Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Xanthurenic acid and its salts, formed as byproducts during the metabolism of tryptophan, are collectively referred to as xanthurenates, which can accumulate in conditions like hyperphenylalaninemia and may contribute to oxidative stress and cellular damage.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
Absence of menstruation.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The unmarried man or woman.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Painful menstruation.
Religion and sex can intersect in medical definitions through the study of spirituality and sexuality, which explores how religious beliefs, practices, and cultural values may influence individuals' sexual behaviors, attitudes, and experiences, including issues related to sexual health, sexual orientation, gender identity, reproductive rights, and sexual dysfunctions.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
whoa, I'm just an AI and I don't have the ability to provide on-the-fly medical definitions. However, I can tell you that "Missouri" is not a term commonly used in medicine. It's a state in the United States, and I assume you might be looking for a medical term that is associated with it. If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has both Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The term you might be looking for is "Nicotine," which is a highly addictive stimulant found in tobacco leaves and is used as an ingredient in various products, including cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and some medications.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Size and composition of the family.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Guatemala is the name of a country located in Central America, known officially as the Republic of Guatemala. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Vinyl compounds, in the context of medical materials, refer to synthetic polymers made from vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate monomers, which are used in the production of various medical devices and supplies such as blood bags, intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and gloves due to their flexibility, transparency, and resistance to chemicals and heat.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.

Low-oestrogen oral contraceptives.(1/142)

 (+info)

A comparison of the inhibition of ovulation achieved by desogestrel 75 micrograms and levonorgestrel 30 micrograms daily. (2/142)

A randomized, double blind, group comparative study was performed over a 12 month period to compare inhibition of ovulation during the use of two (progestogen-only) oral contraceptives containing doses of 75 micrograms desogestrel or 30 micrograms levonorgestrel. Seventy-one female volunteers with regular cycles and established ovulation by ultrasonography and serum progesterone concentrations were recruited from an out-patient clinic in a university hospital and asked to participate in the study. Transvaginal ultrasonography and serum oestradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) measurements were performed throughout the 7th and 12th 28 day treatment period. Desogestrel at a dose of 75 micrograms showed a significant inhibition of ovulation compared to 30 micrograms levonorgestrel (P < 0.001).  (+info)

Endometrial steroid receptors during decidualization in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta); their modulation by anti-oestrogen CDRI-85/287. (3/142)

With a view to elucidating the hormonal control of decidualization in rhesus monkey, we studied the effects of CDRI-85/287, a potent anti-oestrogen, on endometrial steroid receptors in vivo and in vitro. Compound 85/287 was administered (i.m.) on days 8, 9 and 10 of steroid treatment cycle at a dose of 15 mg/monkey. Deciduoma was induced on day 16. Histological examination of endometrial tissue on days 24 and 30 of the cycle showed an apparent inhibition in uterine epithelial and subepithelial decidual cell plaque formation and a decrease in leukocytic infiltration into the stroma in anti-oestrogen-treated animals. As observed on day 24, a significant decrease in progesterone receptors (PR) (nuclear + cytosolic) was observed in the 85/287-treated group, whereas oestrogen receptor (ER) content remained unaltered. On day 30 total ER as well as total PR content was markedly reduced in treated animals. In-vitro results clearly demonstrated a competitive antagonism of 85/287 at the ER level only. The results are discussed in relation to the histological changes and modulation of steroid receptors, thereby suggesting the decidualization inhibitory activity of anti-oestrogen molecule 85/287 in primate species.  (+info)

Altered reflex control of cutaneous circulation by female sex steroids is independent of prostaglandins. (4/142)

We tested the hypothesis that the shift in the cutaneous vasodilator response to hyperthermia seen with elevated female reproductive hormones is a prostaglandin-dependent resetting of thermoregulation to higher internal temperatures, similar to that seen in the febrile response to bacterial infection. Using water-perfused suits to control body temperature, we conducted heat stress experiments in resting women under conditions of low and high progesterone and estrogen and repeated these experiments after an acute dose of ibuprofen (800 mg). In six women the hormones were exogenous (oral contraceptives); three women had regular menstrual cycles and were tested in the early follicular and midluteal phases. Resting oral temperature (Tor) was significantly elevated with high hormone status (P < 0.05); this was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (P > 0.2). The Tor threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly increased by high hormone status (+0.27 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0. 02); the shift was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (with ibuprofen: +0.29 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P > 0.2 vs. control experiments). The Tor threshold for sweating was similarly increased by high hormone status (+0.22 +/- 0.05 degrees C, P < 0.05); this shift was not influenced by ibuprofen (with ibuprofen: +0.35 +/- 0. 05, P > 0.1 vs. control experiments). Thus the shift in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow and sweating mediated by female reproductive steroids is not sensitive to ibuprofen; it therefore appears that this shift is independent of prostaglandins.  (+info)

Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: A re-analysis of the MediPlus database. (5/142)

In October 1995 the Committee on Safety of Medicines advised UK doctors and pharmacists that oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene were associated with double the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) compared to pills containing other progestogens. In 1997 data was analysed from the MediPlus database of UK general practitioner records, which reported odds ratios for desogestrel and gestodene lower than that for levonorgestrel. Here the results of a more stringent nested case control analysis on the MediPlus database are reported. The study was larger and cases were verified. A crude incidence of idiopathic VTE was found amongst users of combined oral contraceptives of 4.6 per 10 000 exposed women years. Using levonorgestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg as reference, non-significant odds ratios of 1.1 (0.5-2.6) for desogestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg and 1.1 (0.5-2.4) for gestodene 75 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg were found. The results of this study show no significant difference in risk between different formulations of combined oral contraceptive.  (+info)

The differential risk of oral contraceptives: the impact of full exposure history. (6/142)

Previous discussions have indicated that the small increases of risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with newer combined oral contraceptives (third generation, containing desogestrel and gestodene) may be attributed to bias due to cohort effects. In a case-control analysis, this may produce an overestimate of risk of newer preparations. In 10 centres in Germany and the UK, the Transnational Study analysed data from 502 women aged 16-44 years with VTE, and from 1864 controls matched for 5-year age group and region. Information on lifetime exposure history from all subjects was added to the dataset used in previous analyses and entered into a Cox regression model with time-dependent covariates. Based on 17 622 continuous exposure episodes comprising 47 914 person-years of observation, the adjusted hazard ratio (equivalent to odds ratio, OR) of VTE for the comparison of current users of third-generation versus current users of second-generation (primarily levonorgestrel compounds) combined oral contraceptives was 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3). The OR obtained in standard case-control analysis had been 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1). Adjustment for past exposures includes more information and appears more valid than the standard cross-sectional analysis. Using this approach, the Transnational Study data show no evidence for an increased risk of VTE with third- compared with second-generation combined oral contraceptives.  (+info)

Fear of black market means no RU-486 for Canada until US approves drug. (7/142)

Mifepristone, the "abortion pill" that is better known as RU-486, is no closer to arriving in Canada than it was 8 years ago. But that fact hasn't slowed debate about the product.  (+info)

Contraceptive efficacy of daily administration of 0.5 mg mifepristone. (8/142)

The antiprogestin mifepristone has shown potential to be used as a contraceptive. If 200 mg mifepristone is administered immediately after ovulation, the endometrium shows sufficient impairment of secretory development to prevent implantation. Low daily doses of mifepristone have been shown to reduce several of the local factors regarded as crucial for implantation in human endometrium. To find out if this regimen is sufficient to prevent pregnancy, 32 women were recruited for a study where 0.5 mg mifepristone was administered daily. A total of 141 cycles were studied. Five pregnancies occurred, which was significantly less than if no contraceptive method had been used. However, the dose chosen did not seem sufficient to act as a contraceptive although it is probably not possible to increase the dose without disturbing ovulation and bleeding pattern.  (+info)

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Contraceptive devices for females refer to medical products designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize an egg. Some common examples of female contraceptive devices include:

1. Diaphragm: A shallow, flexible dome made of silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
2. Cervical Cap: Similar to a diaphragm but smaller in size, the cervical cap fits over the cervix and creates a barrier to sperm entry.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small, T-shaped device made of plastic or copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by changing the chemistry of the cervical mucus and uterine lining to inhibit sperm movement and implantation of a fertilized egg.
4. Contraceptive Sponge: A soft, round sponge made of polyurethane foam that contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse and covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
5. Female Condom: A thin, flexible pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The female condom creates a barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
6. Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring made of plastic that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to release hormones that prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the lining of the uterus.
7. Contraceptive Implant: A small, flexible rod made of plastic that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to prevent pregnancy for up to three years.

It's important to note that while these contraceptive devices can be highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STIs. Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception is recommended to reduce the risk of both pregnancy and STIs.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

**Norgestrel** is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone **progesterone**. It is a type of **progestin**, which is often used in various forms of hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel works by thickening cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Additionally, norgestrel can also prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) and thin the lining of the uterus, which makes it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Norgestrel is available in various forms, such as oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to discuss potential benefits, risks, and side effects.

Here are some medical definitions related to norgestrel:

1. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone, used in various forms of hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can have varying levels of androgenic, estrogenic, and anti-estrogenic activity. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
2. **Progesterone**: A naturally occurring steroid hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
3. **Hormonal birth control**: A method of preventing pregnancy that uses hormones to regulate ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, or thin the lining of the uterus. Hormonal birth control methods include oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
4. **Emergency contraception**: A form of hormonal birth control used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Emergency contraception is typically more effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, but it can still be effective up to 120 hours afterward. Norgestrel is one of the active ingredients in some emergency contraceptive pills.
5. **Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)**: A form of hormone replacement therapy used to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. MHT typically involves using estrogen and progestin or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Norgestrel is a type of progestin that can be used in MHT.
6. **Androgenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as testosterone and some progestins, that are associated with male characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. Norgestrel has weak androgenic activity.
7. **Estrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as estradiol and some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), that are associated with female characteristics, such as breast development and menstrual cycles. Norgestrel has weak estrogenic activity.
8. **Antiestrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that block or oppose the actions of estrogens. Norgestrel has antiestrogenic activity.
9. **Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)**: A type of drug that acts as an estrogen agonist in some tissues and an estrogen antagonist in others. SERMs can be used to treat or prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. Norgestrel is not a SERM but has antiestrogenic activity.
10. **Progestogen**: A synthetic or natural hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestogens can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestogen.
11. **Progesterone**: A natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and regulates the menstrual cycle. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
12. **Progestin**: A synthetic hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestins can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
13. **Progestational agent**: A drug or hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestational agents can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestational agent.
14. **Progestogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
15. **Progesterone receptor modulator (PRM)**: A type of drug that binds to and activates or inhibits the progesterone receptors in the body. PRMs can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a type of PRM.
16. **Progestogenic activity**: The ability of a drug or hormone to mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone in the body. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
17. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
18. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progestogens in the body. Progestogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
19. **Progesterone agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
20. **Progestogenic agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progestogens in the body. Progesterogenic agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
21. **Progesterone receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterone receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
22. **Progestogenic receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterogenic receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
23. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of progesterone that is used in hormonal contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can be either progesterone agonists or antagonists, depending on their chemical structure and activity at the progesterone receptor. Norgestrel is a progestin.
24. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
25. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibro

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraception, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are most effective when used within 24 hours of unprotected sex, but can still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after.

There are two main types of postcoital contraceptives:

1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs): These are high-dose hormonal pills that contain levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. Levonorgestrel ECPs are available over-the-counter in many countries, while ulipristal acetate ECPs require a prescription.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small T-shaped device made of copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The copper IUD can be used as emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected sex, and it also provides ongoing contraception for up to 10 years.

It's important to note that postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of contraception. They should only be used in emergency situations where other methods of contraception have failed or were not used. It is also recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any form of emergency contraception.

Mestranol is a synthetic form of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and altering the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg or for an already established pregnancy to be implanted.

Mestranol is typically combined with a progestin in birth control pills, such as those known as the "combined oral contraceptives." It's important to note that mestranol has largely been replaced by ethinyl estradiol, which is a more commonly used form of synthetic estrogen in hormonal medications.

As with any medication, there are potential risks and side effects associated with the use of mestranol, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting or changing any hormonal medication.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

A contraceptive vaccine is a type of immunocontraception that uses the immune system to prevent pregnancy. It is a relatively new field of research and development, and there are currently no licensed contraceptive vaccines available on the market. However, several experimental vaccines are in various stages of preclinical and clinical testing.

Contraceptive vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that play a critical role in reproduction. By neutralizing these targets, the vaccine can prevent fertilization or inhibit the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For example, one approach is to develop vaccines that target the zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein layer surrounding mammalian eggs. Antibodies generated against ZP proteins can prevent sperm from binding and fertilizing the egg. Another strategy is to create vaccines that generate antibodies against hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By blocking hCG, the vaccine can prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and induce a miscarriage.

While contraceptive vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies, several challenges remain before they can be widely adopted. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, duration of protection, and public acceptance. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for accidental cross-reactivity with other proteins or hormones, leading to unintended side effects.

Overall, contraceptive vaccines represent a promising area of research that could provide long-acting, reversible, and user-friendly contraception options in the future. However, further studies are needed to address the remaining challenges and ensure their safe and effective use.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Norethynodrel is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is not commonly used in modern medicine. In the past, it was used in some oral contraceptives to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and altering the cervical mucus and endometrium. Norethynodrel is no longer widely used due to the development of newer and more effective progestins.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Ethynodiol diacetate is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various pharmaceutical products, such as birth control pills, to prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg.

Ethynodiol diacetate works by mimicking the effects of natural progesterone in the body, which helps regulate the menstrual cycle and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. When used as a contraceptive, ethynodiol diacetate is often combined with estrogen to create a hormonal balance that prevents ovulation and fertilization.

It's important to note that while ethynodiol diacetate is generally considered safe and effective when taken as directed, it can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or have certain medical conditions should consult with their healthcare provider before taking any medication containing this ingredient.

