Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Norethynodrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.Ethynodiol Diacetate: A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Norpregnenes: Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential: Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Ethisterone: 17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Metrorrhagia: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.XanthurenatesAbortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Coitus Interruptus: A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.United StatesNorprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Religion and SexReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)MissouriAntispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.NicaraguaReproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Nandrolone: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Great BritainCervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Uterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Megaloblasts: Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.GuatemalaPregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Intrauterine Device Migration: The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Libido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Abortion, Criminal: Illegal termination of pregnancy.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Gossypol: A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The effects of different formulations of oral contraceptive agents on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. (1/5)BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives can induce changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism similar to those associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, including increased serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and insulin levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In this study, we examined whether modification of the type or dose of progestin in oral-contraceptive preparations diminishes these changes. METHODS: We measured plasma lipoprotein levels and performed oral glucose-tolerance tests in a cross section of 1060 women who took one of nine types of oral contraceptives for at least three months and 418 women who took none. Seven of the contraceptive formulations contained various doses and types of progestin: levonorgestrel in low (150 micrograms), high (250 micrograms), and triphasic (50 to 125 micrograms) doses; norethindrone in low (500 micrograms), high (1000 micrograms), and triphasic (500 to 1000 micrograms) doses; and a new progestin, desogestrel, in one dose (150 micrograms). All seven contained 30 to 40 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol. Two additional formulations contained progestin alone. RESULTS: As compared with controls, women taking combination drugs did not have increased serum total cholesterol levels but did have increases of 13 to 75 percent in fasting triglyceride levels. Levels of LDL cholesterol were reduced by 14 percent in women taking the combination containing desogestrel and by 12 percent in those taking low-dose norethindrone. Levels of HDL cholesterol were lowered by 5 percent and 16 percent by the combinations containing low-dose and high-dose levonorgestrel, respectively; these decreases were due to reductions of 29 percent and 43 percent, respectively, in the levels of HDL subclass 2. The combination pill containing high-dose norethindrone did not affect HDL cholesterol levels, whereas that containing low-dose norethindrone increased HDL cholesterol levels by 10 percent. The desogestrel combination increased HDL cholesterol levels by 12 percent. Levels of apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and B were generally increased by combination drugs. Depending on the dose and type of progestin, combination drugs were associated with plasma glucose levels on the glucose-tolerance test that were 43 to 61 percent higher than in controls, insulin responses 12 to 40 percent higher, and C-peptide responses 18 to 45 percent higher. Progestin-only formulations had only minor metabolic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The appropriate dose and type of progestin may reduce the adverse effects of oral contraceptives on many metabolic markers of risk for coronary heart disease. Progestin-only formulations or combinations containing desogestrel or low-dose norethindrone were associated wtih the most favorable profiles. (+info)
Types of combined oral contraceptives used by US women. (2/5)(+info)
The epidemiology of endometrial cancer in young women. (3/5)A case-control study was conducted in Los Angeles County, California, of 127 endometrial cancer cases aged 45 years or less at diagnosis, to investigate the role of fertility, obesity and exogenous oestrogens in the development of the disease in young women. Use of sequential oral contraceptive (SOCs) or oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for greater than or equal to 2 years was strongly associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. After excluding these cases, since the SOC or ERT use was probably the cause of their disease, we were left with 110 case-control pairs for further study. Among these remaining case-control pairs increasing parity was strongly associated with decreased risk (relative risk of 0.12 for women of parity 3 compared to nulliparous women, P less than 0.001). Current weight was associated with increased risk (relative risk of 17.7 for women weighing greater than or equal to 190 lbs compared to women weighing less than 130 lbs, P less than 0.001). Combination oral contraceptive (COC) use was associated with a decreased risk, which decreased with duration of COC use (relative risk of approximately 0.28 at 5 years of use, P less than 0.001), but the estimate of the protective effect was reduced and became statistically non-significant when allowance was made for weight and parity. The protective effect of COC use was only clearly evident in women who had less than 3 live-births and weighed less than 170 lbs. These results provide further support for the "unopposed" oestrogen hypothesis of the aetiology of endometrial cancer. (+info)
