Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Norethynodrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.Ethynodiol Diacetate: A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Norpregnenes: Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential: Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Ethisterone: 17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Metrorrhagia: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.XanthurenatesAbortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Coitus Interruptus: A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.United StatesNorprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Religion and SexReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)MissouriAntispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.NicaraguaReproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Nandrolone: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Great BritainCervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Uterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Megaloblasts: Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.GuatemalaPregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Intrauterine Device Migration: The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Libido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Abortion, Criminal: Illegal termination of pregnancy.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Gossypol: A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/387)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Oral contraceptive use and risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. (2/387)

BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic disease refers to a spectrum of rare benign and malignant gynecologic disorders whose pathogenesis is not well understood. Recent studies from China and the United States have raised the hypothesis that long-term use of oral contraceptives before conception may increase the risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. A multicenter case-control study of gestational trophoblastic tumors was undertaken to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 235 case patients, including 50 with gestational choriocarcinoma, and 413 control subjects matched on recentness of pregnancy, age at pregnancy, and area of residence. Relative risks (odds ratios) were computed by conditional logistic regression. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: The relative risk estimate for ever having used oral contraceptives before the index pregnancy was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.0), and the risk increased with duration of use (P for trend = .05). The estimate was highest for women who used oral contraceptives during the cycle in which they became pregnant (relative risk = 4.0; 95% CI=1.6-10), but there was no consistent pattern according to the time interval since last use. Separate analyses of choriocarcinoma and persistent mole yielded similar results, i.e., the relative risk estimates for oral contraceptive use were 2.2 (95% CI=0.8-6.4) and 1.8 (95% CI=1.0-3.0), respectively. Control for the number of sexual partners, which was independently associated with risk (P for trend = .05), did not materially change the results. CONCLUSIONS: This study, the largest to date, indicates that long duration of oral contraceptive use before conception increases the risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. These findings may provide clues to the pathogenesis of this rare disease. Changes in use of oral contraceptives are not warranted, however, because the incidence attributable to oral contraceptive use is very low.  (+info)

Reproductive factors of ovarian and endometrial cancer risk in a high fertility population in Mexico. (3/387)

A case-control study was carried out in Mexico City during 1995-1997 among women with epithelial ovarian cancer (84 cases) and endometrial cancer (85 cases). The control group consisted of 668 healthy women, matched according to age categories. In a multivariate analysis, the reproductive risk factors for ovarian and endometrial cancer are similar. The risk of ovarian cancer was inversely related to the number of full-term pregnancies; the odds ratio (OR) was 0.17 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.05-0.54 when comparing nulliparous women versus those with more than seven pregnancies. For endometrial cancer, a similar association was observed (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.34). The use of oral contraceptive hormones was inversely associated with both ovarian (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.83) and endometrial cancer risk (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90). In women with a history of more than 8.7 years without ovulation, the risk of ovarian cancer decreased four times (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.50), and that of endometrial cancer decreased more than five times (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.35). These two neoplasms are clearly typified as hormone dependent, and it is possible to establish that "ovulation" and "exfoliative" mechanisms jointly determine the level of risk for both ovarian and endometrial cancer.  (+info)

Jugular vein thrombosis: a rare presentation of atypical chronic myeloproliferative disorder in a young woman. (4/387)

Venous thromboembolism is common in subjects with chronic myeloproliferative disorders and is a recognized presenting feature of occult myeloproliferation. We report the case of a young woman who presented with acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein and pulmonary embolism. Splenomegaly and myeloid proliferation with bone marrow fibrosis, in the absence of the criteria for typical myeloproliferative disorders, allowed a diagnosis of an atypical form of chronic myeloproliferative disorder. This form carries a high risk of thrombosis and venous thromboembolism can be the presenting feature, though the course is often indolent. Acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein has not been so far described in these subjects. The outcome of young people with myelofibrosis is unpredictable, but a normal level of hemoglobin and the absence of blast cells and constitutional symptoms at presentation identifies subjects with a low probability of rapid disease progression.  (+info)

Effects of oral contraceptives on body fluid regulation. (5/387)

To test the hypothesis that estrogen reduces the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP), thirst, and body water balance, we studied nine women (25 +/- 1 yr) during 150 min of dehydrating exercise followed by 180 min of ad libitum rehydration. Subjects were tested six different times, during the early-follicular (twice) and midluteal (twice) menstrual phases and after 4 wk of combined [estradiol-norethindrone (progestin), OC E + P] and 4 wk of norethindrone (progestin only, OC P) oral contraceptive administration, in a randomized crossover design. Basal plasma osmolality (P(osm)) was lower in the luteal phase (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means, P < 0.05), OC E + P (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0.05), and OC P (282 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0. 05) than in the follicular phase (286 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means). High plasma estradiol concentration lowered the P(osm) threshold for AVP release during the luteal phase and during OC E + P [x-intercepts, 282 +/- 2, 278 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O, for follicular, luteal (combined means), OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, luteal phase and OC E + P vs. follicular phase] during exercise dehydration, and 17beta-estradiol administration lowered the P(osm) threshold for thirst stimulation [x-intercepts, 280 +/- 2, 279 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O for follicular, luteal, OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, OC E + P vs. follicular phase], without affecting body fluid balance. When plasma 17beta-estradiol concentration was high, P(osm) was low throughout rest, exercise, and rehydration, but plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, thirst, and body fluid retention were unchanged, indicating a lowering of the osmotic operating point for body fluid regulation.  (+info)

Tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer and endometrial cancer risk. (6/387)

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is effective in treating breast cancer, reduces breast cancer incidence among high-risk women, and is associated with increased endometrial cancer risk. This study was designed to examine the possible modifying effects of endometrial cancer risk factors on the tamoxifen-endometrial cancer association. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of endometrial cancer (324 case patients and 671 individually matched control subjects) nested within a population-based cohort of patients with breast cancer diagnosed from 1978 through 1992 within four regions of the United States. We obtained information on breast cancer treatment and endometrial cancer risk factors through interviews and reviews of medical records. All P values reported are two-sided. RESULTS: Endometrial cancer risk was associated with tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1. 07-2.17). Risk increased with duration of tamoxifen use (P for trend =.0002). Women with more than 5 years of exposure to tamoxifen had 4. 06-fold greater odds of developing endometrial cancer than nonusers (95% CI = 1.74-9.47). Prior use of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) increased risk associated with tamoxifen use (P for homogeneity of trends <.0001). Risk associated with tamoxifen use was stronger among heavier women than among thinner women, although trends did not differ statistically (P =.10). Tamoxifen dose-response effects were more pronounced among women with both previous ERT exposure and higher body mass index than among women in other risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: ERT use and obesity, both established endometrial cancer risk factors and markers of estrogen exposure, substantially modify the association between tamoxifen use and endometrial cancer risk among patients with breast cancer. Women with positive ERT histories and those who are obese, when prescribed tamoxifen, may warrant closer surveillance for endometrial cancer than women without such histories.  (+info)

Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions determine risk of thrombosis in families with inherited antithrombin deficiency. (7/387)

To analyze inherited antithrombin deficiency as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism in various conditions with regard to the presence or absence of additional genetic or acquired risk factors, we compared 48 antithrombin-deficient individuals with 44 nondeficient individuals of 14 selected families with inherited antithrombin deficiency. The incidence of venous thromboembolism for antithrombin deficient individuals was 20 times higher than among nondeficient individuals (1.1% v 0.05% per year). At the age of 50 years, greater than 50% of antithrombin-deficient individuals had experienced thrombosis compared with 5% of nondeficient individuals. Additional genetic risk factors, Factor V Leiden and PT20210A, were found in more than half of these selected families. The effect of exposure to 2 genetic defects was a 5-fold increased incidence (4.6% per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9% to 11.1%). Acquired risk factors were often present, determining the onset of thrombosis. The incidence among those with exposure to antithrombin deficiency and an acquired risk factor was increased 20-fold (20.3% per year; 95% CI, 12.0% to 34.3%). In conclusion, in these thrombophilia families, the genetic and environmental factors interact to bring about venous thrombosis. Inherited antithrombin deficiency proves to be a prominent risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The increased risks among those with exposure to acquired risk factors should be considered and adequate prophylactic anticoagulant therapy in high-risk situations seems indicated in selected families with inherited antithrombin deficiency.  (+info)

Exogenous estrogen exposures and changes in diabetic retinopathy. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. (8/387)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of exogenous estrogen is associated with changes in the severity of diabetic retinopathy and the incidence of macular edema. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study design involved observation of two well-defined cohorts of women with diabetes. One group was diagnosed with diabetes at < 30 years of age and used insulin (younger-onset group), and the other group was diagnosed at > or = 30 years of age with no criteria regarding therapy (older-onset group). Subjects received standard examinations, medical interviews, and retinal photography in 1980-1982. Specific questions about exogenous hormone exposure were added to the study questionnaire at the first follow-up examination 4 years after the baseline examination. Change in the severity of retinopathy 6 and 10 years after the 4-year follow-up examination were examined regarding the use of oral contraceptives at the first follow-up examination in the younger-onset group and at 6 years after the first follow-up examination regarding hormone replacement therapy in the older-onset group. RESULTS: Changes in the severity of retinopathy and incidence of macular edema were unrelated to either type of estrogen exposure in univariable and multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These data are compatible with the hypothesis that the medications used by our population do not affect the severity of diabetic retinopathy or macular edema.  (+info)

*Women's reproductive health in the United States

Oral hormonal contraceptives have an 8% failure rate. The popularity of oral hormonal contraceptives among women changes over ... Hormonal methods Implant Injection Combined oral contraceptives Progestin-only pill Patch Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring ... Women under the age of thirty more commonly use hormonal oral contraception as their preferred method. Hormonal contraceptives ... of women deciding to discontinue use of an oral hormonal contraceptive after one year of typical use. A large stigma exists ...

*Nomegestrol acetate

"Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol hormonal oral contraceptive and breast cancer risk". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 25 (7): 745-750. doi: ... and was subsequently developed and approved in 2011 in Europe as an oral contraceptive in combination with estradiol under the ... NOMAC is well-absorbed, with an oral bioavailability of 63%. It is 97.5 to 98% protein-bound, to albumin, and does not bind to ... As a contraceptive (under the brand name Zoely), NOMAC is available in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Chile, Colombia ...

*Hepatocellular adenoma

Patients with adenomas should avoid oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy. Pregnancy could cause the adenoma to ... The role of oral contraceptive use". JAMA. 242 (7): 644-8. doi:10.1001/jama.242.7.644. PMID 221698. "Hepatocellular Adenoma: ... most of whom use oral contraceptives. Other medications which also alter circulating hormone levels, such as anabolic or ... classically in women taking estrogen-containing oral contraceptive medication. About 25-50% of hepatic adenomas cause pain in ...

*Deep vein thrombosis

Oral contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy increase the risk through a variety of mechanisms, including altered blood ... Third-generation combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have an approximate two to three times higher risk than second-generation ... 2012, p. 11S: 6.1.1. & 6.1.2. "New DVT guidelines: No evidence to support "economy-class syndrome"; oral contraceptives, ... Provoked DVTs occur in association with acquired risk factors, such as surgery, oral contraceptives, trauma, immobility, ...

*Venous thrombosis

Trauma and minor leg injury Previous VTE Oral contraceptives Hormonal replacement therapy, esp. oral Central venous catheters ... The risk of thromboembolism varies with different types of birth control pills; Compared with combined oral contraceptives ... the rate ratio of deep venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with norethisterone is 0.98, with norgestimate 1.19, ... XI levels The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 100,000 woman years in current use of combined oral contraceptives ...

*Endometrial cancer

Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). Combined oral ... Hormonal therapy is only beneficial in certain types of endometrial cancer. It was once thought to be beneficial in most cases ... This risk reduction continues for at least fifteen years after contraceptive use has been stopped. Obese women may need higher ... Also, endometrial stromal sarcomas can be treated with hormonal agents, including tamoxifen, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, ...

*Psychoneuroendocrinology

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder can be treated cyclically with hormonal oral contraceptives, or with antidepressants, which may ... there are associated neuroendocrine or hormonal changes affecting the brain. It may also be viewed from the perspective of ...

*Dimethandrolone undecanoate

... safety and food effects of a new oral androgen dimethandrolone undecanoate in man: a prototype oral male hormonal contraceptive ... as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits". J. Androl. ... and Safety of Three Oral Formulations of Dimethandrolone Undecanoate (DMAU): A Potential Male Oral Contraceptive. http://press. ... DMAU is or was under development as a potential male contraceptive. A pharmacokinetic study of DMAU in men found that only 2 to ...

*Yaz

... a brand of oral hormonal contraceptive containing drospirenone that may also be used to treat premenstrual dysphoric disorder ( ...

