Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Norethynodrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Ethynodiol Diacetate: A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Norpregnenes: Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential: Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Genes, Synthetic: Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Ethisterone: 17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Metrorrhagia: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.XanthurenatesPeptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Coitus Interruptus: A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.United StatesDelayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Norprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Religion and SexPeptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Nandrolone: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.MissouriUterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Antispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.NicaraguaReproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Great BritainFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Uterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Megaloblasts: Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.GuatemalaPregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Intrauterine Device Migration: The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vinyl CompoundsStudent Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.

Low-oestrogen oral contraceptives.(1/142)

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A comparison of the inhibition of ovulation achieved by desogestrel 75 micrograms and levonorgestrel 30 micrograms daily. (2/142)

A randomized, double blind, group comparative study was performed over a 12 month period to compare inhibition of ovulation during the use of two (progestogen-only) oral contraceptives containing doses of 75 micrograms desogestrel or 30 micrograms levonorgestrel. Seventy-one female volunteers with regular cycles and established ovulation by ultrasonography and serum progesterone concentrations were recruited from an out-patient clinic in a university hospital and asked to participate in the study. Transvaginal ultrasonography and serum oestradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) measurements were performed throughout the 7th and 12th 28 day treatment period. Desogestrel at a dose of 75 micrograms showed a significant inhibition of ovulation compared to 30 micrograms levonorgestrel (P < 0.001).  (+info)

Endometrial steroid receptors during decidualization in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta); their modulation by anti-oestrogen CDRI-85/287. (3/142)

With a view to elucidating the hormonal control of decidualization in rhesus monkey, we studied the effects of CDRI-85/287, a potent anti-oestrogen, on endometrial steroid receptors in vivo and in vitro. Compound 85/287 was administered (i.m.) on days 8, 9 and 10 of steroid treatment cycle at a dose of 15 mg/monkey. Deciduoma was induced on day 16. Histological examination of endometrial tissue on days 24 and 30 of the cycle showed an apparent inhibition in uterine epithelial and subepithelial decidual cell plaque formation and a decrease in leukocytic infiltration into the stroma in anti-oestrogen-treated animals. As observed on day 24, a significant decrease in progesterone receptors (PR) (nuclear + cytosolic) was observed in the 85/287-treated group, whereas oestrogen receptor (ER) content remained unaltered. On day 30 total ER as well as total PR content was markedly reduced in treated animals. In-vitro results clearly demonstrated a competitive antagonism of 85/287 at the ER level only. The results are discussed in relation to the histological changes and modulation of steroid receptors, thereby suggesting the decidualization inhibitory activity of anti-oestrogen molecule 85/287 in primate species.  (+info)

Altered reflex control of cutaneous circulation by female sex steroids is independent of prostaglandins. (4/142)

We tested the hypothesis that the shift in the cutaneous vasodilator response to hyperthermia seen with elevated female reproductive hormones is a prostaglandin-dependent resetting of thermoregulation to higher internal temperatures, similar to that seen in the febrile response to bacterial infection. Using water-perfused suits to control body temperature, we conducted heat stress experiments in resting women under conditions of low and high progesterone and estrogen and repeated these experiments after an acute dose of ibuprofen (800 mg). In six women the hormones were exogenous (oral contraceptives); three women had regular menstrual cycles and were tested in the early follicular and midluteal phases. Resting oral temperature (Tor) was significantly elevated with high hormone status (P < 0.05); this was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (P > 0.2). The Tor threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly increased by high hormone status (+0.27 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0. 02); the shift was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (with ibuprofen: +0.29 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P > 0.2 vs. control experiments). The Tor threshold for sweating was similarly increased by high hormone status (+0.22 +/- 0.05 degrees C, P < 0.05); this shift was not influenced by ibuprofen (with ibuprofen: +0.35 +/- 0. 05, P > 0.1 vs. control experiments). Thus the shift in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow and sweating mediated by female reproductive steroids is not sensitive to ibuprofen; it therefore appears that this shift is independent of prostaglandins.  (+info)

Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: A re-analysis of the MediPlus database. (5/142)

In October 1995 the Committee on Safety of Medicines advised UK doctors and pharmacists that oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene were associated with double the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) compared to pills containing other progestogens. In 1997 data was analysed from the MediPlus database of UK general practitioner records, which reported odds ratios for desogestrel and gestodene lower than that for levonorgestrel. Here the results of a more stringent nested case control analysis on the MediPlus database are reported. The study was larger and cases were verified. A crude incidence of idiopathic VTE was found amongst users of combined oral contraceptives of 4.6 per 10 000 exposed women years. Using levonorgestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg as reference, non-significant odds ratios of 1.1 (0.5-2.6) for desogestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg and 1.1 (0.5-2.4) for gestodene 75 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg were found. The results of this study show no significant difference in risk between different formulations of combined oral contraceptive.  (+info)

The differential risk of oral contraceptives: the impact of full exposure history. (6/142)

Previous discussions have indicated that the small increases of risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with newer combined oral contraceptives (third generation, containing desogestrel and gestodene) may be attributed to bias due to cohort effects. In a case-control analysis, this may produce an overestimate of risk of newer preparations. In 10 centres in Germany and the UK, the Transnational Study analysed data from 502 women aged 16-44 years with VTE, and from 1864 controls matched for 5-year age group and region. Information on lifetime exposure history from all subjects was added to the dataset used in previous analyses and entered into a Cox regression model with time-dependent covariates. Based on 17 622 continuous exposure episodes comprising 47 914 person-years of observation, the adjusted hazard ratio (equivalent to odds ratio, OR) of VTE for the comparison of current users of third-generation versus current users of second-generation (primarily levonorgestrel compounds) combined oral contraceptives was 0.8 (0.5 to 1.3). The OR obtained in standard case-control analysis had been 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1). Adjustment for past exposures includes more information and appears more valid than the standard cross-sectional analysis. Using this approach, the Transnational Study data show no evidence for an increased risk of VTE with third- compared with second-generation combined oral contraceptives.  (+info)

Fear of black market means no RU-486 for Canada until US approves drug. (7/142)

Mifepristone, the "abortion pill" that is better known as RU-486, is no closer to arriving in Canada than it was 8 years ago. But that fact hasn't slowed debate about the product.  (+info)

Contraceptive efficacy of daily administration of 0.5 mg mifepristone. (8/142)

The antiprogestin mifepristone has shown potential to be used as a contraceptive. If 200 mg mifepristone is administered immediately after ovulation, the endometrium shows sufficient impairment of secretory development to prevent implantation. Low daily doses of mifepristone have been shown to reduce several of the local factors regarded as crucial for implantation in human endometrium. To find out if this regimen is sufficient to prevent pregnancy, 32 women were recruited for a study where 0.5 mg mifepristone was administered daily. A total of 141 cycles were studied. Five pregnancies occurred, which was significantly less than if no contraceptive method had been used. However, the dose chosen did not seem sufficient to act as a contraceptive although it is probably not possible to increase the dose without disturbing ovulation and bleeding pattern.  (+info)

*Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone/levomefolic acid

... a synthetic progestogen, making it a combined oral contraceptive (COC). It also contains folate as levomefolic acid calcium ... and raising folate levels to prevent neural tube defects for women who chose an oral contraceptive method. Oral contraceptive ... Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure." "Use ... is an oral contraceptive developed by Bayer. Its contraceptive ingredients are ethinylestradiol, an estrogen and drospirenone, ...

