Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Absence of menstruation.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The unmarried man or woman.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Painful menstruation.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Size and composition of the family.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

The effects of different formulations of oral contraceptive agents on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. (1/5)

BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives can induce changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism similar to those associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, including increased serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and insulin levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In this study, we examined whether modification of the type or dose of progestin in oral-contraceptive preparations diminishes these changes. METHODS: We measured plasma lipoprotein levels and performed oral glucose-tolerance tests in a cross section of 1060 women who took one of nine types of oral contraceptives for at least three months and 418 women who took none. Seven of the contraceptive formulations contained various doses and types of progestin: levonorgestrel in low (150 micrograms), high (250 micrograms), and triphasic (50 to 125 micrograms) doses; norethindrone in low (500 micrograms), high (1000 micrograms), and triphasic (500 to 1000 micrograms) doses; and a new progestin, desogestrel, in one dose (150 micrograms). All seven contained 30 to 40 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol. Two additional formulations contained progestin alone. RESULTS: As compared with controls, women taking combination drugs did not have increased serum total cholesterol levels but did have increases of 13 to 75 percent in fasting triglyceride levels. Levels of LDL cholesterol were reduced by 14 percent in women taking the combination containing desogestrel and by 12 percent in those taking low-dose norethindrone. Levels of HDL cholesterol were lowered by 5 percent and 16 percent by the combinations containing low-dose and high-dose levonorgestrel, respectively; these decreases were due to reductions of 29 percent and 43 percent, respectively, in the levels of HDL subclass 2. The combination pill containing high-dose norethindrone did not affect HDL cholesterol levels, whereas that containing low-dose norethindrone increased HDL cholesterol levels by 10 percent. The desogestrel combination increased HDL cholesterol levels by 12 percent. Levels of apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and B were generally increased by combination drugs. Depending on the dose and type of progestin, combination drugs were associated with plasma glucose levels on the glucose-tolerance test that were 43 to 61 percent higher than in controls, insulin responses 12 to 40 percent higher, and C-peptide responses 18 to 45 percent higher. Progestin-only formulations had only minor metabolic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The appropriate dose and type of progestin may reduce the adverse effects of oral contraceptives on many metabolic markers of risk for coronary heart disease. Progestin-only formulations or combinations containing desogestrel or low-dose norethindrone were associated wtih the most favorable profiles.  (+info)

Types of combined oral contraceptives used by US women. (2/5)


The epidemiology of endometrial cancer in young women. (3/5)

A case-control study was conducted in Los Angeles County, California, of 127 endometrial cancer cases aged 45 years or less at diagnosis, to investigate the role of fertility, obesity and exogenous oestrogens in the development of the disease in young women. Use of sequential oral contraceptive (SOCs) or oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for greater than or equal to 2 years was strongly associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. After excluding these cases, since the SOC or ERT use was probably the cause of their disease, we were left with 110 case-control pairs for further study. Among these remaining case-control pairs increasing parity was strongly associated with decreased risk (relative risk of 0.12 for women of parity 3 compared to nulliparous women, P less than 0.001). Current weight was associated with increased risk (relative risk of 17.7 for women weighing greater than or equal to 190 lbs compared to women weighing less than 130 lbs, P less than 0.001). Combination oral contraceptive (COC) use was associated with a decreased risk, which decreased with duration of COC use (relative risk of approximately 0.28 at 5 years of use, P less than 0.001), but the estimate of the protective effect was reduced and became statistically non-significant when allowance was made for weight and parity. The protective effect of COC use was only clearly evident in women who had less than 3 live-births and weighed less than 170 lbs. These results provide further support for the "unopposed" oestrogen hypothesis of the aetiology of endometrial cancer.  (+info)

The effect of kind of carbohydrate in the diet and use of oral contraceptives on metabolism of young women. II. Serum lipid levels. (4/5)

The response of lipids in the blood between two groups of six young women was compared. Group 1 took oral contraceptives and group 2 had never taken oral contraceptives. Two experimental diets supplied about 13% of the calories from protein, 36% from fat, and 51% from carbohydrate. Of the carbohydrate, 84% was either sucrose or wheat starch. Each diet was fed for 4 weeks in a cross-over design. In the portion of the research presented here, subjects were fed a high sucrose meal before each dietary period and after weeks 1 and 3 of each dietary period. Blood lipids were measured before and 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after each meal. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were not affected by the sucrose meal, but free fatty acid levels decreased significantly in both groups. The serum levels of triglycerides, beta-lipoproteins, and cholesterol were significantly higher in users than in nonusers of oral contraceptives. Free fatty acid levels were affected by an interaction between diet and time, and the decrease in response was greater after the sucrose than after the wheat starch diet. Triglycerides, cholesterol, and total lipids were not significantly different after the two carbohydrate diets.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo metabolism of desogestrel in several species. (5/5)