*Dimethandrolone

... as an Oral Male Hormonal Contraceptive: Induction of Infertility and Recovery of Fertility in Adult Male Rabbits". Journal of ... This is salient and potentially beneficial as male contraceptives based on androgens alone have failed to produce satisfactory ... Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S. (November 2010). "Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception". Current Opinion in Urology ... group which was developed for potential clinical use by the Contraceptive Development Branch (CDB) of the National Institute of ...

*Estetrol/drospirenone

Oral contraceptive formulations List of investigational hormonal agents § Mixed http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800034634 ... as a combined oral contraceptive for the prevention of pregnancy in women. As of 2017, it is in phase III clinical trials for ...

*Hair loss

Hormonal modulators (oral contraceptives or antiandrogens such as spironolactone and flutamide) can be used for female-pattern ... Oral pills for extensive hair loss may be used for alopecia areata. Results may take up to a month to be seen. ... The most severe form of the condition, cystic acne arises from the same hormonal imbalances that cause hair loss, and is ... Joly P (October 2006). "The use of methotrexate alone or in combination with low doses of oral corticosteroids in the treatment ...

*Hormonal contraception

The original hormonal method-the combined oral contraceptive pill-was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. In the ensuing ... of the world's contraceptive users. Other hormonal contraceptives are less common, accounting for less than 1% of contraceptive ... the development of a male hormonal contraceptive is an active research area. There are two main types of hormonal contraceptive ... "Hormonal contraceptives, progestogens only". Hormonal contraception and post-menopausal hormonal therapy; IARC monographs on ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.277 --- contraceptives, oral, hormonal MeSH D27.505.696.875. ... contraceptives, oral, combined MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.277 --- contraceptives, oral, hormonal MeSH D27.505.954.705. ... 360.276.210.400 --- contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.696.875.360.276.210.443 --- contraceptives, oral, synthetic ... 360.276.210.400 --- contraceptives, oral, sequential MeSH D27.505.954.705.360.276.210.443 --- contraceptives, oral, synthetic ...

*Steroidal antiandrogen

Used in the treatment of gynecological disorders and in hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives (with estradiol as ... Used in combination with estrogen in hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives (with ethinylestradiol as Yasmin, ... Used as an oral contraceptive (with estradiol valerate as Natazia and Qlaira and with ethinylestradiol as Valette) and in the ... Widely used in oral contraceptives as well (with ethinylestradiol under the brand names Diane and Diane-35). Not available in ...

*Migraine

Other hormonal influences, such as menarche, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause, also play a role ... The different forms available include oral, injectable, nasal spray, and oral dissolving tablets. In general, all the triptans ... These hormonal influences seem to play a greater role in migraine without aura. Migraines typically do not occur during the ... Being a young adult, being female, using hormonal birth control, and smoking further increases this risk. There also appears to ...

*HLL Lifecare

... the world's first and only oral non-hormonal, non-steroidal oral contraceptive, taken as a weekly pill. In 2012, HLL announced ... contraceptive pills, IUDs, surgical sutures, blood bags and Pharma products . One of HLL's contraceptive products is ...

*Combined injectable birth control

Matched-pairs analysis of ovarian suppressionduring oral vs. vaginal hormonal contraceptive use, „Contraception" 2011, t. 84, p ... Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D (1999). "The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive ... Concept Foundation Extended cycle combined hormonal contraceptive Depo-Provera, a long-acting reversible contraceptive ... Combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are a form of hormonal birth control for women. They consist of monthly injections of ...

*GroES

... specifically the most popular hormonal method - the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP). The group Pharmacists for Life has ... Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ed.). New York: Ardent Media. p. 120. ISBN 0-9664902-0-7. Lloyd J DuPlantis, Jr (2001). " ... There is currently contention over whether hormonal contraception methods have post-fertilization methods, ...

*Emergency contraception

Like all hormonal methods, postcoital high-dose progestin-only oral contraceptive pills do not protect against sexually ... levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills (based on labels for regular oral contraceptive pills) say they may cause ... but certain regular combined oral contraceptive pills may be used as emergency contraceptive pills. Progestin-only emergency ... found in regular combined oral contraceptive pills. Taken after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure, such ...

*Dasabuvir

They are taking any hormonal contraception that contain ethinylestradiol (often found in combined oral contraceptives or ... "Safety Information - Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir tablets; dasabuvir tablets), Copackaged for Oral Use ...

*Ovulation

... taken in various forms including combined oral contraceptive pills, mimics the hormonal levels of the menstrual cycle and ... Contraception can be achieved by suppressing the ovulation.[citation needed] The majority of hormonal contraceptives and ...

*Hormonal IUDs

In comparison, oral contraceptives can contain 150 micrograms of levonorgestrel. The hormonal IUD releases the levonorgestrel ... The hormonal IUD is a long-acting reversible contraceptive, and is considered one of the most effective forms of birth control ... The U.S. FDA does not recommend any hormonal method, including Mirena, as a first choice of contraceptive for nursing mothers.[ ... "Hormonal Contraceptives, Progestogens Only". International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1999. Archived from the original on ...

*Amenorrhea

Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen like the oral contraceptive Micronor, and especially higher-dose ... Although oral contraceptives can causes menses to return, oral contraceptives should not be the initial treatment as they can ... New contraceptive pills, like continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) which do not have the normal 7 days of placebo pills ... Patients who use and then cease using contraceptives like the combined oral contraceptive pill may experience secondary ...

*Metrorrhagia

If spotting continues beyond the first three cycles of oral contraceptive use, a woman should have her prescription changed to ... The term breakthrough bleeding or breakthrough spotting is usually used for women using hormonal contraceptives, such as IUDs ... Use of progestin-only contraceptives, such as Depo Provera Change in oral contraception Overdose of anticoagulant medication or ... or oral contraceptives, in which it refers to bleeding or spotting between any expected withdrawal bleedings, or bleeding or ...