The effect of kind of carbohydrate in the diet and use of oral contraceptives on metabolism of young women. II. Serum lipid levels. (4/5)The response of lipids in the blood between two groups of six young women was compared. Group 1 took oral contraceptives and group 2 had never taken oral contraceptives. Two experimental diets supplied about 13% of the calories from protein, 36% from fat, and 51% from carbohydrate. Of the carbohydrate, 84% was either sucrose or wheat starch. Each diet was fed for 4 weeks in a cross-over design. In the portion of the research presented here, subjects were fed a high sucrose meal before each dietary period and after weeks 1 and 3 of each dietary period. Blood lipids were measured before and 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after each meal. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were not affected by the sucrose meal, but free fatty acid levels decreased significantly in both groups. The serum levels of triglycerides, beta-lipoproteins, and cholesterol were significantly higher in users than in nonusers of oral contraceptives. Free fatty acid levels were affected by an interaction between diet and time, and the decrease in response was greater after the sucrose than after the wheat starch diet. Triglycerides, cholesterol, and total lipids were not significantly different after the two carbohydrate diets. (+info)
In vitro and in vivo metabolism of desogestrel in several species. (5/5)The metabolism of desogestrel (13-ethyl-11-methylene-18, 19-dinor-17alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-17-ol), an orally active progestogen, was studied in vivo after administration of single oral doses to rats and dogs and in vitro using rat, rabbit, dog, and human liver microsomes. Metabolites were isolated and identified by NMR and MS analysis. After oral administration of [3H]desogestrel to rats and dogs, desogestrel was extensively metabolized in both species. Radioactivity was predominantly eliminated in the feces. In rats, desogestrel was metabolized mainly at the C3-, C5-, C11-, and C15-positions. Both in vivo and in vitro, the majority of metabolites were 3alpha-hydroxy,4,5alpha-dihydro derivatives. Other main metabolic routes for desogestrel in rats were 15alpha-hydroxylation and epoxidation of the C11-methylene moiety. In addition to phase I metabolites, glucuronic acid and sulfate conjugates of desogestrel were observed in vivo. In dogs, desogestrel was mainly metabolized at the C3- and C17-positions. In contrast to the rat metabolites, metabolites isolated from dog urine or feces were mainly 3beta-hydroxy,4,5alpha-dihydro derivatives. In most of the metabolites present in dog urine and feces, the five-membered D-ring was expanded to a six-membered D-ring, i.e. D-homoannulation to a 17A-keto-D-homo ring. D-Homo metabolites, which were major metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces of dogs, were not observed in vitro. In dog liver microsomes, the 3-keto metabolite of desogestrel was the major metabolite. Similarly to dog liver microsomes, rabbit and human liver microsomes mainly converted desogestrel to its 3-keto metabolite. Predominant positions for further hydroxylation of the 3-keto metabolite of desogestrel were the C6-position (6beta-hydroxy) and the ethyl substituent at the C13-position, for both species. (+info)
Robert Benjamin Greenblatt
He was especially known for his work in the development of the sequential oral contraceptive pill and the oral fertility pill. ... a monthly oral contraceptive pill, an accomplishment for which MCG received national attention. His group's discovery in 1961 ... Greenblatt, R. (1967). One-Pill-A-Month Contraceptive. Fertility and Sterility, 18, 207. Greenblatt, R., & Mahesh, V. (1965). ...
The risk associated with the use of other sequential oral contraceptives remains unclear, mainly because these drugs are no ... It was introduced in the United States as an oral contraceptive in combination with high doses of ethinylestradiol under the ... Secrosteron a new oral progestational substance British Drug Houses (South Africa) (Pty.) Ltd., announce the introduction of ... It is the purpose of this paper to introduce and describe a new steroid for oral administration, 17-a-hydroxyprogesterone ...
List of MeSH codes (D16)
... contraceptives, oral, hormonal MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.400 --- contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.696.875. ... contraceptives, oral, hormonal MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.400 --- contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.954.705. ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.100 --- contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276. ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.100 --- contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276. ...
... "sequential oral contraceptives which were removed from the consumer market in the 1970s was associated with an increased risk ... The original hormonal method-the combined oral contraceptive pill-was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. In the ensuing ... Oral Contraceptives, Combined (Vol. 72 ed.). p. 49. "Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives" (PDF). IARC Monographs on ... of the world's contraceptive users. Other hormonal contraceptives are less common, accounting for less than 1% of contraceptive ...
