months, participants agreed to ... 0/Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic; 0/Estrogens; 57-63-6/Ethinyl Estradiol; 797-63-7/Levonorgestrel ...
Drospirenone is a synthetic progestogen, derived from the aldosterone blocker spironolactone. It is structurally related to ... The risk of deep venous thrombosis with oral contraceptives containing drospirenone BMJ 2011; 342 :d2519 ... It has been marketed in oral contraceptive preparations, combined with 30 mg of ethinylestradiol, since about 2000. The ... The risk of deep venous thrombosis with oral contraceptives containing drospirenone. BMJ 2011; 342 doi: ...
1. Oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives may cause hormonal changes, which can make the area around the nipples appear ... Birth control pills contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Taking these pills can help prevent ...
The use of hormonal contraceptives was linked to higher risk of depression and antidepressant use in a new study, especially ... Combined oral contraceptives contain the hormones estrogen and progestin; progestin may refer to synthetic forms of the hormone ... including oral contraceptives," he added. The team now plans to investigate whether the use of hormonal contraceptives is ... Oral contraceptives - or birth control pills - remain the most common form of contraception, currently used by around 16 ...
Contain a synthetic version of estrogen and a compound known as progestin ... Drugs for UTI & Oral Contraceptives Flashcards Preview old Sophomore cards , Drugs for UTI & Oral Contraceptives , Flashcards ... Active pill cycle of combined oral contraceptives (COC). More common at start of COC use and when women changes COC type of ... Combined hormone contraceptive products, progestational products, gonadotropin inhibitors and Gn-RH agonists, ...
... such as the contraceptive patch, use the same synthetic estrogen (EE2) that is found in COCPs, and can add to the hormonal ... Contraceptive UseEdit. Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of oral medication that is designed to be taken every day, ... Main article: Oral contraceptive formulations. Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations, some containing both ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ...
Removal of synthetic sex hormones by hydrothermal carbonization.. One of the most prominent fields of environmental chemistry ... Ovulation Incidence in Oral Contraceptive Users. Since the introduction of the combined hormonal contraceptive pill, dosages of ... Study of Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Contraceptive. This is a non-comparative study. the primary objective of the study is ... Study of Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Contraceptive. This is a comparative study. The primary objective of the study is to ...
synthetic oral contraceptive An oral contraceptive which owes its effectiveness to synthetic preparation. ... desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) has role synthetic oral contraceptive (CHEBI:49326) desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) is a 17β-hydroxy steroid ... desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) has role contraceptive drug (CHEBI:49323) desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) has role progestin (CHEBI:59826) ... contraceptive drug A chemical substance that prevents or reduces the probability of conception. ...
Other forms of contraception, such as the contraceptive patch, use the same synthetic estrogen (EE2) that is found in COCPs, ... Oral contraceptives should not be used as an initial treatment for female athlete triad. While combined oral contraceptives are ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ... "Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives (RATIO) study: oral contraceptives and the risk of ischemic ...
The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) reduces cycle-length variability ... It is now estimated that the prevalence of oral contraceptive use in athletic women matches that of women in the general ... Effect of a synthetic progestin on the exercise status of sedentary young women. J Clin Endocrin Metab 2005; 90 (7): 3830-7 ... Oral contraceptive use and exerciseinduced muscle damage and recovery. Contraception 2002; 66: 67-71PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Combined pills contain synthetic forms of estrogen and progesterone. Oral contraceptives are... more... ... Birth control pills or oral contraceptives use synthetic hormones to prevent pregnancy. There are two types: combined and ... The piece of plastic contains copper or a synthetic progesterone hormone that prevents... more... ...
Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online ... such as the contraceptive patch, use the same synthetic estrogen (EE2) that is found in COCPs, and can add to the hormonal ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ... "Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives (RATIO) Study: Oral Contraceptives and the Risk of Ischemic ...
Synthetic oestrogens are a major constituent of oral contraceptives.. -oestrogenic adj. Cite this article Pick a style below, ... Such hormones are also produced artificially for use in oral contraceptives or to treat menopausal and menstrual disorders. ... They are used in oral contraceptives (with progestogens) and as treatment for various disorders of the female reproductive ... It is also a constituent of the contraceptive pill.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ...
Still, oral contraceptives are safe for women with diabetes. The American Diabetes Association suggests a combination pill with ... norgestimate and synthetic estrogen. The group also says birth control shots and implants are safe for women with the condition ...
Rock J, Garcia CR, Pincus G (1957). "Synthetic progestins in the normal human menstrual cycle". Recent Prog Horm Res. 13: 323- ... Main article: oral contraceptive formulations. Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations. The main division is ... Combined: Combined oral contraceptive pill (the Pill), Contraceptive patch, NuvaRing, Combined injectable contraceptive ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ...
Prevent pregnancy with oral contraceptives such as Mercilon. Buy your treatment including a free consultation to ensure this ... Mercilon has two active ingredients; synthetic oestrogen ethinyl estradiol and synthetic progestogen desogestrel. These two ... Mercilon is an oral contraceptive that is taken on a daily basis. Its primary aim is to prevent pregnancy, of which it is 99% ... Mercilon is a oral contraceptive that is taken over 21 days of your 28-day cycle and preventing pregnancy when used correctly. ...