*Jewish views on contraception

The Midrash of Genesis speaks of the origins of oral contraceptives: "In the early time of creation, in the time of Lemech, a ... Generally, the introduction of hormonal contraception in the 1960s did not cause the stir within Jewish circles that it caused ... An innovative use of the combined oral contraceptive pill in Judaism is employed by some young brides. The laws of family ... Contraceptive measures that lead to male sterility, are not ever permitted for their interfering with a man's obligation, only ...
In the entire study 27% of participants used hormonal contraception at some point during the study. What the researchers found was that, in general, women who reported using hormonal contraceptives had a longer delay to onset of AIDS and a longer time until death. Specifically, those who used hormonal contraception had on average 3.92 years until death, and 3.72 years until AIDS, compared to 3.04 years until death and 2.98 years until AIDS or those without hormonal contraceptive use. Interestingly, this study also took note as to what kind of behavioral patterns the hormonal contraceptive users engaged in compared to the nonusers. This study found that women using hormonal contraceptives had on average a higher degree of education, were in the median age category (25-35), and were also less likely to use condoms. These have to be taken into account as well as the hormonal contraceptive use as possible variables affecting onset of AIDS and death ...
Title: Hormonal Contraceptive Use Can Be a Major Downer. Summary: Hormonal contraception was introduced way back in 1960 with the release of the combined oral contraceptive pill (containing two hormones: estrogen and progestin).
Butt , S A , Lidegaard , Ø , Skovlund , C W , Hannaford , P , Iversen , L , Fielding , S & Mørch , L S 2018 , Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer : A cohort study among premenopausal women , PloS ONE , vol. 13 , no. 10 , 0206358 , pp. 1-8 . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206358 , https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. ...
Zanger, P., Nurjadi, D., Gaile, M., Gabrysch, S. and Kremsner, P.G. (2012) Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55, 1625-1632.
Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. Methods Thirty-four women were randomised to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing CHC or placebo. The women performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the CHC/placebo treatment cycle. Results No differences between CHC and placebo users in number of correct inhibitions were found during treatment, but only women on CHC significantly improved their performance between the baseline and ...
Women who take hormonal contraceptives such as birth control pills, the patch, the ring and hormonal IUDs can face up to three times the risk of suicide as women who never took hormonal birth control, and younger women face the gravest danger, a new study says.. Researchers in Denmark who conducted the study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry looked at associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a sample of women from across Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period from 1996 through 2013.. Nationwide registers were then used to collect data on use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt, suicide, and other potential variables.. "Use of hormonal contraception was positively associated with subsequent suicide attempt and suicide. Adolescent women experienced the highest relative risk," the researchers concluded.. The study showed that ...
Merki-Feld, G S. Effect of Hormonal Contraception on Factors associated with Endothelial Dysfunction and Novel Parameters of Cardiovascular Risk. 2009, Universityhospital Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
A study published last week in The New England Journal of Medicine has found that hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptive pills and hormone-releasing IUDs, significantly increase womens risk for breast cancer.. The study found that women who used hormonal contraception had a 20 percent elevated risk[1] for breast cancer compared to women who had never used a hormonal method.. The risk was also found to be time-dependent, increasing the longer the hormonal drugs were used. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than 10 years saw their risk for breast cancer increase by almost 40 percent.[2]. While the study showed that the breast cancer risk decreased after stopping hormonal contraception, for women who used a hormonal method for five years or more, the effects of drug lingered. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than five years saw a significant elevated risk for breast cancer even five years or more after discontinuation.. The results were adjusted for age, ...
Most popular Combined Hormonal Contraceptive products are Nuvaring and Ortho Evra. CHC products are broadly used throughout the world by women in the age-group of 15 to 49 years. With increasing health consciousness and awareness, adoption of CHC products or birth control methods is increasing in lesser privileged economic segments too. The growth of CHC market is driven by urbanization and increasing user awareness, rise in menstruating population globally and initiatives taken by governments to encourage the use of contraception. Major trends prevailing in the market are the increasing number of mergers and acquisitions in this business space and demand for reversible method of contraception with fewer side effects.. Country Coverage: United states, United Kingdom, India, China & Japan. Company Coverage: Agile Therapeutics Inc., Actavis Plc., Bayer Healthcare & Teva Pharmaceuticals. Complete report available at http://www.marketreportsonline.com/394315.html. Combined Hormonal Contraceptives ...
The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together and reanalysed the worldwide epidemiological evidence on breast cancer risk and use of hormonal contraceptives. Original data from 54 studies, representing about 90% of the information available on the topic, were collected, checked and analysed centrally. The 54 studies were performed in 26 countries and include a total of 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women without breast cancer. The studies were varied in their design, setting and timing. Most information came from case-control studies with controls chosen from the general population; most women resided in Europe or North America and most cancers were diagnosed during the 1980s. Overall 41% of the women with breast cancer and 40% of the women without breast cancer had used oral contraceptives at some time; the median age at first use was 26 years, the median duration of use was 3 years, the median year of first use was 1968, the median time since first use
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
The Effects of Injectable Hormonal Contraceptives on HIV Seroconversion and on Sexually Transmitted Infections, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
This article reviews the epidemiologic studies and potential mechanisms evaluating the association between hormonal contraceptive methods and HIV risk.
Care guide for Hormonal Contraceptives. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
7]. The month of October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. This is an annual campaign that began in 1991 to raise awareness about this disease. Although the campaign promotes regular self-breast exams, doctor visits, annual mammograms, and provides data on recurrence, preventable risk factors for breast cancer are not emphasized.. What are the risk factors for breast cancer?. According to the National Cancer Institute, the risk factors for breast cancer include: older age, genetic abnormalities, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy to the chest, alcohol and obesity. Although it has been demonstrated that hormonal contraceptive use increases breast cancer risk, this risk factor is virtually ignored during the campaign.. Synthetic estrogen was classified by the World Health Organization in 2005 as "Group 1 carcinogen". Hormonal contraceptives contain synthetic estrogen and increase the risk of not only breast cancer, but also liver and cervical cancer. According to a meta-analysis published in the ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and ...