The metabolism of desogestrel (13-ethyl-11-methylene-18, 19-dinor-17alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-17-ol), an orally active progestogen, was studied in vivo after administration of single oral doses to rats and dogs and in vitro using rat, rabbit, dog, and human liver microsomes. Metabolites were isolated and identified by NMR and MS analysis. After oral administration of [3H]desogestrel to rats and dogs, desogestrel was extensively metabolized in both species. Radioactivity was predominantly eliminated in the feces. In rats, desogestrel was metabolized mainly at the C3-, C5-, C11-, and C15-positions. Both in vivo and in vitro, the majority of metabolites were 3alpha-hydroxy,4,5alpha-dihydro derivatives. Other main metabolic routes for desogestrel in rats were 15alpha-hydroxylation and epoxidation of the C11-methylene moiety. In addition to phase I metabolites, glucuronic acid and sulfate conjugates of desogestrel were observed in vivo. In dogs, desogestrel was mainly metabolized at the C3- and C17-positions. In contrast to the rat metabolites, metabolites isolated from dog urine or feces were mainly 3beta-hydroxy,4,5alpha-dihydro derivatives. In most of the metabolites present in dog urine and feces, the five-membered D-ring was expanded to a six-membered D-ring, i.e. D-homoannulation to a 17A-keto-D-homo ring. D-Homo metabolites, which were major metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces of dogs, were not observed in vitro. In dog liver microsomes, the 3-keto metabolite of desogestrel was the major metabolite. Similarly to dog liver microsomes, rabbit and human liver microsomes mainly converted desogestrel to its 3-keto metabolite. Predominant positions for further hydroxylation of the 3-keto metabolite of desogestrel were the C6-position (6beta-hydroxy) and the ethyl substituent at the C13-position, for both species.  (+info)

Dimethisterone: A synthetic progestational hormone without significant estrogenic or androgenic properties. It was formerly used as the progestational component in oral sequential contraceptives.
Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women. It is also used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women. The medication is used alone or in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of desogestrel include menstrual irregularities, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness, mood changes, acne, increased hair growth, and others. Desogestrel is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has very weak androgenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. The medication is a prodrug of etonogestrel in the body. Desogestrel was first described in 1975 and was introduced for medical use in Europe in 1981. It became available in the United States in 1992. Desogestrel is sometimes referred to as a third-generation progestin. Along with norethisterone, ...
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An individuals capacity central to metabolize desogestrel and rosiglitazone into active metabolites and is known to vary considerably because of genetic polymorphism resulting in phenotypical variability analysis of the cyp2d6 enzyme. Torrent - duloxetine is a small oval blue tablet containing 25mg duloxetine hydrochloride. Patients were allocated to receive desogestrel alone, adapalene alone or a combination of both therap
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There is a well-documented reduction in endometrial cancer (EC) risk with combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy may affect breast cancer risk for decades, but this relationship has not been investigated in EC. We investigated the risk for EC with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Cases (n=524) from a population-based cancer registry and age-matched controls (n=1032) were recruited between 2002 and 2006 in Alberta, Canada. Participants completed an in-person interview and provided detailed information on exogenous hormone use and other risk factors. Risk reductions in EC with COC use over the premenopausal years were consistent with the published literature. We also found evidence of a long-term, significant risk reduction in parous women with COC use prior to the first full-term pregnancy. Among parous women, ≥5 years of COC use prior to a first full-term pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in risk (adjusted ...
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These reports investigated the association between new continuous or extended combined oral contraceptive (COC) use and venous thromboembolism (VTE), with new cyclic COC use as the comparison exposure. These reports also contain results from six sensitivity analyses with varying exposure incidence criteria, stroke definitions, follow-up periods, or exposure groups. Data from May 22, 2007 to September 30, 2015 from 12 Data Partners contributing to the Sentinel Distributed Database were included in this report. This request was distributed to Data Partners on March 28, 2017 ...
Cerazette tablets are a type of hormonal contraceptive commonly known as the mini pill or progestogen-only pill (POP). They contain the active ingredient desogestrel, which is a synthetic progestogen, similar to the natural progestogens produced by the body.
mircette, Mircette is a combination of female hormones used to prevent ovulation and pregnancy. , Womans Health , ethinyl, estradiol, desogestrel
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The company itself are determined that it specifically had manufactured batches of what troops the fda called it super potent infants Velivet triphasic regimen with up reply to 23 percent more desogestrel than was supposed rival to be in conning it. For now, except in Oregon and Mississippi if you can buy the old formulation of Mirvala 21 or simply generic desogestrel by stopping by a dispensing pharmacy, showing your. ...
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Cerazette tablets contain the active ingredient desogestrel, which is a synthetic progestogen, similar to the natural progestogens produced by the body
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The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is essential in muscle fibers for the establishment of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we show that LRP4 is also expressed by embryonic cortical and hippocampal neurons, and that downregulation of LRP4 in these neurons causes a reduction in density of synapses and number of primary dendrites. Accordingly, overexpression of LRP4 in cultured neurons had the opposite effect inducing more but shorter primary dendrites with an increased number of spines. Transsynaptic tracing mediated by rabies virus revealed a reduced number of neurons presynaptic to the cortical neurons in which LRP4 was knocked down. Moreover, neuron-specific knockdown of LRP4 by in utero electroporation of LRP4 miRNA in vivo also resulted in neurons with fewer primary dendrites and a lower density of spines in the developing cortex and hippocampus. Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential and novel role of neuronal LRP4 in dendritic development and ...