*Birth control pill formulations

The main division is between combined oral contraceptive pills, containing both estrogens and synthetic progestogens ( ... Mestranol/noretynodrel (Enovid) - the first oral contraceptive List of progestogens available in the United States List of ... ISBN 0-7817-6488-2. "US Patent:Oral contraceptive:Patent 6451778 Issued on September 17, 2002 Estimated Expiration Date: July 2 ... Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations. ... Generally oral contraceptives should not be used in women who ...

*Menstruation

Progestogen implants such as Norplant in the 1980s and extended cycle combined oral contraceptive pills in the early 2000s. ... Using synthetic hormones, it is possible for a woman to completely eliminate menstrual periods. When using progestogen implants ... When the first birth control pill was being developed, the researchers were aware that they could use the contraceptive to ... By taking progestogen-only contraceptive pills (sometimes called the 'mini-pill') continuously without a 7-day span of using ...

*Hormonal contraception

The original hormonal method-the combined oral contraceptive pill-was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. In the ensuing ... Progestogen-only contraceptives contain only progesterone or a synthetic analogue (progestin). Also marketed is ormeloxifene; ... Oral Contraceptives, Combined (Vol. 72 ed.). p. 49. "Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives" (PDF). IARC Monographs on ... of the world's contraceptive users. Other hormonal contraceptives are less common, accounting for less than 1% of contraceptive ...

*Arthur Birch (organic chemist)

This series later comprised the first oral contraceptive pill, which was made by others. The Birch reduction also allows for ... which is widely used in synthetic organic chemistry. The Birch Reduction enables the modification of steroids. In 1948 Birch ...

*Syntex

... which led to the development of the first oral contraceptive pills. Jerzy Rzedowski worked as an explorer botanist. He later ... The semi-synthetic steroid, norethistrone (19-Nor-17-alpha-ethynyltestosterone), was the first orally highly active progestin, ... Oxford University Press 2001 Lara V. Marks Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. New Haven, Conn., Yale ...

*Progestogen-only pill

Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive Oral contraceptive formulations Trussell, James (2011). "Contraceptive efficacy". In ... Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens ( ... The theoretical efficacy is similar to that of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP). However, this pill is taken ... Borgelt-Hansen Laura (2001). "Oral Contraceptives: An Update on Health Benefits and Risks: Progestin-Only Minipill". J Am Pharm ...

*School of Chemistry, UNAM

Luis E. Miramontes, co-inventor of the first oral contraceptives. Francisco Gonzalo Bolívar Zapata , Prince of Asturias awardee ... Jesús Romo Armería, National Prize for Arts and Sciences in 1971, synthetic chemist who first developed an economical method to ...

*Dioscorea composita

Diosgenin extracted from Dioscorea composita was instrumental in the development of the combined oral contraceptive pill in the ... It is a source of diosgenin, which is used to prepare synthetic hormones such as progesterone and cortisone. ... and therefore it came to replace the latter in the production of synthetic hormones. Steroidal sapogenin, diosgenin. ...

*Russell Earl Marker

This eventually led to the development at Syntex of the combined oral contraceptive pill and synthetic cortisone - and to the ... Today, progesterone can be used to make cortisone and oral contraceptives. Mexican Chemical Society at the VI International ...

*Von Willebrand disease

It is totally ineffective in vWD type 3. For women with heavy menstrual bleeding, estrogen-containing oral contraceptive ... Desmopressin is a synthetic analog of the natural antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. Its overuse can lead to water retention and ...

*Pharmaceutical industry

"FDA's Approval of the First Oral Contraceptive, Enovid". "BBC News - How the contraceptive pill changed Britain". "Brochure: ... The development of synthetic chemical methods allowed scientists to systematically vary the structure of chemical substances, ... The history of the development of oral contraceptives is thus closely tied to the birth control movement and the efforts of ... the first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was developed by E.D. Searle and Co. and approved by the FDA in 1960. The original ...

*Mestranol

In addition to its use as an oral contraceptive, mestranol has been used as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for the ... As a result, mestranol, that same year (1956), was developed and serendipitously identified as a very potent synthetic estrogen ... This resulted in Enovid by G. D. Searle & Company, the first oral contraceptive and a combination of 9.85 mg noretynodrel and ... Mestranol was employed as the estrogen component in many of the first oral contraceptives, such as mestranol/noretynodrel ( ...

*Dexamethasone

Cotreatment with oral contraceptives can increase its volume of distribution. As a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone is an agonist ... of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Dexamethasone is a synthetic pregnane corticosteroid and derivative of cortisol ( ...

*Estradiol cyclooctyl acetate

It has greater oral bioavailability than does micronized estradiol due to absorption via the lymphatic system and hence partial ... is a synthetic, steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester - specifically, the 17β-cyclooctylacetate ester of estradiol - which ... has been studied for use in hormone replacement therapy for ovariectomized women and as a hormonal contraceptive in combination ... "Oral replacement with estradiol-cyclooctyl acetate: a new estradiol analogue. Effects on serum lipids, proteins, gonadotrophins ...

*Mexican barbasco trade

... and eventually as the basis for the combined oral contraceptive pill. This development sparked a barbasco extraction industry ... With the discovery of the chemical properties of the barbasco root, world market prices for steroids and other synthetic ... at this point Mexico had lost its status as a world leader of the synthetic hormone market and the barbasco trade was declining ... was fermented and the diosgenin extracted and sold to pharmaceutical companies such as Syntex who used it to produce synthetic ...

*Estrogen (medication)

... most oral contraceptives contain ethinylestradiol, along with a progestin (synthetic progestogen). Even in men, the major ... high doses of ethinylestradiol are no longer used in combined oral contraceptives, and all modern combined oral contraceptives ... is a more potent synthetic analogue of estradiol that is used widely in hormonal contraceptives. Other synthetic derivatives of ... For combined oral contraceptives, VTE risk with high doses of ethinylestradiol (>50 μg, e.g., 100 to 150 μg) has been reported ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.443 --- contraceptives, oral, synthetic MeSH D27.505.696.875. ... contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.443 --- contraceptives, oral, synthetic MeSH D27.505.954.705. ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.100 --- contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276. ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.100 --- contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276. ...