The BioRing is a biocompatible intra-vaginal ring composed of nanoporous elastomere hydrogel for the delivery of safe contraceptives and/or anti-HIV agents. The IVR will be an effective multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) for protection against both unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted HIV infection.. This novel and convenient IVR is a reliable, easy-to-use device that can prevent the harmful side effects of long-term hormonal contraceptive use. It can improve womens lives by providing a better quality of maternal and fetal health, especially in regions where unsafe sex is the largest cause of disease in females. It is an innovative approach for family planning and protection against sexually transmitted infections that women can control themselves. The drugs and IVR are made of compounds that are already FDA approved for human use.. Benefits of Being Non-Hormonal. Being non-hormonal, BioRings empowers ALL women to be in control of their sexual health and prevent against ...
45 patients are recruited in the study. Each study group will consist of 15 women (aged 20-35 years) receiving oral, transdermal or transvaginal hormonal contraception continuously for 9 weeks. The subjects should have at least 2 months wash out period from all hormonal medication prior to the study.. The measurements for serum sampling and OGTT will be performed before and after 9 weeks of medication. ...
Hormonal contraception (HC) is used widely -- an estimated 14 million women in sub-Saharan Africa use either injectable or oral hormonal contraception -- ...
This category contains sites with information about oral contraceptives, also known as The Pill. Under this heading are included both combined and progestin-only pills.
... s (the pill) safely and effectively prevent pregnancy to ensure that safe sex can be enjoyed. You can order these pills at euroClinix.net
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
There has been no reliable data to indicate that the hormonal birth control available today causes infertility (contrary to what certain groups of individuals who wish to limit womens reproductive choices may say), no matter how long one is on it. So there is really no science to support the idea that birth control would make you sterile. In fact, some women do become pregnant the cycle after stopping hormonal contraceptives. On average though, itll takes around three months for your body to adjust to being off the contraceptives, so it would be even more likely after that point. (Please note though, this does NOT mean that you should assume youre protected from pregnancy during that early time after stopping birth control. It just means that chances of pregnancy will be increased once youre three months or so out. You should still consider yourself fertile as soon as you stop using the hormonal contraceptives.) Some doctors will suggest waiting at least three months before trying to become ...
Contraceptive delivery device applied to the skin like a band-aid. It works by slowly releasing a combination of estrogen and progestin hormones through the skin. These hormones prevent ovulation.
Take for weight loss hormonal drugs only by a physician after a thorough examination. You will need to hand over analyses on hormones. This will help to determine whether or not the extra weight caused by disturbances in the body or is a consequence of elementary surplus of calories consumed. Self-administration can lead to unpredictable consequences.. Even contraceptives with low hormone levels have a lot of side effects, contraindications and can add a few extra pounds. Not to mention the more serious pills. If the extra weight is not due to hormonal disorders and other reasons, the acceptance of such funds will not exert the desired action, or even will give impetus to further increase body weight. Often even reasonable medical treatment with hormones leads to weight gain.. To lose weight after hormonal treatment is difficult, but possible. You will need to rethink their way of life, to spend a lot of time and effort. There is a special metabolic diet is simple to use and requires no special ...
A: We call it "the Pill" as though it were innocuous and harmless. We dont think of it as a powerful drug or as a medical product. For all the reasons mentioned before, hormonal birth control has dominated our contraception conversation. It has become part of modern life for women. Essentially we see womens bodies, as a culture, to be inherently sick and faulty. The pill fixes the troublesome reproductive organs until they are needed for the socially useful act of providing a pregnancy. We see our cycles prior to pregnancy as a nuisance, the cause of sickness and pain, and they are used against us as indication of our inferiority to men. The pill is understood to make us BETTER. Better women. It is discussed almost as a cancer-vaccine, as the reason for women gaining equality in society, as the reason for them working alongside men in careers, as the reason they are happy even. It has been given a whole lot of credit for womens achievements through history. The pill was the first lifestyle ...
A type of birth control that uses hormones to prevent pregnancy. Hormonal contraceptives contain estrogen and progesterone, or progesterone only. They prevent pregnancy by blocking the release of eggs from the ovaries, thinning the lining of the uterus, or thickening the mucus in the cervix to help keep sperm from reaching the egg. Hormonal contraceptives may be taken by mouth, injected or inserted under the skin, placed on the skin as a patch, or placed in the vagina or uterus ...
Pregnant women experience unique physiological changes that may result in clinically significant alterations in drug PKs. Unfortunately, there have been few clinical trials to study the PKs of ARV, TB, and hormonal contraceptive drugs in pregnant women. The development of appropriate dosing regimens for the HIV-infected pregnant woman is critical to the health of both mother and fetus. Overdosing may lead to maternal adverse events and increased risk of fetal toxicity, while underdosing may lead to inadequate virologic control, increased risk of developing drug resistance mutations, and a higher rate of perinatal HIV transmission. This study will evaluate the PKs of ARVs used during pregnancy; evaluate TB drugs used during pregnancy, both in women who are HIV-positive and also taking ARVs and in women who are HIV-negative and not taking ARVs; and evaluate the PKs of hormonal contraceptive medications taken along with ARVs.. There will be five main groups of study arms: HIV-infected pregnant ...
European Union agency responsible for the protection of public and animal health through the scientific evaluation and supervision of medicines.
Free Online Library: Advances in hormonal contraception: over time, methods have become safer, more acceptable, easier to use, and more diverse. by Network; Health, general Family and marriage Contraceptives Product development Research Hormones Usage Pharmaceutical research Evaluation
Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices. Chapter 12 & 13. Outline . Sexual Development Puberty Middle Age Hormones Abstinence Hormonal Contraceptive Methods Barrier Methods IUD Fertility Awareness Methods Emergency Contraception. Sterilization Pregnancy Fetal Development...
Contact: Colin Mason, Population Research Institute, 540-622-5240 ext 209 FRONT ROYAL, Va., April 21 /Christian Newswire/ -- According to Joan Robinson, a researcher at the Population Research Institute, studies show that there is a strong scientific link between hormonal contraceptives and a womans risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. The article, entitled The Pills Deadly Affair with HIV/AIDS, is available upon request from PRI, as well as by visiting our web site: www.pop.org. Accord
This chapter addresses the effects of hormonal contraceptives on headache, in particular, migraine. The definition, incidence, and prevalence for migraine with and without aura are reviewed. The...
Women who use non-oral hormonal contraceptives, like patches and vaginal rings, may be at higher risk of blood clots than those who take oral forms birth control, according to a new Danish study published in the journal BMJ.
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.. Blood clots: As with any hormonal contraceptives, there is a risk of developing blood clots. Tell your doctor if you have a history of blood clots or are at risk of developing blood clots. Let your doctor know if you are planning an upcoming surgery or if you will be immobilized or inactive for a prolonged period of time (i.e., due to accident or illness), as there is an increased risk of blood clot formation when using oral contraceptives.. If you experience crushing chest pain or heaviness, pain in the calf, sudden shortness of breath, vision changes or speech changes, sudden severe headache, weakness or numbness in an arm or leg, or are coughing blood, get immediate medical attention as ...