CMA is used at dosages of 1 to 2 mg/day in oral contraceptives, at dosages of 2 to 10 mg/day in the treatment of gynecological ... It was the first sequential contraceptive pill to be introduced in the U.S. CMA has also been marketed in combination with ... In the 1960s, CMA was introduced as a component of oral contraceptives. However, around 1970, such formulations were withdrawn ... It is most commonly marketed in combination with ethinylestradiol, an estrogen, as a combined oral contraceptive under the ...
... are frequently managed by use of combined oral contraceptive pills. In postmenopausal bleeding, guidelines from the United ... consisting of both an estrogen and a progestagen A cut-off threshold of 5 mm or less should be used for women on sequential ... Women on hormonal contraceptives can experience breakthrough bleeding and/or withdrawal bleeding. Withdrawal bleeding occurs ... when a hormonal contraceptive or other hormonal intake is discontinued. There are pathological causes of unusual vaginal ...
... are frequently managed by use of combined oral contraceptive pills.. Postmenopausal bleeding. In postmenopausal bleeding ... A cut-off threshold of 5 mm or less should be used for women on sequential hormone replacement therapy consisting both of an ... Women on hormonal contraceptives can experience breakthrough bleeding and/or withdrawal bleeding. Withdrawal bleeding occurs ... when a hormonal contraceptive or other hormonal intake is discontinued.. There are pathological causes of unusual vaginal ...
... high doses of ethinylestradiol are no longer used in combined oral contraceptives, and all modern combined oral contraceptives ... sequential estrogen-progestogen treatment (OR = 1.76) is associated with a lower risk increase than continuous treatment (OR = ... For combined oral contraceptives, VTE risk with high doses of ethinylestradiol (>50 μg, e.g., 100 to 150 μg) has been reported ... An increase in the risk of stroke has also been associated with older high-dose oral contraceptives that are no longer used. ...
Million Women Study
... for oral, transdermal and implanted HRT, and for continuous and sequential patterns of use. Current users of estrogen- ... Are breast cancers detected at screening in women who have used HRT or oral contraceptives different in terms of size and ... or between oral and transdermal (patch) administration. These results are equivalent to one extra case of ovarian cancer for ...
Major histocompatibility complex
... although with oral contraceptives, the women showed no particular preference. No studies show the extent to which odor ... The TCRs of T lymphocytes recognise only sequential epitopes, also called linear epitopes, of only peptides and only if coupled ... a preference reversed if the women were on oral contraceptives. Results of a 2002 experiment likewise suggest HLA-associated ...
Rates of conversion are 15% higher for women, with those taking oral contraceptives demonstrating 10% higher DHA levels. DHA is ... catalyzed by the sequential action of desaturase and elongase enzymes. A common pathway in these organisms involves: a ...
Oral megadoses of pre-formed vitamin A (retinyl palmitate), and retinoic acid itself, also have teratogenic potential by this ... Retinoic acid can be produced in the body by two sequential oxidation steps that convert retinol to retinaldehyde to retinoic ... Suppressing this enzyme has been proposed as a possible way to make a male contraceptive pill, because retinoic acid is ...
It may alter the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptive pills because of its effect on the gut flora. A review found that ... Pal S (2006). "A journey across the sequential development of macrolides and ketolides related to erythromycin". Tetrahedron. ... ketoconazole and erythromycin on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the components of a novel oral contraceptive containing ... "Erythromycin Oral, Parenteral Advanced Patient Information". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2009-11-30.. ...
Identified as one of the simple forms of oral literature by the Dutch linguist André Jolles [de], jokes are passed along ... In a study of conversation analysis, the sociologist Harvey Sacks describes in detail the sequential organisation in the ... Contraceptive pills were first approved for use in the United States in 1960. ... Identified as one of the "simple forms" of oral literature by André Jolles [de] in 1930, they have been collected and ...
... oral contraceptives and other estrogens, sympathomimetics, and thyroid hormones. Sulfonylureas tend to interact with a wide ... a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and trial sequential analysis". CMAJ Open. 2 (3): ... A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". PLoS Medicine. 13 (6): e1002091. doi:10.1371/ ...