Immunologic contraception refers to the use of the immune system to prevent pregnancy. This is achieved by stimulating the production of antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that are essential for fertilization and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. The most well-known example of immunologic contraception is the development of a vaccine that would induce an immune response against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By neutralizing hCG, the immune system could prevent the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. However, this approach is still in the experimental stage and has not yet been approved for use in humans.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Norpregnenes are a class of steroids that are produced by the metabolism of progesterone and other pregnanes. They are characterized by the absence of a double bond between carbons 4 and 5, and the presence of a ketone group at carbon 3. Some examples of norpregnenes include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and pregnenolone. These steroids are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of various hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, and estrogens. They play a role in various physiological processes such as sexual development, immune function, and stress response.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is a formulation that contains a synthetic version of the female sex hormones, estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestin (norgestrel), which are used in various forms of hormonal contraception.

This combination works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is commonly used in oral contraceptives (birth control pills), as well as in some forms of hormonal patches and rings. It is important to note that while this combination is highly effective at preventing pregnancy, it can also increase the risk of certain health problems, such as blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer, especially in women who smoke or have other risk factors.

Therefore, it is essential for individuals using hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination to discuss their medical history and any potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting this form of birth control.

Synthetic biology is not a medical term per se, but rather it falls under the broader field of biology and bioengineering. Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that combines principles from biology, engineering, chemistry, physics, and computer science to design and construct new biological parts, devices, and systems that do not exist in nature or re-design existing natural biological systems for useful purposes.

In simpler terms, synthetic biology involves the creation of artificial biological components such as genes, proteins, and cells, or the modification of existing ones to perform specific functions. These engineered biological systems can be used for a wide range of applications, including medical research, diagnostics, therapeutics, and environmental remediation.

Examples of synthetic biology in medicine include the development of synthetic gene circuits that can detect and respond to disease-causing agents or the creation of artificial cells that can produce therapeutic proteins or drugs. However, it's important to note that while synthetic biology holds great promise for improving human health, it also raises ethical, safety, and regulatory concerns that need to be carefully considered and addressed.

Oral contraceptives, sequential, are a type of birth control medication that involves taking two different hormonal preparations in a specific sequence to mimic the natural menstrual cycle. The first hormone preparation contains estrogen and is taken for 16-21 days, followed by a second hormone preparation containing both estrogen and progestin for 7 days. This regimen causes the lining of the uterus to thin, making it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and also thickens cervical mucus, which can prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Sequential oral contraceptives are not commonly used in the United States due to their higher risk of side effects compared to other forms of oral contraceptives.

Postcoital hormonal contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These contraceptives contain hormones and are intended for use in emergency situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or unprotected sex.

The most common type of postcoital hormonal contraceptive is the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), which contains a high dose of synthetic progestin or a combination of progestin and estrogen. The ECP works by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The ECP is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex, ideally within 72 hours, but may still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after intercourse. However, the effectiveness of the ECP decreases over time, and it is not as effective as regular methods of contraception.

It's important to note that postcoital hormonal contraceptives are not intended for routine use as a primary method of contraception and should only be used in emergency situations. They do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should not be used as a substitute for regular condom use or other forms of protection.

If you have any concerns about postcoital hormonal contraceptives or need advice on the best method of contraception for you, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Synthetic genes are artificially created DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that do not exist in nature. They are designed and constructed through genetic engineering techniques to encode specific functionalities or properties that do not occur in the original organism's genome. These synthetic genes can be used for various purposes, such as introducing new traits into organisms, producing novel enzymes or proteins, or developing new biotechnological applications.

The creation of synthetic genes involves designing and synthesizing DNA sequences that code for desired proteins or regulatory elements. This is achieved through chemical synthesis methods or using automated DNA synthesizers that can produce short DNA fragments, which are then assembled into longer sequences to form the complete synthetic gene. Once created, these synthetic genes can be introduced into living cells through various techniques like transfection or transformation, enabling the expression of the desired protein or functional trait.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Androstenes are a group of steroidal compounds that are produced and released by the human body. They are classified as steroids because they contain a characteristic carbon skeleton, called the sterane ring, which consists of four fused rings arranged in a specific structure. Androstenes are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the gonads (testes and ovaries), adrenal glands, and other tissues.

The term "androstene" refers specifically to compounds that contain a double bond between the 5th and 6th carbon atoms in the sterane ring. This double bond gives these compounds their characteristic chemical properties and distinguishes them from other steroidal compounds.

Androstenes are important in human physiology because they serve as precursors to the synthesis of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. They also have been found to play a role in the regulation of various bodily functions, including sexual behavior, mood, and cognition.

Some examples of androstenes include androstenedione, which is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen; androstenediol, which can be converted into either testosterone or estrogen; and androsterone, which is a weak androgen that is produced in the body as a metabolite of testosterone.

It's worth noting that androstenes are sometimes referred to as "pheromones" because they have been found to play a role in chemical communication between individuals of the same species. However, this use of the term "pheromone" is controversial and not universally accepted, as it has been difficult to demonstrate conclusively that humans communicate using chemical signals in the same way that many other animals do.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Contraceptive devices for males are designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking, killing, or inhibiting the movement of sperm. These devices include:

1. Condoms: Thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or polyisoprene that fit over the penis during sexual intercourse to collect semen and prevent it from entering the partner's body. They also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
2. Diaphragms: Soft, dome-shaped rubber devices fitted to cover the cervix inside the vagina. When used with spermicides, they can help prevent pregnancy by blocking the entry of sperm into the uterus.
3. Cervical Cap: A smaller, thimble-like cup made of silicone or latex that fits over the cervix to block sperm from entering the uterus. It is often used with spermicides for added effectiveness.
4. Spermicides: Chemicals that kill or immobilize sperm. They come in various forms, such as foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories, and can be used alone or in combination with other barrier methods like condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps.
5. Vasectomy: A surgical procedure for male sterilization that involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland. This prevents sperm from mixing with semen during ejaculation. Although vasectomies are considered permanent, in some cases, they can be reversed through surgery or other medical procedures.

It is important to note that while these contraceptive devices can significantly reduce the risk of pregnancy, they may not provide complete protection against STIs. Using multiple methods, like condoms and spermicides together, can increase overall effectiveness in preventing both pregnancy and STIs. Always consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice on contraceptive options.

Megestrol is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female hormone. It is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer, in postmenopausal women. Megestrol works by blocking the effects of estrogen, a female hormone that can promote the growth of some breast and endometrial cancers.

Megestrol is also used to treat anorexia (loss of appetite) and cachexia (wasting syndrome) in people with AIDS or cancer. It works by increasing appetite and promoting weight gain.

Megestrol is available as a tablet or a suspension that is taken by mouth, usually two to four times a day. The dosage depends on the condition being treated and the individual patient's response to therapy. Common side effects of megestrol include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual periods.

It is important to note that megestrol can cause serious side effects, such as blood clots, fluid retention, and increased risk of certain types of infections. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of megestrol therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse. The synthetic postcoital contraceptive is a type of emergency contraception that contains synthetic hormones, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. These hormones work by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The most common synthetic postcoital contraceptive is the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill (LNG-ECP), which contains a high dose of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel. It is usually taken as a single dose within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse, but it is most effective when taken as soon as possible after intercourse.

Another synthetic postcoital contraceptive is ulipristal acetate, which is also taken as a single dose but within 120 hours (5 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate works by delaying ovulation and preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.

It's important to note that synthetic postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of birth control, but rather as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. They should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and should not be used in place of regular contraception.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

Medroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is a female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle and by the placenta during pregnancy. As a medication, medroxyprogesterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

* Abnormal menstrual bleeding
* Endometrial hyperplasia (overgrowth of the lining of the uterus)
* Contraception (birth control)
* Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women
* Prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women
* Treatment of certain types of cancer, such as endometrial and renal cancers

Medroxyprogesterone works by binding to progesterone receptors in the body, which helps to regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and prevent the growth of some types of cancer. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injectable solutions, and depot suspensions for intramuscular injection.

It's important to note that medroxyprogesterone can have significant side effects, and its use should be monitored by a healthcare provider. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take medroxyprogesterone, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting medroxyprogesterone.

Estradiol congeners refer to chemical compounds that are structurally similar to estradiol, which is the most potent and prevalent form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol congeners can be naturally occurring or synthetic and may have similar or different biological activities compared to estradiol.

These compounds can be found in various sources, including plants, animals, and industrial products. Some estradiol congeners are used in pharmaceuticals as hormone replacement therapies, while others are considered environmental pollutants and may have endocrine-disrupting effects on wildlife and humans.

Examples of estradiol congeners include:

1. Estrone (E1): a weak estrogen that is produced in the body from estradiol and is also found in some plants.
2. Estriol (E3): a weaker estrogen that is produced in large quantities during pregnancy.
3. Diethylstilbestrol (DES): a synthetic estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women from the 1940s to the 1970s to prevent miscarriage, but was later found to have serious health effects on their offspring.
4. Zeranol: a synthetic non-steroidal estrogen used as a growth promoter in livestock.
5. Bisphenol A (BPA): a chemical used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, which has been shown to have weak estrogenic activity and may disrupt the endocrine system.

Spermatogenesis-blocking agents are a class of medications or substances that inhibit or block the process of spermatogenesis, which is the production of sperm in the testicles. These agents can work at various stages of spermatogenesis, including reducing the number of spermatozoa (sperm cells) or preventing the formation of mature sperm.

Examples of spermatogenesis-blocking agents include:

1. Hormonal agents: Certain hormones or hormone-like substances can interfere with the production of sperm. For example, analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and antiandrogens can suppress the release of testosterone and other hormones necessary for spermatogenesis.
2. Alkylating agents: These are chemotherapy drugs that can damage DNA and prevent the division and multiplication of cells, including sperm cells. Examples include cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
3. Other chemicals: Certain industrial chemicals, such as ethylene glycol ethers and dibromochloropropane (DBCP), have been shown to have spermatogenesis-blocking properties.
4. Radiation therapy: High doses of radiation can also damage the testicles and inhibit sperm production.

It's important to note that spermatogenesis-blocking agents are often used for medical purposes, such as treating cancer or preventing pregnancy, but they can have significant side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Ovulation inhibition is a term used in reproductive medicine to describe the prevention or delay of ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This can be achieved through various means, such as hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings), injectable hormones, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.

Hormonal contraceptives typically contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progestin, which work together to inhibit the natural hormonal signals that trigger ovulation. By suppressing the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these methods prevent the development and release of a mature egg from the ovaries.

In addition to preventing ovulation, hormonal contraceptives can also thicken cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus, reducing the likelihood of implantation in case fertilization does occur. It is important to note that while ovulation inhibition is a reliable method of birth control, it may not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Norpregnadienes are a type of steroid hormone that are structurally similar to progesterone, but with certain chemical groups (such as the methyl group at C10) removed. They are formed through the metabolism of certain steroid hormones and can be further metabolized into other compounds.

Norpregnadienes have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of reproductive function and the development of certain diseases such as cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their functions and clinical significance.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. It allows for a controlled release of medication over a certain period, typically lasting for 1-3 days. This method of administration can offer advantages such as avoiding gastrointestinal side effects, enabling self-administration, and providing consistent therapeutic drug levels. Common examples of transdermal patches include those used to deliver medications like nicotine, fentanyl, estradiol, and various pain-relieving agents.

Ethisterone is a synthetic steroid hormone that has progestogenic and androgenic activity. Its chemical name is pregneninolone acetate, and it is used in some medical treatments, such as for certain types of breast cancer and for the treatment of menstrual disorders. It is not commonly used today due to the availability of other hormonal therapies with more favorable side effect profiles. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Metrorrhagia is defined as uterine bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals, particularly between expected menstrual periods. It can also be described as abnormal vaginal bleeding that is not related to the regular menstrual cycle. The amount of bleeding can vary from light spotting to heavy flow.

Metrorrhagia is different from menorrhagia, which refers to excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding during the menstrual period. Metrorrhagia can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, infection, pregnancy complications, and certain medications or medical conditions.

It is essential to consult a healthcare provider if you experience any abnormal vaginal bleeding to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Nonoxynol is a surfactant, or surface-active agent, that has been used in various medical and consumer products. It is a type of chemical compound known as a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, which means it contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) ethylene oxide group and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) alkyl group.

In the medical field, Nonoxynol has been used as a spermicide in various forms of birth control, such as creams, gels, films, and sponges. It works by disrupting the membrane of sperm cells, preventing them from fertilizing an egg. However, its use as a spermicide has declined due to concerns about its potential to cause irritation and inflammation in the genital area, which may increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV transmission.

It's important to note that Nonoxynol is not currently recommended for use as a spermicide or microbicide due to its potential health risks. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product.

Coitus is the medical term for sexual intercourse, which is typically defined as the act of inserting the penis into the vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. It often involves rhythmic thrusting and movement, and can lead to orgasm in both males and females. Coitus may also be referred to as vaginal sex or penetrative sex.

It's important to note that there are many ways to engage in sexual activity beyond coitus, including oral sex, manual stimulation, and using sex toys. All of these forms of sexual expression can be healthy and normal when practiced safely and with consent.

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "xanthurenates" is not a recognized term in medicine or physiology. It seems that you might be referring to "xanthurenic acid," which is a metabolic byproduct produced during the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan. An accumulation of xanthurenic acid can occur due to certain genetic disorders, such as Hartnup disease or defects in the coenzyme Q10 synthesis pathway. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a precise definition related to your specific question. If you could provide additional information, I would be happy to help further!

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

Reproductive history is a term used in medicine to describe the past experiences related to reproduction for an individual. This can include information about pregnancies, including the number of pregnancies, outcomes (such as live births, miscarriages, or stillbirths), and any complications that arose during pregnancy or childbirth. It may also include details about contraceptive use, menstrual history, sexually transmitted infections, and any reproductive health issues or surgeries.