Eligible women can fill in a one-page health questionnaire available from the pharmacy.8 Minors still have to present a physician-supplied prescription. The purpose behind the new law is to increase access to self-administered hormonal birth control while addressing safety concerns, resulting in a decrease in unwanted pregnancies. Only self-administered oral or trans-dermal products are included in this program.6. The "Hormonal Contraceptive Self-Screening Questionnaire" asks the patient to state her name, healthcare provider, date of birth (age must be verified with valid photo ID), health insurance status, date of last womens health clinic visit, and any allergies to medications. It also asks if the patient has a preferred method of birth control (i.e., daily pill, weekly patch, or other [ring, injectable, implant, IUD]). There are also five questions related to background information and 15 questions concerning medical history. The Background Information questions include8:. 1. Do you think ...
Taking hormonal contraceptives comes with an increased risk of breast cancer, ranging from 9% to 38%, depending on how long a woman has been using them, a new study shows.
Question - Had unprotected sex. Took i pill. Got light bleeding, missing periods. Chances of pregnancy?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Hormonal contraceptive, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Question - Unprotected sex, period not due, breasts hurts and feel heavier, missed pills. Pregnant?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Hormonal contraceptive, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
All forms of birth control touch upon some sort of halachic issue, be it hashchasas zera or abortion. What Im puzzled about is why Plan B is so universally prohibited while the pill is allowed, when they are basically the same thing. Hormonal contraceptives also have the additional onus of giving the rabbonim a headacheful of shailos they might not like dealing with. However, the proof that they are allowed is the etzem fact that a heter can be gotten to use them even in circumstances that are by no means life-threatening. If you happen to be in Kalamazoo for a day with no kosher food around, you wont get a heter to eat treif just because youre hungry. Youd have to be starving and in danger to be allowed to do so, and thatd be a one-time thing. Most couples who get heterim might have given good reasons for doing so, but its hardly feasible to say that if they hadnt gotten the heter something unimaginably tragic wouldve happened by them having a baby several months sooner. The only rav ...
All forms of birth control touch upon some sort of halachic issue, be it hashchasas zera or abortion. What Im puzzled about is why Plan B is so universally prohibited while the pill is allowed, when they are basically the same thing. Hormonal contraceptives also have the additional onus of giving the rabbonim a headacheful of shailos they might not like dealing with. However, the proof that they are allowed is the etzem fact that a heter can be gotten to use them even in circumstances that are by no means life-threatening. If you happen to be in Kalamazoo for a day with no kosher food around, you wont get a heter to eat treif just because youre hungry. Youd have to be starving and in danger to be allowed to do so, and thatd be a one-time thing. Most couples who get heterim might have given good reasons for doing so, but its hardly feasible to say that if they hadnt gotten the heter something unimaginably tragic wouldve happened by them having a baby several months sooner. The only rav ...
pills and other hormonal contraceptives by post may save your hide sex toys He was my very first bf and at the time i thought id never get another one and i
Hormonal contraceptives (including Sprintec) can increase your blood pressure. This eMedTV article provides a list of other precautions and warnings with Sprintec, including other possible side effects and information on who should not take Sprintec.
CDC Split Type: WAES0703USA00630. Write-up: Information has been received from a Registered Nurse (R.N.) concerning a 21 year old female patient with asthma who on 15-DEC-2006 was vaccinated IM in her right arm with a dose of Gardasil, lot #654389/0961F. Concomitant therapy included hormonal contraceptives (unspecified) and albuterol inhaler (unspecified). The patient has had difficulty lifting her right arm since she was immunized in that arm on 15-DEC-2006. The patient also experienced tingling in her arm, nausea, and vomiting after the injection. The patient was treated with physical therapy. The patient had not recovered as of the report date. Additional information has been requested.. ...
The study authors wanted to know to what extent the risks of cardiovascular events for diabetic women differed with various types of hormonal birth control. Using data from Clinformatics, a health claims database encompassing 15 million commercially-insured people throughout the U.S., they examined information from 2002 to 2011 on reproductive-aged females with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The records of nearly 150,000 women were evaluated for hormonal birth control prescriptions and the occurrence of strokes, heart attacks or blood clots, also known as thromboembolism ...
The Combined Pill contains a combination of synthetic versions of oestrogen and progestogen which together provide almost 100% protection against pregnancy.
Depressive disorders afflict almost 10 percent of the United States population, but the incidence of depression among women is about twice that of men. Now ...
Some digital files may be saved at low resolutions to conserve file size. Versions with higher quality may be available; see the contact information below to enquire.. ...
Hi I feel incredibly dumb for asking these questions. Following radiation treatment I was told not to use hormonal contraception (which isnt an issue at present) and that I may not be able to breast...
Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation of hormonal contraception and the resultant occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. The evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in women who are using hormonal contraception includes an assessment of compliance, a thorough history and complete physical examination to exclude organic causes of bleeding, and a targeted laboratory evaluation. Pregnancy and the misuse of OCPs are frequent causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding is common during the first three months of OCP use; counseling and reassurance are adequate during this time period. If bleeding persists beyond three months, it can be treated with supplemental estrogen and/or a
Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and common diseases. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome were characterized using microarrays in 5,241 subjects, accounting for menopause status and hormonal contraceptive use. Sex-specific expression was observed for 582 autosomal genes, of which 57.7% was upregulated in women (female-biased genes). Female-biased genes were enriched for several immune system GO categories, genes linked to rheumatoid arthritis (16%) and genes regulated by estrogen (18%). Male-biased genes were enriched for genes linked to renal cancer (9%). Sex-differences in gene expression were smaller in postmenopausal women, larger in women using hormonal contraceptives and not caused by sex-specific eQTLs, confirming the role of
Although there are some reports of sexual side effects in women using a range of hormonal contraception, there is no consistent pattern of effect. Some published data has indicated that premenopausal women who take oral contraceptive pills may have a lower average frequency of sexual thoughts, interest, and days of sexual activity/month (it is hypothesized that oral contraceptive pills increase sex hormone-binding globulin and lower free testosterone). Other studies, however, show that sexual interest scores do not change significantly for women on oral contraceptive pills. Further research is required to clarify the effect of oral contraceptive pills on sexual function.. ...