It may also alter the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptive pills because of its effect on the gut flora. Erythromycin ... Pal S (2006). "A journey across the sequential development of macrolides and ketolides related to erythromycin". Tetrahedron. ... oral suspension, tablets) erythromycin stearate (oral suspension, tablets) For injection the available combinations are: ... Ray WA, Murray KT, Meredith S, Narasimhulu SS, Hall K, Stein CM (Sep 2004). "Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death ...
Dimethisterone: A synthetic progestational hormone without significant estrogenic or androgenic properties. It was formerly used as the progestational component in oral sequential contraceptives.
Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women. It is also used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women. The medication is used alone or in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of desogestrel include menstrual irregularities, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness, mood changes, acne, increased hair growth, and others. Desogestrel is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has very weak androgenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. The medication is a prodrug of etonogestrel in the body. Desogestrel was first described in 1975 and was introduced for medical use in Europe in 1981. It became available in the United States in 1992. Desogestrel is sometimes referred to as a "third-generation" progestin. Along with norethisterone, ...
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An individuals capacity central to metabolize desogestrel and rosiglitazone into active metabolites and is known to vary considerably because of genetic polymorphism resulting in phenotypical variability analysis of the cyp2d6 enzyme. Torrent - duloxetine is a small oval blue tablet containing 25mg duloxetine hydrochloride. Patients were allocated to receive desogestrel alone, adapalene alone or a combination of both therap
There is a well-documented reduction in endometrial cancer (EC) risk with combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy may affect breast cancer risk for decades, but this relationship has not been investigated in EC. We investigated the risk for EC with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Cases (n=524) from a population-based cancer registry and age-matched controls (n=1032) were recruited between 2002 and 2006 in Alberta, Canada. Participants completed an in-person interview and provided detailed information on exogenous hormone use and other risk factors. Risk reductions in EC with COC use over the premenopausal years were consistent with the published literature. We also found evidence of a long-term, significant risk reduction in parous women with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Among parous women, ≥5 years of COC use prior to a first full-term pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in risk (adjusted ...
Ethinylestradiol/Desogestrel 0.02 mg/0.15 mg and 0.03 mg/0.15 mg Teva, tablets. Because the drug substance is dissolved before the manufacture of.. Das Östrogen ist meistens Ethinylestradiol in. Norgestimat und Desogestrel sind lediglich. Die Dosis des Ethinylestradiols in der „ Pille" liegt.Will metronidazole gel affect birth control metformin for birth control desogestrel ethinyl estradiol mercilon. birth control pills containing ethinyl estradiol.ethinylestradiol 30mcg desogestrel 150 mcg Can you take levothyroxine with birth control levaquin effects birth control chances of multiple births clomid does abilify.Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel? Hier rezeptfrei bestellen! Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel?. 0,030 mg Ethinylestradiol.Desogestrel und Ethinylestradiol (EE) im Verhältnis 2,5: 1 bis zum 10 6 fachen der Humandosis waren nicht letal und führten zu keinerlei toxischen Effekten ...
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Cerazette tablets are a type of hormonal contraceptive commonly known as the mini pill or progestogen-only pill (POP). They contain the active ingredient desogestrel, which is a synthetic progestogen, similar to the natural progestogens produced by the body.
mircette, Mircette is a combination of female hormones used to prevent ovulation and pregnancy. , Womans Health , ethinyl, estradiol, desogestrel new-bestcare.com
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Cerazette tablets contain the active ingredient desogestrel, which is a synthetic progestogen, similar to the natural progestogens produced by the body
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The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is essential in muscle fibers for the establishment of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we show that LRP4 is also expressed by embryonic cortical and hippocampal neurons, and that downregulation of LRP4 in these neurons causes a reduction in density of synapses and number of primary dendrites. Accordingly, overexpression of LRP4 in cultured neurons had the opposite effect inducing more but shorter primary dendrites with an increased number of spines. Transsynaptic tracing mediated by rabies virus revealed a reduced number of neurons presynaptic to the cortical neurons in which LRP4 was knocked down. Moreover, neuron-specific knockdown of LRP4 by in utero electroporation of LRP4 miRNA in vivo also resulted in neurons with fewer primary dendrites and a lower density of spines in the developing cortex and hippocampus. Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential and novel role of neuronal LRP4 in dendritic development and ...