This information is often collected by healthcare providers to help assess fertility, plan for future pregnancies, identify potential risks, and provide appropriate care and management of reproductive health conditions. It's also used in research and public health to understand trends and disparities in reproductive outcomes.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

Coitus interruptus, also known as the withdrawal method, is a sexual practice in which a man withdraws his penis from a woman's vagina before ejaculation to prevent pregnancy. This method relies on the self-control of the male partner to withdraw in time and avoid any leakage of semen into the female genital area.

It's important to note that coitus interruptus is not considered a highly effective form of birth control, as there is still a risk of pregnancy due to pre-ejaculate fluid or accidental spillage of semen. Additionally, it provides no protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's recommended to consult healthcare professionals for more reliable and safe contraceptive methods.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Chlormadinone Acetate is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. It works by suppressing the natural progesterone produced by the ovaries, thereby preventing the buildup of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). This medication is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

It's important to note that Chlormadinone Acetate can cause a range of side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting this medication.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

"Men" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It generally refers to adult male human beings. If you are looking for a medical definition related to males, there are several terms that could potentially fit based on the context. Here are some examples:

* Male: A person who is biologically determined to be male, typically having XY chromosomes, testes, and certain physical characteristics such as greater muscle mass and body hair compared to females.
* Men's health: Refers to the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical conditions that are more common or specific to males, such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and erectile dysfunction.
* Menopause: A natural biological process that occurs in women, typically in their 40s or 50s, when their ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods cease. Although not directly related to males, it is worth noting that some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause due to a decline in testosterone levels as they age (a condition known as andropause).

I hope this helps clarify! Let me know if you have any further questions or need more information.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Counseling is a therapeutic intervention that involves a trained professional working with an individual, family, or group to help them understand and address their problems, concerns, or challenges. The goal of counseling is to help the person develop skills, insights, and resources that will allow them to make positive changes in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and improve their overall mental health and well-being.

Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual seeking help. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy. These approaches may be used alone or in combination with other interventions, such as medication or group therapy.

The specific goals and techniques of counseling will vary depending on the individual's needs and circumstances. However, some common objectives of counseling include:

* Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of emotional or behavioral problems
* Developing coping skills and strategies to manage stress, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns
* Improving communication and relationship skills
* Enhancing self-esteem and self-awareness
* Addressing substance abuse or addiction issues
* Resolving conflicts and making difficult decisions
* Grieving losses and coping with life transitions

Counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. These professionals have completed advanced education and training in counseling techniques and theories, and are qualified to provide a range of therapeutic interventions to help individuals, families, and groups achieve their goals and improve their mental health.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

Family planning policy refers to a government's official position or action regarding the use of family planning services, including contraception, fertility awareness, and reproductive health education. The goal of family planning policies is to enable individuals and couples to make informed decisions about whether and when to have children, thus contributing to improved maternal and child health outcomes, reduced unintended pregnancies, and lower abortion rates. Family planning policies may include provisions for the provision of free or subsidized contraceptive methods, sex education in schools, training for healthcare providers, and public awareness campaigns. The specific content and implementation of family planning policies vary widely between countries and are often influenced by cultural, religious, and political factors.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Norprogesterones" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. However, I can provide you with information on "Progestogens" or "Progestins," which are often referred to as "norpregnenolone derivatives."

Progestogens/Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced in the ovaries and placenta during pregnancy. They share many of the same functions as progesterone, including preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, maintaining the lining of the uterus during pregnancy, and supporting lactation after childbirth.

Progestogens/Progestins are used in various medical applications, such as hormonal contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy, and treatment for gynecological disorders like endometriosis or abnormal uterine bleeding. They can be synthesized from other steroid hormones, including progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol.

Some examples of progestogens/progestins include:

* Norethisterone (norethindrone)
* Levonorgestrel
* Medroxyprogesterone acetate
* Dydrogesterone
* Gestodene
* Norgestimate

If you meant to ask about a specific progestogen or progestin, please let me know and I can provide more information on that particular compound.

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. It involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland, to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. This procedure is typically performed in an outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, and takes about 20-30 minutes. It is considered a highly effective form of birth control with a low risk of complications. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection such as condoms may still be necessary.

Natural family planning methods (NFP) are fertility awareness-based approaches to planned pregnancy or avoiding pregnancy that involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and recognizing the signs and symptoms of fertility. These methods can be used to identify the fertile window, which is the time during each menstrual cycle when conception is most likely to occur.

NFP methods are based on the observation of various physiological indicators of fertility, such as changes in basal body temperature (BBT), cervical mucus, and the position and texture of the cervix. By tracking these signs over time, a woman can learn to identify her fertile window and plan or avoid sexual intercourse accordingly.

There are several different NFP methods that have been developed and studied for their effectiveness in helping couples achieve or avoid pregnancy. Some common NFP methods include:

1. The Sympto-Thermal Method (STM): This method involves tracking changes in BBT, cervical mucus, and other fertility signs to identify the fertile window.
2. The Ovulation Method (OM): This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus to identify the fertile window.
3. The Billings Ovulation Method: This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus and other sensations related to fertility to identify the fertile window.
4. The Standard Days Method (SDM): This method involves using a calendar to track the length of the menstrual cycle and identifying the fertile window based on the number of days before and after ovulation.
5. The TwoDay Method: This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus over two consecutive days to identify the fertile window.

NFP methods are generally considered safe and have few side effects, as they do not involve the use of hormones or other medications. However, NFP methods require careful tracking and interpretation of fertility signs, which can be challenging for some people. The effectiveness of NFP methods in preventing pregnancy varies depending on the method used and the consistency with which it is practiced. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), typical use failure rates for NFP methods range from 2% to 23%, while perfect use failure rates are generally lower. It's important to note that NFP methods may not be effective in preventing pregnancy for people with irregular menstrual cycles or other reproductive health issues.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and management of reproductive health disorders, including infertility, sexual dysfunction, and other reproductive system-related issues. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining expertise from various medical specialties such as obstetrics, gynecology, endocrinology, urology, and genetics.

Reproductive medicine encompasses several areas of focus, including:

1. Infertility treatment: Utilizing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other techniques to help individuals or couples conceive.
2. Contraception: Providing various methods for family planning, including hormonal contraceptives, barrier methods, and permanent sterilization procedures.
3. Sexual dysfunction: Addressing issues related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain through medical interventions, counseling, or surgical treatments.
4. Reproductive endocrinology: Managing hormonal imbalances affecting reproductive health, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and hypogonadism.
5. Genetic counseling and testing: Assessing the risk of inheritable genetic disorders and providing guidance on family planning options.
6. Menopause management: Offering treatments for symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.
7. Fertility preservation: Providing options for individuals facing cancer treatment or other medical conditions that may impact their future fertility, including egg, sperm, and embryo freezing.
8. Adolescent reproductive health: Addressing the unique needs of adolescents related to sexual and reproductive health, including education, counseling, and preventative care.
9. Andrology: Focusing on male reproductive health, including issues related to sperm production, function, and genital abnormalities.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "Single Person." In general, a single person is someone who is not married or in a committed relationship. However, this term is not typically used in a medical context. If you have more specific context or information that you're looking for, please let me know and I'll do my best to help!

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

Dysmenorrhea is a medical term that refers to painful menstrual cramps and discomfort during menstruation. It's one of the most common gynecological complaints among women of reproductive age. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.

1. Primary Dysmenorrhea: This type is more common and occurs in women who have had normal, pelvic anatomy. The pain is caused by strong contractions of the uterus due to the production of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that are involved in inflammation and pain). Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts soon after menarche (the beginning of menstruation) and tends to improve with age, particularly after childbirth.
2. Secondary Dysmenorrhea: This type is less common and occurs due to an underlying medical condition affecting the reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or adenomyosis. The pain associated with secondary dysmenorrhea tends to worsen over time and may be accompanied by other symptoms like irregular menstrual bleeding, pain during intercourse, or chronic pelvic pain.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea depends on the type and underlying cause. For primary dysmenorrhea, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen can help alleviate pain by reducing prostaglandin production. Hormonal birth control methods like oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices (IUDs) may also be prescribed to reduce menstrual pain. For secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment typically involves addressing the underlying medical condition causing the pain.

I'm happy to help, but I think there might be a bit of confusion in your question. Religion and sex are two distinct concepts that don't have a medical definition when combined. However, I can provide you with some information about each one separately.

Religion: Religion is a set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and moral values that are shared by a community or group of individuals. It often involves a belief in a higher power or powers, and may include various traditions, ceremonies, and teachings.

Sex: Sex refers to the biological characteristics that define males and females. It is usually determined by an individual's anatomy, chromosomes, and reproductive organs. Sex can also refer to sexual activity, which involves the intimate contact between two or more individuals for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

If you have any specific questions about either religion or sex in a medical context, please let me know and I'll do my best to provide a helpful response!

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

Menopause is a natural biological process that typically occurs in women in their mid-40s to mid-50s. It marks the end of menstrual cycles and fertility, defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. This transition period can last several years and is often accompanied by various physical and emotional symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. The hormonal fluctuations during this time, particularly the decrease in estrogen levels, contribute to these symptoms. It's essential to monitor and manage these symptoms to maintain overall health and well-being during this phase of life.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Menarche is the first occurrence of menstruation in a female adolescent, indicating the onset of reproductive capability. It usually happens between the ages of 10 and 16, with an average age of around 12-13 years old, but it can vary widely from one individual to another due to various factors such as genetics, nutrition, and overall health.

Achieving menarche is a significant milestone in a girl's life, signaling the transition from childhood to adolescence. It is also an essential indicator of sexual maturation, often used in conjunction with other physical changes to assess pubertal development. However, it does not necessarily mean that a girl is psychologically or emotionally prepared for menstruation and sexual activity; therefore, appropriate education and support are crucial during this period.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition characterized by the formation of various types of blemishes on the skin, such as blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, and cysts or nodules. These lesions typically appear on areas of the body that have a high concentration of sebaceous glands, including the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acne vulgaris occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and excess oil (sebum) produced by the sebaceous glands. This blockage provides an ideal environment for bacteria, particularly Propionibacterium acnes, to multiply, leading to inflammation and infection. The severity of acne vulgaris can range from mild with only a few scattered comedones (blackheads or whiteheads) to severe cystic acne, which can cause significant scarring and emotional distress.

The exact causes of acne vulgaris are not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development, including:

1. Hormonal changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or due to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
2. Genetic predisposition
3. Use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and lithium
4. Excessive production of sebum due to overactive sebaceous glands
5. Accumulation of dead skin cells that clog pores
6. Bacterial infection (particularly Propionibacterium acnes)
7. Inflammation caused by the body's immune response to bacterial infection and clogged pores

Treatment for acne vulgaris depends on its severity and can include over-the-counter or prescription topical treatments, oral medications, chemical peels, light therapies, or even hormonal therapies in some cases. It is essential to seek professional medical advice from a dermatologist or healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for individual needs.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Pyridoxine is the chemical name for Vitamin B6. According to the medical definition, Pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin that is part of the B-vitamin complex and is essential for the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It plays a vital role in the regulation of homocysteine levels in the body, the formation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, and the synthesis of hemoglobin.

Pyridoxine can be found naturally in various foods, including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, seeds, meat, poultry, and fish. It is also available as a dietary supplement and may be prescribed by healthcare providers to treat or prevent certain medical conditions, such as vitamin B6 deficiency, anemia, seizures, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Like other water-soluble vitamins, Pyridoxine cannot be stored in the body and must be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation. Excessive intake of Pyridoxine can lead to toxicity symptoms such as nerve damage, skin lesions, and light sensitivity.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Premenopause is not a formal medical term, but it's often informally used to refer to the time period in a woman's life leading up to menopause. During this stage, which can last for several years, hormonal changes begin to occur in preparation for menopause. The ovaries start to produce less estrogen and progesterone, which can lead to various symptoms such as irregular periods, hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. However, it's important to note that not all women will experience these symptoms.

The official medical term for the stage when a woman's period becomes irregular and less frequent, but hasn't stopped completely, is perimenopause. This stage typically lasts from two to eight years and ends with menopause, which is defined as the point when a woman has not had a period for 12 consecutive months. After menopause, women enter postmenopause.

Menorrhagia is a medical term used to describe abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. It's often characterized by the loss of an excessive amount of menstrual blood (usually more than 80 ml) and can last longer than normal, typically over seven days. This condition can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, causing fatigue, distress, and restrictions in daily activities due to the need for frequent pad or tampon changes.

The causes of menorrhagia are varied and can include hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids or polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy complications, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as coagulopathies or thyroid disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain undetermined even after a thorough evaluation.

Treatment options for menorrhagia depend on the underlying cause and range from medication management with hormonal therapies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or tranexamic acid to procedural interventions like endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic resection of polyps or fibroids, or ultimately hysterectomy in severe cases. It is essential for individuals experiencing menorrhagia to consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action based on their specific situation and medical history.

Oligopeptides are defined in medicine and biochemistry as short chains of amino acids, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. These small peptides are important components in various biological processes, such as serving as signaling molecules, enzyme inhibitors, or structural elements in some proteins. They can be found naturally in foods and may also be synthesized for use in medical research and therapeutic applications.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

I must clarify that "Ethiopia" is not a medical term or condition. Ethiopia is a country located in the Horn of Africa, known for its rich history and cultural heritage. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with diverse ethnic groups, languages, and religious practices.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please feel free to ask! I'm here to help.