Outline Reference While it is important that women take folic acid daily, I have a number of concerns about fortifying oral ... The health benefits of daily synthetic folic acid consumption reach far beyond the prevention of NTDs. Recent efforts around ... While it is important that women take folic acid daily, I have a number of concerns about fortifying oral contraceptive pills ( ...
Drospirenone is a synthetic form of progestin which can elevate the bodys potassium levels, leading to a condition called ... venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives ... Parker Waichman Alonso LLP Supports FDA Safety Review of Yaz, Yasmin and Other Drospirenone-Containing Oral Contraceptives. ... Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone or levonorgestrel: nested case-control ...
... of using oral contraceptives for hair loss in women ... Oral Contraceptives in hair loss, learn the pros and cons, ... Oral contraceptive agents, also known as "birth control pills" (i.e., OCAs, BCPs) are a synthetic mixture of the hormones ... What Are Risks Involved With Taking Oral Contraceptives?. Oral contraceptives (OCA) can be associated with increased risks of ... The newer oral contraceptives such as Yasmin, Yaz, Desogen, Mircette, Ortho-Cyclen, Ortho Tri-Cyclen and Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo ...
Oral "contraceptives", Norplant, Depo-Provera, the IUD, the "morning after pill," and the "post-rape pill" all work by causing ... BCPs are a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. BCPs "fool" the pituitary gland so that it produces less FSH and LH ... 50. Job Spira N, Fernandez H, Coste J, Papiernik E, Spira A. Risk of Chlamydia PID and oral contraceptives. J Am Med Assoc 1990 ... The effects of oral and intrauterine administration of contraceptives on the uterus. Human Pathology. 1977; 8: 513-527. ...
Oestrogens and progesterones and related synthetic drugs*Oral contraceptives. Indications and usages, anatomical therapeutic ...
  • Oral combined contraceptives(OC) have both progesterone and estrogen inside. (
  • Birth control pills contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progesterone . (
  • progestin may refer to synthetic forms of the hormone progesterone or progesterone itself. (
  • A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. (
  • The piece of plastic contains copper or a synthetic progesterone hormone that prevents. (
  • Combined pills contain synthetic forms of estrogen and progesterone. (
  • These are synthetic versions of the naturally occurring female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone. (
  • Ethinylestradiol is a synthetic version of oestrogen and gestodene is a 'third generation' synthetic form of progesterone. (
  • Oral contraceptives contain progestin or synthetic progesterone. (
  • OCAs, BCPs) are a synthetic mixture of the hormones progesterone and estrogen. (
  • If a woman has a genetic predisposition for hair loss , then oral contraceptive medications containing progesterone can potentially increase that loss by adding a source of exogenous (outside) androgens. (
  • Just as progesterone dominant BCPs can facilitate female pattern hair loss , oral contraceptives higher in estrogen can stimulate hair growth by prolonging the anagen phase of the growth cycle. (
  • MPA is a derivative of progesterone, and is also used in oral contraceptives. (
  • In order to prevent pregnancy, most oral contraceptive pills contain synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen, progesterone, and, progestin. (
  • Unfortunately, the synthetic progesterone in these contraceptives can have male hormone-like effects in the body. (
  • A much more appropriate oral contraceptive is Natazia, because it doesn't worsen insulin resistance and the synthetic progesterone it contains doesn't have masculinizing properties. (
  • These contain synthetic versions of the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone and are designed to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. (
  • It contains synthetic (artificial) versions of the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone, which women produce naturally in their ovaries. (
  • Depo and the Mirena are synthetic progesterone-only contraceptives. (
  • The oral contraceptive combination pill is defined as one type of birth control pill containing both estrogen and progesterone that helps to control unwanted pregnancy and reducing symptoms of abdominal pain before, during or after menstrual cycle such as endometriosis, premenstrual symptoms etc. (
  • ii) Acne and weigh gain caused by synthetic progesterone in the pill in some women. (
  • Natural progesterone is obtained primarily from plant sources and is currently available in injectable, intravaginal and oral formulations. (
  • An oral micronized progesterone preparation has improved bioavailability and fewer reported side effects compared with synthetic progestins. (
  • Because of the poor oral absorption of progesterone and its susceptibility to rapid first-pass metabolism in the liver, a variety of oral, injectable and implantable synthetic analogs, called "progestins," have been developed. (
  • Unlike synthetic progestins, micronized progesterone has not been shown to affect mood, 9 decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels 10 , 11 or adversely affect pregnancy outcome. (
  • Progesterone is the naturally occurring female sex hormone acting as nature's contraceptive by preventing women from conceiving during pregnancy. (
  • Since it is not orally active, progesterone cannot practically be used as an oral contraceptive. (
  • The natural female sex hormone progesterone - nature's contraceptive - is not orally active. (
  • New synthetic steroids had to be developed, which retained the biological activity of progesterone, but would be orally active. (
  • Between 1951 and 1953, scientists discovered that synthetic progesterone inhibited ovulation in lab animals. (
  • The earliest birth control pills were a 10 mg dose of synthetic, orally available progesterone. (
  • While the earliest attempts at birth control pills relied only on progesterone, accidental contamination of a batch of pills with synthetic estrogen produced fewer side effects. (
  • The synthetic progestogens are metabolized and inactivated much more slowly than the natural progesterone. (