*Pharmaceutical industry

"FDA's Approval of the First Oral Contraceptive, Enovid".. *^ Cafe, Rebecca (4 December 2011). "BBC News - How the contraceptive ... In 1911 arsphenamine, the first synthetic anti-infective drug, was developed by Paul Ehrlich and chemist Alfred Bertheim of the ... Oral ContraceptivesEdit. Prior to the second world war, birth control was prohibited in many countries, and in the United ... "Why the Oral Contraceptive Is Just Known as "The Pill"". www.smithsonianmag.com.. ...

*List of estrogens available in the United States

List of steroidal estrogens List of estrogen esters Oral contraceptive formulations Estradiol-containing oral contraceptive ... synthetic conjugated estrogens and esterified estrogens. The synthetic conjugated estrogen mixtures are derived from yam or soy ... Oral estradiol valerate (except in combination with dienogest as an oral contraceptive) is not available in the U.S. and is ... Synthetic conjugated estrogens (Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens A) - 0.625 mg/g (0.0625%) Discontinued: Dienestrol (Dienestrol, ...

*Methoxydienone

... and 1970s by chemist Herchel Smith and his colleagues while they were developing progestins for use in oral contraceptives. The ... is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and progestogen of the 19-nortestosterone group related to levonorgestrel ... Methoxydienone is not 17α-alkylated (instead featuring a ketone at the C17 position) and no data exist regarding its oral ...

*National Women's Health Network

FDA approval and lack of oversight of synthetic estrogens such as DES and high-dose estrogens in combined oral contraceptive ... listing side effects were instated for oral contraceptives-the first PPIs in U.S. history. The NWHN petitioned the FDA in ... when she resigned on principle due to the continued delay of approval of the emergency contraceptive, Plan B. In 2013, the NWHN ... and new contraceptive technologies. The Women's Health Voice, the NWHN's health information program, provides independent ...

*Dimethandrolone undecanoate

... safety and food effects of a new oral androgen dimethandrolone undecanoate in man: a prototype oral male hormonal contraceptive ... "Effects of synthetic androgens on liver function using the rabbit as a model". J. Androl. 31 (5): 472-81. doi:10.2164/jandrol. ... as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits". J. Androl. ... and Safety of Three Oral Formulations of Dimethandrolone Undecanoate (DMAU): A Potential Male Oral Contraceptive. http://press. ...

*Ethinylestradiol

It is most commonly used as contraception in combined oral contraceptives (COC), also known as birth control, to prevent ... It is a synthetic derivative of the natural estrogen estradiol, and differs from estradiol in various ways. Compared to ... The estrogen component of oral contraceptives, which is almost always EE, can cause breast tenderness and fullness. In males, ... Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (2012). "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing ...

*Mary Ann Leeper

It has between 93% to 95% pregnancy prevention success, which is lower than oral contraceptives, injectables, or the IUD. ... She switched from polyurethane material to synthetic latex, which overall saves manufacturing costs and makes the condom much ... The female condom is an over the counter contraceptive, which has been FDA approved for over 20 years. The female condom gives ... females an option in choosing the best contraceptive, while remaining sexually active. The female condom contains just as high ...

*Estrogen

Wise A, O'Brien K, Woodruff T (January 2011). "Are oral contraceptives a significant contributor to the estrogenicity of ... Synthetic xenoestrogens (e.g., alkylphenols, bisphenols (e.g., BPA, BPF, BPS), DDT, parabens, PBBs, PHBA, phthalates, PCBs) ... using oral contraceptive).[29] In non-human mammals, mating desire is triggered by estrogen surge in estrus. ... A range of synthetic and natural substances that possess estrogenic activity have been identified in the environment and are ...

*Antiandrogen

Combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol have been found to increase circulating SHBG levels by 2- to 4-fold in ... Luthy IA, Begin DJ, Labrie F (1988). "Androgenic activity of synthetic progestins and spironolactone in androgen-sensitive ... Oral, topical. 1977. 3,650,000. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, SC. 1958. ... oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol are effective in treating these conditions, and may be combined with AR ...