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Family Health International has recently initiated a USAID funded study to investigate the pregnancy rates, continuation rates, and acceptability of COCs in women taking COCs by the 21/7 cyclic regimen compared with the continuous use of COCs with bleeding-signaled hormone-free intervals. The primary objective is to determine whether continuous COC use leads to higher 12-month continuation rates than use of the standard 28-day COC regimen. Secondary objectives are to 1) compare pregnancy probabilities through 6 and 12 months between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 2) compare COC continuation rates through 6 months between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 3) compare acceptability of the two COC regimens 4) to compare bleeding and other side effects between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 5) to compare hemoglobin/hematocrit between the continuous use group and the 28-day ...
Follow all recommendations of your health care advisor. Take the first on the first day of your menses or on the first Sunday after your period started. If you use Mircette for the firs time you may need additional birth control means. There are 28-day birth control packs with seven reminder pills for the regular cycle. While you are using reminder pills the period usually begins. Breakthrough bleeding is possible, if it becomes heavy and continuous, inform your doctor. Take each pill each day about the same time. When your pill pack is over start a new one. In case of needed medical tests or surgery, it is possible that you may need to stop using Mircette for a short period of time ...
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DESOGEN® Tablets (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP) provides an oral contraceptive regimen of 21 white round tablets each containing 0.15 mg desogestrel (13-ethyl-11-methylene-18,19-dinor-17 alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-17-ol) and 0.03 mg ethinyl e
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Contraceptive Agents. Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential. ... Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Postcoital, ... Randomized Study to Investigate the Impact of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive (SH T00658ID) as Compared to a Sequential Oral ... Metabolism Study to Investigate the Impact of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive. The safety and scientific validity of this study ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00185224
October 1969 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 : Obstetrics & Gynecology
Effects of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive on Endocervical Carbohydrate Histochemistry. KELLETT, WILLIAM W.; HESTER, LAWRENCE L ... Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Alterations During Oral Contraceptive Administration. SACHS, BERNARD A.; WOLFMAN, LILA; HERZIG, ... Oral Progestins and Regression of Carcinoma In Situ and Cervical Dysplasia: A Cytologic Evaluation. AYRE, J ERNEST; REYNER, ...https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/toc/1969/10000
Pharmacodynamics of NPC-01/IKH-01; Effect of NPC-01/IKH-01 on Sexual Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Female Volunteers - Full...
Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal. Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential. To Top ... Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Contraceptive Agents, Female. Progestins. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01253824
Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug Information
C Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations. MeSH. Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential (3) • Drugs ... Contraceptive Effect (0) see Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral (42) • Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in ... Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic (28) • Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations. MeSH ... Contraceptives, Oral, Combined (17) • Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes. MeSH ...https://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories/c
Sequential Estrogen Replacement OR. *Oral Contraceptive. * Menopause * Continuous Estrogen Replacement (preferred) OR ... Preferred over sequential due to lower risk of Endometrial Hyperplasia. * Jaakkola (2009) Obstet Gynecol 114(6): 1197-1204 [ ...https://fpnotebook.com/mobile/Gyn/Pharm/EstrgnRplcmnt.htm
Particularly Hazardous Substances | Environmental Health & Safety | University of Nevada, Reno
Oral contraceptives (combined and sequential). Phenacetin contained in analgesic mixtures. β-Propiolactone ...https://www.unr.edu/ehs/policies-manuals/chemical-hygiene-plan/particularly-hazardous-substances
Estrone - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information
Oral contraceptives, combined. View. View. View. Drug. No. Yes. Related. 13. Oral contraceptives, sequential. View. View. View ... Progestogen-only contraceptives. View. View. View. Drug. No. Not Listed. Related. 1,2. Sodium Equilin Sulfate (under Conjugated ...http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC42200
Ethinylestradiol - toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information
Oral contraceptives, combined. View. View. View. Drug. No. Yes. Related. 13. Oral contraceptives, sequential. View. View. View ... Progestogen-only contraceptives. View. View. View. Drug. No. Not Listed. Related. 1,2. Sodium Equilin Sulfate (under Conjugated ...http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC42228
Dimethisterone Summary Report | CureHunter
It was formerly used as the progestational component in oral sequential contraceptives. ... 01/01/1980 - " Cases of endometrial cancer have been observed in women using sequential oral contraceptives, particularly ... It was formerly used as the progestational component in oral sequential contraceptives. ... Silverberg and Makowski reported several cases of endometrial carcinoma associated with the use of the sequential OC Oracon, a ...http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD004116-Dimethisterone.do
Primary amenorrhoea with hypertension: undiagnosed 17-α-hydroxylase deficiency | The Medical Journal of Australia
Replacement consists of sequential oestrogen followed by medroxyprogesterone, or the oral contraceptive pill. Low-dose ... In addition to bruising consistent with her injury, she had hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and axillary areas (Box 1). ...https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2013/199/8/primary-amenorrhoea-hypertension-undiagnosed-17-hydroxylase-deficiency
Efficacy and the Tolerability of the Sequential Application of Two Marketed Products in Patients With Acne Vulgaris - Full Text...