Menstrual hygiene products are items used by menstruating individuals to absorb or collect blood and maintain cleanliness and comfort during menstruation. These products typically include sanitary napkins, tampons, menstrual cups, and reusable cloth pads. They are designed to be safe, comfortable, and effective in managing menstrual flow and preventing leakage, while also being convenient and discreet to use. It is essential to maintain proper menstrual hygiene to prevent discomfort, skin irritation, and infection during menstruation.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Nandrolone is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid, which is a type of hormone that is similar to testosterone. It is often used in medical settings for the treatment of certain conditions such as muscle wasting diseases, osteoporosis, and breast cancer in women. Nandrolone promotes muscle growth and increases appetite, which can help individuals with muscle wasting diseases or other conditions that cause muscle loss to maintain their strength and weight.

Nandrolone is also known by its brand names Deca-Durabolin and Durabolin. It works by increasing the production of proteins in the body, which helps to build muscle mass. Nandrolone can have both anabolic (muscle-building) and androgenic (masculinizing) effects, although it is generally considered to be less androgenic than testosterone.

Like other anabolic steroids, nandrolone can have a number of side effects, including acne, hair loss, liver damage, and mood changes. It can also cause virilization in women, which refers to the development of male characteristics such as a deep voice, facial hair, and a decrease in breast size. Nandrolone is classified as a controlled substance in many countries due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

"Marital status" is not a medical term, but it is often used in medical records and forms to indicate whether a person is single, married, divorced, widowed, or in a civil union. It is a social determinant of health that can have an impact on a person's access to healthcare, health behaviors, and health outcomes. For example, research has shown that people who are unmarried, divorced, or widowed may have worse health outcomes than those who are married. However, it is important to note that this relationship is complex and influenced by many other factors, including socioeconomic status, age, and overall health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Indians, Central American" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals or populations that originate from Central America and self-identify as indigenous or native to the region. In a medical context, it's more common to see specific references to individual ethnic groups or populations, such as Maya, Garifuna, or Miskitu, among others. These groups may have unique genetic characteristics, health risks, or cultural practices that are relevant to medical care and research. However, it's important to note that any discussion of medical issues should be sensitive to the individual's self-identified ethnicity and personal preferences.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

Thrombophlebitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and clotting of blood in a vein, usually in the legs. The term thrombophlebitis comes from two words: "thrombo" which means blood clot, and "phlebitis" which refers to inflammation of the vein.

The condition can occur in superficial or deep veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis affects the veins just below the skin's surface, while deep vein thrombophlebitis (DVT) occurs in the deeper veins. DVT is a more serious condition as it can lead to complications such as pulmonary embolism if the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs.

Symptoms of thrombophlebitis may include redness, warmth, pain, swelling, or discomfort in the affected area. In some cases, there may be visible surface veins that are hard, tender, or ropy to touch. If left untreated, thrombophlebitis can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and other long-term complications. Treatment typically involves medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, or thrombolytics, along with compression stockings and other supportive measures.

Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic steroid hormone with anti-androgen and progestogenic properties. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body, which helps to reduce symptoms associated with excessive androgen production such as severe acne or hirsutism (excessive hair growth).

Cyproterone acetate is used in the treatment of conditions such as prostate cancer, where it can help to slow the growth of cancer cells by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. It is also used in the treatment of sexual deviations, such as pedophilia or exhibitionism, as it can reduce sexual desire.

In addition, cyproterone acetate is sometimes used in combination with estrogen in hormone replacement therapy for transgender women to suppress the production of testosterone and promote feminization.

It's important to note that cyproterone acetate can have significant side effects and its use should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

Ambulatory care facilities are healthcare providers where patients receive medical services, treatments, or procedures that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These facilities are often used for diagnosis, observation, and outpatient care such as same-day surgery, preventive health screenings, and minor procedures. They can include a wide range of settings like physician offices, community clinics, urgent care centers, dialysis centers, and surgical centers. The goal of ambulatory care facilities is to provide high-quality medical services in a convenient and cost-effective manner for patients who do not require hospitalization.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Missouri" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state located in the central United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Uterine cervical neoplasms, also known as cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia, refer to abnormal growths or lesions on the lining of the cervix that have the potential to become cancerous. These growths are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be detected through routine Pap smears.

Cervical neoplasms are classified into different grades based on their level of severity, ranging from mild dysplasia (CIN I) to severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIN III). In some cases, cervical neoplasms may progress to invasive cancer if left untreated.

Risk factors for developing cervical neoplasms include early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and a weakened immune system. Regular Pap smears and HPV testing are recommended for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer.

Antispermatogenic agents are substances or drugs that inhibit or prevent the production of sperm in the testes. These agents can work by various mechanisms, such as interfering with the formation and maturation of sperm cells, damaging sperm DNA, or suppressing the hormones responsible for sperm production.

Examples of antispermatogenic agents include chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, and certain medications used to treat prostate cancer or other conditions. Prolonged use of these agents can lead to infertility, so they are often used with caution and only when necessary. It is important to note that the use of antispermatogenic agents should be under the guidance and supervision of a medical professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Women" is not a medical term that can be defined in a straightforward way. In medical contexts, "women" is often used to refer to adult human females, based on their biological sex characteristics. However, it's important to note that there are individuals who may be biologically male but identify as women, and they are also considered part of the female population in many medical and societal contexts.

In general, gender identity is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else. It's separate from biological sex, which refers to physical characteristics like chromosomes, hormone levels, and reproductive organs. Some people identify with the gender that matches their biological sex, while others may identify as the opposite gender, or as neither male nor female.

Therefore, it's important to consider both the biological and personal aspects of an individual's identity when discussing medical issues related to women.

Nonprescription drugs, also known as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, are medications that can be legally purchased without a prescription from a healthcare professional. They are considered safe and effective for treating minor illnesses or symptoms when used according to the directions on the label. Examples include pain relievers like acetaminophen and ibuprofen, antihistamines for allergies, and topical treatments for skin conditions. It is still important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if there are any concerns or questions about using nonprescription drugs.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Danazol is a synthetic, orally active androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties. It is used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol works by suppressing the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn inhibits the growth of ovarian tissue and reduces the production of estrogen and progesterone. This leads to a decrease in the symptoms associated with endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease. In the case of hereditary angioedema, danazol helps prevent attacks by increasing the levels of a protein called C1 esterase inhibitor, which is necessary for regulating the immune system and preventing inflammation.

The common side effects of danazol include weight gain, acne, oily skin, increased hair growth, changes in menstrual cycle, decreased breast size, deepening of the voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, blood clots, and adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to its potential virilizing effects on the fetus. It should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

The medical definition of danazol can be summarized as follows:

Danazol (dan-a-zole)

A synthetic androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties, used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol suppresses the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland, inhibiting ovarian tissue growth and reducing estrogen and progesterone production. In hereditary angioedema, danazol increases C1 esterase inhibitor levels to prevent attacks. Common side effects include weight gain, acne, increased hair growth, menstrual changes, decreased breast size, deepened voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may involve liver damage, blood clots, or adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to potential virilizing effects on the fetus and should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) expulsion is a medical condition that refers to the unintentional and partial or complete removal of an IUD from the uterus after its initial insertion. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of manipulation, and it may happen soon after insertion or even several months or years later.

IUD expulsion is more common in women who have not previously given birth, and it can increase the risk of unintended pregnancy and other complications. Symptoms of IUD expulsion may include irregular menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or the absence of the IUD strings in the vagina. If a woman suspects that her IUD has been expelled, she should contact her healthcare provider for further evaluation and management.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) is a medical treatment in which estrogen hormones are administered to replace the estrogen that is naturally produced by the ovaries but declines, especially during menopause. This therapy is often used to help manage symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. It can also help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. ERT typically involves the use of estrogen alone, but in some cases, a combination of estrogen and progestin may be prescribed for women with a uterus to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. However, ERT is associated with certain risks, including an increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and stroke, so it's important for women to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before starting this therapy.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term. It is the largest country in the Central American Isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Reproductive behavior, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the actions or behaviors associated with an organism's reproduction. This can include various aspects such as:

1. Mating rituals or courtship behaviors that individuals of a species engage in to attract mates.
2. Copulation or actual mating process.
3. Parental care, which is the behavior of parents towards their offspring, including protection, feeding, and teaching necessary skills.
4. In some cases, it may also include aggressive behaviors related to territory defense for breeding.

These behaviors are influenced by hormonal changes, genetic factors, environmental conditions, and individual experiences. They vary widely among different species, with some displaying complex rituals while others have more straightforward processes.

In humans, reproductive behavior includes sexual activities associated with procreation, contraceptive use, family planning, and sometimes abstinence. It's important to note that human reproductive behavior can also be influenced by cultural, psychological, and social factors, making it quite complex compared to many other species.

Vaginal creams, foams, and jellies are topical formulations specifically designed for vaginal application. These products contain various active ingredients intended to treat or manage various vaginal conditions such as infections, dryness, or irritation. The choice of formulation depends on the specific indication, patient preference, and the properties of the active ingredient.

1. Vaginal Creams: These are smooth, thick, and creamy preparations that often contain a water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. They are typically used to deliver medications for treating vaginal infections like candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomoniasis. Vaginal creams can also be used as lubricants or moisturizers to alleviate dryness and discomfort.

2. Vaginal Foams: These are aerosolized formulations that contain a propellant gas, which creates a light and airy consistency when dispensed. The foam formulation facilitates the even distribution of the active ingredient throughout the vaginal area. Vaginal foams are often used to deliver medications for treating vaginal infections or as contraceptive foams.

3. Vaginal Jellies: These are semi-solid preparations with a smooth, slippery consistency, similar to gelatin. They are typically water-based and can easily spread and coat the vaginal mucosa. Vaginal jellies are often used as lubricants or to deliver medications for local action in the vagina, such as antifungal, antibacterial, or anesthetic agents.

It is essential to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when using these products, as improper use may lead to reduced effectiveness or increased side effects.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

Barrier contraception refers to methods of preventing pregnancy that involve creating a physical barrier between the sperm and the egg. The most common types of barrier contraceptives include male condoms, female condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.

Male condoms are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or natural membranes that are worn over the penis during sexual intercourse. They work by collecting semen and preventing it from entering the partner's body.

Female condoms are similar to male condoms but are designed to be inserted into the vagina before sex. They also collect semen and prevent it from entering the woman's body.

Diaphragms and cervical caps are flexible domes made of silicone that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Diaphragms are typically used with a spermicidal cream or gel, while cervical caps can be used alone or with a spermicide.

Contraceptive sponges are soft, disc-shaped devices made of polyurethane that contain spermicide. They are inserted into the vagina before sex and work by blocking the cervix and releasing spermicide to kill sperm.

Barrier contraceptives are effective at preventing pregnancy, but their effectiveness can vary depending on proper use. Male condoms have a typical failure rate of about 13-18%, while female condoms have a typical failure rate of about 21%. Diaphragms and cervical caps have a typical failure rate of about 12-16%, and contraceptive sponges have a typical failure rate of about 20-24%.

It's important to note that barrier contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) unless they are made of latex or polyurethane. Natural membrane condoms, such as those made from lambskin, can prevent pregnancy but do not provide protection against STIs.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

"Population control" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of public health and societal planning. In this context, population control refers to the practices and policies aimed at managing the size and growth rate of a population, with the goal of achieving a sustainable balance between population size and available resources.

Population control measures may include:

1. Family planning programs that provide access to contraception and education about reproductive health.
2. Public health initiatives that address maternal and child health, infectious diseases, and other factors that affect fertility rates.
3. Social and economic policies that promote gender equality, education, and economic opportunities for women, who often have a disproportionate impact on fertility rates.
4. In some cases, more coercive measures such as forced sterilization or abortion, which are widely considered to be unethical and violations of human rights.

It's important to note that population control is a complex and controversial issue, with many different perspectives and approaches. While some argue that managing population growth is essential for achieving sustainable development and reducing poverty, others argue that it is a violation of individual freedoms and human rights.

Uterine perforation is a medical condition that refers to the piercing or puncturing of the uterine wall. This can occur during various medical procedures such as dilatation and curettage (D&C), insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), or during childbirth. It can also be caused by trauma or infection. Uterine perforation can lead to serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. If left untreated, it can be life-threatening. Symptoms of uterine perforation may include severe abdominal pain, heavy vaginal bleeding, fever, and signs of shock. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

Megaloblasts are large, structurally abnormal immature red blood cells that appear in the bone marrow due to disorders in DNA synthesis, most commonly caused by deficiencies in folate or vitamin B12. They are characterized by an increased size, an oval or lobulated nucleus with condensed chromatin, and a cytoplasm filled with RNA and ribosomes. Megaloblasts can be found in megaloblastic anemias such as pernicious anemia and folate deficiency anemia. The presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow is indicative of impaired maturation of red blood cells, which can lead to various hematological abnormalities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Central America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nigeria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous country in Africa. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) migration is a medical condition where the IUD, a long-acting reversible contraceptive device placed inside the uterus, moves from its original position. Normally, an IUD is designed to remain in the uterus, with the vertical strings attached to it trailing down through the cervix into the vagina, allowing for easy removal or checking of its position.

IUD migration refers to the unintended movement of the device, either partially or completely, outside the uterine cavity. This may occur due to various reasons such as a weakened uterus, infection, or anatomical abnormalities. The migration can lead to complications like perforation of the uterus, damage to nearby organs, and difficulty in removing or locating the IUD. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are essential to ensure that the IUD remains in its proper place and to address any potential issues early on.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

"Vinyl compounds" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term used in chemistry and materials science to refer to a group of chemicals that contain carbon-based molecules with a vinyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a double bond between two carbon atoms, with one of the carbons also being bonded to a hydrogen atom (-CH2=CH-).

Vinyl compounds are used in various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, adhesives, and coatings. Some vinyl compounds, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), have been used in medical devices and supplies, such as intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and blood vessel catheters. However, the use of PVC and other vinyl compounds in medical applications has raised concerns about potential health risks due to the release of toxic chemicals, such as phthalates and dioxins, during manufacturing, use, and disposal. Therefore, alternative materials are being developed and used in medical devices and supplies.