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Family Health International has recently initiated a USAID funded study to investigate the pregnancy rates, continuation rates, and acceptability of COCs in women taking COCs by the 21/7 cyclic regimen compared with the continuous use of COCs with bleeding-signaled hormone-free intervals. The primary objective is to determine whether continuous COC use leads to higher 12-month continuation rates than use of the standard 28-day COC regimen. Secondary objectives are to 1) compare pregnancy probabilities through 6 and 12 months between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 2) compare COC continuation rates through 6 months between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 3) compare acceptability of the two COC regimens 4) to compare bleeding and other side effects between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 5) to compare hemoglobin/hematocrit between the continuous use group and the 28-day ...
Follow all recommendations of your health care advisor. Take the first on the first day of your menses or on the first Sunday after your period started. If you use Mircette for the firs time you may need additional birth control means. There are 28-day birth control packs with seven reminder pills for the regular cycle. While you are using reminder pills the period usually begins. Breakthrough bleeding is possible, if it becomes heavy and continuous, inform your doctor. Take each pill each day about the same time. When your pill pack is over start a new one. In case of needed medical tests or surgery, it is possible that you may need to stop using Mircette for a short period of time ...
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Aygestin is a hormone used in treatment of endometriosis, amenorrhea, and abnormal uterine bleeding caused by hormonal imbalance.
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DESOGEN® Tablets (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP) provides an oral contraceptive regimen of 21 white round tablets each containing 0.15 mg desogestrel (13-ethyl-11-methylene-18,19-dinor-17 alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-17-ol) and 0.03 mg ethinyl e
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He was especially known for his work in the development of the sequential oral contraceptive pill and the oral fertility pill. ... a monthly oral contraceptive pill, an accomplishment for which MCG received national attention. His group's discovery in 1961 ... Greenblatt, R. (1967). One-Pill-A-Month Contraceptive. Fertility and Sterility, 18, 207. Greenblatt, R., & Mahesh, V. (1965). ...
The risk associated with the use of other sequential oral contraceptives remains unclear, mainly because these drugs are no ... It was introduced in the United States as an oral contraceptive in combination with high doses of ethinylestradiol under the ... Secrosteron a new oral progestational substance British Drug Houses (South Africa) (Pty.) Ltd., announce the introduction of ... It is the purpose of this paper to introduce and describe a new steroid for oral administration, 17-a-hydroxyprogesterone ...
... "sequential oral contraceptives which were removed from the consumer market in the 1970s was associated with an increased risk ... Oral contraceptives are not the only contraceptive that causes effects to mood level changes, implants do also. Studies show, ... The original hormonal method-the combined oral contraceptive pill-was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. In the ensuing ... an oral progestin; off-label use of combined oral contraceptives (Yuzpe regimen); and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). ...
... or by sustained use of oral contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the secretion of the ... Sequential dosing and discontinuation of the COCP can mimic the uterine cycle and produce bleeding that resembles a period. In ... Hormonal contraception that contains estrogen, such as combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs), stop the development of the ... Polis CB, Hussain R, Berry A (June 2018). "There might be blood: a scoping review on women's responses to contraceptive-induced ...
... contraceptives, oral, hormonal MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.400 - contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.696.875. ... contraceptives, oral, hormonal MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.400 - contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.954.705. ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.100 - contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.277 ... contraceptives, oral MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.100 - contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.277 ...
It was the first sequential contraceptive pill to be introduced in the U.S. CMA has also been marketed in combination with ... In the 1960s, CMA was introduced as a component of oral contraceptives. However, around 1970, such formulations were withdrawn ... Edgren RA, Sturtevant FM (August 1976). "Potencies of oral contraceptives". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 125 (8): 1029-38. doi: ... Bingel AS, Benoit PS (February 1973). "Oral contraceptives: therapeutics versus adverse reactions, with an outlook for the ...
Besides oral contraceptives, other forms of combined hormonal contraception include contraceptive patches, contraceptive ... sequential estrogen-progestogen treatment (OR = 1.76) is associated with a lower risk increase than continuous treatment (OR = ... high doses of ethinylestradiol are no longer used in combined oral contraceptives, and all modern combined oral contraceptives ... Ethinylestradiol is generally used in oral contraceptives instead of estradiol because it has superior oral pharmacokinetics ( ...
... for oral, transdermal and implanted HRT, and for continuous and sequential patterns of use. Current users of estrogen- ... Are breast cancers detected at screening in women who have used HRT or oral contraceptives different in terms of size and ... or between oral and transdermal (patch) administration. These results are equivalent to one extra case of ovarian cancer for ...
... although with oral contraceptives, the women showed no particular preference. No studies show the extent to which odor ... The TCRs of T lymphocytes recognise only sequential epitopes, also called linear epitopes, of only peptides and only if coupled ... a preference reversed if the women were on oral contraceptives. In 2005 in a group of 58 subjects, women were more indecisive ...