*Gestodene

... produced by oral contraceptives containing gestodene is slightly less than that produced by oral contraceptives containing ... is a synthetic estrane steroid and a derivative of testosterone. It is more specifically a derivative of norethisterone (17α- ... no difference in acne incidence has been observed with oral contraceptives containing gestodene and oral contraceptives ... Third-generation oral contraceptives are also suitable for use in patients with diabetes or lipid disorders because they have ...
Consistent reports from several recent studies suggest that users of third generation oral contraceptives OCs containing gestodene and desogestrel may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease VTE. Paradoxically, other reports indicate that these users may be at decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction MI compared with users of...
While millions of women take fifth generation oral contraceptives and have their health in good repair, it is still rumored that a woman may awfully put on weight and grow terribly hairy if she takes to such pills.
Looking for online definition of Contraceptive agent in the Medical Dictionary? Contraceptive agent explanation free. What is Contraceptive agent? Meaning of Contraceptive agent medical term. What does Contraceptive agent mean?
Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women. It is also used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women. The medication is used alone or in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of desogestrel include menstrual irregularities, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness, mood changes, acne, increased hair growth, and others. Desogestrel is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has very weak androgenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. The medication is a prodrug of etonogestrel in the body. Desogestrel was first described in 1975 and was introduced for medical use in Europe in 1981. It became available in the United States in 1992. Desogestrel is sometimes referred to as a "third-generation" progestin. Along with norethisterone, ...
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An individuals capacity central to metabolize desogestrel and rosiglitazone into active metabolites and is known to vary considerably because of genetic polymorphism resulting in phenotypical variability analysis of the cyp2d6 enzyme. Torrent - duloxetine is a small oval blue tablet containing 25mg duloxetine hydrochloride. Patients were allocated to receive desogestrel alone, adapalene alone or a combination of both therap
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Desogestrel Actavis is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Desogestrel Actavis is available on the Drugs.com website.
Prefest (Estradiol / Norgestimate) is effective at treating symptoms related to menopause and bone loss. It has a difficult dosing schedule to follow, but doesnt affect your cholesterol and triglyceride levels as much as other estrogen products. More potential side effects since it exposes your whole body to two hormones, estrogen and norgestimate (a progestin).
Cerazette tablets are a type of hormonal contraceptive commonly known as the mini pill or progestogen-only pill (POP). They contain the active ingredient desogestrel, which is a synthetic progestogen, similar to the natural progestogens produced by the body.
The common side effects of estradiol/norgestimate tablets (also known as Prefest) include headaches, intestinal upset (cramps, bloating, nausea, vomit
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Tamoxifen is both the most widely prescribed drug for breast cancer and preventative therapy worldwide. It is a synthetic derivative of triphenylethylene but was originally screened in a drug development program oriented toward discovering new post-coital contraceptive agents.
Eugenodilol, a derivative of eugenol, is a third generation β-blocker which functions through a variety of additional mechanisms including α1-adrenoceptor
Ethinylestradiol/Desogestrel 0.02 mg/0.15 mg and 0.03 mg/0.15 mg Teva, tablets. Because the drug substance is dissolved before the manufacture of.. Das Östrogen ist meistens Ethinylestradiol in. Norgestimat und Desogestrel sind lediglich. Die Dosis des Ethinylestradiols in der „ Pille" liegt.Will metronidazole gel affect birth control metformin for birth control desogestrel ethinyl estradiol mercilon. birth control pills containing ethinyl estradiol.ethinylestradiol 30mcg desogestrel 150 mcg Can you take levothyroxine with birth control levaquin effects birth control chances of multiple births clomid does abilify.Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel? Hier rezeptfrei bestellen! Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel?. 0,030 mg Ethinylestradiol.Desogestrel und Ethinylestradiol (EE) im Verhältnis 2,5: 1 bis zum 10 6 fachen der Humandosis waren nicht letal und führten zu keinerlei toxischen Effekten ...
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by chronic anovulation and androgen excess that occurs in 4-8% of unselected adult women. Although signs and symptoms of the disorder typically appear at the time of puberty, diagnosis is often delayed until adulthood. At least 50% of adult women with PCOS are obese, resulting in a more severe clinical picture. Obesity among adolescents has been increasing in recent years, with overrepresentation of females who show evidence of hyperandrogenism and irregular periods, suggesting an association of obesity and PCOS at an early age. Recent data, however, have drawn attention to the long-term risks of PCOS, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of PCOS and is thought to be the metabolic abnormality most closely linked to an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Traditional treatments with oral contraceptives are associated with reduction in serum ...
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Approximately 11.6 million women in the United States use oral contraceptives (OCs) each year. The vast majority of OCs combine both estrogen and a type of progestin, or progesterone-like substance into one pill which is taken daily. Depression or a negative change in mood, apparently resulting from the use of OCs, is thought to be one of the main reasons women miss pills or stop taking their oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) altogether. Clinical observation that some women develop depression when taking progestin only OCs or when adding progestins to menopausal estrogen therapy has led to the speculation that the progestin is the likely culprit of these negative mood changes in women using combined OCPs.. The current study is designed to investigate the role of progestins in the development of mood symptoms in OCP users. Women participating in this study will receive one of two different OCPs for three months. Their mood while taking the OCPs will be compared to their mood prior to using OCPs. In ...
Mircette contains a combination of female hormones (ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel) that prevent ovulation and pregnancy. .Buy Mircette (Desogestrel/Ethinyl estradiol) UK 0.15/0.02 mg price for sale online discount order cheap
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EDITOR,-In seeking to interpret for women the recent research showing an approximate doubling of the relative risk of venous thromboembolic disease in women taking oral contraceptives containing gestodene or desogestrel1 we need ways in which to explain the complicated and subtle statistical evidence.. John Guillebaud contends that we can reassure a woman who has been taking combined oral contraceptives for a considerable time that "as she has not had a venous thrombosis in these years she is particularly unlikely … ...
... is a combination birth control pill containing female hormones that prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary). This medicine also causes changes in your cervical mucus and uterine lining, making it harder for sperm to reach the uterus and harder for a fertilized egg to...
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Comprehensive alcohol & food interactions for desogestrel / ethinyl estradiol. Includes High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), High Cholesterol (Hyperlipoproteinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Sitosterolemia)
Learn about Desogestrel / Ethinyl Estradiol (Desogen and Ortho-Cept), dosing, proper use and what to know before beginning treatment
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Oral contraceptives that contained more than 50 mg of estrogen were withdrawn from the market in the United States in 1989. The newer oral contraceptives have one fourth of the estrogen and one tenth of the progestogen of the original combination agents. The newer progestogens (desogestrel, gestodene and norgestimate) have fewer androgenic metabolic effects, do not adversely affect lipid levels and may be associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Chasan-Taber and Stampfer reviewed the epidemiologic studies of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease performed between 1967 and mid-1997, paying special attention to preparations that contain less than 50 mg of estrogen.. Case-control and cohort studies suggest that much of the excess risk for myocardial infarction in current users of oral contraceptives is attributable to cigarette smoking. Two separate studies showed that the relative risk of myocardial infarction was 39 and 30 in women who smoked 25 or more cigarettes daily ...
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mircette, Mircette is a combination of female hormones used to prevent ovulation and pregnancy. , Womans Health , ethinyl, estradiol, desogestrel new-bestcare.com