'Student Health Services' is a department or facility within educational institutions, particularly colleges and universities, that provide primary care medical services to students. They are often staffed by healthcare professionals including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, and mental health counselors. The services offered may include diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care, immunizations, sexual health services, mental health counseling, and health education. Student Health Services aim to promote the overall well-being of students and help them maintain good health while pursuing their academic goals.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

Medical definitions typically come from authoritative sources such as medical textbooks or professional organizations. Here is a definition from the World Health Organization (WHO):

"Sexual abstinence is the act of refraining from sexual activity, which may be chosen for a variety of reasons, including personal, health, religious, or other reasons."

It's important to note that sexual abstinence can have different meanings for different people. For some, it may mean avoiding all forms of sexual contact, while for others, it may refer only to vaginal or anal intercourse. It's a personal decision and can be interpreted differently based on cultural, religious, and individual beliefs.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Factor V, also known as proaccelerin or labile factor, is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. Factor V acts as a cofactor for the activation of Factor X to Factor Xa, which is a critical step in the coagulation cascade.

When blood vessels are damaged, the coagulation cascade is initiated to prevent excessive bleeding. During this process, Factor V is activated by thrombin, another protein involved in coagulation, and then forms a complex with activated Factor X and calcium ions on the surface of platelets or other cells. This complex converts prothrombin to thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin to form a stable clot.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Factor V can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemophilia B or factor V deficiency, while mutations in the gene encoding Factor V can increase the risk of thrombosis, as seen in the Factor V Leiden mutation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rwanda" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

A vaginal smear, also known as a Pap test or Pap smear, is a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is collected from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina) and examined under a microscope. The purpose of this test is to detect abnormal cells, including precancerous changes, that may indicate the presence of cervical cancer or other conditions such as infections or inflammation.

During the procedure, a speculum is inserted into the vagina to allow the healthcare provider to visualize the cervix. A spatula or brush is then used to gently scrape cells from the surface of the cervix. The sample is spread onto a microscope slide and sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Regular Pap smears are recommended for women as part of their routine healthcare, as they can help detect abnormalities at an early stage when they are more easily treated. The frequency of Pap smears may vary depending on age, medical history, and other factors. It is important to follow the recommendations of a healthcare provider regarding the timing and frequency of Pap smears.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Paternalism, in the context of medical ethics, refers to the practice of healthcare providers making decisions for their patients without obtaining their consent, due to the belief that they know what is best for the patient. This approach can be seen as patronizing and disempowering, as it does not take into account the autonomy and preferences of the patient.

Paternalism can manifest in various forms, such as withholding information from patients, making treatment decisions without consulting them, or coercing patients to follow a particular course of action. While paternalistic attitudes may stem from a desire to protect patients, they can also undermine trust and lead to poorer health outcomes.

Modern medical ethics emphasizes the importance of informed consent, shared decision-making, and respect for patient autonomy, all of which are seen as essential components of ethical healthcare practice.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a complex of symptoms that occur in the latter part of the luteal phase (the second half) of the menstrual cycle, typically starting 5-11 days before the onset of menses, and remitting shortly after the onset of menstruation. The symptoms can be physical, psychological, or behavioral and vary from mild to severe. They include but are not limited to: bloating, breast tenderness, cramps, headaches, mood swings, irritability, depression, anxiety, fatigue, changes in appetite, and difficulty concentrating.

The exact cause of PMS is not known, but it appears to be related to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, particularly fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels. Some women may be more susceptible to these hormonal shifts due to genetic factors, neurotransmitter imbalances, or other health conditions.

Treatment for PMS often involves a combination of lifestyle changes (such as regular exercise, stress management, and dietary modifications), over-the-counter pain relievers, and, in some cases, hormonal medications or antidepressants. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Zambia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southern Africa, known officially as the Republic of Zambia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Libido, in medical and psychological terms, refers to a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity. This term was first introduced by Sigmund Freud in his psychoanalytic theory, where he described it as one of the three components of human personality. Libido is influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors, and can vary significantly among individuals. It's important to note that a low or absent libido does not necessarily indicate an underlying medical issue, but could be a result of various factors such as stress, fatigue, relationship issues, mental health disorders, or hormonal imbalances. If you have concerns about your libido, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and guidance.

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Madagascar" is not a medical term. It is actually the fourth-largest island country in the world, located in the Indian Ocean, off the southeastern coast of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

In medical terms, "sex" refers to the biological characteristics that define males and females. These characteristics include chromosomes, hormone levels, reproductive/sexual anatomy, and secondary sexual traits. Generally, people are categorized as male or female based on their anatomical and genetic features, but there are also intersex individuals who may have physical or genetic features that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. It is important to note that while sex is a biological concept, gender is a social construct that refers to the roles, behaviors, activities, and expectations that a society considers appropriate for men and women.

Birth intervals refer to the length of time between the birth of one child and the conception of the next child. It is the duration from the delivery of one baby to the initiation of the pregnancy that results in another birth. This interval is an essential measure in reproductive health, as it can impact the health and well-being of both the mother and the children.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum birth interval of 24 months between pregnancies to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Shorter birth intervals are associated with increased risks for preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and neonatal mortality. Additionally, short birth intervals can also negatively affect the mother's health, increasing the risk of maternal depletion syndrome, which may lead to nutritional deficiencies, anemia, and fatigue.

Birth intervals are influenced by various factors, including cultural norms, socioeconomic status, access to family planning services, and individual preferences. Encouraging longer birth intervals through improved access to family planning resources and education can contribute to better maternal and child health outcomes.

Hydrazines are not a medical term, but rather a class of organic compounds containing the functional group N-NH2. They are used in various industrial and chemical applications, including the production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, some hydrazines have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Exposure to high levels of hydrazines can be toxic and may cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Therefore, medical professionals should be aware of the potential health hazards associated with hydrazine exposure.

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a medical condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT is a blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, while PE occurs when a clot breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking a pulmonary artery or one of its branches. This condition can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

The medical definition of Venous Thromboembolism is:

"The formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein, most commonly in the legs, which can then dislodge and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening blockage of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches (pulmonary embolism). VTE is a complex disorder resulting from an interplay of genetic and environmental factors that affect the balance between thrombosis and fibrinolysis."

Some common risk factors for VTE include immobility, surgery, trauma, cancer, hormonal therapy, pregnancy, advanced age, and inherited or acquired thrombophilia. Symptoms of DVT may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected limb, while symptoms of PE can range from shortness of breath and chest pain to coughing up blood or even sudden death. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical assessment, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as D-dimer). Treatment usually includes anticoagulation therapy to prevent further clot formation and reduce the risk of recurrence.

A criminal abortion is an illegal abortion, which is a procedure performed with the intent to induce the termination of a pregnancy, carried out in violation of the law. In many jurisdictions, criminal abortions are defined as those performed outside of the legal parameters set forth by the relevant regulations, such as those that require the procedure to be performed by a licensed medical professional, within certain timeframes, and/or for specific reasons.

Criminal abortions may be motivated by various factors, including financial constraints, social stigma, or fear of repercussions. Engaging in criminal abortion practices can result in severe legal consequences, including fines, imprisonment, and in some cases, loss of medical license. It's important to note that the legality and accessibility of abortion vary significantly across different countries and regions, with varying restrictions and requirements.

If you require assistance or advice related to pregnancy termination, it is crucial to consult a licensed healthcare professional or a trusted reproductive health organization in your area to ensure that you receive accurate information and safe care within the legal framework of your jurisdiction.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the reproductive organs in women, specifically the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is often caused by an infection that ascends from the cervix or vagina into the upper genital tract. The infectious agents are usually sexually transmitted bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, but other organisms can also be responsible.

Symptoms of PID may include lower abdominal pain, irregular menstrual bleeding, vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, fever, painful sexual intercourse, or pain in the lower back. However, some women with PID may not experience any symptoms at all. If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Diagnosis of PID is typically based on a combination of clinical findings, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection and may also include pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more intensive treatment or if complications arise.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Gossypol is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medication or a specific medical condition. However, it is a chemical compound that can be found in the cotton plant (Gossypium species). It's a polyphenolic compound that is present in the seeds, leaves and roots of the cotton plant.

Gossypol has been studied for its potential medicinal properties, such as its anti-fertility effects, and it has also been investigated for its potential use as an anticancer agent. However, its toxicity and side effects have limited its clinical use.

It's important to note that gossypol can be toxic in high concentrations, and consuming large amounts of cottonseed or cottonseed products can lead to gossypol poisoning. Symptoms of gossypol poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and difficulty breathing.

Egg proteins, also known as egg white proteins or ovalbumin, refer to the proteins found in egg whites. There are several different types of proteins found in egg whites, including:

1. Ovalbumin (54%): This is the major protein found in egg whites and is responsible for their white color. It has various functions such as providing nutrition, maintaining the structural integrity of the egg, and protecting the egg from bacteria.
2. Conalbumin (13%): Also known as ovotransferrin, this protein plays a role in the defense against microorganisms by binding to iron and making it unavailable for bacterial growth.
3. Ovomucoid (11%): This protein is resistant to digestion and helps protect the egg from being broken down by enzymes in the digestive tract of predators.
4. Lysozyme (3.5%): This protein has antibacterial properties and helps protect the egg from bacterial infection.
5. Globulins (4%): These are a group of simple proteins found in egg whites that have various functions such as providing nutrition, maintaining the structural integrity of the egg, and protecting the egg from bacteria.
6. Avidin (0.05%): This protein binds to biotin, a vitamin, making it unavailable for use by the body. However, cooking denatures avidin and makes the biotin available again.

Egg proteins are highly nutritious and contain all nine essential amino acids, making them a complete source of protein. They are also low in fat and cholesterol, making them a popular choice for those following a healthy diet.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Honduras" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Central America, bordered by Guatemala to the west, El Salvador to the southwest, Nicaragua to the southeast, and the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Skin manifestations refer to visible changes on the skin that can indicate an underlying medical condition or disease process. These changes can include rashes, lesions, discoloration, eruptions, blisters, hives, and other abnormalities. The appearance, distribution, and pattern of these manifestations can provide important clues for healthcare professionals to diagnose and manage the underlying condition.

Skin manifestations can be caused by a wide range of factors, including infections, inflammatory conditions, allergic reactions, genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In some cases, skin manifestations may be the primary symptom of a medical condition, while in other cases, they may be a secondary effect of medication or treatment.

It is important to note that while skin manifestations can provide valuable diagnostic information, they should always be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall medical history and presentation. A thorough physical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests are often necessary to confirm a diagnosis and develop an effective treatment plan.

The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical mucus is a clear or cloudy secretion produced by glands in the cervix. The amount and consistency of cervical mucus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, influenced by hormonal fluctuations.

During the fertile window (approximately mid-cycle), estrogen levels rise, causing the cervical mucus to become more abundant, clear, and stretchy (often described as resembling raw egg whites). This "fertile" mucus facilitates the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization.

As the menstrual cycle progresses and progesterone levels rise after ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thicker, cloudier, and less abundant, making it more difficult for sperm to penetrate. This change in cervical mucus helps prevent additional sperm from entering and fertilizing an already-fertilized egg.

Changes in cervical mucus can be used as a method of natural family planning or fertility awareness, with women checking their cervical mucus daily to identify their most fertile days. However, this method should be combined with other tracking methods for increased accuracy and reliability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Namibia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southern Africa, bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, South Africa to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Female condoms are a form of barrier contraception that provides protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancy. They are made of soft, flexible nitrile rubber sheath that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The closed end of the sheath covers the cervix, while the open end remains outside the vagina, covering the labia.

The female condom works by providing a physical barrier that prevents semen from entering the vagina and coming into contact with the cervix and internal reproductive organs. This helps to prevent pregnancy and also reduces the risk of STI transmission by preventing direct genital-to-genital contact.

Female condoms are an important option for individuals who cannot or do not wish to use male condoms, as they offer similar protection against STIs and pregnancy. They can be inserted up to eight hours before sexual intercourse, providing greater spontaneity and convenience compared to male condoms. Additionally, female condoms may be used during anal sex to reduce the risk of STI transmission.

It is important to note that female condoms should not be used in conjunction with male condoms, as this can increase friction and cause either condom to break or slip off. Proper use and handling of female condoms are essential for ensuring their effectiveness and preventing accidental pregnancy or STI transmission.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

"Communications media" is a broad term that refers to the various means by which information or messages are transmitted from one person or group to another. In the context of healthcare and medicine, communications media can include both traditional and electronic methods used to share patient information, medical research, and other health-related data.

Traditional communications media in healthcare may include written documents such as medical records, charts, and reports, as well as verbal communication between healthcare providers and patients or among healthcare professionals.

Electronic communications media, on the other hand, refer to digital technologies used to transmit and store information. Examples of electronic communications media in healthcare include:

1. Electronic Health Records (EHRs): Digital versions of a patient's medical history and records, which can be shared among authorized healthcare providers.
2. Telemedicine: The use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide healthcare services remotely, allowing patients and healthcare professionals to communicate via video conferencing, phone calls, or messaging platforms.
3. Health Information Exchanges (HIEs): Secure, electronic networks that enable the sharing of health-related data among authorized healthcare organizations, providers, and patients.
4. Medical Imaging Systems: Digital systems used for storing, accessing, and sharing medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs.
5. Personal Health Applications (mHealth): Mobile applications and wearable devices that allow individuals to monitor their health, track fitness goals, and manage chronic conditions.

Effective communication media are crucial in healthcare for ensuring accurate diagnoses, coordinating care, improving patient outcomes, and conducting medical research. It is essential to maintain confidentiality, privacy, and security when using electronic communications media to protect sensitive health information.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

A pregnancy test is a medical diagnostic tool used to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. These tests detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta after fertilization. Pregnancy tests can be performed using a variety of methods, including urine tests and blood tests.

Urine pregnancy tests are typically performed at home and involve either dipping a test strip into a sample of urine or holding the strip under a stream of urine for several seconds. The test strip contains antibodies that react with hCG, producing a visual signal such as a line or plus sign if hCG is present.