Oral megadoses of preformed vitamin A (retinyl palmitate), and all-trans-retinoic acid itself, also have teratogenic potential ... All-trans-retinoic acid can be produced in the body by two sequential oxidation steps that convert all-trans-retinol to ... Suppressing this enzyme has been proposed as a possible way to make a male contraceptive pill, because retinoic acid is ...
Hirvonen E, Allonen H, Anttila M, Kulmala Y, Ranta T, Rautiainen H, Sipilä P, Ylöstalo P (January 1995). "Oral contraceptive ... A way to avoid the heavy progestogen overdosage inherent with the high-dose reverse sequential therapy would be to combine the ... Rabe T, Kowald A, Ortmann J, Rehberger-Schneider S (August 2000). "Inhibition of skin 5 alpha-reductase by oral contraceptive ... Wang C, Yeung KK (March 1980). "Use of low-dosage oral cyproterone acetate as a male contraceptive". Contraception. 21 (3): 245 ...
... approved the use of the oral contraceptive, developed by Rock and Pincus. This female-controlled contraceptive method, known as ... In collaboration with Marshall Bartlett, Rock conducted research on the schedule of ovulation and the sequential stages of the ... This center was known to focus on fertility, sterility, and the development of the oral contraceptives, now known as the birth ... ISBN 0-316-56095-2. Junod SW, Marks L (2002). "Women's trials: the approval of the first oral contraceptive pill in the United ...
Early studies on its use as an oral contraceptive showed that, at 300 mg/day (5th to 25th day of the menstrual cycle), ... "Relationship between allopregnanolone and negative mood in postmenopausal women taking sequential hormone replacement therapy ... The ovulation-inhibiting (i.e., contraceptive) dosage of oral crystalline (non-micronized) progesterone in women is 300 mg/day ... The efficacy of progesterone as an oral contraceptive was never fully tested, because synthetic progestational agents, which ...
It may alter the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptive pills because of its effect on the gut flora. A review found that ... Pal S (2006). "A journey across the sequential development of macrolides and ketolides related to erythromycin". Tetrahedron. ... ketoconazole and erythromycin on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the components of a novel oral contraceptive containing ... oral suspension, tablets) erythromycin stearate (oral suspension, tablets) For injection, the available combinations are: ...
Even after [...] Harry W. Rudel; Fred A. Kinel (September 1972). "Oral Contraceptives. Human Fertility Studies and Side Effects ... OHPA (100 mg) was reportedly marketed in combination with mestranol (80 μg) as a sequential combined birth control pill under ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... OHPA was found to possess two to three times the oral activity of 17α-methylprogesterone. Upjohn reported the oral activity of ...
... oral contraceptives and other estrogens, sympathomimetics, and thyroid hormones. Sulfonylureas tend to interact with a wide ... a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and trial sequential analysis". CMAJ Open. 2 (3): ... A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". PLOS Medicine. 13 (6): e1002091. doi:10.1371/ ...
It is not required to be verbatim text like other forms of oral literature such as riddles and proverbs. The teller can and ... One of these studies has already been discussed above, where Harvey Sacks describes in detail the sequential organisation in ... Contraceptive pills were first approved for use in the United States in 1960. Our focus here is with the contemporary state of ... As for its being "oral," it is true that jokes may appear printed, but when further transferred, there is no obligation to ...
"Oral contraceptives and liver cancer. Results of the Multicentre International Liver Tumor Study (MILTS)". Contraception. 56 (5 ... "Toxic hepatitis after sequential administration of flutamide and cyproterone acetate". Dig. Dis. Sci. 49 (3): 462-5. doi: ... 8.2% for 3 mg/day oral diethylstilbestrol (n = 114) (EORTC Trial 30761); and 4.5% for 300 mg/day oral CPA (n = 130) vs. 0% for ... "Effects of seven low-dose combined oral contraceptives on sex hormone binding globulin, corticosteroid binding globulin, total ...
All the oral preparations were used in doses 5 to 12 fold that used in the female oral contraceptive. The only exception was ... progestogens have been moved down in the sequential therapy of the disease. Megestrol acetate is the only Food and Drug ... Composition of Oral and Injectable Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives". Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and ... including combined estrogen and progestogen forms like combined oral contraceptive pills, combined contraceptive patches, ...
Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... It is used in menopausal hormone therapy under the brand name Climen, which is a sequential preparation that contains 2 mg ... Beylot C, Doutre MS, Beylot-Barry M (1998). "Oral contraceptives and cyproterone acetate in female acne treatment". Dermatology ... Fruzzetti F, Bitzer J (2010). "Review of clinical experience with estradiol in combined oral contraceptives". Contraception. 81 ...
Superovulation is common in women who take medications such as clomiphene citrate, an anti-estrogenic oral medication used to ... GnSAF could form part of a contraceptive drug or in treatments for infertility that target LH hypersecretion or abnormal ... "Endogenous Luteinizing Hormone Surge during Superovulation Induction with Sequential Use of Clomiphene Citrate and Pulsatile ...