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Special consideration: Adolescents, In general, adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and must have access to a variety of contraceptive choices. Age alone does not constitute a medical reason for denying any method to adolescents. While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents. For example, in some settings, adolescents are also at increased risk for STIs, ...
While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents ...
Fibrinogen is an acute-phase reactant and can often become significantly increased in conditions involving tissue damage, infection, or inflammation.1 Increased levels may be seen in smokers, during pregnancy, and in women taking oral contraceptives.1 Fib
Start taking the pill on the first day of your next period. It is immediately effective from then on. It will also start to work straightaway if you begin taking it up to the fifth day from the start of your period. (ie if Day 1 is the first day of your period, you can begin taking it on Day 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 and it will work straightaway.) If you start on any other day, you should use additional contraceptive methods (such as using condoms or not having sex) for the first two days. This is until the POP has become effective.. If you have just had a baby, the POP is immediately effective if you start taking it before day 21 after the birth. If you begin taking it after Day 21, use additional contraception (eg, condoms or not having sex) for two days.. You should take the POP at the same time of day, every day. Any time of day will do, but the most important thing is to get into a routine. Do not stop taking it when you have a period. You should take it every day. When you finish one pack, start ...
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Learn about side effects and possible interactions when taking Ortho-Cept (Desogestrel / Ethinyl Estradiol, Apri, Solia, Juleber, Enskyce, Emoquette and Reclipsen)
Want to post a follow-up message on this topic? If this link does not work with your browser send a follow-up message to [email protected] with "Help with Norgestimate Assay" as the subject. PharmPK Discussion List Archive Index page ...
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The simultaneous effects of cigarette smoking and oral contraceptives on serum estradiol and progesterone levels were investigated in 114 premenopausal women. Serum 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. In smokers, estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly lower (p less than 0.025). In smokers using oral contraceptives, estradiol and progesterone levels were the lowest (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively). The findings suggest that smoking and oral contraceptives independently lower serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations in premenopausal women and that the effects may be additive.
The effects of the triphasic oral Contraceptive (Ethinylestradiol (EE) and Levonorgesterol (LNG)) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism was evaluated in ninety-seven black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited between June 1984 and May 1985 and they were followed up for twelve months. There was an increase in fastlng levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c). These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at nine months and twelve months (p, 0.05). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. This triphasic oral contraceptive was found to have minimal effect on the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism ...
It is now estimated that the prevalence of oral contraceptive use in athletic women matches that of women in the general population. The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) reduces cycle-length variability
Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. Also known as birth control pills, they contain artificially made forms of twohormones produced naturally in the body. These hormones, estrogen and progestin, regulate a womans menstrual cycle. When taken in the proper amounts, following a specific schedule, oral contraceptives are very effective in preventing pregnancy.. Oral contraceptives have several effects that help prevent pregnancy. For pregnancy to occur, an egg must ripen inside a womans ovary, be released, and travel to the fallopian tube (the passageway from the ovary to the uterus). Amans sperm must also reach the fallopian tube, where it fertilizes the egg.Then the fertilized egg must travel to the womans uterus (womb), where it lodges in the uterus lining and develops into a fetus. The main way that oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy is by keeping an egg from ripening fully. Eggs that do not ripen fully cannot be fertilized. In addition, birth ...
Buy Linessa (Desogestrel ethinyl estradiol) a combination pill to avoid pregnancy. It works by preventing ovulation and causing changes in the mucus.
The effect of oral contraceptives on urinary and plasma vitamin B₆ as well as erythrocyte transaminase activities was investigated in women. Five women who were taking oral contraceptives and four who were not using these drugs served as subjects. They were apparently healthy and free from any known metabolic disorder. The subjects, who consumed normal diets, recorded their dietary intake for three days. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected on two consecutive days by the subjects. On the morning of the second day blood for the various biochemical measurements was drawn from fasting subjects. Following the blood drawing the women were given an oral dose of 3 g of L-methionine. Results of the methionine load test are reported elsewhere. The subjects consumed diets that supplied at least two-thirds or more of their National Academy of Science-National Research Council (1974) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for most nutrients except iron and vitamin B₆. The mean dietary intake of ...
Combined oral contraceptive pill: | | | Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
TriRegol tablets are a type of hormonal contraception commonly known as the pill or combined oral contraceptive pill. TriRegol tablets contain two active ingredients, ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. These are synthetic versions of the naturally occurring female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone. Ethinylestradiol is a synthetic version of oestrogen and levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
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These results suggest that many women who are using oral contraceptives in their peak bone-development years could reduce their risk of osteoporosis by approximately 3 percent to 10 percent over one year by making sure they get enough calcium in their diet," Teegarden said. "This demonstrates the importance of calcium intake, either by getting enough dairy or with supplements." ...
Question - On oral contraceptives, have severe cramps, reddish discharge. What could this be?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Menstruation, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Birth control pills (BCPs) are both the most effective and the most hazardous form of contraception. Preventing pregnancy in this way is done by taking an oral dose of a combination of the hormones estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) in amounts higher than the body?s natural levels. This prevents the pituitary hormones that stimulate ovulation and fertilization of the egg from being released, and thus prevents pregnancy. Though taking oral contraceptives regularly is 99 percent effective in birth control, there are many possible side effects. Weight gain, emotional swings, circulatory and vascular symptoms, and gastrointestinal upset are not uncommon. Blood clots, liver problems, and cancer are also possible, though relatively rare; these were more common in the 1960s with the higher-dose pills. Many women have difficulty with oral contraceptives, though many others seem to tolerate them well. The use of birth control pills is more common in young women and teenagers, which adds ...
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Cerazette tablets contain the active ingredient desogestrel, which is a synthetic progestogen, similar to the natural progestogens produced by the body
Question - Antibiotics that interfere with oral contraceptives. Am I in risk of pregnancy?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Combined oral contraceptive pill, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Hi i am wondering what oral contraceptive i could be put on that wouldnt make me nauseas. I was on esetlle for 10 years with no problems. In the last year i got a large patch of pigment on my forehead and would get sick every time i would
Obese women who used oral contraceptives appeared to have increased risk for a rare type of stroke known as a cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) compared with women of normal weight who did not use oral contraceptives, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology.
EDITOR,-The Committee on Safety of Medicines recent advice that oral contraceptives containing gestodene or desogestrel should not be prescribed1 has caused confusion and concern among family planning specialists and has major public health implications.. In 1977 the Royal College of General Practitioners concluded that women aged over 35 and heavy smokers aged over 30 should not use oral contraceptives because of an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.2 These conclusions were highlighted in the Dutch media and caused a drop in the use of oral contraceptives from 34% to 27%, … ...
