Contraceptives, Oral, Combined
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
Contraceptive Agents, Female
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic
Contraceptive Agents, Male
Family Planning Services
Intrauterine Devices, Copper
Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination
Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential
Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Reproductive Health Services
Family Planning Policy
Natural Family Planning Methods
Women's Health Services
Health Services Accessibility
Indians, Central American
Ambulatory Care Facilities
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Interviews as Topic
Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies
Intrauterine Device Migration
Student Health Services
Low-oestrogen oral contraceptives.(1/142)(+info)
A comparison of the inhibition of ovulation achieved by desogestrel 75 micrograms and levonorgestrel 30 micrograms daily. (2/142)A randomized, double blind, group comparative study was performed over a 12 month period to compare inhibition of ovulation during the use of two (progestogen-only) oral contraceptives containing doses of 75 micrograms desogestrel or 30 micrograms levonorgestrel. Seventy-one female volunteers with regular cycles and established ovulation by ultrasonography and serum progesterone concentrations were recruited from an out-patient clinic in a university hospital and asked to participate in the study. Transvaginal ultrasonography and serum oestradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) measurements were performed throughout the 7th and 12th 28 day treatment period. Desogestrel at a dose of 75 micrograms showed a significant inhibition of ovulation compared to 30 micrograms levonorgestrel (P < 0.001). (+info)
Endometrial steroid receptors during decidualization in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta); their modulation by anti-oestrogen CDRI-85/287. (3/142)With a view to elucidating the hormonal control of decidualization in rhesus monkey, we studied the effects of CDRI-85/287, a potent anti-oestrogen, on endometrial steroid receptors in vivo and in vitro. Compound 85/287 was administered (i.m.) on days 8, 9 and 10 of steroid treatment cycle at a dose of 15 mg/monkey. Deciduoma was induced on day 16. Histological examination of endometrial tissue on days 24 and 30 of the cycle showed an apparent inhibition in uterine epithelial and subepithelial decidual cell plaque formation and a decrease in leukocytic infiltration into the stroma in anti-oestrogen-treated animals. As observed on day 24, a significant decrease in progesterone receptors (PR) (nuclear + cytosolic) was observed in the 85/287-treated group, whereas oestrogen receptor (ER) content remained unaltered. On day 30 total ER as well as total PR content was markedly reduced in treated animals. In-vitro results clearly demonstrated a competitive antagonism of 85/287 at the ER level only. The results are discussed in relation to the histological changes and modulation of steroid receptors, thereby suggesting the decidualization inhibitory activity of anti-oestrogen molecule 85/287 in primate species. (+info)
Altered reflex control of cutaneous circulation by female sex steroids is independent of prostaglandins. (4/142)We tested the hypothesis that the shift in the cutaneous vasodilator response to hyperthermia seen with elevated female reproductive hormones is a prostaglandin-dependent resetting of thermoregulation to higher internal temperatures, similar to that seen in the febrile response to bacterial infection. Using water-perfused suits to control body temperature, we conducted heat stress experiments in resting women under conditions of low and high progesterone and estrogen and repeated these experiments after an acute dose of ibuprofen (800 mg). In six women the hormones were exogenous (oral contraceptives); three women had regular menstrual cycles and were tested in the early follicular and midluteal phases. Resting oral temperature (Tor) was significantly elevated with high hormone status (P < 0.05); this was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (P > 0.2). The Tor threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly increased by high hormone status (+0.27 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0. 02); the shift was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (with ibuprofen: +0.29 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P > 0.2 vs. control experiments). The Tor threshold for sweating was similarly increased by high hormone status (+0.22 +/- 0.05 degrees C, P < 0.05); this shift was not influenced by ibuprofen (with ibuprofen: +0.35 +/- 0. 05, P > 0.1 vs. control experiments). Thus the shift in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow and sweating mediated by female reproductive steroids is not sensitive to ibuprofen; it therefore appears that this shift is independent of prostaglandins. (+info)
Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: A re-analysis of the MediPlus database. (5/142)In October 1995 the Committee on Safety of Medicines advised UK doctors and pharmacists that oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene were associated with double the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) compared to pills containing other progestogens. In 1997 data was analysed from the MediPlus database of UK general practitioner records, which reported odds ratios for desogestrel and gestodene lower than that for levonorgestrel. Here the results of a more stringent nested case control analysis on the MediPlus database are reported. The study was larger and cases were verified. A crude incidence of idiopathic VTE was found amongst users of combined oral contraceptives of 4.6 per 10 000 exposed women years. Using levonorgestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg as reference, non-significant odds ratios of 1.1 (0.5-2.6) for desogestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg and 1.1 (0.5-2.4) for gestodene 75 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg were found. The results of this study show no significant difference in risk between different formulations of combined oral contraceptive. (+info)
The differential risk of oral contraceptives: the impact of full exposure history. (6/142)Previous discussions have indicated that the small increases of risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with newer combined oral contraceptives (third generation, containing desogestrel and gestodene) may be attributed to bias due to cohort effects. In a case-control analysis, this may produce an overestimate of risk of newer preparations. In 10 centres in Germany and the UK, the Transnational Study analysed data from 502 women aged 16-44 years with VTE, and from 1864 controls matched for 5-year age group and region. Information on lifetime exposure history from all subjects was added to the dataset used in previous analyses and entered into a Cox regression model with time-dependent covariates. Based on 17 622 continuous exposure episodes comprising 47 914 person-years of observation, the adjusted hazard ratio (equivalent to odds ratio, OR) of VTE for the comparison of current users of third-generation versus current users of second-generation (primarily levonorgestrel compounds) combined oral contraceptives was 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3). The OR obtained in standard case-control analysis had been 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1). Adjustment for past exposures includes more information and appears more valid than the standard cross-sectional analysis. Using this approach, the Transnational Study data show no evidence for an increased risk of VTE with third- compared with second-generation combined oral contraceptives. (+info)
Fear of black market means no RU-486 for Canada until US approves drug. (7/142)Mifepristone, the "abortion pill" that is better known as RU-486, is no closer to arriving in Canada than it was 8 years ago. But that fact hasn't slowed debate about the product. (+info)
Contraceptive efficacy of daily administration of 0.5 mg mifepristone. (8/142)The antiprogestin mifepristone has shown potential to be used as a contraceptive. If 200 mg mifepristone is administered immediately after ovulation, the endometrium shows sufficient impairment of secretory development to prevent implantation. Low daily doses of mifepristone have been shown to reduce several of the local factors regarded as crucial for implantation in human endometrium. To find out if this regimen is sufficient to prevent pregnancy, 32 women were recruited for a study where 0.5 mg mifepristone was administered daily. A total of 141 cycles were studied. Five pregnancies occurred, which was significantly less than if no contraceptive method had been used. However, the dose chosen did not seem sufficient to act as a contraceptive although it is probably not possible to increase the dose without disturbing ovulation and bleeding pattern. (+info)
Also known as: Menstrual Disorders, Menstrual Abnormalities, Dysmenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea.
Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:
* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.
It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.
Metrorrhagia can be diagnosed through a pelvic exam, ultrasound or hysteroscopy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition, and may include medications to regulate hormones or shrink fibroids, or surgery to remove polyps or fibroids. It is important for women who experience metrorrhagia to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment to rule out any serious underlying conditions such as endometrial cancer.
Word origin: Greek "metro" meaning month + "rhagia" meaning flow.
STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.
STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.
Some of the most common STDs include:
* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.
It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.
If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.
In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.
There are several possible causes of amenorrhea, including:
1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalance of hormones can prevent the uterus from preparing for menstruation.
2. Pregnancy: Pregnancy is one of the most common causes of amenorrhea.
3. Menopause: Women going through menopause may experience amenorrhea due to the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods or amenorrhea.
5. Thyroid Disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause amenorrhea.
6. Obesity: Women who are significantly overweight may experience amenorrhea due to the hormonal imbalance caused by excess body fat.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
8. Surgery or Trauma: Certain surgeries, such as hysterectomy or removal of the ovaries, can cause amenorrhea. Trauma, such as a severe injury or infection, can also cause amenorrhea.
9. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and chemotherapy drugs, can cause amenorrhea as a side effect.
10. Endocrine Disorders: Disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism can cause amenorrhea.
Amenorrhea can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. No menstrual period
2. Difficulty getting pregnant (infertility)
3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
4. Painful intercourse
5. Weight gain or loss
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
10. Hot flashes
Amenorrhea is typically diagnosed based on a patient's medical history and physical examination. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of amenorrhea, such as:
1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, to evaluate the ovaries and uterus
3. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to visually examine the ovaries and fallopian tubes
4. Hysteroscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus
The treatment of amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:
1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore hormone balance and promote menstruation
2. Medications to stimulate ovulation, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole
3. Surgery to remove fibroids, cysts, or other structural abnormalities that may be contributing to amenorrhea
4. Infertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the patient is experiencing difficulty getting pregnant
5. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or exercise, to improve overall health and promote menstruation
There is no specific way to prevent amenorrhea, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing any underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some tips for prevention include:
1. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
2. Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve overall health
3. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation
4. Getting enough sleep each night
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
6. Maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI) to reduce the risk of developing hormonal imbalances
7. Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders
8. Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins that can disrupt hormone balance.
Thromboembolism can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, surgery, cancer, and certain medical conditions like atrial fibrillation. It can also be inherited or acquired through genetic mutations.
The symptoms of thromboembolism depend on the location of the clot and the severity of the blockage. They may include:
* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
* Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
* Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
Thromboembolism can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, thrombolysis or clot-busting drugs may be used to dissolve the clot. Filters can also be placed in the vena cava to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of thromboembolism includes:
* Moving around regularly to improve blood flow
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Elevating the affected limb to reduce swelling
* Compression stockings to improve blood flow
* Avoiding smoking and managing weight
* Taking anticoagulant medications if recommended by a healthcare provider.
There are two main types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by uterine muscle contractions that occur during menstruation, while secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by an underlying medical condition such as endometriosis, fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease.
Symptoms of dysmenorrhea may include:
* Cramping pain in the lower abdomen, usually beginning before or at the onset of menstruation and lasting for 1-3 days
* Pain that can be sharp, dull, or throbbing
* Pelvic discomfort or heaviness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Mild fever
While dysmenorrhea is not a life-threatening condition, it can significantly impact a woman's quality of life, particularly during her reproductive years. The exact cause of primary dysmenorrhea is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause uterine muscle contractions and increased blood flow to the pelvis.
Treatment for dysmenorrhea may include over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or naproxen, as well as home remedies such as heat application, exercise, and relaxation techniques. In some cases, prescription medications or surgery may be necessary to address underlying conditions that are contributing to the dysmenorrhea.
It's important for women who experience severe or persistent dysmenorrhea to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may need treatment. With proper diagnosis and management, most women with dysmenorrhea can find relief from their symptoms and lead normal, active lives.
Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).
Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.
There are several types of acne, including:
1. Comedonal acne: characterized by blackheads and whiteheads.
2. Inflammatory acne: characterized by papules, pustules, and nodules.
3. Cystic acne: characterized by large, painful cysts that can cause scarring.
4. Acne rosacea: a type of acne that occurs in adults, characterized by redness, flushing, and telangiectasias (small blood vessels).
There are several treatment options for acne vulgaris, including:
1. Topical treatments: such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and sulfur.
2. Oral antibiotics: such as doxycycline and minocycline.
3. Retinoids: derived from vitamin A, used to unclog pores and reduce inflammation.
4. Hormonal therapies: such as birth control pills, used to regulate hormones that can contribute to acne.
5. Isotretinoin: a powerful oral medication used for severe cases of cystic acne that have not responded to other treatments.
6. Laser and light therapy: such as blue light therapy and photodynamic therapy, used to reduce inflammation and kill bacteria.
7. Lifestyle modifications: such as using non-comedogenic products, wearing sunscreen, and avoiding picking or popping pimples.
It is important to note that acne can be a persistent condition, and it may take time and experimentation to find the right treatment approach. It's best to consult with a dermatologist for personalized advice on treating acne vulgaris.
Causes of Menorrhagia
There are several potential causes of menorrhagia, including:
1. Hormonal imbalance: Hormonal changes can lead to an imbalance in the uterus, causing excessive bleeding.
2. Uterine fibroids: These noncancerous growths in the uterus can cause heavy bleeding during menstruation.
3. Adenomyosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, leading to heavy bleeding.
4. Endometrial polyps: These are growths that can develop on the lining of the uterus and cause heavy bleeding.
5. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause menorrhagia.
6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause scarring and lead to heavy bleeding.
7. IUDs: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) can cause heavy bleeding, especially during the first few months after insertion.
8. Medications: Certain medications such as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs can increase the risk of menorrhagia.