It is spread by transfer from the oral/nasal secretions of an infected individual to the oral cavity of an uninfected ... intrauterine contraceptive devices, metallic implants, surgical mesh), skin ulcers, and venous ulcers. Signs and symptoms of ... in Japan suggest that patients diagnosed with CAEBV be treated early in their disease with an intensive three-step sequential ... Once in the oral cavity, the virus invades, reproduces in, establishes its lytic phase in, and lyses (i.e. bursts open) ...
All were using and had used for periods of 4-12 years a sequential oral contraceptive, Oracon, manufactured by Mead Johnson ... The development of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in young women receiving long-term sequential oral contraception Am J ... Doctors with patients on similar sequential contraceptives should watch for abnormal vaginal bleeding. ... Contraceptives, Oral / adverse effects* * Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential / adverse effects* * Dimethisterone / adverse ...
Oral contraceptives, combined - Toxicity: cancer. *Oral contraceptives, sequential - Toxicity: cancer. *Oryzalin - 19044-88-3 ...
Van Thiel DH, Gavaler JS, Stremple J. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure in women using sequential oral contraceptives . ... Van Thiel DH, Gavaler JS, Stremple J. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure in women using sequential oral contraceptives . ... Van Thiel DH, Gavaler JS, Stremple J. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure in women using sequential oral contraceptives . ...
... women who had used sequential oral contraceptives (estrogen and progestin components taken at different times of the month) ... Accurate histories of oral contraceptive use were facilitated by a book containing photographs of all oral contraceptives ever ... There was no evidence that long-term oral contraceptive use of more than 10 years or oral contraceptive use that began 16 or ... longer a woman had used oral contraceptives, the lower her risk of developing ovarian cancer. The protective effect of oral ...
Blood Pressure, smoking and oral contraceptive control after cryptogenic stroke in young adults in the PFO-ASA Study. ... They were selected by a sequential sampling method during the study period. Women were eligible for the present study if they ... We asked about recent use of contraceptives and type of contraceptive used before the diagnosis of their disorder. Age was ... in the US, the rate of contraceptive non-use was 25.8% in diabetic women [10]. In another study of diabetic women, the rate of ...
Oral Contraceptive Agents, Sequential. Oral Contraceptives, Sequential. Sequential Oral Contraceptive Agents. Sequential Oral ... Contraceptive Agents, Female Sequential. Contraceptive Agents, Oral, Sequential. Contraceptives, Sequential Oral. ... Contraceptive, Combined Oral. Contraceptives, Combined Oral. Oral Contraceptive, Combined. Oral Contraceptives, Combined. ... Contraceptives, Oral, Combined Entry term(s):. Combined Oral Contraceptive. Combined Oral Contraceptives. Contraceptive Agents ...
1 Contraceptives, Oral, Combined --.... *1 Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal --.... *1 Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential ... ... Enhanced platelet aggregation by oral contraceptives: effect of PG synthetase inhibitors.. Sudhir, S; Gupta, L C; Singh, J; ...
Gastrointestinal reactions when oral contraceptives ocs are inflamed, valid from patients. From the emergency department. ... Online of hd should use a sequential therapy. Error s, within a polar plasma. Critically important information and efficacy of ... Helps to oral healthcare provider at regular intervals. Relative abundance from pneumonia: verify here. Committee on this is ... S every pregnancy oral controlled-release amoxicillin was performed. Estradiol; it can significantly after trying yogurt and ...
Contraceptives, oral, sequential forms of hormonal contraception (a period of oestrogen-only followed by a period of both ... Contraceptives, hormonal, combined forms (those containing both oestrogen and a progestogen). 61. ...
35] Oral contraceptives also increase hepatic synthesis of sex hormone-binding globulin, resulting in an overall decrease in ... Sequential antibiotic therapy for acne promotes the carriage of resistant staphylococci on the skin of contacts. J Antimicrob ... Treatment of acne with oral contraceptives: criteria for pill selection. Cutis. 2000 Oct. 66(4):281-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... 35] Dysmenorrhea may be lessened by coadministration with an oral contraceptive. In two 2017 retrospective studies, ...
Treatment of acne with oral contraceptives: criteria for pill selection. Cutis. 2000 Oct. 66(4):281-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Sequential antibiotic therapy for acne promotes the carriage of resistant staphylococci on the skin of contacts. J Antimicrob ... Once-Daily Oral Sarecycline 1.5 mg/kg/day Is Effective for Moderate to Severe Acne Vulgaris: Results from Two Identically ... Oral trimethoprim as a third-line antibiotic in the management of acne vulgaris. Dermatology. 1993. 187(3):193-6. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
This packaging error has disrupted the daily regimen required for the oral contraceptive to work. Its not known how many ... The pills need to remain in sequential order to maintain the daily regimen. ... Safety, dependability, and ease of use are what most women look for in a contraceptive. However, numerous lawsuits have been ... Safety of NuvaRing and other Contraceptives in Question by Robert J. Fleming. ...
Volume/sequential designation. no. 428. 500 ## - GENERAL NOTE. General note. Translation of: Oral contraceptives : technical ...
... oral contraceptives, double-barrier methods such as a condom and a diaphragm, intrauterine device) during the study and for 4 ... If female, is postmenopausal (at least 12 sequential months of amenorrhea) or surgically sterile. Females of childbearing ...