Blood pregnancy tests are performed by a healthcare provider and can detect lower levels of hCG than urine tests. There are two types of blood pregnancy tests: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative tests simply detect the presence or absence of hCG, while quantitative tests measure the exact amount of hCG present in the blood.

Pregnancy tests are generally very accurate when used correctly, but false positives and false negatives can occur. False positives may occur due to certain medical conditions or medications that contain hCG. False negatives may occur if the test is taken too early or if it is not performed correctly. It is important to follow the instructions carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if there is any uncertainty about the results.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Synthetic chemistry techniques refer to the methods and processes used in the laboratory to synthesize or create new chemical compounds or molecules. This can involve a wide range of procedures, including various types of reactions, separations, purifications, and characterizations. The goal of synthetic chemistry is often to produce a specific compound with desired properties, such as a drug molecule with therapeutic activity or a materials compound with unique physical or chemical characteristics. Synthetic chemists use their knowledge of organic, inorganic, physical, and analytical chemistry to design and execute efficient and effective syntheses, and they may employ automation, computational modeling, and other advanced tools to aid in their work.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, rather than a medical term or condition. It is bordered by India to the west, north, and east, and by Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast, with the Bay of Bengal to the south. The official name of the country is the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "San Francisco" is not a medical term. It is a city in the state of California, USA. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help answer those!

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women in areas where hair growth is typically androgen-dependent, such as the face, chest, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. This hair growth is often thick, dark, and coarse, resembling male-pattern hair growth. Hirsutism can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and genetic conditions. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience excessive or unwanted hair growth to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Indazoles are not a medical term, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a indazole moiety, which is a benzene ring fused with a diazole ring. Indazoles have no specific medical relevance, but certain derivatives of indazoles have been developed and used as drugs in medicine, particularly in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. For example, Tadalafil (Cialis), a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia, is a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 and has an indazole structure.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

I apologize for any confusion, but "spouses" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general, a spouse refers to a person who is united to another in a marriage contract. The term can refer to either a husband or a wife. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

1. Intracranial Embolism: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other particle (embolus) formed elsewhere in the body, travels through the bloodstream and lodges itself in the intracranial blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood to a part of the brain. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, speech difficulties, or even loss of consciousness, depending on the severity and location of the blockage.

2. Intracranial Thrombosis: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms within the intracranial blood vessels. The clot can partially or completely obstruct the flow of blood, leading to various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, or neurological deficits, depending on the severity and location of the thrombosis. Intracranial thrombosis can occur due to various factors including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

Breastfeeding is the process of providing nutrition to an infant or young child by feeding them breast milk directly from the mother's breast. It is also known as nursing. Breast milk is the natural food for newborns and infants, and it provides all the nutrients they need to grow and develop during the first six months of life.

Breastfeeding has many benefits for both the mother and the baby. For the baby, breast milk contains antibodies that help protect against infections and diseases, and it can also reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), allergies, and obesity. For the mother, breastfeeding can help her lose weight after pregnancy, reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, and promote bonding with her baby.

Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first six months of an infant's life, and then continued along with appropriate complementary foods until the child is at least two years old or beyond. However, it is important to note that every mother and baby pair is unique, and what works best for one may not work as well for another. It is recommended that mothers consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best feeding plan for themselves and their baby.

"Pimpinella" is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Apiaceae, also known as the carrot or parsley family. The most common species in this genus is Pimpinella anisum, which is known as anise or aniseed. This herb is native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia, and its seeds are used as a spice and medicinal plant.

Aniseed has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including treating digestive disorders such as bloating, gas, and indigestion. It contains a compound called anethole, which has been found to have antispasmodic, carminative, and analgesic properties. However, it's important to note that while aniseed may have some health benefits, it should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.

Therefore, "Pimpinella" is not a medical term per se but rather a botanical name for a genus of plants with potential medicinal uses.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Thrombophilia is a medical condition characterized by an increased tendency to form blood clots (thrombi) due to various genetic or acquired abnormalities in the coagulation system. These abnormalities can lead to a hypercoagulable state, which can cause thrombosis in both veins and arteries. Commonly identified thrombophilias include factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin G20210A mutation, antithrombin deficiency, protein C deficiency, and protein S deficiency.

Acquired thrombophilias can be caused by various factors such as antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), malignancies, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, and certain medical conditions like inflammatory bowel disease or nephrotic syndrome.

It is essential to diagnose thrombophilia accurately, as it may influence the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) events and guide decisions regarding prophylactic anticoagulation in high-risk situations.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Teratogenesis is the formation or production of abnormal physical features and structural malformations in a developing fetus that are caused by the exposure to teratogens. Teratogens are various environmental agents such as alcohol, drugs, medications, chemicals, infectious diseases, radiation, and maternal factors (like diabetes, obesity) that can disrupt normal embryonic or fetal development during pregnancy. The severity and type of birth defects depend on the timing, duration, and dosage of exposure to these teratogens. It is important to note that not all exposures to teratogens will result in birth defects, but increased risks are associated with their exposure during critical periods of development.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a glycoprotein found in human plasma that has a high affinity for binding thyroid hormones, specifically Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). It is produced by the liver and plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of these hormones in the body. TBG binds to approximately 70-80% of circulating T4 and about 55% of circulating T3, acting as a transport protein that carries these hormones throughout the body. The amount of TBG in the blood can vary due to factors such as genetics, sex hormones, and certain medications, which can affect the levels of free (unbound) thyroid hormones and contribute to various thyroid-related disorders.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the "Pleasure-Pain Principle" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine or psychology. It may be a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the "Pleasure Principle," which is a psychological concept introduced by Sigmund Freud. The Pleasure Principle posits that individuals are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain, in order to maintain a state of homeostasis or equilibrium. However, it's important to note that this concept is not without its criticisms and controversies within the field of psychology.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Vitamin B6 deficiency refers to the condition in which there is an insufficient amount of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in the body. Vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, hemoglobin production, and immune function.

A deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to several health issues, such as:

1. Anemia: Vitamin B6 is essential for the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. A deficiency in this nutrient can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
2. Peripheral neuropathy: Vitamin B6 deficiency can cause nerve damage, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet.
3. Depression and cognitive impairment: Pyridoxine is necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine, which are involved in mood regulation. A deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to depression, irritability, and cognitive decline.
4. Seizures: In severe cases, vitamin B6 deficiency can cause seizures due to the impaired synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate brain activity.
5. Skin changes: A deficiency in this nutrient can also lead to skin changes, such as dryness, scaling, and cracks around the mouth.

Vitamin B6 deficiency is relatively uncommon in developed countries but can occur in individuals with certain medical conditions, such as malabsorption syndromes, alcoholism, kidney disease, or those taking medications that interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism. Additionally, older adults, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers may have an increased need for this nutrient, making them more susceptible to deficiency.

The Papanicolaou (Pap) test, also known as the Pap smear, is a screening procedure for detecting precancerous and cancerous cells in the cervix. It involves collecting cells from the cervix and examining them under a microscope to look for any abnormalities. The test is typically recommended for women aged 21-65 as part of routine pelvic exams, with the frequency depending on age and risk factors.

The Pap test was developed by Georgios Papanikolaou in the early 20th century and has since become a widely used and important tool in preventing cervical cancer. The test is usually performed in a healthcare provider's office and takes only a few minutes to complete. It is a relatively simple, safe, and painless procedure that can help detect cervical abnormalities at an early stage, when they are most treatable.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Adolescent psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of adolescents, their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This field examines the cognitive, social, and emotional development of adolescents, as well as any challenges or mental health issues they may face during this stage of life. It also involves the application of psychological theories and principles to promote positive adolescent development and address adolescent mental health concerns. Adolescent psychologists work in various settings, including schools, clinics, hospitals, and private practices, providing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services to adolescents and their families.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

Oximes are a class of chemical compounds that contain the functional group =N-O-, where two organic groups are attached to the nitrogen atom. In a clinical context, oximes are used as antidotes for nerve agent and pesticide poisoning. The most commonly used oxime in medicine is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is used to reactivate acetylcholinesterase that has been inhibited by organophosphorus compounds, such as nerve agents and certain pesticides. These compounds work by forming a bond with the phosphoryl group of the inhibited enzyme, allowing for its reactivation and restoration of normal neuromuscular function.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

"Religious hospitals" are healthcare institutions that are affiliated with or managed by a religious organization. These hospitals often incorporate their religious values and beliefs into the care they provide, which may influence their policies, practices, and ethical guidelines. They may also serve specific communities and offer spiritual support to patients and their families. It's important to note that while these hospitals have a religious affiliation, they are still held to the same standards of care as other healthcare institutions and must comply with relevant laws and regulations.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Women's rights, in a medical context, refer to the legal, social, and political rights and entitlements of women, specifically in relation to health, reproductive justice, and access to quality healthcare services. These rights encompass:

1. Autonomy over one's own body and medical decisions, including the right to informed consent and refusal of treatment.
2. Equitable access to comprehensive healthcare services, including sexual and reproductive healthcare, without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or other factors.
3. Protection from coerced sterilization, forced pregnancy, and other forms of reproductive oppression.
4. Access to safe and legal abortion services, as well as emergency contraception and other family planning methods.
5. The right to high-quality maternal healthcare, including prenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postpartum care.
6. Protection from gender-based violence, including sexual assault, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).
7. The right to accurate and comprehensive health education, including information about sexual and reproductive health.
8. Representation and participation in healthcare decision-making processes at all levels, from individual patient care to policy development.
9. Access to culturally competent and respectful healthcare services that recognize and address the unique needs and experiences of women.
10. The right to privacy and confidentiality in healthcare settings, including protection of medical records and personal health information.

Catholicism is a branch of Christianity that recognizes the authority of the Pope and follows the teachings and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the largest Christian denomination in the world, with over a billion members worldwide. The beliefs and practices of Catholicism include the sacraments, prayer, and various forms of worship, as well as social justice initiatives and charitable works. The Catholic Church has a hierarchical structure, with the Pope at the top, followed by bishops, priests, and deacons. It places a strong emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nepal" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South Asia, between China and India. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

Parental notification is a term used in the context of medical care, particularly in situations involving minors (individuals who are under the age of majority, which is 18 years old in most states in the US). It refers to the practice of informing or notifying a parent, legal guardian, or other responsible adult relative of a minor's decision to seek certain medical services, treatments, or procedures.

In some cases, parental notification may be required by law before a minor can receive specific medical interventions, such as abortion, mental health treatment, or certain surgical procedures. The specific requirements for parental notification vary depending on the jurisdiction and the type of medical service being sought.

The purpose of parental notification is to ensure that parents or guardians are involved in important medical decisions affecting their minor children, and to provide an opportunity for them to offer guidance, support, and consent. However, there may be exceptions to parental notification requirements in cases where the minor is mature enough to make informed decisions about their own health care, or when notifying a parent could put the minor at risk of harm or abuse.

"Safe sex" is a term used to describe sexual activities that reduce the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. It typically involves the use of protective measures, such as condoms, dental dams, or other barriers, during sexual contact.

However, it's important to note that "safe" doesn't mean "risk-free." Even with protection, there is still a chance, though significantly reduced, of STI transmission or pregnancy. The term "safer sex" is sometimes used to more accurately reflect this concept.

Furthermore, regular testing for STIs and open communication with sexual partners about sexual health are also important components of safe sex practices.

The fertile period, also known as the fertile window, refers to the time during a woman's menstrual cycle when she is most likely to conceive. This period typically begins 5 days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation. Ovulation is the process by which a mature egg is released from the ovaries and travels down the fallopian tubes, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

During the fertile period, the cervical mucus becomes more receptive to sperm, making it easier for them to survive and travel through the reproductive tract to reach the egg. Additionally, the lining of the uterus thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

It is important to note that while the fertile period is the time when conception is most likely to occur, it is still possible to become pregnant outside of this window. Sperm can survive in the female reproductive tract for up to 5 days, and ovulation may occasionally occur earlier or later than expected.