9. Bleeding disorders: Women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease or platelet dysfunction, may experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
10. Cancer: In rare cases, menorrhagia can be a symptom of uterine cancer.
Symptoms of Menorrhagia
The primary symptom of menorrhagia is heavy menstrual bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeds that are heavier than usual. Other symptoms may include:
1. Soaking through sanitary products every hour or two
2. Using double sanitary products (e.g., a pad and a tampon) to control bleeding
3. Bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days
4. Menstrual blood clots larger than a quarter
5. Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
6. Passing large blood clots during bowel movements or urination
7. Fatigue, dizziness, or fainting due to anemia
8. Weakness or shortness of breath
Diagnosis and Treatment of Menorrhagia
If you experience any of the symptoms of menorrhagia, it is important to see a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. The healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order one or more of the following tests to determine the cause of heavy menstrual bleeding:
1. Complete Blood Count (CBC) to check for anemia and other blood abnormalities
2. Blood smear examination to look for abnormal cells or blood clotting disorders
3. Ultrasound to evaluate the uterus and ovaries
4. Endometrial biopsy to examine the lining of the uterus
5. Hysteroscopy to visualize the inside of the uterus
6. Laparoscopy to evaluate the pelvic organs
Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Medications such as hormonal contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or iron supplements to control bleeding and anemia
2. Surgical procedures such as endometrial ablation or hysterectomy in severe cases that do not respond to other treatments
3. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, as well as taking regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to regulate hormonal imbalances
5. Platelet transfusions or blood transfusions in cases of severe bleeding
It's important to note that menorrhagia can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it's essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
1. Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding (more than 7 days)
2. Bleeding between periods or after sex
3. Painful periods or difficulty using tampons
4. Fever, chills, or vomiting during menstruation
5. Unusual vaginal discharge or odor
6. Abdominal pain or bloating
Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications of menorrhagia, such as anemia, fatigue, and infertility.
There are two main types of thrombophlebitis:
1. Superficial thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the superficial veins, which are located just under the skin. It is often caused by injury or trauma to the vein, and it can cause redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
2. Deep vein thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the deep veins, which are located deeper in the body. It is often caused by blood clots that form in the legs or arms, and it can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected limb.
Thrombophlebitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Injury or trauma to the vein
2. Blood clotting disorders
3. Prolonged bed rest or immobility
4. Surgery or medical procedures
5. Certain medications, such as hormone replacement therapy or chemotherapy
6. Age, as the risk of developing thrombophlebitis increases with age
7. Family history of blood clotting disorders
8. Increased pressure on the veins, such as during pregnancy or obesity
Thrombophlebitis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
1. Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the veins and can help identify blood clots or inflammation.
2. Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to make it visible under X-ray imaging.
3. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of blood clotting disorders or other underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of thrombophlebitis.
Treatment for thrombophlebitis typically involves anticoagulation therapy, which is designed to prevent the blood clot from growing larger and to prevent new clots from forming. This can involve medications such as heparin or warfarin, or other drugs that work by blocking the production of clots. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
In addition to anticoagulation therapy, treatment for thrombophlebitis may also include:
1. Elevation of the affected limb to reduce swelling
2. Compression stockings to help reduce swelling and improve blood flow
3. Pain management with medication or heat or cold applications
4. Antibiotics if there is an infection
5. Rest and avoiding strenuous activities until the symptoms resolve.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the affected vein.
It's important to note that early diagnosis and treatment of thrombophlebitis can help prevent complications such as infection, inflammation, or damage to the valves in the affected vein. If you suspect you or someone else may have thrombophlebitis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.
There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:
1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.
2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.
3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.
4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.
5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.
Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.
Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.
It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.
Precancerous changes in the uterine cervix are called dysplasias, and they can be detected by a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test for women. If dysplasia is found, it can be treated with cryotherapy (freezing), laser therapy, or cone biopsy, which removes the affected cells.
Cervical cancer is rare in developed countries where Pap screening is widely available, but it remains a common cancer in developing countries where access to healthcare and screening is limited. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous changes and cancer.
Cervical cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. The prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer is good, but advanced-stage cancer can be difficult to treat and may have a poor prognosis.
The following are some types of uterine cervical neoplasms:
1. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when glandular cells on the surface of the cervix become abnormal and grow out of control.
2. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. There are several types of CIN, ranging from mild to severe.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the cervix.
4. Adnexal carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the glands or ducts near the cervix.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cervical cancer that grows rapidly and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
6. Micropapillary uterine carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that grows in a finger-like shape and can be difficult to diagnose.
7. Clear cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from clear cells and can be more aggressive than other types of cervical cancer.
8. Adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cervical cancer that arises from glandular cells and can be less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma.
9. Sarcoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the connective tissue of the cervix.
The treatment options for uterine cervical neoplasms depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. The following are some common treatments for uterine cervical neoplasms:
1. Hysterectomy: This is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and may be recommended for early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
2. Cryotherapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
3. Laser therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laser to remove or destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
4. Cone biopsy: This is a surgical procedure to remove a small cone-shaped sample of tissue from the cervix to diagnose and treat early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
5. Radiation therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
6. Chemotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
7. Immunotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
8. Targeted therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and development and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
It is important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their doctor and develop a personalized plan that is right for them.
Some common examples of drug-induced abnormalities include:
1. Allergic reactions: Some drugs can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
2. Side effects: Many drugs can cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and fatigue, which can be mild or severe.
3. Toxic reactions: Some drugs can cause toxic reactions, which can damage the body's organs and tissues.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Certain drugs can trigger autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause a range of symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, and skin rashes.
5. Gastrointestinal problems: Some drugs can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, or constipation.
6. Neurological disorders: Certain drugs can cause neurological disorders, such as seizures, tremors, and changes in mood or behavior.
7. Cardiovascular problems: Some drugs can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.
8. Metabolic changes: Certain drugs can cause metabolic changes, such as weight gain or loss, and changes in blood sugar levels.
9. Endocrine disorders: Some drugs can affect the body's endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of symptoms including changes in mood, energy levels, and sexual function.
10. Kidney damage: Certain drugs can cause kidney damage or failure, especially in people with pre-existing kidney problems.
It's important to note that not all drugs will cause side effects, and the severity of side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific drug being taken. However, it's important to be aware of the potential risks associated with any medication you are taking, and to discuss any concerns or questions you have with your healthcare provider.
Benign ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.
Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.
Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
There are different types of uterine perforation, including:
1. Cervical perforation: A tear in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
2. Uterine wall perforation: A tear or hole in the muscular wall of the uterus, which can be caused by instruments used during surgery or delivery.
3. Endometrial perforation: A tear in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is more common during invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or endometrial ablation.
Symptoms of uterine perforation may include:
* Severe abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal bleeding
* Nausea and vomiting
If you suspect that you have a uterine perforation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the damage. Treatment options may include:
1. Observation: In mild cases, the body may be able to heal on its own without any intervention.
2. Surgery: Depending on the severity of the perforation, surgical repair or removal of the damaged tissue may be necessary.