2 subjects were taking a daily low-dose oral contraceptive and several patients were taking over-the-counter vitamins). The ... The sequential liquid and solid studies were performed in the early morning as the first study of the day. A dual-head large- ... In a sequential 2-phase protocol, we found that a 30-min clear liquid gastric-emptying study performed immediately before a 4-h ... Using our sequential combination liquid-solid gastric-emptying studies, we determined that residual 111In-DTPA from the liquid ...
Sutcliffe s, 20 mg and clear on hydration before compared oral contraceptives as i questioned why regular blood work to our ... Sequential antibiotic therapy was approved by women who took mine is on this association found that electromagnetic waves. ... Positive a private lockers and soles are mandatory for producing pain and oral contraceptives: the dryness and ashamed. Single- ... True, necessitating oral retinoid dermatitis also contains glycerin, it a method. Spend countless hours. There is a healthier ...
Seasonal Oral Contraceptive Cycle Second Generation Progestin Sequential Estrogen Replacement Tamoxifen Third Generation ... Oral Contraceptive Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Oral Contraceptive Selection Oral Contraceptive Side Effect Management ... Oral Contraceptives: High Progestin Androgenic Activity. *Levonorgestrel (Nordette, Alesse, Triphasil). *Norethindrone ( ... Oral Contraceptive-Related Uterine Bleeding Management Ortho-Cyclen Ortho-Novum 1/35 Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 Ortho-Tricyclen Pessary ...
Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. Roche Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study ... Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Oct 3. [QxMD ... Immunological abnormalities in asymptomatic homosexual men: correlation with antibody to HTLV-III and sequential changes over ... Daily oral PrEP with the fixed-dose combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg and emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg ( ...
We sought to estimate the proportion and total number of cancers attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone ... We repeated this process in sequential order for all relevant exposures. RESULTS: Overall, an estimated 40.8% of cancer cases ... Prevalences of the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta were collected from Albertas Tomorrow Project. ... INTERPRETATION: Based on our estimates, oral contraceptive use resulted in a net protective effect among the cancer sites ...
Stanozolol is an oral anabolic steroid used Malay Biomex Labs Clen Tiger Clen to treat hereditary angioedema. We hypothesized ... Heber KRMedroxyprogesterone acetate as an injectable contraceptive.. It will provide you with some serious muscle mass results ... the D 3 carried in the bloodstream on either DBP or lipoproteins undergoes a 2-step sequential hydroxylation to active ... Oral Steroids Primo 10. 60 Tabs Sachet 10 Mg/Tabs. Methenolone Acetate. $64.00. $78.50. ...
Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. ... Monitor renal function in patients receiving vancomycin and concurrent and/or sequential systemic or topical use of other ... Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. ... Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. ...
The attention-emotion interaction in healthy female participants on oral contraceptives during 1-week escitalopram intake. ... Altered functional connectivity during combined sequential motor learning and one-week escitalopram administration. In European ... does not change emotional and attentional responses in healthy female individuals on oral hormonal contraceptives. In European ...
Effectiveness of combined oral contraceptives for depressive symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual ... Supplementary Material for: What Is the Best Sequential Treatment Strategy in the Treatment of Depression? Adding ... Dataset and script: Hormonal contraceptive use and depressive symptoms: systematic review and network meta-analysis of ...
A stroke in a young girl on oral contraceptive pills with primary protein S deficiency. Shah, K., Nair, P., Bhat, S. & Prabhu, ... A handy chart for the interpretation of sequential differential adsorption-elution procedure. Shastry, S. & Das, S., 01-07-2017 ... Oral health of poor people in rural areas of developing countries. Auluck, A., 01-11-2005, In: Journal of the Canadian Dental ... Varadan, M., Chopra, A., Sanghavi, A. D., Sivaraman, K. & Gupta, K., 01-12-2019, In: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and ...
Contraceptive, prenatal, and abortion services should be available on site or by referral. Minimal information is available on ... Sequential or combination therapy with other antiretroviral agents could be more efficacious. Whether other daily dosages, dose ... Antiretroviral efficacy is diminished at doses less than 300 mg/day, and it has been suggested that higher oral doses may be ... Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) at a dose of one double-strength tablet (800 mg SMX and 160 mg TMP) orally once a ...
Unscheduled blood loss/spotting Any blood loss or spotting prior to the end from the progestogen series in mixed sequential ... 0.625 mg of oral conjugated estrogen, and 50 g of estradiol transdermally will be the recommended standard daily 112828-09-8 ... 12 which review considers the explanations of spotting/blood loss occurring with mixed hormonal contraceptives for determining ... in the mixed sequential program Early planned blood loss/spotting ny blood loss or spotting with starting point prior to the ...
Metformin and oral contraceptive drug (ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel) were assessed at steady state. Warfarin (S-warfarin/R- ... route of elimination for semaglutide is metabolism following proteolytic cleavage of the peptide backbone and sequential beta- ... Oral Medications: OZEMPIC delays gastric emptying. May impact absorption of concomitantly administered oral medications (7.2). ... 7.2 Oral Medications 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy 8.2 Lactation 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential ...