Use of hormonal oral contraceptives for acne control for less than 6 months prior to the randomisation. ... Efficacy and the Tolerability of the Sequential Application of Two Marketed Products in Patients With Acne Vulgaris. The safety ... The aim of this proof of principle study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of the sequential application of two marketed ... Exploratory Study Evaluating the Efficacy and the Tolerability of the Sequential Application of Two Marketed Products in ...https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01461655?term=acne+AND+almost+AND+facial&rank=64
US5976570A - Method for preparing low dose pharmaceutical products - Google Patents
Modified sequential oral contraceptive US4544554A (en) * 1983-09-26. 1985-10-01. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation. Triphasic ... Modified sequential oral contraceptive US4544554A (en) * 1983-09-26. 1985-10-01. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation. Triphasic ... Pharmaceutical suspension for oral administration US6962908B2 (en) 2001-12-21. 2005-11-08. Warner Chilcott Company Inc.. Oral ... oral contraceptive EP0179703A1 (en) * 1984-10-03. 1986-04-30. Roquette Frères. Granular mannitol for direct compression and ...https://patents.google.com/patent/US5976570A/en
A Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Lapatinib plus Chemotherapy (Sequential FEC75 and Paclitaxel) in Women with Inflammatory Breast...
13) Any intrauterine device (IUD) with a documented failure rate of less than 1% per year; oral contraceptives (either combined ... 8) Are able to swallow and retain oral medication (intact pill).. 9) Are able to complete all screening assessments as outlined ... A Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Lapatinib plus Chemotherapy (Sequential FEC75 and Paclitaxel) in Women with Inflammatory Breast ...https://www.mdanderson.org/patients-family/diagnosis-treatment/clinical-trials/clinical-trials-index/clinical-trials-detail.ID2007-0818.html
Migraine and the Pill | Springer for Research & Development
In recent years the use of the oral contraceptive preparations has provoked a considerable amount of discussion in the medical ... Goldzieher, J. W., Becerra, C., Gual, C. et al. (1964). New oral contraceptive sequential estrogen and progestin. Amer. J. ... Combined Oral Contraceptives. A Statement by the Committee on Safety of Drugs (1970). Brit. med. J. 2, 231.CrossRefGoogle ... Mears, E. and Grant, E. C. G. (1962). "Anovlar" as an oral contraceptive. Brit. med. J. 2, 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4577-1_7
Effects of Gonadal Hormones and Contraceptive Steroids on Glucose and Insulin Metabolism | SpringerLink
Pyorala, K., Pyorala, T., and Lempinen, V.: Sequential oral contraceptive treatment and intravenous glucose tolerance. The ... Wynn, V., Doar, J.W.H., and Mills, G.L.: Some effects of oral contraceptives on serum-lipid and lipoprotein levels. The Lancet ... Spellacy, W.N., Buhi, W.C., Moses, L.C., and Goldzieher, J.W.: Carbohydrate studies in long-term users of oral contraceptives. ... di Paola, G., Pucholo, F., Robin, M., Nicholson, R., and Marti, M.: Oral contraceptives and carbohydrate metabolism. Am. J. Ob ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4684-1782-1_9
WikiGenes - Estinyl - (8S,9S,13S,14S,17S)-17-ethynyl-13-methyl-7...