  • The dosage forms containing a combination of 17 β-estradiol and progesterone are particularly useful as contraceptives, while the dosage forms containing only one of the hormonal components find utility in the treatment of conditions such as menopause, menstrual disorders, etc., which are known to respond to administration of a natural or synthetic female hormone. (
  • 1. A pharmaceutically acceptable nasal composition, in dosage unit form, for nasal administration to a female mammal for the purpose of mammalian contraception, said composition consisting essentially of, per nasal unit, a systemically effective contraceptive amount of a combination of progesterone and a pharmaceutically acceptable, estrogenically active form of 17β-estradiol, together with a nontoxic pharmaceutically acceptable nasal carrier therefor, said composition comprising a nasal ointment or a nasal gel. (
  • All conventional synthetic progestogens, whether they are derivatives of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone or 19-nortestosterone, lack the antimineralocorticoid effect of natural progesterone. (
  • In conclusion, Yasmin may become an especially well-tolerated combined oral contraceptive, due to the striking similarity between its progestogenic component drospirenone and progesterone. (
  • The Mørch study found that progestins-synthetic hormones that mimic certain properties of progesterone and are used in contraceptive drugs on their own or combined with estrogens-also appear to increase women's risk for breast cancer. (
  • Oral contraceptives contain synthetic forms of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone. (
  • The pill is made up of two synthetic female hormones: estrogen and progesterone. (
  • which are synthetic combination of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. (
  • Marvelon is part of a class of newer-generation birth control pills that combine synthetic versions of the naturally occurring female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone. (
  • For combination oral contraceptive pills, we also excluded progesterone-only oral products and combinations without ethinyl estradiol. (
  • Birth control pills contain synthetic forms of progesterone alone or combined with estrogen, and they prevent ovulation (egg release) by keeping your body's hormones from fluctuating. (
  • Alternative practitioners often site oral contraceptives, which contain synthetic progesterone, as a cause for yeast overgrowth. (
  • Natural and synthetic preparations of progesterone and its derivative medroxyPROGESTERone acetate are used in the treatment of secondary amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding. (
  • Most oral contraceptives (birth control pills) combine estrogen and progestin (natural or synthetic progesterone), but some contain only progestin. (
  • Ethinylestradiol (previously spelt ethinyloestradiol in the UK) is a synthetic version of oestrogen and norgestimate is a synthetic form of progesterone. (
  • Removal of synthetic sex hormones by hydrothermal carbonization. (
  • Birth control pills or oral contraceptives use synthetic hormones to prevent pregnancy. (
  • The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) reduces cycle-length variability and provides a consistent 28-day cycle by controlling concentrations of endogenous sex hormones. (
  • The association between these hormones and cancer can be confusing and intimidating, especially if you are taking or planning to take oral contraceptive pills. (
  • The synthetic hormones in some oral contraceptives can worsen insulin resistance. (
  • Vincent notes that in some previous studies in which women have used oral contraceptives as normal - three weeks of pills with active hormones and one of inactive - add up to 12 weeks without any estrogen. (
  • The Pill - Oral contraceptives affect all parts of the body with synthetic hormones. (
  • Therefore, it is biologically plausible that exogenous hormones, such as the synthetic estrogens and progestins found in oral contraceptives, have analogous effects. (
  • Oral contraceptives can vary in the types, amount, and ratios of hormones they contain. (
  • Gynecology A preparation of synthetic hormones intended to make a ♀ inconceivable by inhibiting ovulation OC formats Sequential method, combined method. (
  • While active scientific work on birth control options and contraceptives began in the middle of the 19th century with a growing understanding of hormones and ovulation, it took more than a hundred years for the development of the birth control pill. (
  • A very high dose of hormones was chosen for the first contraceptive pill, Enovid, to create the lowest possible failure rate. (
  • Also known as oral contraceptives, birth control pills are highly effective oral medications that use hormones to prevent pregnancy. (
  • Oral contraceptives like pills are prepared from synthetic hormones. (
  • A 2014 review by Cortes, et al, concluded that taking these synthetic hormones-especially estrogen-appears to contribute to insulin resistance, making blood sugar control more difficult. (
  • The results of a study published in May shows that women who take third-generation birth control pills, including Marvelon and Yasmin, increase their risk of a blood clot four-fold compared with women who don't take the Pill, due to the synthetic hormones in the drugs. (
  • Hormonal methods of contraception contain synthetic versions of reproductive hormones a woman's body produces. (
  • Nevertheless, in our large data set, psychiatric symptoms were 4 to 7 times more likely to be reported with contraceptives providing sustained doses of hormones compared to the non-hormonal copper IUD ( Table 1 ). (
  • According to the feminist women's health organization Our Bodies, Ourselves , there is "enormous variability in any individual's response to her own hormones or any synthetic hormones she takes. (
  • Because they are taken daily, the synthetic hormones from oral contraceptives leave your system in a couple days. (
  • These hormones occur naturally inside the body, but can also be taken through synthetic means. (
  • Unlike contraceptive pills containing only progestogen, like Femulen, these hormones work together to modify the environment of the reproductive system so it's almost impossible to conceive. (
  • Oral contraceptives, or birth control pills, contain synthetic forms of two hormones produced naturally in the body. (
  • Some types of oral contraceptives use only progestational hormones, but most use a combination of estrogen and progestin. (