Enrolled participants in this study will receive a single oral dose or multiple oral doses of EDG-5506 or a placebo. Blood and ... For all: Males with female partners must use a medically accepted contraceptive regimen from first dose through 90 days after ... Sequential Assignment. Masking:. Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor). Primary Purpose:. ...
  • One-week of escitalopram administration does not change emotional and attentional responses in healthy female individuals on oral hormonal contraceptives. (
  • Based on the current classification of the sources of abnormal uterine blood loss, the blood loss that occurs by using sex steroids can be thought as iatrogenic,12 which review considers the explanations of spotting/blood loss occurring with mixed hormonal contraceptives for determining spotting/blood loss occurring in mixed HT (Desk 1). (
  • It is believed that hormonal fluctuations such as those associated with pregnancy, menstruation, and use of hormonal contraceptives lead to an increase in tooth mobility. (
  • All were using and had used for periods of 4-12 years a sequential oral contraceptive, Oracon, manufactured by Mead Johnson Laboratories. (
  • The relative risk of endometrial cancer for women who had used combined oral contraceptives containing both an estrogen and a progestin was 0.5 (95% confidence limits 0.4-0.8). (
  • By contrast, women who had used sequential oral contraceptives (estrogen and progestin components taken at different times of the month) appeared to have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Les femmes atteintes d'affections médicales chroniques ont besoin d'une prise en charge prudente de leur contraception. (
  • Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is among the most effective contraceptive methods, but uptake remains low even in high-income settings. (
  • Heber KRMedroxyprogesterone acetate as an injectable contraceptive. (
  • Regarding the estrogen element, 2 mg of estradiol 112828-09-8 IC50 valerate, one to two 2 mg of dental 17-estradiol, 0.625 mg of oral conjugated estrogen, and 50 g of estradiol transdermally will be the recommended standard daily 112828-09-8 IC50 doses. (
  • Similarly, there was no evidence of an increased risk of breast cancer for women who used oral contraceptives before their first pregnancy. (
  • S every pregnancy oral controlled-release amoxicillin was performed. (
  • Simplified oral hygiene index, plaque index, Gingival index (GI), and probing depth were also evaluated during the three trimesters of pregnancy for each subject participating in the study. (
  • And contraceptive failure (pregnancy) rate two-tailed, paired t-tests were steroids and neurosteroids in psychopathology. (
  • Or by lengthening the dosage schedule for oral and intestinal atony, synovial fluid in tuberculosis whereas in upper case. (
  • Risk increases progressively with higher dosage, oral contraceptives should not dissuade one from making the diagnosis forearm flexors in the lipomatosis: 35 year experience. (
  • The attention-emotion interaction in healthy female participants on oral contraceptives during 1-week escitalopram intake. (
  • Enrolled participants in this study will receive a single oral dose or multiple oral doses of EDG-5506 or a placebo. (
  • Believed to involve the hand or heard the words being arranged in a later stage, longacting reversible contraceptives (intrauterine devices and lasers electrosurgical devices in the de nition and of wind. (
  • Javascript to have also contains fluconazole and fall into your contraceptive pills increases in vitro activity against candida. (
  • ABSTRACT Women with chronic medical conditions require careful contraceptive management. (
  • Stanozolol is an oral anabolic steroid used Malay Biomex Labs Clen Tiger Clen to treat hereditary angioedema. (
  • And ophthalmologic examinations protein is critical to a successful outcome the two forms of anabolic steroids, are orals in the form of tablets and injectables in the form of an aqueous suspension or an oily solution, however, these are often contrasted with each other and should not be mixed together before administration. (
  • This is an open-label, multicenter Phase 1 study to evaluate safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of oral LY3537982 in patients with KRAS G12C-mutant solid tumors. (
  • In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II study, the authors examined the safety and efficacy of oral teriflunomide in multiple sclerosis (MS) with relapses. (
  • Synovial cells during a significant increase private funding source of oral candida isolation. (
  • [ 2 ] Concurrent use of oral and topical antibiotics should be avoided and should not be used as monotherapy. (
  • Symptoms and signs hyperreflexia seizures blurred vision or hearing, and often topical and/or systemic (eg, oral prednisone therapy in the adt the earliest specific receptor chemotherapy early (with a small pnh clone (less than 4% of patients with sus- intolerant of corticosteroids may be indicated when the lvef is aimed at identifying broadly neutralizing antibod- patients with. (
  • Across all 3 groups, the rate of use of contraceptive methods was significantly different before and after diagnosis. (
  • In 2009/2010, a target-based pay-for-performance (P4P) scheme in Britain was introduced for primary care physicians (PCPs) to offer advice about LARC methods to a specified proportion of women attending for contraceptive care to improve contraceptive choice. (
  • It is therefore paramount to concentrate efforts at tackling the root of the problem using methods of oral hygiene and consequently halting dental biofilm formation 4 . (
  • An initial analysis of an ongoing, multicenter case-control study indicates that women who have used oral contraceptives are approximately half as likely to develop ovarian and endometrial cancer as women who have never used them and that, despite previous concerns, contraceptive use does not appear to increase a woman's risk of breast cancer. (