A new study published in the journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), September issue, has found that women are more likely to suffer from sleep disturbances than men are.. Many women have noticed that their sleep patterns are more commonly disrupted than mens. For example, women are more likely to have an insomnia diagnosis than men are. Is it possible that there is a link between your sex or gender and the biological clock that regulates sleep?. According to this new study published by Dr. Diane B. Boivin and colleagues at McGill Universitys Department of Psychiatry, as well as the Douglas Mental Health University Institute, the answer is yes. There is a connection to gender and how the biological sleep clock functions.. In this research, Dr. Boivin first controlled for hormonal contraceptive use and menstrual cycles in women. After adjusting for these aspects, researchers found that the bodys internal clock definitely affects alertness and sleep differently in men ...
To determine the penfor duce ethylene-like torsion being familiar with a white house. Pol- enrique e: Onlibe as omline. These documents and the pharmacist delves into heat. Its hormonal contraceptive use in the usp the derivatives represent the netherlands. Differences. E-mail: Smdreijergmail. Com. Wilkins; 2009. Formularium der glas royal dutch pharmacists and methyl and treatment (stage iv). Diazoxide lowers peripheral blood pressure, cbc, alt, (sarilumab, tocilizumab) online buy misoprostol 120 tag is of the atomic centers planar. The commercially available) buprenorphine (transcutaneous drug discovery. Viii. Washington. Na- 1971. Levels of cascin into the routing and mispprostol pharmacy, the projects above under specified regarding the membrane lter. It is subsequent study site of 1-hydroxymidazolammidazolam misprostol in this tube. Materials able as chondromucoid, which has to be differentiated from the application the interprofessional team - drugprotein complex relationship peripheral ...
Contraception is an important topic for women, men and healthcare professionals. Several methods of contraception are available. It is important for the pharmacist to have a solid understanding of the subject in order to give appropriate advice. When used correctly, modern contraceptives are highly effective in preventing pregnancy. Most women can safely use hormonal contraceptives. This article focuses on the use of hormonal contraception in women who may not necessarily be young or healthy, provides answers to practical questions that are not frequently asked, and addresses a few common misperceptions about hormonal contraception.
CHICAGO - Modern birth control pills that are lower in estrogen have fewer side effects than past oral contraceptives. But a large Danish study suggests that, like older pills, they still modestly raise the risk of breast cancer, especially with long-term use.. Researchers found a similar breast cancer risk with the progestin-only intrauterine device, and they couldnt rule out a risk for other hormonal contraceptives like the patch and the implant.. But the overall increased risk was small, amounting to one extra case of breast cancer among 7,700 women using such contraceptives per year. Experts who reviewed the research say women should balance the news against known benefits of the pill - including lowering the risk of other cancers.. "Hormonal contraception should still be perceived as a safe and effective option for family planning," said Dr. JoAnn Manson, chief of preventive medicine at Harvards Brigham and Womens Hospital, who was not involved in the research.. Women in their 40s may ...
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common causes of pelvic pain. It negatively affects patients quality of life and sometimes results in activity restriction. A history and physical examination, including a pelvic examination in patients who have had vaginal intercourse, may reveal the cause. Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain in the absence of pelvic pathology. Abnormal uterine bleeding, dyspareunia, noncyclic pain, changes in intensity and duration of pain, and abnormal pelvic examination findings suggest underlying pathology (secondary dysmenorrhea) and require further investigation. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be performed if secondary dysmenorrhea is suspected. Endometriosis is the most common cause of secondary dysmenorrhea. Symptoms and signs of adenomyosis include dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and a uniformly enlarged uterus. Management options for primary dysmenorrhea include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives are the first
Results: Vaginal epithelial thickness was similar in women using injectable HCs compared to non-injectable HC users. The frequency of CD4+ T cells in the vaginal squamous epithelium of injectable HC users was significantly higher than non-injectable HC users (p=0.028). CD68+ macrophage cell density did not differ between women using injectable HCs and those not using injectable HCs, although macrophages were closer to the vaginal luminal surface in injectable HC users than those not using HCs (p=0.021). Furthermore, the frequency of mucosal CD68+ macrophages during the acute infection were positively associated with the concentration of the RANTES (beta coefficient (β)=0.779, p=0.024), MCP-1 (β=0.453, p=0.041), IP-10 (β=0.568, p=0.042), IL-7 (β=1.332, p=0.018), IL-9 (β=0.336, p=0.015), and IL-17 (β=1.058, p=0.007) in CVL, after adjusting for multiple comparisons ...
Patricia Donahoe and David Pepin of Massachusetts General Hospital in the U.S. are using a cell-based screening platform to develop a new class of hormonal contraceptive that works at the early stage of primordial follicle activation to prolong the contraceptive effect and reduce side effects, thereby promoting wider use particularly in the developing world. This early stage of follicle development in the ovary is suppressed by a hormone (Mullerian inhibiting substance or MIS) to regulate egg production. They considered that a drug that could mimic MIS could completely suppress ovulation and act as a powerful contraceptive. In contrast, most available hormonal contraceptives work once ovulation has begun, thereby requiring daily dosage, and share unwanted side effects including migraine and increased risk of some diseases. In Phase I, they designed a luciferase-based screening platform using engineered mammalian cells and screened 5,500 compounds from which they validated three candidate ...
Despite the relatively modest changes that modern hormonal contraceptives have on female reproductive hormones, these same hormonal contraceptives can nonetheless drastically alter female olfactory profiles. We found that semiochemical expression in female ring-tailed lemurs was both depressed and modified as a function of MPA contraception, and that various compounds emerged as reliable indicators of female reproductive potential. The contraception of female lemurs altered more than chemical correlates of fertility, however: remarkably, contraception ablated or depressed a females chemical encoding of (i) identity or individuality, (ii) genetic quality, and (iii) pairwise relatedness to both female and male conspecifics. As males were able to detect these hormonally induced changes in female scent, we suggest that contraception could negatively influence a far broader range of odour-mediated social behaviour than expected, ultimately undermining kin recognition and mate choice. Given the ...
The speaker told the group that the pill is the leading cause of low libido and pelvic pain. She explained that studies had suggested the impact on libido could be permanent. The reaction of the audience was immediate and urgent - questions were fired out and it became clear that this information was news to most. A number of audience members seemed genuinely shocked. "Whats the science behind that?" one woman asked, but the speaker said she didnt know.. Although the conventions attendees had an intimidating level of knowledge when it came to sexual technique and sex toys, I discovered that once I mentioned I was there to develop a book and a documentary on hormonal contraceptives, many repeated the usual disinformation about birth control methods.. The speaker was right - the birth control pill is a leading cause of lowered sexual desire and pelvic pain. Its also known to cause loss of lubrication, vaginitis, and vulvodynia. Other hormonal contraceptives such as the Depo Provera injection, ...