oral contraceptive definition: A pill, typically containing estrogen or progesterone, that inhibits ovulation and therefore prevents conception. Also known as birth prevention supplement.; a contraceptive…
Learn more about Oral Contraceptives at Reston Hospital Center Alternate Names : Birth Control Pills Contraceptives Folate -Supplementation...
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Endometriosis also reacts to hormonal signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, building up tissue, breaking it, and eliminating it through the menstrual period. In this article, we will discuss what is oral contraceptive pills?
Researchers in the Netherlands conducted a small study to investigate whether the blood of women taking third generation pills is more resistant to APC. Compared with the second generation levonorgestrel, third generation desogestrel containing pills significantly increased the plasma resistance to this naturally occurring anticoagulant. As a result, women taking this form of the Pill are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (Lancet, 1999; 354: 2036-40 ...
Dr. Mirabile responded: Birth control pill s. It is not unusual as with any pill to have irregular spotting especially in the first few months of use as your body accustoms itself hormonally. Remember to try to take the pill the same time daily as they are low dose and may cause |a href="/topics/irregular-bleeding" track_data="{
Comment Achat Le Moins Cher Norethindrone. Aygestin (norethindrone) is a synthetic oral progestin. It is used for contraception or to treat such conditions as secondary amenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, and endometriosis. As an oral contraceptive, norethindrone is available as either a single agent or in combination with an estrogen. Generic Aygestin may also be marketed as: Norethindrone, ...
Combien Prix Le Moins Cher Aygestin Norethindrone. Aygestin (norethindrone) is a synthetic oral progestin. It is used for contraception or to treat such conditions as secondary amenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, and endometriosis. As an oral contraceptive, norethindrone is available as either a single agent or in combination with an estrogen. Generic Aygestin may also be marketed as: Norethindrone, ...
Oral contraceptives affected both the general quality of life and specific aspects like mood, well-being, self-control and energy level.
The new birth control pill Lybrel is the first oral contraceptive designed to be taken 365 days a year with no pill-free intervals. Women who use Lybrel dont…
Learn more about Oral Contraceptives: Risks and Benefits at Grand Strand Medical Center Since first introduced in the 1960s, the birth control pill (
Results from meta-analysis of oral contraceptive recency and duration in relation to breast cancer subtype. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the fu
Follow all recommendations of your health care advisor. Take the first on the first day of your menses or on the first Sunday after your period started. If you use Mircette for the firs time you may need additional birth control means. There are 28-day birth control packs with seven reminder pills for the regular cycle. While you are using reminder pills the period usually begins. Breakthrough bleeding is possible, if it becomes heavy and continuous, inform your doctor. Take each pill each day about the same time. When your pill pack is over start a new one. In case of needed medical tests or surgery, it is possible that you may need to stop using Mircette for a short period of time ...
Still unconvinced by our previous post? We have compiled a list of reasons why oral contraceptive pills should be regulated and not made available over-the-counter. With so many oral contraceptive pills on the market and a lot of medical jargon, choosing the right pill to suit you can be confusing. Doctors are qualified to prescribe…
Medroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of progestin, a female hormone. It is used to regulate menses and treat menopausal symptoms. In its injection form, it is used as a contraceptive agent. Brand names include Provera, Depo-Provera, Amen, Curretab, and Cycrin.
A total of 3,715 articles were identified, of which 3,643 did not meet eligibility criteria and were excluded. A further 44 studies were excluded as review articles, and 22 studies were excluded for not providing data on POC use. Of the remaining six articles, three studies were from Europe, two were from the United States, and one was worldwide. Age of participants in these studies ranged from 15 to 44 years. Subjects were exposed to oral POCs in four studies, and to oral or injectable POCs in one study and Norplant in one study. The combined odds ratio demonstrated no increase in risk for MI with POC use (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.84). This relationship was similar for all types of POCs.. ...
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Progesterone is the naturally occurring female sex hormone acting as natures contraceptive by preventing women from conceiving during pregnancy
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The pill contains two hormones - an oestrogen and a progestogen. If taken correctly, it is a very effective form of contraception.
1 Faina Novosolov, M.D. Which Oral Contraceptive Pill is Best for Me? Frederick R. Jelovsek MD, MS "I am 25 years old. I havent had a period in about 6 months but I .... ...
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This column is sponsored by Granted, Americas top job search engine. Everybody says exercising is Order good for health; ever wondered exactly what good It does to your body? Right from boosting your mood to reducing your stress levels, from improving your sex life to enhancing your appearance, exercising can be an effective tool in improving your life. Find out more with us! Following Purchase are seven benefits you can achieve while exercising to overall improve your life. Exercising - A Mood Booster: After a stressful day at work if you can work out in the gym or briskly walk for 30mins; you will notice how it instantly leaves you happier and helps you unwind. Regular exercise makes you feel better about your appearance which in turn boosts your confidence and improves your self-esteem. Weight Control with Exercising: Exercising can help […]. May 2, 2013 Read More. ...
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Oral contraceptives behave differently in the bodies of obese women than in normal-weight women, research shows, suggesting that they may not work as well in preventing pregnancy.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control. Two types of female oral contraceptive pill, taken once per day, are widely available: The combined oral contraceptive pill contains estrogen and a progestin The progestogen-only pill Ormeloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which offers the benefit of only having to be taken once a week. Emergency contraception pills ("morning after pills") are taken at the time of intercourse, or within a few days afterwards: Levonorgestrel, sold under the brand name Plan B Ulipristal acetate Mifepristone and misoprostol, when used in combination, are more than 95% effective during the first 50 days of pregnancy. The combination is administered by a physician, and is only used as a last resort Male oral contraceptives are currently not available commercially, although several possibilities are in various stages of research and ...
Could Yaz cause Asthma? We studied 29106 Yaz users who have side effects from FDA and social media. Among them, 28 have asthma. See what we found.. Drospirenone/Ethinyl Estradiol. ingrédient actif. Yasmin est un contraceptif oral. Les ingrédients actifs sont la. Desogestrel/Ethinyl estradiol. ingrédient actif.Ocella, the drospirenone containing drug,. Bayer Health - Care ran a promotional campaign to improve misrepresentations regarding Yaz.gianvi birth control coupons / Printable Coupon. YAZ or Gianvi? A:. Gianvi (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol) is a member of the contraceptives drug.1 The legally binding text is the original French version TRANSPARENCY COMMITTEE OPINION 10 February 2010 LEELOO 0.1 mg/0.02 mg, coated tablet.DROSPIRENONE/ETHINYLESTRADIOL MYLAN 3 mg/0,03 mg cp pellic: Fiche abrégée, Médicament(s) proche(s).drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. yasmin; yasminelle; yaz; MeSH synonym: drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol drug. drospirenone and ethinylestradiol.. In combined hormonal ...
ClinicalTrials.gov summary of Drug Interaction Study Between Dolutegravir and an Oral Contraceptive Containing Norgestimate and Ethinylestradiol
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Objectives: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that co-administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP) containing COC restored total T levels to baseline and free T levels by 47%. Here we describe the effects on sexual function, mood and quality of life of such an intervention. Study design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 healthy COC starters. A COC containing 30 μg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3 mg DRSP was used for 3 cycles, followed by 6 cycles of the same COC combined with 50 mg/day DHEA or placebo. Subjects completed the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ) and the short form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Safety and tolerability, including effects on skin were evaluated. Results: The ...