Lower esophageal sphincter pressure in women using sequential oral contraceptives. Van Thiel, D.H., Gavaler, J.S., Stremple, J ... Effects of oral contraceptive and estrogen administration on plasma calcitonin in pre- and postmenopausal women. Hurley, D.L., ... Effects of an oral contraceptive (norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol) on bone mineral density in adolescent females with anorexia ... Low-dose oral contraceptives: protective effect on ovarian cancer risk. Royar, J., Becher, H., Chang-Claude, J. Int. J. Cancer ...https://www.wikigenes.org/e/chem/e/5991.html
Oral Contraceptive Use During the Menopausal Years - American Family Physician
... particularly low-dose oral contraceptives, during the perimenopausal years. Use of low-dose oral contraceptive pills in women ... This article discusses potential risks of oral contraceptive use in this age group, as well as recommendations about when and ... Other noncontraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptives include a reduction in bone loss and protection against iron ... how to change from contraceptive therapy to postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. ...https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1373.html
TNO Repository search for: subject:'apoprotein'
Contraceptives, Oral · Contraceptives, Oral, Combined · Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential · Ethinyl Estradiol · Ethinyl ... Contraceptives, Oral; Contraceptives, Oral, Combined; Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential; Ethinyl Estradiol, 57-63-6; Ethinyl ... Effect of low-dose oral contraceptives on lipoproteins and lipolytic enzymes : Differences between two commonly used ... oral contraceptive agent · drug comparison · drug metabolism · endocrine system · female genital system · human experiment · ...https://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject:%22apoprotein%22
Carcinogens everyday toxins, foods, houses, petroleum, Carcinogens in your house
Combined oral contraceptives and sequential oral contraceptives. Steroidal oestrogens (not all in group). Painter (occupational ...https://www.curezone.org/diseases/toxins/carcinogens.html
Oral contraceptive use is associated with prostate cancer: an ecological study | BMJ Open
Increased endogenous estrogen synthesis leads to the sequential induction of prostatic inflammation (prostatitis) and prostatic ... The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) has exploded over the past 40 years and has had a patchy uptake in terms of global ... Oral contraceptive use is associated with prostate cancer: an ecological study. BMJ Open 2011;1:e000311. doi:10.1136/bmjopen- ... Breast cancer among young U.S. women in relation to oral contraceptive use. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:505-14. ...http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/1/2/e000311
Contraceptives, oral | definition of Contraceptives, oral by Medical dictionary
What is Contraceptives, oral? Meaning of Contraceptives, oral medical term. What does Contraceptives, oral mean? ... oral in the Medical Dictionary? Contraceptives, oral explanation free. ... Gynecology A preparation of synthetic hormones intended to make a ♀ inconceivable by inhibiting ovulation OC formats Sequential ... Contraceptives, Monophase contraceptive, Third-generation contraceptive, Triphasic contraceptive. Oral contraceptives, ...https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Contraceptives%2C+oral
Abbreviations that start with S - AskDocWeb.com
SOC is an acronym for sequential oral contraceptive. SOC is an acronym for Standard Occupational Classification. SOC is an ... SMA is an acronym for sequential multichannel autoanalyzer. SMA is an acronym for sequential multiple analysis. SMA is an ... SORA is an acronym for Summary Oral Reflective Analysis. SP is an abbreviation of species. sp. is an abbreviation of spiritus. ... SCD is an acronym for sequential compression device. SCD is an acronym for service-connected disability. SCD is an acronym for ...https://www.askdocweb.com/abbreviations-s/
Hormonal Steroid Contraceptives: A Further Review of Adverse Reactions
A positive association of sequential oral contraceptives and adenocarcinoma of the endometrium has been suggested. However, a ... The possibility that oral contraceptives may be associated with other types of neoplasia remains under close scrutiny. ... In the light of the data now available it has become increasingly necessary for oral contraceptive therapy to be under regular ... The oestrogenicity of an oral contraceptive seems to determine its propensity to induce thromboembolic disease and this may be ...https://insights.ovid.com/drugs/197816040/00003495-197816040-00003
Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk
... women who had used sequential oral contraceptives (estrogen and progestin components taken at different times of the month) ... Accurate histories of oral contraceptive use were facilitated by a book containing photographs of all oral contraceptives ever ... There was no evidence that long-term oral contraceptive use of more than 10 years or oral contraceptive use that began 16 or ... longer a woman had used oral contraceptives, the lower her risk of developing ovarian cancer. The protective effect of oral ...https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001216.htm