  • This study evaluated the effect of the herbal remedy St. John's Wort on oral contraceptive (OC) therapy with respect to the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleeding. (
  • Since the introduction of the combined hormonal contraceptive pill, dosages of ethinyl estradiol (EE) have steadily decreased from more than 150mcg to 20mcg in an attempt to improve the ri. (
  • Efficacy, safety and cycle control of five oral contraceptive regimens containing norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol. (
  • The contraceptive pill used in this study was a combination pill containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate. (
  • Most combination OCPs contain ethinyl estradiol (20 to 50 mcg) and a synthetic progestin (e.g., norgestrel, norethindrone, levonorgestrel, desogestrel). (
  • Each active, white tablet (21) contains 0.1 mg of levonorgestrel, d (-)-13β-ethyl-17α-ethinyl-17β- hydroxygon-4-en-3-one, a totally synthetic progestogen, and 0.02 mg of ethinyl estradiol, 17α-ethinyl- 1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3,17β-diol. (
  • Emergency Contraceptive Pills: The FDA has concluded that certain combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel or levonorgestrel are safe and effective for use as postcoital emergency contraception. (
  • 21 orange active tablets each containing 0.1 mg of levonorgestrel, d(-)-13β-ethyl-17α-ethinyl-17β- hydroxygon-4-en-3-one, a totally synthetic progestogen, and 0.02 mg of ethinyl estradiol, 17α-ethinyl- 1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3, 17β-diol. (
  • It was hoped that the formulations for combined oral contraceptives on the market today-which utilize smaller doses of synthetic estrogens like ethinyl estradiol and estradiol valerate-would be safer to use. (
  • Drospirenone is a synthetic progestogen, derived from the aldosterone blocker spironolactone. (
  • A synthetic progestogen. (
  • Factors that may contribute to a decrease in effectiveness: missing more than one active pill in a packet, delay in starting the next packet of active pills (i.e., extending the pill-free, inactive or placebo pill period beyond 7 days), intestinal malabsorption of active pills due to vomiting or diarrhea, drug interactions with active pills that decrease contraceptive estrogen or progestogen levels. (
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill ( COCP ), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as " the pill ", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen ( estradiol ) and a progestogen ( progestin ). (
  • The Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill ( COCP ), often referred to as " the Pill ", is a combination of an estrogen ( oestrogen ) and a progestin ( progestogen ), taken by mouth to inhibit normal fertility. (
  • This contraception is a combined pill containing both synthetic oestrogen and progestogen and can be used to help alleviate menstrual cycle symptoms such as cramping and a heavy flow. (
  • Mercilon is a combined pill meaning it contains both artificial oestrogen and progestogen, although it's worth noting that this particular contraceptive does contain a lower dosage of oestrogen than most pills so can be suitable if you have experienced side effects with the female sex hormone. (
  • The probe, published in the BMJ, compared oral contraceptives containing a synthetic version of the hormone progestogen with earlier versions of the pill. (
  • Seasonal, Seasonique, LoSeasonique is an extended-cycle oral contraceptive consisting of levonorgestrel, a synthetic progestogen and ethinylestradiol, an orally active semisynthetic steroidal estrogen. (
  • Historically, the dose of a progestogen that produced secretory changes in the estrogen-primed endometrium was the one used in the first clinical contraceptive studies of that agent. (
  • It later became apparent that these levels of estrogen were unnecessarily high when it was learned that the progestogen dose alone provided a fully contraceptive effect. (
  • We conclude that the suppression of 17β‐estradiol and/or progestogen in women via the administration of oral contraceptives attenuates sex‐related differences in the metaboreflex during isometric handgrip exercise. (
  • Multi-center, Open, Randomized, Dose Finding Phase II Study to Investigate Ultra Low Dose Levonorgestrel Contraceptive Intrauterine Systems (LCS) Releasing Different Amounts of Levonorgestrel Compared to MIRENA in Nulliparous and Parous Women in Need of Contraception. (
  • Oral contraceptives - or birth control pills - remain the most common form of contraception, currently used by around 16 percent of women aged 15-44 in the U.S. (
  • From 2015 to 2017, 12.6% of women aged 15-49 in the US reported using oral contraception, making it the second most common method of contraception in this age range with female sterilization being the most common method. (
  • Katya tablets are a type of hormonal contraception commonly known as 'the pill' or combined oral contraceptive pill. (
  • Oral contraceptives, which have been in use now for 30 years in the United States, are a highly effective and popular means of contraception. (
  • Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. (
  • Most women who discontinue hormonal contraception do not use another contraceptive method and are therefore at high risk for unintended pregnancy. (
  • Progestin-only emergency contraception offers a regimen that is more effective than combination oral contraceptive pills, with fewer reported side effects. (
  • Lutera is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use oral contraceptives as a method of contraception. (
  • Table II lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. (
  • oral hormone medication for contraception. (
  • Because of their effectiveness and good patient acceptability, the oral progestin/estrogen combinations are the most widely used steroidal formulations for contraception. (
  • Sabapathy, Surendran 2018-01-01 00:00:00 We sought to determine whether oral contraception alters the gender‐related differences observed in the exercise pressor reflex during isometric handgrip exercise. (
  • Systematic surveys report a probability of contraception failure over 12 months of 7.2% for combination oral products, 6% for all IUDs, and 1.4% for implants. (
  • Oral contraception can be convenient and reliable when used properly. (
  • If you are over 35, smoke, have a history of blood clots or breast or endometrial cancer, you may not be a good candidate for oral contraception. (