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Oral suspension containing 125 mg of megestrol acetate per mL; Tablet Actinex Indication For the treatment of anorexia, ... Megestrol is a synthetic progestin and has the same physiologic effects as natural progesterone. The precise mechanism of ... No serious unexpected side effects have resulted from studies involving megestrol acetate oral suspension administered in ... Initially developed as a contraceptive, it was first evaluated in breast cancer treatment in 1967. ...
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Comparison of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System, Copper T Intrauterine Device and Oral Contraceptives on Life Quality - Full...Comparison of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System, Copper T Intrauterine Device and Oral Contraceptives on Life Quality - Full...

Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Trace Elements. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. ... Contraceptive Agents. Levonorgestrel. Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol combination. Contraceptives, Oral. Copper. Estrogens. ... Comparison of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System, Copper T Intrauterine Device and Oral Contraceptives on Life Quality. The ... Lipid profile (HDL,VLDL,IDL,LDL,Lp(a),VLDL)Lng-ius users, Copper-iud users and combined oral contraceptive users (composite ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01805817?recr=Open&cond=%22Intrauterine+Devices%22&rank=15

Dose-finding Study for the Ultralow-dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive System (LCS) - Full Text View -...Dose-finding Study for the Ultralow-dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive System (LCS) - Full Text View -...

Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... Dose-finding Study for the Ultralow-dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive System (LCS). The safety and scientific ... Levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LCS) releasing 12 microg/24h in vitro. Drug: Levonorgestrel IUS (BAY86-5028, ... Levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LCS) releasing 16 microg/24h in vitro. Drug: Levonorgestrel IUS (BAY86-5028, ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00185380?term=LEVONORGESTREL&rank=68

Metabolism Study to Investigate the Impact of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govMetabolism Study to Investigate the Impact of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic. Contraceptives, ... Contraceptive Agents. Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential. ... Randomized Study to Investigate the Impact of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive (SH T00658ID) as Compared to a Sequential Oral ... Metabolism Study to Investigate the Impact of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive. The safety and scientific validity of this study ...
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A Study to Evaluate the Effect of a Contraceptive Vaginal Ring Delivering Ulipristal Acetate Combined With a Single or Repeated...A Study to Evaluate the Effect of a Contraceptive Vaginal Ring Delivering Ulipristal Acetate Combined With a Single or Repeated...

All contraindications to oral contraceptive use, including: a. Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders; b. Past history of ... Contraceptive Agents. Levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Use of injectable contraceptives during the previous 3 months (e.g. Cyclofem) or 6 months (e.g. DMPA). ... A Randomized Study to Evaluate the Effect of a Contraceptive Vaginal Ring Delivering a Daily Dose of 2500 μg of Ulipristal ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02451826?term=LEVONORGESTREL&rank=63

desogestrel (CHEBI:4453)desogestrel (CHEBI:4453)

synthetic oral contraceptive An oral contraceptive which owes its effectiveness to synthetic preparation. ... desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) has role synthetic oral contraceptive (CHEBI:49326) desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) is a 17β-hydroxy steroid ... desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) has role contraceptive drug (CHEBI:49323) desogestrel (CHEBI:4453) has role progestin (CHEBI:59826) ... contraceptive drug A chemical substance that prevents or reduces the probability of conception. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:4453

Mifepristonum [Latin]
        -
        Menstruation-Inducing Agents,  Luteolytic Agents,  Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic, ...Mifepristonum [Latin] - Menstruation-Inducing Agents, Luteolytic Agents, Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic, ...

The absolute bioavailability of a 20 mg oral dose is 69% Mifepristonum [Latin] side effects and Toxicity Nearly all of the ... Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid with antiprogestational effects indicated for the medical termination of intrauterine ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Mifepristonum_%5BLatin%5D.html

Occurrence of menses or pregnancy after cessation of a continuous oral contraceptive.Occurrence of menses or pregnancy after cessation of a continuous oral contraceptive.

Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic / adverse effects, pharmacology*. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. ... After participation in an open-label, continuous oral contraceptive (OC) trial for at least 6 months, participants agreed to ... 0/Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic; 0/Estrogens; 57-63-6/Ethinyl Estradiol; 797-63-7/Levonorgestrel ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Occurrence-menses-pregnancy-after-cessation/17658522.html

The risk of deep venous thrombosis with oral contraceptives containing drospirenone | The BMJThe risk of deep venous thrombosis with oral contraceptives containing drospirenone | The BMJ

Drospirenone is a synthetic progestogen, derived from the aldosterone blocker spironolactone. It is structurally related to ... The risk of deep venous thrombosis with oral contraceptives containing drospirenone BMJ 2011; 342 :d2519 ... It has been marketed in oral contraceptive preparations, combined with 30 mg of ethinylestradiol, since about 2000. The ... The risk of deep venous thrombosis with oral contraceptives containing drospirenone. BMJ 2011; 342 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136 ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d2519

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321383.phphttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321383.php

1. Oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives may cause hormonal changes, which can make the area around the nipples appear ... Birth control pills contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Taking these pills can help prevent ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321383.php

Hormonal contraceptives may raise depression riskHormonal contraceptives may raise depression risk

The use of hormonal contraceptives was linked to higher risk of depression and antidepressant use in a new study, especially ... Combined oral contraceptives contain the hormones estrogen and progestin; progestin may refer to synthetic forms of the hormone ... including oral contraceptives," he added. The team now plans to investigate whether the use of hormonal contraceptives is ... Oral contraceptives - or birth control pills - remain the most common form of contraception, currently used by around 16 ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/313143.php

Estrogen | Encyclopedia.comEstrogen | Encyclopedia.com

Synthetic oestrogens are a major constituent of oral contraceptives.. -oestrogenic adj. Cite this article Pick a style below, ... Such hormones are also produced artificially for use in oral contraceptives or to treat menopausal and menstrual disorders. ... They are used in oral contraceptives (with progestogens) and as treatment for various disorders of the female reproductive ... It is also a constituent of the contraceptive pill.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biochemistry/biochemistry/estrogen

Combined oral contraceptive pill - WikipediaCombined oral contraceptive pill - Wikipedia

... such as the contraceptive patch, use the same synthetic estrogen (EE2) that is found in COCPs, and can add to the hormonal ... Contraceptive UseEdit. Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of oral medication that is designed to be taken every day, ... Main article: Oral contraceptive formulations. Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations, some containing both ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combined_oral_contraceptive_pill

Study of Bleeding With Extended Administration of an Oral ContraceptiveStudy of Bleeding With Extended Administration of an Oral Contraceptive

Removal of synthetic sex hormones by hydrothermal carbonization.. One of the most prominent fields of environmental chemistry ... Ovulation Incidence in Oral Contraceptive Users. Since the introduction of the combined hormonal contraceptive pill, dosages of ... Study of Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Contraceptive. This is a non-comparative study. the primary objective of the study is ... Study of Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Contraceptive. This is a comparative study. The primary objective of the study is to ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/106941/Study-of-Bleeding-With-Extended-Administration-of-an-Oral-Contraceptive.html

Why are sperm counts falling? Contraceptives in drinking water and chemicals in some plastics | Daily Mail OnlineWhy are sperm counts falling? 'Contraceptives in drinking water and chemicals in some plastics' | Daily Mail Online