3. Antibiotics: If there is an infection, antibiotics will be prescribed to treat it.
4. Blood transfusions: In cases where there is significant bleeding, blood transfusions may be required.
Prevention of uterine perforation is crucial, and it involves proper training and use of instruments during surgery or delivery, as well as careful monitoring of the patient's condition during these procedures.
The symptoms of intrauterine device migration can vary depending on the location and size of the migrated IUD. Some common symptoms include:
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful menstrual cramps
* Difficulty inserting or removing the IUD during routine check-ups
* Fever, chills, or other signs of infection
If intrauterine device migration is suspected, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as an ultrasound or X-ray, to confirm the location and size of the migrated IUD. Treatment options for intrauterine device migration depend on the severity of the complication and can include:
* Removal of the migrated IUD
* Insertion of a new IUD in a different location
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Surgical intervention to repair any damage caused by the migrated IUD.
It is important for women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) as a form of birth control to be aware of the risk of migration and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms that may indicate a problem with their IUD. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help detect any issues early on and prevent complications associated with intrauterine device migration.
The exact cause of PMS is not known, but it is thought to be related to changes in hormone levels, particularly estrogen and progesterone, which can affect the brain and body. Some women may be more susceptible to PMS due to factors such as stress, genetics, or other medical conditions.
Common symptoms of PMS include:
1. Mood changes: anxiety, irritability, sadness, and mood swings
2. Physical symptoms: breast tenderness, bloating, cramps, headaches, and fatigue
3. Behavioral changes: changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and social withdrawal
4. Cognitive changes: difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and confusion
There is no single test for PMS, and diagnosis is based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and ruling out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms. Treatment for PMS usually involves a combination of lifestyle changes, over-the-counter medications, and prescription medications, depending on the severity of symptoms.
Some common lifestyle changes that can help manage PMS include:
1. Exercise regularly: regular physical activity can help reduce symptoms of PMS
2. Eat a balanced diet: a healthy, nutrient-rich diet can help alleviate symptoms
3. Get enough sleep: adequate rest and relaxation can help improve mood and reduce fatigue
4. Reduce stress: stress management techniques such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing can help reduce the impact of PMS
Over-the-counter medications that may be used to treat PMS include:
1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): these medications can help reduce cramps, bloating, and breast tenderness
2. Antihistamines: these medications can help with sleep disturbances and mood changes
3. Acetaminophen: this medication can help with headaches and other painful symptoms
Prescription medications that may be used to treat PMS include:
1. Hormonal birth control: oral contraceptives can help regulate hormones and reduce symptoms of PMS
2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): these medications can help with mood changes, anxiety, and depression associated with PMS
3. Gabapentin: this medication can help with painful symptoms such as cramps and breast tenderness
It's important to note that the specific treatment plan for PMS will depend on the severity of symptoms and individual factors such as medical history, age, and other health conditions. It's best to consult a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate course of treatment.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): DVT occurs when a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the body, usually in the legs. This can cause swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.
Pulmonary Embolism (PE): PE occurs when a blood clot from the deep veins of the body travels to the lungs, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up bloody mucus.
The risk factors for VTE include:
* Prolonged immobility (e.g., long-distance travel or bed rest)
* Injury or surgery
* Age > 60 years
* Family history of VTE
* Cancer and its treatment
* Hormone replacement therapy or birth control pills
* Inherited blood-clotting disorders
* Inflammatory bowel disease
Prevention methods include:
* Moving around regularly during long-distance travel or bed rest
* Avoiding crossing your legs or ankles, which can restrict blood flow
* Wearing compression stockings during travel or when advised by a healthcare professional
* Elevating the affected leg when sitting or lying down
* Taking blood-thinning medication as prescribed by a healthcare professional
Early diagnosis and treatment of VTE can help prevent serious complications such as PE. Treatment options include anticoagulant medications, thrombolysis (dissolving the clot), and filtration devices.
Symptoms of PID may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal discharge with a strong odor
* Pain during sex
* Painful urination
PID can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as pelvic exams, ultrasound, or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, and may also involve hospitalization for severe cases. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage caused by the infection.
Preventive measures for PID include:
* Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms and avoiding sexual intercourse during outbreaks of STIs
* Regular gynecological exams and screening for STIs
* Avoiding the use of douches or other products that can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina.
* Rashes, lesions, or sores
* Redness, swelling, or inflammation
* Skin thickening or thinning
* Pigmentation changes
* Growths or tumors
* Ulcers or wounds that do not heal properly
Skin manifestations can be a symptom of a wide range of medical conditions, including:
* Infections such as bacterial, fungal, or viral infections
* Autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis, eczema, or lupus
* Cancer such as melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or basal cell carcinoma
* Genetic conditions such as ichthyosis or epidermolysis bullosa
* Metabolic disorders such as diabetes or kidney disease
* Nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin deficiency or malnutrition
Skin manifestations can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsy, blood tests, or imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying condition and may include topical medications, systemic medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
In some cases, skin manifestations can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is important to seek medical advice if you notice any unusual changes in your skin or if you experience any symptoms such as pain, itching, or bleeding.
Some of the symptoms of hirsutism include:
* Thick, dark hair on the face, chest, back, and buttocks
* Hair growth on the arms, legs, and other areas of the body
* Thinning or loss of hair on the head
* Acne and oily skin
Hirsutism can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Hormonal imbalances: Excessive levels of androgens, such as testosterone, can cause hirsutism.
* Genetics: Inheritance plays a role in the development of hirsutism.
* Medications: Certain medications, such as anabolic steroids and certain antidepressants, can cause hirsutism as a side effect.
* Other medical conditions: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and other endocrine disorders can also cause hirsutism.
There are several treatment options for hirsutism, including:
* Medications such as anti-androgens and retinoids to reduce hair growth and improve skin texture
* Electrolysis and laser therapy to remove unwanted hair
* Hormonal therapies such as birth control pills and spironolactone to regulate hormone levels and reduce hair growth
* Plastic surgery to remove excess hair-bearing skin.
It is important for individuals with hirsutism to seek medical attention if they experience any of the following symptoms:
* Sudden or excessive hair growth
* Hair growth on the face, chest, back, or buttocks
* Thinning or loss of hair on the head
* Acne and oily skin.
Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms of hirsutism and improve quality of life for individuals affected by this condition.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
1. Atrial fibrillation (a type of irregular heartbeat)
2. Heart disease or valve problems
3. Blood clots in the legs or lungs
4. Infective endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves)
5. Cancer and its treatment
6. Trauma to the head or neck
7. High blood pressure
8. Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)
When a blockage occurs in one of the blood vessels of the brain, it can deprive the brain of oxygen and nutrients, leading to cell death and potentially causing a range of symptoms including:
1. Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
2. Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
4. Sudden severe headache
5. Dizziness or loss of balance
6. Fainting or falling
Intracranial embolism and thrombosis can be diagnosed through a variety of imaging tests, including:
1. Computed tomography (CT) scan
2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
3. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
4. Cerebral angiography
5. Doppler ultrasound
Treatment options for intracranial embolism and thrombosis depend on the underlying cause of the blockage, but may include:
1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clotting
2. Surgery to remove the blockage or repair the affected blood vessel
3. Endovascular procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels
4. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and pain management, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.
There are several types of thrombophilia, including:
1. Factor V Leiden: This is the most common inherited thrombophilia and is caused by a mutation in the Factor V gene.
2. Prothrombin G20210A: This is another inherited thrombophilia that is caused by a mutation in the Prothrombin gene.
3. Protein C and S deficiency: These are acquired deficiencies of protein C and S, which are important proteins that help to prevent blood clots.
4. Antiphospholipid syndrome: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body to produce antibodies against phospholipids, which can lead to blood clots.
5. Cancer-associated thrombophilia: This is a condition where cancer patients are at a higher risk of developing blood clots due to their cancer and its treatment.
6. Hormone-related thrombophilia: This is a condition where hormonal changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy or with the use of hormone replacement therapy, increase the risk of blood clots.
7. Inherited platelet disorders: These are rare conditions that affect the way platelets function and can increase the risk of blood clots.
8. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies: These are autoantibodies that can cause blood clots.
9. Lupus anticoagulant: This is an autoantibody that can cause blood clots.
10. Combined genetic and acquired risk factors: Some people may have a combination of inherited and acquired risk factors for thrombophilia.
Thrombophilia can be diagnosed through various tests, including:
1. Blood tests: These tests measure the levels of certain proteins in the blood that are associated with an increased risk of blood clots.
2. Genetic testing: This can help identify inherited risk factors for thrombophilia.
3. Imaging tests: These tests, such as ultrasound and venography, can help doctors visualize the blood vessels and look for signs of blood clots.
4. Thrombin generation assay: This test measures the body's ability to produce thrombin, a protein that helps form blood clots.
5. Platelet function tests: These tests assess how well platelets work and whether they are contributing to the development of blood clots.
Treatment for thrombophilia usually involves medications to prevent or dissolve blood clots, as well as measures to reduce the risk of developing new clots. These may include:
1. Anticoagulant drugs: These medications, such as warfarin and heparin, are used to prevent blood clots from forming.
2. Thrombolytic drugs: These medications are used to dissolve blood clots that have already formed.
3. Compression stockings: These stockings can help reduce swelling and improve blood flow in the affected limb.
4. Elevating the affected limb: This can help reduce swelling and improve blood flow.
5. Avoiding long periods of immobility: This can help reduce the risk of developing blood clots.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a blood clot or repair a damaged blood vessel. In addition, people with thrombophilia may need to make lifestyle changes, such as avoiding long periods of immobility and taking regular breaks to move around, to reduce their risk of developing blood clots.
Overall, the prognosis for thrombophilia is generally good if the condition is properly diagnosed and treated. However, if left untreated, thrombophilia can lead to serious complications, such as pulmonary embolism or stroke, which can be life-threatening. It is important for people with thrombophilia to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications.
Teratogens can include drugs, alcohol, certain chemicals, and even some viral infections. Exposure to these substances during pregnancy can interfere with normal fetal development, leading to a wide range of birth defects, including physical abnormalities such as heart defects or facial deformities, as well as cognitive and behavioral disorders such as autism or learning disabilities.
The study of teratogenesis is known as teratology, and it plays an important role in helping healthcare providers understand the causes of birth defects and develop strategies for preventing them. By identifying and avoiding teratogens during pregnancy, women can help ensure a healthy and normal fetal development.
A vitamin B6 deficiency happens when the body does not get enough of this essential nutrient. Vitamin B6 is needed for many bodily functions, such as making new blood cells, keeping the nervous system healthy, and helping to convert food into energy.
The symptoms of a vitamin B6 deficiency can range from mild to severe and may include:
1. Fatigue or weakness: A lack of vitamin B6 can cause tiredness, weakness, and a general feeling of being unwell.
2. Irritability or depression: Vitamin B6 plays a role in the production of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, which are important for mood regulation. A deficiency can lead to feelings of irritability, anxiety, and depression.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Vitamin B6 helps with the absorption of nutrients from food, so a deficiency can cause nausea and vomiting.
4. Skin problems: Vitamin B6 is important for the health of the skin, and a deficiency can lead to conditions such as acne, eczema, and dermatitis.
5. Weight loss: A vitamin B6 deficiency can make it harder to gain weight or maintain weight loss.
Causes of Vitamin B6 Deficiency:
1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in vitamin B6 can lead to a deficiency. Foods rich in vitamin B6 include meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, and leafy green vegetables.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease, can make it harder for the body to absorb vitamin B6 from food.
3. Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding have a higher need for vitamin B6 and may be more likely to develop a deficiency if they do not consume enough of this nutrient.
4. Alcoholism: Heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with the absorption of vitamin B6, leading to a deficiency.
5. Certain medications: Some medications, such as antidepressants and anti-inflammatory drugs, can interfere with the absorption of vitamin B6.
Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin B6 Deficiency:
1. Depression or anxiety
2. Fatigue or weakness
3. Irritability or mood swings
4. Skin problems, such as acne or eczema
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Weight loss or difficulty gaining weight
7. Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
8. Headaches or migraines
9. Muscle weakness or cramps
10. Seizures or convulsions (in severe cases)
Treatment of Vitamin B6 Deficiency:
1. Dietary changes: Increasing the intake of vitamin B6-rich foods, such as lean meats, whole grains, and vegetables, can help treat a deficiency.
2. Supplements: Taking a vitamin B6 supplement can help treat a deficiency. The recommended daily dose is 1.3-2.0 mg per day for adults.
3. Addressing underlying causes: If the deficiency is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as celiac disease or alcoholism, treating the condition can help resolve the deficiency.
4. Vitamin B complex supplements: Taking a vitamin B complex supplement that contains all eight B vitamins can help ensure that the body is getting enough of this essential nutrient.