- however, Silverberg and Makowski reported several cases of endometrial carcinoma associated with the use of the sequential OC Oracon, a product containing dimethisterone. (curehunter.com)
- Relation between headaches from oral contraceptives and development of endometrial arterioles. (springer.com)
- Effect of oral contraceptives on depressive mood changes and on endometrial monoamine oxidase and phosphatases. (springer.com)
- Other noncontraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptives include a reduction in bone loss and protection against iron deficiency anemia, dysmenorrhea, benign breast disease, endometrial cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer. (aafp.org)
- Another benefit of low-dose oral contraceptive use during the perimenopausal years is a reduction in the risk of endometrial cancer. (aafp.org)
- Several studies indicate that oral contraceptives protect against endometrial cancer in a duration-dependent manner. (aafp.org)
- The CASH study reported that after 12 to 23 months of oral contraceptive use, the age-adjusted risk of developing endometrial cancer was 40 percent less than the risk in women who have never used oral contraceptives. (aafp.org)
- An initial analysis of an ongoing, multicenter case-control study indicates that women who have used oral contraceptives are approximately half as likely to develop ovarian and endometrial cancer as women who have never used them and that, despite previous concerns, contraceptive use does not appear to increase a woman's risk of breast cancer. (cdc.gov)
- By contrast, women who had used sequential oral contraceptives (estrogen and progestin components taken at different times of the month) appeared to have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. (cdc.gov)
- The protective effects of combined oral contraceptives against endometrial cancer appeared to be restricted to women who had used them for 1 year or longer and was concentrated in nulliparous women. (cdc.gov)
- This invention relates to a new method for preparing solid pharmaceutical compositions for oral administration of low-dose medications whose active ingredients have steroidal or steroid-like structures. (google.com)
- Thromboembolic disease and the steroidal content of oral contraceptives. (springer.com)
- Recent studies have indicated that the risk of developing ovarian cancer is reduced in women who have used oral contraceptives compared with women who have never used them. (aafp.org)
- 8 The largest investigation to date, the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study (CASH), showed a decrease averaging 40 percent in the development of ovarian cancer in women who had taken oral contraceptives. (aafp.org)
- For example, use of oral contraceptives for seven years or longer confers about a 60 to 80 percent reduction in the risk of developing ovarian cancer. (aafp.org)
- The relative risk of ovarian cancer for women who had used oral contraceptives for at least 1 month, as compared with women who had never used them, was 0.6 (95% confidence limits 0.4-0.9). (cdc.gov)
- The longer a woman had used oral contraceptives, the lower her risk of developing ovarian cancer. (cdc.gov)
- 9 A protective effect has been observed with as little as three to six months of oral contraceptive use, with further decreases in risk seen with longer periods of use. (aafp.org)
- However, a negative association of oral contraceptives with breast cancer incidence seems to suggest some sort of protective effect. (ovid.com)
- The protective effect of oral contraceptive use persisted more than 10 years after pill use was discontinued. (cdc.gov)
- In recent years the use of the oral contraceptive preparations has provoked a considerable amount of discussion in the medical literature along with a vigorous reaction in the lay Press. (springer.com)
- Various side effects have been described and these have been in the main attributed to the oestrogen content of these preparations and, in particular, an increase in the incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolism in women taking oral contraceptives. (springer.com)
- Changes in circulating lipoproteins, which may be related to the risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease, were studied in a control group and in two groups of 24 or 26 women using different preparations of low-dose oral contraceptives for 3 months. (tudelft.nl)
- Objectives To examine associations between PCa incidence and mortality and population-based use of oral contraceptives (OCs). (bmj.com)
- All other forms of contraceptives (ie, intra-uterine devices, condoms or vaginal barriers) were not correlated with prostate cancer incidence or mortality. (bmj.com)
- Associations between PCa incidence and mortality and population-based use of oral contraceptives (OCs) have been examined. (bmj.com)
- This Phase I, open-label, sequential, single-center study evaluates the pharmacokinetics of digoxin when coadministered with albiglutide in healthy adult subjects. (bioportfolio.com)
- This study will be an open-label study to evaluate the effect of albiglutide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a standard oral contraceptive regimen (Brevicon). (bioportfolio.com)