  • Since oral contraception can interact with certain medications you do need to review your current medications with the prescribing doctor. (
  • It can take up to six months for fertility to return to a normal baseline state, after stopping oral contraception. (
  • Besides oral contraceptives, other forms of combined hormonal contraception include contraceptive patches, contraceptive vaginal rings, and combined injectable contraceptives. (
  • Uniqueness of oral contraceptive progestins. (
  • Androgenic progestins in oral contraceptives and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. (
  • Because of the reported side effects of synthetic analogs called "progestins," there has been interest in replicating the natural hormone for clinical use. (
  • New progestins for use in combination oral contraceptive pills were specifically developed to reduce androgenic symptoms. (
  • Estrogens mediate their contraceptive effects in combination with progestins by inhibiting ovulation. (
  • Estrogens have contraceptive effects and are used in combination with progestins (synthetic progestogens) in birth control to prevent pregnancy in women. (
  • Double-blind, randonuzed study comparing the effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives containing etlunylestradiol (20μg or 30μg) and levonorgestrel (100μg or 150μg) of lipoprotein metabolism. (
  • Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone or levonorgestrel: nested case-control study based on UK General Practice Research Database. (
  • Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims data. (
  • Compared with women not using oral contraceptives, women using older pills containing levonorgestrel, norethisterone and norgestimate, had about two and a half times increased risk of VTE, it found. (
  • In our study, unintended pregnancies were reported for all five contraceptive methods, but the proportion of reports was highest for combination oral products, mostly due to missed doses, and lowest for levonorgestrel IUDs ( Table 1 ). (
  • The strongest signals were seen for oral combination pills and levonorgestrel IUDs. (
  • For use as an oral contraceptive in the prevention of pregnancy. (
  • Occurrence of menses or pregnancy after cessation of a continuous oral contraceptive. (
  • After participation in an open-label, continuous oral contraceptive (OC) trial for at least 6 months, participants agreed to enroll in a separate study of the return to menses or pregnancy. (
  • These contraceptives work by preventing ovulation and making it harder for sperm to reach the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. (
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of oral medication that is designed to be taken every day, at the same time of day, in order to prevent pregnancy. (
  • the primary objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of a low dose oral contraceptive in the prevention of pregnancy. (
  • The use of birth control pills, oral contraceptives, to help prevent pregnancy is widespread. (
  • According to the 'Journal of Affective Disorders,' some factors contributing to mood and affect changes include a history of depressed mood or psychiatric disorders, a family history of mood problems during oral contraceptive use, having premenstrual feelings of sadness before starting oral contraceptives, being depressed during or after pregnancy and having a vitamin B-6 deficiency while taking oral contraceptives. (
  • Mercilon is a oral contraceptive that is taken over 21 days of your 28-day cycle and preventing pregnancy when used correctly. (
  • The estrogen/progestin combination oral contraceptive is specifically indicated for use by women to prevent pregnancy. (
  • oral contraceptive a compound, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. (
  • The pregnancy rate when oral contraceptives are used correctly is less than 0.2% a year. (
  • Oral contraceptives are second after sterilization in effectiveness in avoiding pregnancy. (
  • Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. (
  • When taken in the proper amounts, following a specific schedule, oral contraceptives are very effective in preventing pregnancy. (
  • The main way that oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy is by keeping an egg from ripening fully. (
  • It has been marketed in oral contraceptive preparations, combined with 30 mg of ethinylestradiol, since about 2000. (
  • ZOELY contains estradiol, the natural estrogen, compared with most Pills which contain the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. (
  • Ethinylestradiol, as the estrogenic component of combined oral contraceptives, is a sodium-retaining drug. (
  • Consequently, an oral contraceptive was designed containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone (Yasmin, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) in the hope of developing a contraceptive that might prevent the sodium retention brought about by the effect of ethinylestradiol. (
  • In a 6-month study involving 20 regularly menstruating women, it was shown that the addition of drospirenone to ethinylestradiol did indeed prevent the small rise in body weight and blood pressure observed in some women taking a conventional oral contraceptive. (
  • Mestranol is a synthetic estrogen that is metabolized to Ethinylestradiol with similar actions as estradiol. (
  • Trinovum pills contain the active ingredients ethinylestradiol and norethisterone, which are synthetic versions of oestrogen and progesteron. (
  • Examples of estrogens include bioidentical estradiol, natural conjugated estrogens, synthetic steroidal estrogens like ethinylestradiol, and synthetic nonsteroidal estrogens like diethylstilbestrol. (
  • Most combined oral contraceptives contain ethinylestradiol or its prodrug mestranol as the estrogen component, but a few contain estradiol or estradiol valerate. (
  • Ethinylestradiol is generally used in oral contraceptives instead of estradiol because it has superior oral pharmacokinetics (higher bioavailability and less interindividual variability) and controls vaginal bleeding more effectively. (
  • Contraceptive patches and vaginal rings contain ethinylestradiol as the estrogen component, while combined injectable contraceptives contain estradiol or more typically an estradiol ester. (
  • While it is important that women take folic acid daily, I have a number of concerns about fortifying oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) with folic acid. (