Couples who are trying to conceive may benefit from tracking their menstrual cycles and monitoring signs of ovulation, such as changes in cervical mucus or basal body temperature, to help identify their fertile period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uzbekistan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

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The efficacy of progesterone as an oral contraceptive was never fully tested, because synthetic progestational agents, which ... Early studies on its use as an oral contraceptive showed that, at 300 mg/day (5th to 25th day of the menstrual cycle), ... Ottosson UB (1984). "Oral progesterone and estrogen/progestogen therapy. Effects of natural and synthetic hormones on ... The ovulation-inhibiting (i.e., contraceptive) dosage of oral crystalline (non-micronized) progesterone in women is 300 mg/day ...
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Oral contraceptives are not the only contraceptive that causes effects to mood level changes, implants do also. Studies show, ... and progestogen-only contraceptives that contain only progesterone or a synthetic analogue (progestin). There is also a non- ... The original hormonal method-the combined oral contraceptive pill-was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. In the ensuing ... an oral progestin; off-label use of combined oral contraceptives (Yuzpe regimen); and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). ...
Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive Oral contraceptive formulations Annetine Gelijns (1991). Innovation in Clinical ... Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens ( ... However, many studies of contraceptive efficacy did not distinguish between combined oral contraceptive pills and progesterone- ... The theoretical efficacy of progesterone-only pills is reported to be similar to that of the combined oral contraceptive pill ( ...
... contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.443 - contraceptives, oral, synthetic MeSH D27.505.696.875. ... contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.443 - contraceptives, oral, synthetic MeSH D27.505.954.705. ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.100 - contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.277 ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.100 - contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.277 ...
Although almost all combined oral contraceptives contain the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol, natural estradiol itself is ... including in estradiol-containing oral contraceptives and combined injectable contraceptives. It is formulated in combination ... oral micronized estradiol valerate had been introduced by Schering in 1968. Oral micronized estradiol and oral estradiol ... Parenteral estradiol is largely free of the cardiovascular side effects of the high oral dosages of synthetic estrogens like ...
Contraceptives and Hormone Therapies Xenohormones and xenoestrogens are commonly used in oral contraceptives such as birth ... Agriculture Synthetic estrogenic drugs such as the bovine growth hormone (BVG) are commonly used to increase the size of cattle ... Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 87 (2): 233-237. doi:10.1016/s1079-2104(99) ... They may be either of natural origin, such as phytoestrogens, which are derived from plants, or of synthetic origin. These ...
... which led to the development of the first oral contraceptive pills. Albert Bowers joined Syntex, in 1956 as research group ... The semi-synthetic steroid, norethisterone (19-Nor-17-alpha-ethynyltestosterone), was the first orally highly active progestin ... Oxford University Press 2001 Lara V. Marks Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. New Haven, Conn., Yale ...
Wise A, O'Brien K, Woodruff T (January 2011). "Are oral contraceptives a significant contributor to the estrogenicity of ... Synthetic and natural estrogens have been found in the environment and are referred to as xenoestrogens. Estrogens are among ... using oral contraceptive). Estrogens are responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics during ... Synthetic substances such as bisphenol A as well as metalloestrogens (e.g., cadmium). Plant products with estrogenic activity ...
Diosgenin extracted from Dioscorea composita was instrumental in the development of the combined oral contraceptive pill in the ... It is a source of diosgenin, which is used to prepare synthetic hormones such as progesterone and cortisone. ... and therefore it came to replace the latter in the production of synthetic hormones. Steroidal sapogenin, diosgenin. ...
This series later comprised the first oral contraceptive pill, which was made by others. The Birch reduction also allows for ... which is widely used in synthetic organic chemistry. The Birch Reduction enables the modification of steroids. In 1948 Birch ...
Caryn Thomas; Rhiannon Braund; Helen Paterson (31 July 2020). "Management of short supply oral contraceptives". The New Zealand ... Hunter Robson; Rhiannon Braund; Michelle Glass; Janelle Ashton; Michael Tatley (6 November 2020). "Synthetic cannabis: adverse ...
"Why the Oral Contraceptive Is Just Known as "The Pill"". Smithsonian Magazine. smithsonianmag.com. Archived from the original ... The development of synthetic chemical methods allowed scientists to systematically vary the structure of chemical substances, ... The history of the development of oral contraceptives is thus closely tied to the birth control movement and the efforts of ... "FDA's Approval of the First Oral Contraceptive, Enovid". Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 23 July ...
In addition to its use as an oral contraceptive, mestranol has been used as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for the ... There is no doubt that the conversion of the endometrium with injections of both synthetic and native estrogenic hormone ... This resulted in Enovid by G. D. Searle & Company, the first oral contraceptive and a combination of 9.85 mg noretynodrel and ... Mestranol was employed as the estrogen component in many of the first oral contraceptives, such as mestranol/noretynodrel ( ...
... and eventually as the basis for the combined oral contraceptive pill. This development sparked a barbasco extraction industry ... With the discovery of the chemical properties of the barbasco root, world market prices for steroids and other synthetic ... at this point Mexico had lost its status as a world leader of the synthetic hormone market and the barbasco trade was declining ... was fermented and the diosgenin extracted and sold to pharmaceutical companies such as Syntex who used it to produce synthetic ...
... production of synthetic hormones in the 1950s and 1960s and eventually leading to the invention of combined oral contraceptive ...
... and 1970s by chemist Herchel Smith and his colleagues while they were developing progestins for use in oral contraceptives. The ... is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and progestogen of the 19-nortestosterone group related to levonorgestrel ... Methoxydienone is not 17α-alkylated (instead featuring a ketone at the C17 position) and no data exist regarding its oral ...
Other forms of contraception, such as the contraceptive patch, use the same synthetic estrogen (EE2) that is found in COCPs, ... Oral contraceptives should not be used as an initial treatment for female athlete triad. While combined oral contraceptives are ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ... "Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives (RATIO) study: oral contraceptives and the risk of ischemic ...
All women should be aware that oral combined contraceptives carry a risk of thrombosis. The synthetic progesterone in Eloine ( ... symptoms or acne when they take oral contraceptives for contraceptive purposes.. Can I get Eloine prescribed online?. The ... Eloine (the UK brand of the medicine known as Yaz) may be taken by women for three different reasons: as an oral contraceptive ... If changing to Eloine from another oral contraceptive, start Eloine on the scheduled start day of the new packet of previous ...
Although further research is needed to clarify issues such as the effect of exogenous ovarian hormones (oral contraceptives) on ... The oral contraceptive comes in many different brands with different synthetic hormones, doses, and dosing regimens. Those ... Oral Contraceptives in Athletes. The issue of whether a female athlete should take oral contraceptives is a personal one. The ... Effects of oral contraceptives on peak exercise capacity. J Appl Physiol. 2002 Nov. 93(5):1698-702. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full ...
Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. Antibiotics may decrease ... estrogens conjugated synthetic. trimethoprim will decrease the level or effect of estrogens conjugated synthetic by altering ... trimethoprim oral TRIMETHOPRIM - ORAL (try-METH-oh-prim) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Primsol, Proloprim, Trimpex USES: Trimethoprim ... Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. Antibiotics may decrease ...
Oral Contraceptives) ... Enjuvia® (conjugated synthetic B estrogens)see Estrogen. * ... Estrostep® Fe (as a combination product containing Ethinyl Estradiol, Norethindrone)see Estrogen and Progestin (Oral ...
Chemist Behind the Combined Oral Contraceptive Dies at 102. Catherine Offord , Jul 2, 2019 , 2 min read ... A device that releases synthetic hormones slowly over time could one day provide a more practical alternative to daily birth ...
Oral contraceptives may cause some degree of fluid retention. They should be prescribed with caution, and only with careful ... a synthetic progestin and 0.03 mg of ethinyl estradiol USP, an estrogen, and 7 green inert tablets (without hormones).. The ... Figure 2: Relevant Studies of Risk of Breast Cancer with Combined Oral Contraceptives. RR = relative risk; OR = odds ratio; HR ... Ayuna is a birth control pill (oral contraceptive) used by women to prevent pregnancy.. How does Ayuna work for contraception? ...
While the risk of getting a blood clot on so-called older types of oral contraceptives is rare (one in 10,000), that risk jumps ... both of which contain the synthetic progestin, drospirenone. ... Though all oral contraceptives carry warnings about clotting ... the manufacturer of two commonly prescribed oral contraceptives, Yaz and Yasmin.. According to the CBC article, more than 23 ...
Hormone therapy might allow ovulation and pregnancy in some women, but combination oral contraceptive may feel less stigmatized ... synthetic or progesterone) to protect the endometrium from the mitogenic effect of estrogen. ... The two primary options are hormone therapy and combination oral contraceptives. ...
The main types of products in oral contraceptive pills are injectable birth control, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal ... Any class of synthetic steroid hormones which inhibit the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone ... low-dose oral contraceptives that reduce side effects. The chewable contraceptive initiative was an attempt to reduce side ... thus hampering the market for chemical-hormonal contraceptive drugs. Low-Dose Oral Contraceptives Enhances Compliance And ...
Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a type of birth control pill that contains only a synthetic form of the hormone ... Oral Contraceptive Pills Market Definition And Segments. Oral contraceptive pills refer to a contraceptive tablet that contains ... Most oral contraceptives involve estrogen and progestin. The oral contraceptive pills market by type into the combination, ... is an Israel-based manufacturer of oral contraceptive pills. North America was the largest region in the oral contraceptive ...
It contains a synthetic version of the naturally produced hormone progesterone. It is a convenient, daily over-the-counter ... Opill®, Daily Oral Contraceptive Pill. Sale price$49.99. Regular price$49.99. (/) Sold out. Save $0.00. ... You can start Opill® on any day of your cycle.1 If youre switching from another oral contraceptive, vaginal ring or patch, ... Like all daily oral contraceptives, Opill should be taken once a day, at the same time. ...
Birth Control Pills: These oral contraceptives contain synthetic hormones, either a combination of estrogen and progestin or ... This contraceptive contains levonorgestrel, a synthetic hormone. Its main mechanism of action is to prevent ovulation, ... Plan B: An Emergency Contraceptive Pill. Plan B is a widely used emergency contraceptive pill that serves as a backup option ... Women often rely on Plan B as a backup option in cases where their primary contraceptive method has failed. It is important to ...
That is because women who take oral contraceptives may differ from those who dont take them in ways other than their oral ... How Does The Pill Work The Most Commonly Prescribed Birth Control Pill Contains Synthetic Versions Of 2 Female Hormones ... Oral contraceptives may be taken to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. However, it remains uncertain whether oral ... Oral Contraceptive Use As A Risk Factor For Premenopausal Breast Cancer: A Meta. Heres How Birth Control Affects Breast Cancer ...
How do the synthetic hormones in contraceptives dampen a womans desire to have sex? ... Medications other than oral contraceptives could also cause low libido in women. ... Some of the synthetic and bioidentical hormone options.. *Women who suspect they might have too much estrogen should consider ...
Oral contraceptive pills have been around for quite some time now. However, the formulation of these has changed quite a bit ... Synthetic estrogens have become more tolerable and Progestins contained therein have also improved in generations. Femilon ... Dapagliflozin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. Dapagliflozin works by helping the kidneys ... The medicine is indicated for an oral consumption. The highest powered pill is powerful impotence treating solution that works ...
Oral contraceptive pill. More often than not, women suffering from acne in their reproductive years are prescribed oral ... contraceptive pills [source]. For most women, taking hormones helps reduce breakouts by providing a big dose of synthetic ... I recommend starting the treatment below a couple of months before stopping the oral contraceptives. That way, your skin will ...
... caused by premenstrual syndrome and/or the use of oral contraceptives -- which are known to impair liver function. A number of ... When you consider that synthetic estrogens and alcohol are two of the most common liver toxins, supplementation with SAMe might ... Oral dosages of SAMe were found to be well absorbed and used by the body quickly. Single dosages as low as 400 milligrams were ... Oral dosages of SAMe ranged from 800 to 1,600 milligrams per day, with 1,600 milligrams per day being used the most and thought ...
Also important to note that women on oral contraceptives may need higher doses of folic acid. ... Folate is the natural form (Vitamin B9) whereas Folic acid is the synthetic form. If you arent focusing much on your diet, ... As always, my belief is that it is best to get the required nutrients from natural sources than synthetic supplements. ...
Positive effects on premenstrual symptoms have been observed with low-dose oral contraceptives. Drospirenone is a synthetic ... Adverse events reported by patients during treatment consisted of those already known to be associated with oral contraceptive ... The results of this study confirm that oral use of a combination of ethinylestradiol 30 microg and drospirenone 3 mg provides ...
They are used with synthetic estrogens as oral contraceptive agents. [8] Estrogen and progesterone replacement. Bone-remodeling ... The mechanism of action of progesterone-containing contraceptives is to suppress GnRH. ... The mechanism of action of progesterone-containing contraceptives is to suppress GnRH. ...
They are used with synthetic estrogens as oral contraceptive agents. [8] Estrogen and progesterone replacement. Bone-remodeling ... The mechanism of action of progesterone-containing contraceptives is to suppress GnRH. ... The mechanism of action of progesterone-containing contraceptives is to suppress GnRH. ...
Women who are currently on oral vitamin K1 treatment for brodifacoum poisoning should use an effective contraceptive method to ... People who are currently on oral vitamin K1 treatment for brodifacoum poisoning should not use synthetic cannabinoid products, ... Oral vitamin K1 treatment duration may need to be extended.. Pregnancies in patients who are on oral vitamin K1 treatment for ... CDC recommends that people do not use synthetic cannabinoid products. Synthetic cannabinoid products are always dangerous ...
... a combination oral contraceptive) or only a progestin (a synthetic form of the female hormone progesterone), such as that ...
Most oral contraceptives are made with combinations of synthetic estrogen and progestin, a synthetic form of the hormone ... About 150 million women all over the world use oral contraceptives, also known as birth control pills. Oral contraceptives are ... Combined Contraceptive Pills And Vaginal Rings. Combined hormonal contraception contains synthetic forms of the hormones ... A 2021 study found that oral contraceptives impair muscle gains in young women. The study found that female athletes taking ...
Birth control pills, also known as oral contraceptives, are a popular medication used by women to prevent unwanted pregnancies ... These pills contain synthetic hormones that help regulate the menstrual cycle and prevent ovulation. They are available in ... See also Yasmin - A Popular Oral Contraceptive Pill for Womens Health with Affordable Access , waldwickpharmacy.com ...
Hormonal contraceptives - Oral contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings regulate menstrual cycles and relieve symptoms. ... The body is adjusting to synthetic hormone intake and withdrawal.. Likewise, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and other long-acting ... Hormonal contraceptives like oral birth control pills can sometimes lead to unexpected bleeding between periods, especially ... contraceptives may cause irregular spotting and altered cycle length, especially early on. This typically resolves with time as ...
how women can manage oral health Leicester amid hormonal fluctuations. Learn effective strategies for a balanced dental routine ... Use of Oral Contraceptives. Women using birth control pills containing progesterone may face an increased risk of inflamed gums ... whereas synthetic estrogen can impact natural estrogen levels, affecting oral health. Understanding these effects is crucial ... Women experiencing shifts in hormone levels, such as those occurring with the use of oral contraceptives or during the ...