  • The relative risk of ovarian cancer for women who had used oral contraceptives for at least 1 month, as compared with women who had never used them, was 0.6 (95% confidence limits 0.4-0.9). (
  • The protective effects of combined oral contraceptives against endometrial cancer appeared to be restricted to women who had used them for 1 year or longer and was concentrated in nulliparous women. (
  • For breast cancer, women who had used oral contraceptives had a relative risk of 0.9 (95% confidence limits 0.8-1.2) compared with women who had never used them. (
  • Furthermore, there was no indication of any increased risk of breast cancer due to oral contraceptive use for high-risk women such as those with family histories of breast cancer or with previous biopsies for benign breast disease. (
  • Apolipoprotein E, cardiovascular disease and cognitive func- tion in aging women viagra En Ligne Livraison Rapide . (
  • Doctors with patients on similar sequential contraceptives should watch for abnormal vaginal bleeding. (
  • Gastrointestinal reactions when oral contraceptives ocs are inflamed, valid from patients. (
  • In a prospective observational study of patients on a renal ward, treatment with oral bacitracin 75,000 units/15 mL PO 4 times daily plus doxycycline (100 mg PO once daily) was NOT efficacious in reducing the carriage of VRE beyond the 2-week treatment period. (
  • Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, monocentrique et descriptive, durant 12 mois, incluant les patients âgés d'au moins 18 ans admis en réanimation polyvalente pour un sepsis ou choc septique. (
  • Les patients qui ont accepté de participer après apptéléphonique ont été inclus de janvier à mai 2021.Les variables d'étudeétaient: âge, sexe, acuité visuelle (AV), caractéristiques de la LCET selon Diallo, pronostic fonctionnel et anatomique en post puberté (plus de 15 ans). (
  • Oral teriflunomide was effective in reducing MRI lesions and was well tolerated in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. (
  • In this study, we examined the safety, efficacy, and optimal oral administration dose of teriflunomide in patients with MS with relapses, using an MRI metric as the primary study endpoint. (
  • There was no evidence that long-term oral contraceptive use of more than 10 years or oral contraceptive use that began 16 or more years ago, shortly after oral contraceptives were introduced in this country, increased the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Altered functional connectivity during combined sequential motor learning and one-week escitalopram administration. (
  • All disease-modifying therapies currently available for multiple sclerosis (MS) require administration by injection, highlighting the clear need for an effective and well-tolerated oral therapy. (
  • 12. If female, is postmenopausal (at least 12 sequential months of amenorrhea) or surgically sterile. (
  • Oral bacitracin has been reported to be effective for the treatment and eradication of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in the stool. (
  • Oral Hygiene. (
  • When such homeostasis is broken due to inadequate oral hygiene, gingivitis settles in, which may progress into periodontitis 2 . (
  • Evidence derived from large cohort studies have demonstrated that high standards of oral hygiene will ensure stability of the periodontium 13 . (
  • That cardio is damaging and oral liquid) of prednisone work are being developed to improve human health by preventing or alleviating medical conditions such as coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis ( Gilani. (
  • The protective effect of oral contraceptive use persisted more than 10 years after pill use was discontinued. (
  • The Bangkok Tenofovir Study is an ongoing, phase-3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial of daily oral tenofovir. (
  • The Bangkok Tenofovir Study is an ongoing phase-3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, endpoint-driven HIV prevention trial that aims to determine if daily oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (tenofovir) will reduce HIV transmission among IDUs. (
  • Teriflunomide, a metabolite of leflunomide, is an oral immunomodulator with anti-inflammatory activity. (
  • The longer a woman had used oral contraceptives, the lower her risk of developing ovarian cancer. (
  • Unscheduled blood loss/spotting Any blood loss or spotting prior to the end from the progestogen series in mixed sequential program Scheduled, programmed blood loss/spotting Any blood loss or spotting taking place following the end from the progestogen series, in the mixed sequential program Early planned blood loss/spotting ny blood loss or spotting with starting point prior to the end from the progestogen series, in the mixed sequential regimen. (
  • This comprises a contiguous series of three sequential bases codons , which specify that a particular amino acid should be incorporated into the protein wo Kann Ich In Berlin Viagra Kaufen . (
  • Saluja SS, Walker ML, Summers EM, Tristani-Firouzi P, Smart DR. Safety of non-ablative fractional laser for acne scars within 1 month after treatment with oral isotretinoin: A randomized split-face controlled trial. (
  • Translation of: Oral contraceptives : technical and safety aspects. (
  • Initially as soon as she saturation was unusually low given his lack hormone that comes in 3 forms that are sequential metabolites produced by hydroxylases. (
  • Trial results demonstrating whether or not daily oral tenofovir reduces the risk of HIV infection among IDUs are expected in 2012. (
  • May impact absorption of concomitantly administered oral medications ( 7.2 ). (
  • Meals and drinks contraceptives decrease bBVs (Blood Borne Viruses) IPED Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs MD Muscle Dysmorphia NSP Needle and Syringe Programmes PCT Post Cycle Therapy. (