  • Two groups, each composed of 20 women, who used depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2-hours) levels of serum insulin, growth hormone, glucagon, cortisol and blood pyruvate. (
  • The 17-acetoxy compounds are used only in injectable contraceptives. (
  • Parker Waichman Alonso LLP, a national law firm dedicated to protecting the rights of injured victims, commends and fully supports the U.S. Food & Drug Administration's (FDA) decision to conduct a safety review of Yaz, Yasmin and other drospirenone contraceptives in light of recent studies indicating they pose a greater risk of life-threatening blood clots compared to other birth control pills. (
  • Drospirenone is a synthetic form of progestin which can elevate the body's potassium levels, leading to a condition called hyperkalemia in certain patients. (
  • On May 31, 2011, the FDA issued a Drug Safety Communication ( ) announcing that it would be reviewing the safety of Yaz, Yasmin and similar drospirenone contraceptives. (
  • The FDA's announcement followed the publication of two studies in The British Medical Journal that reported a two- to three-fold greater risk of venous thromboembolic events in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared to those taking pills made with an alternative form of progestin. (
  • For that reason, Parker Waichman Alonso LLP continues to call on Bayer Corporation, as well as the makers of other drospirenone contraceptives, to remove these products from the market immediately. (
  • Parker Waichman Alonso LLP continues to offer free legal evaluations to victims of drospirenone contraceptives, including Yaz and Yasmin. (
  • Women using a newer version of the contraceptive containing drospirenone, desogestrel, gestodene and cyproterone, had around a four times increased risk of VTE compared to women who did not take the pill. (
  • In 2011, Australia's drug regulator the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) issued an advisory about the blood clot risk of contraceptives that contain drospirenone such as Yaz and Yasmin , and later in 2013, drugs that contain cyproterone such as Diane 35-D . (
  • In one study, 62% of women also taking oral contraceptives containing the synthetic progestin drospirenone reported improvement. (
  • In an early preclinical study in 12 normal young women, it was found that the oral administration of 2 mg drospirenone for 6 days led to a cumulative sodium loss of 84 mmol and a significant rise in plasma renin and aldosterone, compared with placebo. (
  • DMPA and NET-EN caused significant changes in mean blood glucose and pyruvate and in mean serum insulin, growth hormone and glucagon, but not in mean fasting cortisol. (
  • In early 1951, reproductive physiologist Gregory Pincus, a leader in hormone research and co-founder of the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology (WFEB) in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, first met American birth control movement founder Margaret Sanger at a Manhattan dinner hosted by Abraham Stone, medical director and vice president of Planned Parenthood (PPFA), who helped Pincus obtain a small grant from PPFA to begin hormonal contraceptive research. (
  • Those taking oral contraceptives registered an increase in bone mass in the lumbar spine and total femur, as did those on high dose hormone therapy. (
  • Another strength is that they examined more than one type of menopausal hormone therapy, as well as different doses with a 30- mcg oral contraceptive pill. (
  • In comparison with hormone therapy with estradiol, some of this research has shown that there is less benefit to bone density in oral contraceptives used for POI. (
  • Regular hormone therapy does not act as a contraceptive. (
  • It required the efforts of organic chemists to synthesise steroids that mimic the biological activity of the natural hormone and that are effective by oral administration. (
  • A study published last week in The New England Journal of Medicine has found that hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptive pills and hormone-releasing IUDs, significantly increase women's risk for breast cancer. (
  • Hormone containing contraceptives do not affect the composition of milk, minerals (Mg, Fe, Cu, Ca, P) fat, lactose and calories but only a few the proteins. (
  • That medication is in minimal use today because people who are unable to produce a sufficient amount of thyroid hormone are usually prescribed a synthetic form, such as levothyroxine. (
  • Norethindrone is a synthetic oral progestin. (
  • As an oral contraceptive, norethindrone is available as either a single agent or in combination with an estrogen. (
  • The lead compound, norethindrone, was synthesised in 1951 and all but one of the subsequent steroid oral contraceptives are based on that chemical template. (
  • NOTE: If switching from combined oral contraceptive (OC), initiate norethindrone the day after the last active combined OC pill. (
  • Progestational compounds, such as norethindrone and norgestrel, are constituents of oral contraceptives. (
  • The contraceptive efficacy of such pills is undoubted, but their adverse effect profile is the subject of controversy, particularly the potential to cause venous thromboembolism. (
  • Contraceptive efficacy may be impaired by numerous means. (
  • Rosenberg MJ, Meyers A, Roy V. Efficacy, cycle control, and side effects of low- and lower-dose oral contraceptives: a randomized trial of 20pg and 35pg oestrogen preparations. (
  • The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, the IUD , and Norplant System, depends upon the reliability with which they are used. (
  • Source: Trussell J. Contraceptive efficacy. (
  • At that point, the estrogen dose was increased until the product became clinically acceptable, that is, in terms of contraceptive efficacy and regulation of bleeding. (
  • Estrogen doses, however, rather than undergoing proportional decreases, were retained at sufficiently high levels to ensure contraceptive efficacy of the product. (
  • Does terbinafine reduce efficacy of oral contraceptives? (
  • Interaction between diet pills and oral contraceptive efficacy? (
  • Real-world efficacy of these products may be weaker than women expect due to both the properties of the contraceptive itself as well as the actions or omissions of the patient or healthcare professional. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a contraceptive vaginal ring on inhibition of ovulation, endometrial changes and bleeding patterns in normal cycling women. (