They also exposed mice to the synthetic oestrogen ethinyl oestradiol. The researchers exposed the developing testis and saw ... In the new study, Dr Hunt and her colleagues gave newborn male mice oral doses of BPA. ... Falling sperm counts could be caused by traces of the contraceptive pill in drinking water, a new study has claimed. ... Why are sperm counts falling? Contraceptives in drinking water and chemicals in some plastics may be to blame, scientists claim ...
more infohttps://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2921840/Why-sperm-counts-falling-Contraceptives-drinking-water-chemicals-plastics.html

Katya (ethinylestradiol and gestodene)Katya (ethinylestradiol and gestodene)

Ethinylestradiol is a synthetic version of oestrogen and gestodene is a third generation synthetic form of progesterone. ... These are synthetic versions of the naturally occurring female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone. ... or combined oral contraceptive pill. Katya tablets contain two active ingredients, ethinylestradiol and gestodene. ... compared with women who do not use these contraceptives. Women who use oral contraceptives for longer than five years may also ...
more infohttps://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/sexual/a8723/katya-ethinylestradiol-and-gestodene/

Femodette (ethinylestradiol and gestodene)Femodette (ethinylestradiol and gestodene)

Ethinylestradiol is a synthetic version of oestrogen and gestodene is a third generation synthetic form of progesterone. ... These are synthetic versions of the naturally occurring female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone. ... or combined oral contraceptive pill. Femodette tablets contain two active ingredients, ethinylestradiol and gestodene. ... compared with women who do not use these contraceptives. Women who use oral contraceptives for longer than five years may also ...
more infohttps://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/sexual/a8219/femodette-ethinylestradiol-and-gestodene/

Depression With the Progesterone Pill | Livestrong.comDepression With the Progesterone Pill | Livestrong.com

... oral contraceptives, to help prevent pregnancy is widespread. Oral contraceptives contain progestin or synthetic progesterone. ... oral contraceptives, to help prevent pregnancy is widespread. Oral contraceptives contain progestin or synthetic progesterone. ... How Oral Contraceptives Affect Mood and Affect. Researchers are studying physiological ways oral contraceptives may influence ... Oral Contraception Use on Mood and Affect. Research findings about oral contraceptive use on mood is mixed. Some studies found ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/544747-depression-with-the-progesterone-pill/

Repro Pharm from FA Flashcards by Jullet Han | BrainscapeRepro Pharm from FA Flashcards by Jullet Han | Brainscape

Use: in oral contraceptives, treatment of endometrial cancer and abnormal uterine bleeding ... Mech: synthetic androgen; acts as partial agonist at androgen receptors. Tox: Wt gain, edema, acna, hirsutism, masculinazation ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/repro-pharm-from-fa-2476435/packs/3969779

Chemical Contaminants - CCL 4 | Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and Regulatory Determination | US EPAChemical Contaminants - CCL 4 | Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and Regulatory Determination | US EPA

Norethindrone is a synthetic hormone used in oral contraceptives and for hormone replacement therapy. ... It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in veterinary and human oral contraceptives. ... It is a solvent in the chemical industry, and is used in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for oral and dermal delivery. ... It is used in a number of consumer products, such as synthetic cosmetics, perfumes, fragrances, hair preparations, and skin ...
more infohttps://www.epa.gov/ccl/chemical-contaminants-ccl-4

Minisiston (Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel) Bayer Schering PharmaMinisiston (Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel) Bayer Schering Pharma

Oestrogens and progesterones and related synthetic drugs*Oral contraceptives. Indications and usages, anatomical therapeutic ...
more infohttps://drugs-about.com/drugs-m/minisiston.html

Altesse (Drospirenone; Estradiol Micronized) Silesia LaboratoriosAltesse (Drospirenone; Estradiol Micronized) Silesia Laboratorios

Oral contraceptives*Oestrogens and progesterones and related synthetic drugs. Indications and usages, anatomical therapeutic ...
more infohttp://drugs-about.com/drugs-a/altesse.html

Birth controlBirth control

progestins (synthetic forms of progesterone) are commonly used. These include the combined oral contraceptive pill (The Pill ... male oral contraceptives, or implants or injections that may be used as male hormonal contraceptives.. RISUG (Reversible ... oral contraceptives and modern methods of fertility awareness (also called natural family planning) developed.. Methods. ... Ortho Tri-cyclen, a brand of oral contraceptive, in a dial dispenser. ...
more infohttps://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/b/Birth_control.htm

C Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineC Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic (28) • Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations. MeSH ... Contraceptive Effect (0) see Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral (42) • Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in ... Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal (2) • Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations. MeSH ... Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic (3) • Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations. ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories/c
  • Drospirenone is a synthetic form of progestin which can elevate the body's potassium levels, leading to a condition called hyperkalemia in certain patients. (prweb.com)
  • On May 31, 2011, the FDA issued a Drug Safety Communication ( http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm257164.htm ) announcing that it would be reviewing the safety of Yaz, Yasmin and similar drospirenone contraceptives. (prweb.com)
  • For that reason, Parker Waichman Alonso LLP continues to call on Bayer Corporation, as well as the makers of other drospirenone contraceptives, to remove these products from the market immediately. (prweb.com)
  • Parker Waichman Alonso LLP continues to offer free legal evaluations to victims of drospirenone contraceptives, including Yaz and Yasmin. (prweb.com)
  • In an early preclinical study in 12 normal young women, it was found that the oral administration of 2 mg drospirenone for 6 days led to a cumulative sodium loss of 84 mmol and a significant rise in plasma renin and aldosterone, compared with placebo. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Le fait de nourrir des poulets avec des stéroïdes contraceptifs oraux à la dose utilisée par certains éleveurs de volailles en Egypte a entraîné la formation d'importants résidus d'oestrogènes dans les muscles et le foie par rapport à ceux des poulets témoins. (who.int)
  • Given the current availability of the high sensitivity CRP test, it is possible to assess the effects of current low dose oral contraceptives on this biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Even with low-dose oral contraceptives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure may be raised in susceptible individuals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A Commission of the Honduran Medical Association issued a report on the distribution of the contraceptive mini-pill, Ovrette (Norgestrel), by the Institute of Honduran Social Security (IHSS). (pop.org)
  • Its active ingredient is a synthetic steroid, a progestagen, named Norgestrel. (pop.org)
  • It is unknown if any possible damage will be detected in puberty or during the reproductive age since there is no study of exposed children that are older than 12 years of age ("Final report about the use in Honduras of the oral contraceptive Ovrette (Norgestrel) in lactating women," Honduran Medical Association, 7 June 1993). (pop.org)
  • In the new study, Dr Hunt and her colleagues gave newborn male mice oral doses of BPA. (dailymail.co.uk)