In conclusion, vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions. Deficiency in this vitamin can lead to a range of health problems, from mild discomforts like fatigue and nausea to more severe conditions like seizures and convulsions. Treatment of a deficiency typically involves dietary changes, supplements, and addressing any underlying medical conditions. It is important to seek medical advice if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
1. Irregular menstrual cycles, or amenorrhea (the absence of periods).
2. Cysts on the ovaries, which are fluid-filled sacs that can be detected by ultrasound.
3. Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including acne, excessive hair growth, and male pattern baldness.
4. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.
PCOS is a complex disorder, and there is no single cause. However, genetics, hormonal imbalances, and insulin resistance are thought to play a role in its development. It is estimated that 5-10% of women of childbearing age have PCOS, making it one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women.
There are several symptoms of PCOS, including:
1. Irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea
2. Weight gain or obesity
4. Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back
5. Male pattern baldness
6. Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
7. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
8. Sleep apnea
PCOS can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
1. Pelvic exam: A doctor will examine the ovaries and uterus to look for cysts or other abnormalities.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to detect cysts on the ovaries and to evaluate the thickness of the uterine lining.
3. Hormone testing: Blood tests can be used to measure levels of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.
4. Glucose tolerance test: This test is used to check for insulin resistance, which is a common finding in women with PCOS.
5. Laparoscopy: A small camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to visualize the ovaries and uterus and to diagnose PCOS.
There is no cure for PCOS, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Treatment options include:
1. Weight loss: Losing weight can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce androgen levels.
2. Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels.
3. Fertility medications: Clomiphene citrate and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS.
4. Injectable fertility medications: Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), can be used to stimulate ovulation.
5. Surgery: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or laser surgery can improve ovulation and fertility in women with PCOS.
6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to help women with PCOS conceive.
7. Alternative therapies: Some complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and herbal supplements, may be helpful in managing symptoms of PCOS.
It is important for women with PCOS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that meets their individual needs and goals. With appropriate treatment, many women with PCOS can improve their menstrual regularity, fertility, and overall health.
HIV seropositivity is typically diagnosed through a blood test called an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test detects the presence of antibodies against HIV in the blood by using specific proteins on the surface of the virus. If the test is positive, it means that the individual has been infected with HIV.
HIV seropositivity is an important diagnostic criterion for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), which is a condition that develops when the immune system is severely damaged by HIV infection. AIDS is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and laboratory tests, including HIV seropositivity.
HIV seropositivity can be either primary (acute) or chronic. Primary HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual is first infected with HIV and their immune system produces antibodies against the virus. Chronic HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual has been living with HIV for a long time and their immune system has produced antibodies that remain in their bloodstream.
HIV seropositivity can have significant implications for an individual's health and quality of life, as well as their social and economic well-being. It is important for individuals who are HIV seropositive to receive appropriate medical care and support to manage their condition and prevent the transmission of HIV to others.
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- Based on the available evidence, expert opinion in the United States states that postpartum women who are breastfeeding should not use combined hormonal contraceptives during the first 3 weeks after delivery because of concerns about increased risk for venous thromboembolism and generally should not use combined hormonal contraceptives during the fourth week postpartum because of concerns about potential effects on breastfeeding performance. (nih.gov)
- Postpartum breastfeeding women with other risk factors for venous thromboembolism generally should not use combined hormonal contraceptives 4 to 6 weeks after delivery. (nih.gov)
- Health care providers prescribe and monitor hormonal contraceptives. (nih.gov)
- Scientists are studying the pill's preventative effects against some types of cancer-and on the flip side, the link between hormonal contraceptives and risk of breast cancer. (verywellhealth.com)
- Combination contraceptives contain an estrogen and a progestin. (nih.gov)
- Feeding chickens with oral contraceptive steroids at the dose used by some poultry growers in Egypt has led to the formation of high estrogen residues in the muscles and the liver compared with controls. (who.int)
- The purpose of this study is to assess the formation of residues in the muscle and liver of chickens of contraceptive steroids applied orally at the same dose used by poultry growers and the resultant level of estrogen in chickens. (who.int)
- Combination oral contraceptives include estrogen and progestin, which are synthetic forms of female sex hormones. (verywellhealth.com)
- The estrogen and progestin in oral contraceptives prevent ovulation and therefore protect against pregnancy. (verywellhealth.com)
- Changing estrogen levels is the way women can use the contraceptive Pill to fight acne. (facingacne.com)
- Most oral contraceptives are a mixture of synthetic estrogen and a synthetic progesterone-like compound known as progestin. (facingacne.com)
- Switching to a brand of contraceptive that contains more estrogen may stop the production of excess skin oils, and reduce the severity of acne. (facingacne.com)
- It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. (lookformedical.com)
- A combined oral contraceptive pill consists of two types of female sex hormones, progestogen and estrogen, a combination of which inhibits ovulation. (alea.care)
- Combined contraceptives contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progesterone . (woman2womenblog.com)
- If you are on the Propecia diet for any reason, you will also want to get a prescription for an oral contraceptive pill in order to prevent the birth control from losing the estrogen you are currently using, buy anabolic steroids uk debit card. (divalawyers.com)
- Gianvi, Yaz, Yasmin, and Ocella are all oral contraceptives which contain the synthetic progestin drospirenone. (injurylawyer-news.com)
- Plan B is a progestin-only emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) that can be taken within seventy-two hours of unprotected sex in order to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. (asu.edu)
- Norgestrel is a progestin or a synthetic form of the naturally occurring female sex hormone, progesterone. (pharmacycode.com)
- It is a so-called progestin-only pill that contains only a synthetic version of the hormone progesterone to prevent pregnancy. (weaa.org)
- Certain formulations of the Pill can reduce premenstrual acne, but no contraceptive ever stops 100% of premenstrual acne. (facingacne.com)
- The Oral Contraceptives Over-the-Counter Working Group helped fund some of HRA's research and is mobilizing support behind a media campaign dubbed Free the Pill. (wthr.com)