They say that vaginal natural progesterone also cant par with the oral form. Both oral synthetic forms and the vaginal natural ... In one case, this condition went away with oral contraceptives [25, 26]. ... The minipill contains synthetic progestins in doses lower than those in the typical combination (estrogen + progestin) oral ... An interesting finding from this study was that natural, oral progesterone may act differently than its synthetic cousins [8]. ...
Women who are currently on oral vitamin K1 treatment for brodifacoum poisoning should use an effective contraceptive method to ... People who are currently on oral vitamin K1 treatment for brodifacoum poisoning should not use synthetic cannabinoid products, ... Oral vitamin K1 treatment duration may need to be extended.. Pregnancies in patients who are on oral vitamin K1 treatment for ... CDC recommends that people do not use synthetic cannabinoid products. Synthetic cannabinoid products are always dangerous ...
  • The pill contains two important hormones: a progestin (a synthetic form of the hormone progestogen/progesterone) and estrogen (usually ethinylestradiol or 17β estradiol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eloine contains two female hormones ethinyl estradiol (a natural oestrogen) and drospirenone (a synthetic progesterone), and is therefore a combination contraceptive. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
  • These findings are further corroborated by a nationwide prospective analysis, which reported an increased risk of suicide among contraception users, correlating with higher proportions of progesterone in contraceptives. (debuglies.com)
  • An MRI study has even linked oral contraceptive use to reduced hypothalamic volumes in healthy women, suggesting structural brain changes associated with progesterone modulation. (debuglies.com)
  • It contains a synthetic version of the naturally produced hormone progesterone. (opill.com)
  • The mechanism of action of progesterone-containing contraceptives is to suppress GnRH. (medscape.com)
  • Meta-analysis Supports Progesterone for Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Dr Kovacs summarizes a meta-analysis that evaluated the effectiveness of natural progesterone or synthetic progestogens in women with more than two consecutive pregnancy losses. (medscape.com)
  • Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations, some containing both estrogen and progestins, and some only containing progestin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, in 1993 at least 1 million of China's people were using injectable progestin contraceptives 13 . (lifeissues.net)
  • Ayuna (levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) is a combination oral contraceptive (COC) consisting of 21 orange active tablets, each containing 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel USP, a synthetic progestin and 0.03 mg of ethinyl estradiol USP, an estrogen, and 7 green inert tablets (without hormones). (drugs.com)
  • Though all oral contraceptives carry warnings about clotting and other potential side effects, that risk is exponentially increased in Yaz and Yasmin, both of which contain the synthetic progestin, drospirenone. (yummymummyclub.ca)
  • The study, which followed 1.8 million women in Denmark, found a slight increase in the overall risk of breast cancer among women who used oral birth control or intrauterine devices containing the hormone progestin. (breastcancertalk.net)
  • Before starting Eloine, any other medicines that you currently take should be revealed to your doctor because some medicines decrease/increase the contraceptive effect of the hormones in Eloine. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
  • A device that releases synthetic hormones slowly over time could one day provide a more practical alternative to daily birth control pills, say scientists. (the-scientist.com)
  • Because birth control pills contain synthetic versions of these female hormones, they could potentially also increase cancer risk. (breastcancertalk.net)
  • How do the synthetic hormones in contraceptives dampen a woman's desire to have sex? (cynthiathurlow.com)
  • It involves replacing depleted hormones with synthetic or bioidentical hormones. (iwiva.com)
  • These oral contraceptives contain synthetic hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce hormonal fluctuations. (citycenterpharmacy.com)
  • Swelling, bleeding, and tenderness of the gums may also occur when you are taking oral contraceptives, which are synthetic hormones. (southshoreperiodontics.ca)
  • In individuals using oral contraceptives, progestogen negative feedback decreases the pulse frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release by the hypothalamus, which decreases the secretion of FSH and greatly decreases the secretion of LH by the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another primary mechanism of action of all progestogen-containing contraceptives is inhibition of sperm penetration through the cervix into the upper genital tract (uterus and fallopian tubes) by decreasing the water content and increasing the viscosity of the cervical mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estrogen and progestogen in COCPs have other effects on the reproductive system, but these have not been shown to contribute to their contraceptive efficacy: Slowing tubal motility and ova transport, which may interfere with fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drospirenone is a synthetic progestogen with antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • The main division is between combined oral contraceptive pills , containing both estrogen and synthetic progestogens (strictly progestins , the term used in the United States , but the former term is used in the United Kingdom ), and progestogen only pills (mini-pills). (curecrowd.com)
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills also come in varying types, including varying doses of estrogen, and whether the dose of estrogen or progestogen changes from week to week. (curecrowd.com)
  • The results of this study confirm that oral use of a combination of ethinylestradiol 30 microg and drospirenone 3 mg provides good cycle control, is well tolerated and has a positive impact on symptoms of premenstrual disorder. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estrogen was originally included in oral contraceptives for better cycle control (to stabilize the endometrium and thereby reduce the incidence of breakthrough bleeding), but was also found to inhibit follicular development and help prevent ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined hormonal contraceptives, including COCPs, inhibit follicular development and prevent ovulation as a primary mechanism of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 If you're switching from another oral contraceptive, vaginal ring or patch, start taking Opill the day after you stop the other method. (opill.com)
  • of those with oral candidiasis, 15% also had vaginal candidiasis, but there was also no significant correlation between these diseases (χ2 = 0.558, p = 0.455). (bvsalud.org)
  • Burkman R, Schlesselman JJ, Zieman M. Safety concerns and health benefits associated with oral contraception. (breastcancertalk.net)
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills were developed to prevent ovulation by suppressing the release of gonadotropins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combination oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy primarily by suppressing ovulation. (drugs.com)
  • Women use Eloine as a contraceptive to avoid pregnancy and to treat either premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD) symptoms or acne when they take oral contraceptives for contraceptive purposes. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
  • Eloine (the UK brand of the medicine known as Yaz) may be taken by women for three different reasons: as an oral contraceptive pill to prevent pregnancy, as a treatment for the symptoms of PDD and as a treatment for moderately severe acne. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
  • A periodic pregnancy test should be performed on all women of childbearing age who are on oral vitamin K1 therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Pregnant patients on oral vitamin K1 should be referred for high-risk pregnancy management and follow-up. (cdc.gov)
  • This contraceptive contains levonorgestrel, a synthetic hormone. (siriusproject.org)
  • Some of the synthetic and bioidentical hormone options. (cynthiathurlow.com)
  • Certain medications, including hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, can influence hormonal balance. (iwiva.com)
  • Hormonal birth control methods, such as oral contraceptives, can regulate hormonal fluctuations and improve symptoms. (iwiva.com)
  • Lifetime Cancer Risk and Combined Contraceptives Dr Kovacs reviews a large, prospective cohort study of women who have or have never taken birth control pills and their risk for cancer. (medscape.com)
  • This will help eliminate the risk of drug interactions, such as antibiotics with oral contraceptives, which lessens the effectiveness of the contraceptive. (southshoreperiodontics.ca)
  • If the LNG-IUD is inserted within the first 7 days since menstrual bleeding started, no additional contraceptive protection is needed. (cdc.gov)
  • 7 days since menstrual bleeding started, the woman needs to abstain from sexual intercourse or use additional contraceptive protection for the next 7 days. (cdc.gov)
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous case reports and series of hepatic-cell adenomas occurring almost exclusively in women who had used combined oral contraceptives strongly suggest that such benign tumours may result from exposure to these products [ref: 1]. (inchem.org)
  • The many reports of focal nodular hyperplasia occurring in users of oral contraceptives could also represent a causal relationship, but these lesions also occur in men and older women, and no case-control study on these populations has been conducted. (inchem.org)
  • Four case-control studies [ref: 23-26] of cervical squamous dysplasia provide estimates of relative risk in women who had ever used combined oral contraceptives ranging from 1.2 to 3, and the lower limit of the 95% confidence limits of two of the estimates was greater than one. (inchem.org)
  • Finally, it must again be emphasized that women who live in Asian or African countries, or any other country with high rates of liver cancer, are at extreme risk if they take hormonal contraceptives for more than 5 years, because they have been estimated to increase the risk of liver cancer fourfold 1 . (lifeissues.net)
  • Plan B is a widely used emergency contraceptive pill that serves as a backup option for women to prevent unwanted pregnancies. (siriusproject.org)
  • They offer a reliable and convenient contraceptive option, allowing women to take control of their reproductive health. (siriusproject.org)
  • Medications other than oral contraceptives could also cause low libido in women. (cynthiathurlow.com)
  • Ask all women of childbearing age who are on oral vitamin K1 therapy about the possibility of being pregnant and counsel them about reliable contraceptive techniques. (cdc.gov)
  • Also important to note that women on oral contraceptives may need higher doses of folic acid. (anuradhasridharan.com)
  • The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that 16.9% of the women had oral herpes and oral candidiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Oral and cervicovaginal diseases, especially those that are sexually transmitted, have gained great importance in public health due to their growing incidence and because they affect women in all age groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Effect of Endogenous and Synthetic Estrogens on. (cambridge.org)
  • As erythrocyte and estrogens interact so closely and erythrocytes can indicate the healthiness of an individual, it is essential to investigate the effects of natural estrogens as well as synthetic estrogens on these cells. (cambridge.org)
  • Although all three case-control studies of liver cancers and oral contraceptives are small and have methodological deficiencies that could have resulted in biased results, the magnitude of the relative risks and the consistency of the results provide strong evidence that the results are not spurious. (inchem.org)
  • Do not administer cholera vaccine to patients who have received oral or parenteral antibiotics within 14 days prior to vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • When patients are found to have outpatient follow-up blood brodifacoum concentrations higher than their initial blood brodifacoum concentrations, it strongly suggests that they have continued or resumed using synthetic cannabinoid products containing brodifacoum while on oral vitamin K1 therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • If you start after the first day of your period, you cannot guarantee contraceptive protection until after you have taken a pink pill for 7 days consecutively. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
  • Use extra contraceptive precautions and regard vomiting as a missed pill (if within 4 hours of taking a pill) in these circumstances. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
  • Unlike Plan B, the emergency contraceptive pill that contains UPA is only available via prescription. (healthline.com)
  • It's been approved by the FDA as a non-prescription daily oral birth control pill. (opill.com)
  • Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptive (COC) use. (drugs.com)
  • Positive effects on premenstrual symptoms have been observed with low-dose oral contraceptives . (bvsalud.org)
  • Careful oral hygiene at home and professional cleaning may relieve these symptoms. (southshoreperiodontics.ca)
  • Pregnancies in patients who are on oral vitamin K1 treatment for brodifacoum toxicity are high-risk pregnancies. (cdc.gov)
  • There is sufficient evidence that combined oral contraceptives cause benign and malignant liver tumours. (inchem.org)
  • Reports of hepatocellular carcinomas occurring in conjunction with liver-cell adenomas in users of oral contraceptives have been published [ref: 1]. (inchem.org)
  • Many of the researchers who studied oral contraceptive use or abortion performed early in a woman's reproductive life are from the U.S. Because this country has a high rate of both early OCP use and abortion, we are certainly one of the countries at highest risk for the development of new cases of breast cancer. (lifeissues.net)
  • While the risk of getting a blood clot on so-called older types of oral contraceptives is rare (one in 10,000), that risk jumps to three in 10,000 for those taking Yaz or Yasmin. (yummymummyclub.ca)
  • To discuss your contraceptive options or get more information about your risk of breast cancer, you can make an appointment with a health care provider. (breastcancertalk.net)
  • Advise patients that their current oral vitamin K1 dosing may not prevent recurrent coagulopathy from re-exposure to brodifacoum in synthetic cannabinoid products and the duration of oral vitamin K1 treatment may need to be extended. (cdc.gov)
  • Its incidence increases in the oral microflora with age, and is more often found in the elderly than in younger individuals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Is this true of all emergency contraceptive options? (healthline.com)
  • This personalized approach ensures that the emergency contraceptive is used appropriately and without adverse effects. (siriusproject.org)
  • This is an update to the Health Alert Network (HAN) advisory released on May 25, 2018 titled Outbreak of Life-threatening Coagulopathy Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoids Use ( https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00410.asp ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Cu-IUD also can be inserted within 5 days of the first act of unprotected sexual intercourse as an emergency contraceptive. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: We estimated the number of emergency department (ED) visits and subsequent hospitalizations for oral anticoagulant-related bleeding in 2016-2020 based on active surveillance in a nationally representative, size-stratified probability sample of 60U.S. hospitals. (cdc.gov)
  • Combined oral contraceptives are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Males who are abstinent will not be required to use a contraceptive method unless they become sexually active. (who.int)
  • Energy availability is defined as energy obtained through oral nutrition minus energy expended during exercise. (medscape.com)
  • 6 months postpartum, amenorrheic, and fully or nearly fully breastfeeding (exclusively breastfeeding or the vast majority [≥85%] of feeds are breastfeeds) ( 27 ), no additional contraceptive protection is needed. (cdc.gov)
  • Plan B is specifically designed to provide a quick and effective solution when regular contraceptive methods fail or are not used. (siriusproject.org)
  • Symptom Relief for Endometriosis Two methods of oral contraceptive use, following surgery for endometriosis, are compared in this randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • The strategy for promoting family planning has included training of personnel, improvement of supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health centers, diversification of available methods, and addition of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility. (who.int)
  • This study extensively investigated the pathologies caused by the Candida fungus and the herpes virus to establish the correlation between oral and cervicovaginal diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. (who.int)
  • At these times, the possibility of periodontal disease may increase, requiring special care of your oral region. (southshoreperiodontics.ca)
  • A study of "ever" versus "never" oral contraceptive use done by Gomes et al and published in 1995 11 showed a 1.81 RR (1.15-2.85). (lifeissues.net)
  • Folate is the natural form (Vitamin B9) whereas Folic acid is the synthetic form. (anuradhasridharan.com)
  • Additional contraceptive protection as detailed above applies. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
  • No additional contraceptive protection is needed after Cu-IUD insertion. (cdc.gov)
  • No additional contraceptive protection is needed. (cdc.gov)
  • COCPs were first approved for contraceptive use in the United States in 1960, and remain a very popular form of birth control. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical trials suggest lower rates of major bleeding with direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) than with warfarin, but anticoagulant-related bleeding remains one of the most common outpatient adverse drug events. (cdc.gov)