  • Additionally, taking an oral contraceptive results in anovulation [11] , which is when ovulation does not happen. (
  • Progestin-only oral contraceptives generally do not block ovulation. (
  • This synthetic steroidal antiandrogen acts by inhibiting ovulation and topically by blocking the androgen receptors on cells in sebaceous gland. (
  • The contraceptive effects of estrogens are mediated by their antigonadotropic effects and hence by inhibition of ovulation. (
  • You need to use another contraceptive method, such as condoms, while taking the first box. (
  • It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED). (
  • Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) is an intramuscular progestin injection (150 mg) that provides approximately 14 weeks of adequate contraceptive levels. (
  • Examples of progestin-only contraceptives include the Norplant implant and the Depo-Provera contraceptive device. (
  • Treatment with St. John's Wort was associated with a significant 13-15% reduction in the dose exposure from the contraceptive. (
  • Feeding chickens with oral contraceptive steroids at the dose used by some poultry growers in Egypt has led to the formation of high estrogen residues in the muscles and the liver compared with controls. (
  • Le fait de nourrir des poulets avec des stéroïdes contraceptifs oraux à la dose utilisée par certains éleveurs de volailles en Egypte a entraîné la formation d'importants résidus d'oestrogènes dans les muscles et le foie par rapport à ceux des poulets témoins. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the formation of residues in the muscle and liver of chickens of contraceptive steroids applied orally at the same dose used by poultry growers and the resultant level of estrogen in chickens. (
  • The animals in Group A were given contraceptive pills at the same dose used by poultry growers in Egypt (four strips of Anovlar/100 kg diet) for four weeks. (
  • The experimental birds in Group C received contraceptive pills and DMBA at the same dose levels for the same period. (
  • Most women today take an oral contraceptive with a low dose of estrogen. (
  • Given the current availability of the high sensitivity CRP test, it is possible to assess the effects of current low dose oral contraceptives on this biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. (
  • The women were divided into groups based on the type of therapy they used: those on contraceptives, and those on a low-dose estrogen/progestin combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate or 1 mg E2 used with norethisterone (a high-dose estrogen/progestin combination), or tibolone. (
  • Even with low-dose oral contraceptives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure may be raised in susceptible individuals. (
  • When studies came out decades ago linking synthetic estrogens with breast cancer, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began pulling high-dose estrogen oral contraceptives off the market in the early 1990s. (
  • During lactation, progestin-only contraceptive pills are preferred to Estrogen containing ones, otherwise, the lowest estrogen dose should be used. (
  • The oral dose for adults and adolescents is 2500 IU per day, for children from 1 to 14 years the dose is 1250 IU per day. (
  • The oral dose is 45 mg daily, administered in 2 evenly divided doses. (
  • The WHI studies used one type of estrogen supplement, a high oral dose of conjugated estrogens (Premarin alone and with medroxyprogesterone acetate as Prempro). (
  • When pelvic pain is present, initially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral contraceptives (OCs), progestational agents, or an intrauterine device can be helpful. (
  • Currently, studies have not found differences on the frequency of breastfeeding or the amount of milk produced or weight gain of breastfed infants compared to other contraceptive methods (intrauterine devices, isolated progestogens). (
  • The newer oral contraceptives such as Yasmin, Yaz, Desogen, Mircette, Ortho-Cyclen, Ortho Tri-Cyclen and Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo have lower androgenetic effects and are useful in patients concerned about hair loss. (
  • The higher risk of VTE with newer oral contraceptive pills is already well documented and information relating to this risk is included in the product information and consumer medicine information documents for Yaz and Yasmin," says a TGA spokesperson. (
  • Perhaps the most famous combination oral contraceptives are Yasmin and Yaz . (
  • Oral steroid preparations (prednisone, for example) may be used to treat poison ivy, hay fever, or insect bites as well as inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, allergies, and asthma. (
  • A Commission of the Honduran Medical Association issued a report on the distribution of the contraceptive mini-pill, Ovrette (Norgestrel), by the Institute of Honduran Social Security (IHSS). (
  • Its active ingredient is a synthetic steroid, a progestagen, named Norgestrel. (
  • It is unknown if any possible damage will be detected in puberty or during the reproductive age since there is no study of exposed children that are older than 12 years of age ("Final report about the use in Honduras of the oral contraceptive Ovrette (Norgestrel) in lactating women," Honduran Medical Association, 7 June 1993). (
  • Decreased maximal aerobic capacity with use of a triphasic oral contraceptive in highly active women: a randomised controlled trial. (
  • Triphasic oral contraceptives may vary both the estrogen and progestin levels at different times during the cycle. (
  • Lebrun CM. Effects of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives on sports performance. (
  • Measuring performance during the menstrual cycle: a model using oral contraceptives. (
  • Taking the contraceptive pill usually results in lighter, less painful and more regular menstrual bleeding. (
  • Combined oral contraceptives like Katya work by over-riding the normal menstrual cycle . (
  • However, if you have a short menstrual cycle (with your period coming every 23 days or less), starting as late as the fifth day of your cycle may not provide you with immediate contraceptive protection. (
  • Oral contraceptive users experienced less affect changes across the entire menstrual cycle in comparison to women not taking oral contraceptives, according to the article. (
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill (the pill) can be started at any time in your menstrual cycle. (