- The birth control pill, more commonly known as "the pill" is a form of contraception taken daily in pill form and consisting of synthetic hormones formulated to prevent ovulation, fertilization, and implantation of a fertilized egg. (asu.edu)
- It was the first contraceptive pill marketed worldwide. (asu.edu)
- The first contraceptive pill, called Enovid, had been on the market since June 1960, and Rock was one of the leading researchers in its development. (asu.edu)
- Katharine Dexter McCormick, who contributed the majority of funding for the development of the oral contraceptive pill, was born to Josephine and Wirt Dexter on 27 August 1875 in Dexter, Michigan. (asu.edu)
- Born on 24 March 1890 in Marlborough, Massachusetts, to Ann and Frank Rock, John Charles Rock was both a devout Catholic and one of the leading investigators involved in the development of the first oral contraceptive pill. (asu.edu)
- In terms of hormonal composition, there are two kinds of oral birth control pills - combined oral contraceptive pills (also called combination pills, COC) and progestogen-only pills (also known as mini pill, POP). (alea.care)
- The contraceptive pill made its appearance more than 50 years ago. (woman2womenblog.com)
- How dangerous is the contraceptive pill? (woman2womenblog.com)
- Chemical contraceptives include the oral birth control pill, Depo-Provera injection, patch, and implant. (compasscare.info)
- take Dianette or any contraceptive pill. (ac.rs)
- They also included the combination of oestrogen with cyproterone acetate (brand name Dianette), which acts as a contraceptive pill, but its main indication is for the treatment of acne. (ac.rs)
- If you weren't told about thrush being a side effect of the combined oral contraceptive pill, that's because it isn't, or at least not directly. (ac.rs)
- A brand of the contraceptive pill which is commonly prescribed to treat acne is under review by the UK's regulatory body amid concerns about the side-effects it has on young women. (ac.rs)
- Co-cyprindiol is also an oral contraceptive pill. (ac.rs)
- Dianette Contraceptive Pill - A Formula For Acne Treatment. (ac.rs)
- Dianette is a combined oral contraceptive pill. (ac.rs)
- An inquest was told that Miss Foster's "only risk factor" with regards to the blood clot was that she had been taking a combined oral contraceptive pill, Dianette, for five months before her death. (ac.rs)
- Although all medicines carry a risk of side effects, and the combined contraceptive pill in particular has been shown to slightly increase the risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and other conditions, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has looked into the safety of Dianette and found that the side effect of blood clots is 1.5 to 2 times higher than with some other combined oral contraceptives. (ac.rs)
Received contraceptive pills1
- The experimental birds in Group C received contraceptive pills and DMBA at the same dose levels for the same period. (who.int)
- A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. (lookformedical.com)
- A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). (lookformedical.com)
- A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. (lookformedical.com)
- Norgestrel tricks the body processes into thinking that ovulation has already occurred, by maintaining high levels of the synthetic progesterone. (pharmacycode.com)
- New research is reiterating oral contraception is more than just a helpful family planning tool. (verywellhealth.com)
- A December study, published in Cancer Research , looked at not only the associations between oral contraception and breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, but also how long certain risk factors last. (verywellhealth.com)
- Two synthetic estrogens are available contraception, with the fewest side of hormonal contraception. (who.int)
- has received both oral and written warnings of the hazards of misoprostol, the risk of possible contraception failure, and the danger to other women of childbearing potential should the drug be taken by mistake. (nih.gov)
- Treat symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) for females of reproductive potential who choose to use an oral contraceptive for contraception. (nih.gov)
- Raise folate levels in females of reproductive potential who choose to use an oral contraceptive for contraception. (nih.gov)
- Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION). (lookformedical.com)
- Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures. (lookformedical.com)
- A periodic pregnancy test should be performed on all women of childbearing age who are on oral vitamin K1 therapy. (cdc.gov)
- Pregnant patients on oral vitamin K1 should be referred for high-risk pregnancy management and follow-up. (cdc.gov)
- In "Explaining Recent Declines in Adolescent Pregnancy in the United States: The Contribution of Abstinence and Improved Contraceptive Use," hereafter "Explaining Recent Declines," researchers John S. Santelli, Laura Duberstein Lindberg, Lawrence B. Finer, and Susheela Singh discuss what led to the major decline in US adolescent pregnancy rates from 1995 to 2002. (asu.edu)
- Working with the Guttmacher Institute, a reproductive health research organization, they found that the decline in US adolescent pregnancy rates between 1995 and 2002 was primarily due to improved contraceptive use. (asu.edu)
- Birth control pills, or contraceptive pills, are oral medications for pregnancy prevention. (alea.care)
- In general, birth control pills contain synthetic hormones that alter women's physiology to avoid pregnancy. (alea.care)
- For example, some instances that cause autoimmune diseases to flare up include the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, or using oral contraceptives. (drmelirvine.com)
- I feel that the risk of unintended pregnancy is lower with this approach than any of the other available contraceptive approaches that women have access to without seeing a health care provider," said Dr. Deborah Armstrong, a professor of oncology, gynecology and obstetrics at Johns Hopkins. (weaa.org)
- More than 60 years of safe and effective use of oral contraceptives have shown that the benefits of widespread, nonprescription availability far outweigh the limited risk associated with their us - with evidence showing that pregnancy poses much greater health risks," said Dr. Jack Resneck Jr., the president of the American Medical Association, in a statement. (weaa.org)
- Contraceptives are methods of preventing or ending pregnancy , also referred to as "birth control," and work in three ways: preventing fertilization, preventing implantation, and altering a woman's body chemistry to prevent ovulation. (compasscare.info)
- Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis. (lookformedical.com)
- Benign hepatic lesions and orally administered contraceptives. (nih.gov)
- Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes. (lookformedical.com)
- It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. (lookformedical.com)
- Synthetic estrogens have become more tolerable and Progestins contained therein have also improved in generations. (ydns.eu)
- It is concluded that the use of oral contraceptive steroids in chickens as anabolic agent is a specific risk to chickens and probably to the consumer. (who.int)
- Oral contraceptive steroids have been used at excessively high doses as growth-promoting agents by some poultry growers in Egypt. (who.int)
- In addition, skin treatments can be combined with oral or sublingual contraceptives, Dr, steroids red face. (heyfellas.co)
- It may take you a couple days after the cycle to start taking your new oral contraceptive hormone, buy anabolic steroids online in india. (divalawyers.com)
- Oral birth control pills work by introducing female sex hormones to inhibit one or more of these events. (alea.care)
- Four women who were fully nursing their infants were given a contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol 50 mcg and megestrol acetate 4 mg beginning at 2 months postpartum. (nih.gov)
- Before initiating drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcium tablets in a new COC user or a woman who is switching from a contraceptive that does not contain DRSP, consider the risks and benefits of a DRSP-containing COC in light of her risk of a VTE. (nih.gov)
- Norgestrel is used as a female contraceptive. (pharmacycode.com)
- Sulbutiamine is a synthetic anti-androgen, sarms hair loss. (heyfellas.co)
- Lamotrigine is a synthetic anti-androgen, dbol progress pics. (heyfellas.co)
- The synthetic oestrogen acts as an anti-androgen, decreasing the circulating levels of testosterone that are responsible for the hirsutism associated with PCOS. (ac.rs)
- Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations. (nih.gov)
- 10. The estrogenic activity of synthetic progestins used in oral contraceptives enhances fatty acid synthase-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and survival. (nih.gov)
- Studies have found that women who use contraceptives containing drospirenone have double the risk of blood clots compared to women who use contraceptives with levorganestrol. (injurylawyer-news.com)
- The Government will carry out in vivo biological assays required to establish the antiprogestational activity of compounds submitted to the Contraceptive Development Branch under the auspices of this acquisition. (nih.gov)
- From the 1960s it is known that combined contraceptives pills may increase the risk of venous thrombosis , that is, a blood clot obstructing a vein, a serious and potentially life-threatening complication. (woman2womenblog.com)
- Contraceptives can attempt to prevent a baby from implanting in the mother's uterus after fertilization by creating a hostile environment. (compasscare.info)
- Researchers found that oral contraceptive pills may protect against ovarian and endometrial cancer. (verywellhealth.com)
- The scientists found women who had used oral contraceptives had a 32% reduced risk for endometrial cancer and a 28% reduced risk for ovarian cancer compared with those who had not used them. (verywellhealth.com)
- The findings of the study, that use of oral contraceptives is protective of endometrial and ovarian cancer, is in line with previously published data," Marina Stasenko, MD , a gynecologic oncologist at NYU Langone's Perlmutter Cancer Center, tells Verywell. (verywellhealth.com)
- Hepatic adenomas and focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in young women on oral contraceptives: case reports. (nih.gov)
- Ask all women of childbearing age who are on oral vitamin K1 therapy about the possibility of being pregnant and counsel them about reliable contraceptive techniques. (cdc.gov)
- But the advisers concluded that there was a sufficient evidence to conclude that women knew enough about how to use oral contraceptives safely and effectively. (weaa.org)
- Committee member also questioned how much guidance women typically get from a medical professional prescribing the contraceptive pills. (weaa.org)
- While it is also a contraceptive, it is rarely prescribed to women who are not experiencing skin or hair growth problems. (ac.rs)
- The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that 16.9% of the women had oral herpes and oral candidiasis. (bvsalud.org)
- Oral and cervicovaginal diseases, especially those that are sexually transmitted, have gained great importance in public health due to their growing incidence and because they affect women in all age groups. (bvsalud.org)
- The combined oral contra- possible to prescribe and find the mother, and the public health sector. (who.int)
- Treat moderate acne for females of reproductive potential at least 14 years old only if the patient desires an oral contraceptive for birth control. (nih.gov)
- Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading. (lookformedical.com)
- Apart from the above common side effects, combined oral contraceptive pills also increase the risks of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension and thromboembolism. (alea.care)
- Advise patients that their current oral vitamin K1 dosing may not prevent recurrent coagulopathy from re-exposure to brodifacoum in synthetic cannabinoid products and the duration of oral vitamin K1 treatment may need to be extended. (cdc.gov)
- A treatment scheme has been reported for mothers with hypergalactia that uses low-dose, combined oral contraceptives to decrease milk supply. (nih.gov)
- Le fait de nourrir des poulets avec des stéroïdes contraceptifs oraux à la dose utilisée par certains éleveurs de volailles en Egypte a entraîné la formation d'importants résidus d'oestrogènes dans les muscles et le foie par rapport à ceux des poulets témoins. (who.int)
- The animals in Group A were given contraceptive pills at the same dose used by poultry growers in Egypt (four strips of Anovlar/100 kg diet) for four weeks. (who.int)
- After a single oral dose of misoprostol to nursing mothers, misoprostol acid was excreted in breast milk. (nih.gov)
- Focal nodular hyperplasia of great extent in the liver after taking oral contraceptives]. (nih.gov)
- Reproductive rights advocates want to see other prescription contraceptives move over the counter and, eventually, for abortion pills to do the same. (wthr.com)
- A lot of our research has been about making the case to help inspire and support a company to take this work on," said Kelly Blanchard, president of Ibis Reproductive Health, a group member that supports abortion and contraceptive access. (wthr.com)
- At this tumultuous time for reproductive health in the United States, allowing access to OTC oral contraceptives is a safe and necessary step that must be taken to ensure that all individuals are able to effectively limit unintended pregnancies, particularly those with limited access to health care options," Resneck said. (weaa.org)
- Pregnancies in patients who are on oral vitamin K1 treatment for brodifacoum toxicity are high-risk pregnancies. (cdc.gov)
- Just switching contraceptives, however, never gets rid of all acne blemishes. (facingacne.com)
- Since the index patient with hypocoagulopathy associated with synthetic cannabinoids use was identified on March 8, 2018 in Illinois, at least 324 people have presented to healthcare facilities with serious bleeding from possible exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Contraceptive devices used by females. (lookformedical.com)
- Dapagliflozin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. (ydns.eu)
- The weight of current evidence seems to indicate that combination oral contraceptives probably do not affect the composition of milk substantially in healthy, well-nourished mothers and do not adversely affect long-term infant growth and development. (nih.gov)
- Behind the company's efforts is a coalition of women's health researchers and advocates who have worked for nearly two decades to make contraceptives more accessible, especially to groups with less access to health care. (wthr.com)
- This study extensively investigated the pathologies caused by the Candida fungus and the herpes virus to establish the correlation between oral and cervicovaginal diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- How Do Contraceptives Work? (compasscare.info)
- About 80% of the study participants used oral contraceptives, on average for about ten years (ranging from one to 48 years of usage). (verywellhealth.com)
- The principal investigator must be a synthetic organic and/or medicinal chemist with a Ph.D. degree, who will devote approximately 25 percent of her/his time to the project and must have five years of experience in drug synthesis. (nih.gov)
- The selected prototypes for further structural modification may be mifepristone or other leads that have demonstrated oral activity. (nih.gov)
- 2 ] World Health Organization guidelines are more restrictive, stating that combined oral contraceptives should not be used in nursing mothers before 42 days postpartum and the disadvantages of using the method generally outweigh the advantages between 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. (nih.gov)
- At least one patient has become pregnant since starting outpatient oral Vitamin K1 treatment. (cdc.gov)
- When patients are found to have outpatient follow-up blood brodifacoum concentrations higher than their initial blood brodifacoum concentrations, it strongly suggests that they have continued or resumed using synthetic cannabinoid products containing brodifacoum while on oral vitamin K1 therapy. (cdc.gov)
- Its incidence increases in the oral microflora with age, and is more often found in the elderly than in younger individuals. (bvsalud.org)
- is capable of complying with effective contraceptive measures. (nih.gov)
- An advisory panel to the Food and Drug Administration supported drugmaker Perrigo's application to sell the oral contraceptive Opill without a prescription. (weaa.org)