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill ( COCP ), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as " the pill ", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally. (
  • Management strategies for women with abnormal uterine bleeding who are using progestin-only contraceptive methods include counseling and reassurance, as well as the administration of supplemental estrogen and/or an NSAID during bleeding episodes. (
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills reduce acne because the oestrogen they contain blocks the action of androgens of the skin. (
  • Oral contraceptive steroids have been used at excessively high doses as growth-promoting agents by some poultry growers in Egypt. (
  • Earlier formulations of oral contraceptives used in the 1970s and 80s used higher doses of synthetic estrogens than today's contraceptives. (
  • New research published in the Journal of Women's Health has shown that taking oral contraceptives for three months worsens insulin resistance in women with PCOS more than in women without PCOS. (
  • Taking oral contraceptives may promote insulin resistance, particular in those with diabetes or prediabetes. (
  • Treatment of diabetes mellitus (inability of the body to produce and/or utilize insulin) may involve an adjustment of diet and/or the administration of insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. (
  • Oral antidiabetics induce the pancreas to secrete more insulin by acting on small groups of pancreatic cells that make and store insulin. (
  • Some people with type 2 diabetes may need both insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs. (
  • [8] As of 2012, 16% of U.S. women aged 15-44 reported being on the birth control pill, making it the most widely used contraceptive method among women of that age range. (
  • 1 A number of physicians and researchers have claimed that the birth control pill (BCP) (also called an oral contraceptive ) is actually an abortifacient. (
  • ZOELY is an oral contraceptive, commonly known as a "Birth Control Pill" or "The Pill" that has been prescribed to prevent you from getting pregnant. (
  • Birth control pill that contains the combination of an estrogen (Mestranol) and a progestin (Norethynodrel) for oral use. (
  • The synthetic chemicals in any type of birth control Pill interfere with this coordination, adversely affecting her normal fertility and any "accidental" conceptions. (
  • Many doctors prescribe the wrong type of hormonal contraceptive to these women. (
  • The American Diabetes Association suggests a combination pill with norgestimate and synthetic estrogen. (
  • Women using OCs should be cautioned that St. John's Wort might interfere with contraceptive effectiveness. (
  • An oral contraceptive which owes its effectiveness to synthetic preparation. (
  • The effectiveness of the combined oral contraceptive pill appears to be similar whether the active pills are taken continuously for prolonged periods of time or if they are taken for 21 active days and 7 days as placebo. (
  • More of a concern, but careful study has shown that the common oral antibiotics that we take do not reduce the effectiveness of oc's. (
  • Do antibiotics reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills? (
  • Certain medicines as well as certain herbs increase the speed that oral contraceptives are cleared from the body, decreasing effectiveness. (
  • Can a laxative affect oral contraceptive effectiveness? (
  • Some of the products may have synthetic medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) added. (
  • Biphasic oral contraceptives use a constant amount of estrogen during the full cycle, but the amount of progestin is lower during the first half of the cycle and increases in the second half. (
  • This is due to its synthetic nature and its resistance to metabolism in certain tissues such as the intestines, liver, and uterus relative to estradiol. (
  • It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. (
  • BCPs are a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. (
  • What Are Oral Contraceptive Combination Pills? (
  • b) Risks i) Since the oral contraceptive combination pill contains estrogen, it may cause blood clots, stroke and heart disease ii) Hypertension caused by thickening of blood in arteries. (
  • Combination oral contraceptives act by suppression of gonadotropins. (
  • It appears that side effects and warnings are consistent with all brand names for the generic combination oral contraceptive. (
  • This strong overall safety record is of interest given the known serious adverse events associated with these products, particularly blood clots with combination oral products, complications such as uterine perforation with IUDs, and ectopic pregnancies with IUDs and implant products. (
  • The broadest study of its kind on Wednesday backed estimates that newer kinds of contraceptive pills carry a higher risk of dangerous blood clots. (
  • The EMA also reiterated advice to doctors to make regular assessments about the risk of blood clots to any patient taking contraceptive pills. (
  • This update will aim to better reflect the risk of blood clots, heart attacks and strokes associated with the use of oral contraceptives, making specific reference to inherited clotting disorders," she says. (
  • Among women using the then "low dosage" progestin oral contraceptives, the study found no difference in the prevalence of positive serum CRP between this class of OC users versus nonusers. (
  • It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. (
  • It is concluded that the use of oral contraceptive steroids in chickens as anabolic agent is a specific risk to chickens and probably to the consumer. (
  • Contraceptive steroids represent a major method of birth control in the United States and in many other countries. (
  • If you actually have oral thrush and you have not been on steroids (oral of inhaled), are not under chemotherapy then you have a problem with your immune system and need to be checked for immune related issues asap. (
  • The introduction and dissemination of oral contraceptives in the United States have been superimposed on steadily rising breast cancer incidence rates. (
  • Human studies of the effects of oral contraceptive use on breast cancer incidence have been complicated by the relatively short history of such use and a lack of stability of oral contraceptive formulations and usage patterns. (