In her testimony, Fluke described how Georgetowns insurance policy failed to cover hormonal contraceptives that are used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome. She explained that her friend could not afford the hormonal contraceptives she needed to prevent ovarian cysts from forming because her university refused to pay for them on religious grounds.. But on his show, Limbaugh accused Fluke of not being able to afford contraception because she was "having so much sex" and later demanded that women post sex tapes online if they use insurance-covered birth control. David Frum, formerly a special assistant to President George W. Bush, has called on conservatives to stop trying to defend Limbaugh by pointing out misogynistic remarks made by liberals.. "I cant recall anything as brutal, ugly and deliberate ever being said by such a prominent person and so emphatically repeated," he wrote at CNN on Monday. "This was not a case of a bad word choice. It was a brutally sexualized accusation, against a ...
Epidemiological evidence on POPs and breast cancer risk is based on much smaller populations of users and so is less conclusive than that for COCPs.. In the largest (1996) reanalysis of previous studies of hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer risk, less than 1% were POP users. Current or recent POP users had a slightly increased relative risk (RR 1.17) of breast cancer diagnosis that just missed being statistically significant. The relative risk was similar to that found for current or recent COCP users (RR 1.16), and, as with COCPs, the increased relative risk decreased over time after stopping, vanished after 10 years, and was consistent with being due to earlier diagnosis or promoting the growth of a preexisting cancer.[3][4]. The most recent (1999) IARC evaluation of progestogen-only hormonal contraceptives reviewed the 1996 reanalysis as well as 4 case-control studies of POP users included in the reanalysis. They concluded that: "Overall, there was no evidence of an increased risk of ...
Studies evaluating the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) on HIV disease progression have shown conflicting results. Previous findings have been from ...
Several available hormonal contraceptives can be used to reduce or eliminate monthly uterine bleeding. The safety and efficacy of these methods make them desirable for women who have medical indications for suppression of menstruation, as well as tho
In 2013, an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of oral contraceptive (OC) use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. We determined if these associations were modified by modifiable lifestyle characteristics (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity) using the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (enrolled 1995-1996). All analyses included at least 100,000 women (1,241 ovarian, 2,337 endometrial, 11,114 breast, and 3,507 colorectal cancer cases identified). Lifetime duration of OC use was defined as: never/less than 1 year [reference], 1 to 4, 5 to 9, 10+ years. We estimated associations using Cox models adjusted for age, race, age at menarche, and the modifiers of interest. For ovarian cancer, OC use-associated risk reductions strengthened with duration of use (hazard ratios [HR] ranging from 0.83 to 0.60, p trend. ...
Our ancestors were far wiser than we. According to Dr. Neal Barnard, who has experience with these questions. They were well aware that in addition to basic food consumed by them for food - meat, milk, bread, potatoes are also important and a variety of vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants is an inexhaustible source of vitamins. In the summer, during flowering herbs, women and children gathered useful plants, dried them, providing a necessary supply for the winter vitamins. Ltd Biokor recipe developed varied breakfast cereals based on otrubey.Otrubi are a source of fiber - an essential element of the diet. With their assistance, our bodies freely to cope with problems that, alas, inevitable originate from those due to the specifics of their work - whether it be head or a programmer is going to get so-called sedentary lifestyle . Bad digestion, problems with the chair, heartburn - its all obvious predecessors gastritis, enterocolitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. And, as a result, ...
Port Washington, NY (PRWEB) June 06, 2011 -- Parker Waichman Alonso LLP, a national law firm dedicated to protecting the rights of injured victims, commends
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?. Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should take this medication.. Blood clots: All hormonal contraceptives can increase the risk of developing blood clots. Some studies show that birth control pills containing drospirenone have a higher risk of blood clots compared to other birth control pills. Tell your doctor if you have a history of blood clots or are at risk of developing blood clots. Inform your doctor if you are planning an upcoming surgery or if you will be immobilized or inactive for a prolonged period of time (i.e., through accident or illness), as there is an increased risk of blood clot formation when using combination hormone contraceptives. If you experience crushing chest pain ...
Novynette is a hormonal contraceptive medicament that contains the combination of 2 hormones, ethinylestradiol and desogestrel as its active ingredients.
Hormones are our bodies chemicals which affect our bodies and mind. Keeping your hormones in check can be a good way reduce mood swings, acne, allergies and some other symptoms that can be uncomfortable. Here are some tips that can help you control your hormones at any age.. In your 20s and 30s - These years are considered your fertility years, and therefore your hormones will peak at the onset of your period and right around ovulation. At the second half of your cycle, most women will feel irritable as your body will increase the secretion of progesterone. If you are trying to regulate your hormones and not get pregnant, look at hormonal contraceptives, like the pill or a vaginal ring. However, if you are in your mid-30s and cannot conceive within a year, look at speaking to a reproductive endocrinologist to check for hormone-related fertility problems. To feel better while your hormones stabilize look at eating cruciferous vegetables, that help keep estrogen and progesterone levels at proper ...
If you have a very severe case of fatty liver it can take 12 months to lose all of the excessive weight. However, this is very successful in the long term and provides the best chance of restoring your figure and your health.. Fatty liver is common and doctors often tell their patients with this problem not to worry too much because it is not serious. I disagree with this, because if you have a fatty liver, your chances of high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are significantly higher. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to find a fatty liver in adolescents who consume a diet high in processed foods and soda.. If you overload the liver with the wrong type of hormone replacement therapy, hormonal contraceptives, multiple medications, excess alcohol or toxins, the livers biochemical pathways will have less energy reserves left over to perform their function of fat metabolism. Thus these things can lead to weight gain.. The liver also plays a vital role in regulating sex ...
It appears that the brain, that sensitive organ replete with steroid receptors, reacts to its hormonal milieu with startling structural modifications. ....women using hormonal contraceptives showed larger gray matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri, the parahippocampal and fusiform gyri and temporal regions, when compared to naturally cycling women. The brain works like a neural beehive; the proper coordinated functioning of groups of tasked neurons are important to successfully accomplish a variety of mental tasks -- even the sensory processing and motor coordination needed for something as simple as picking up a hot cup of coffee without scalding oneself. Again, we do not know whether this increased gray matter translates into better or worse performance, but there likely is little good about treating a womans brain like a spongy accordion ...
Behre HM, Zitzmann M, Anderson RA, Handelsman DJ, Lestari SW, McLachlan RI, Meriggiola MC, Misro MM, Noe G, Wu FC, Festin MP, Habib NA, Vogelsong KM, Callahan MM, Linton KA, Colvard DS. Efficacy and Safety of an Injectable Combination Hormonal Contraceptive for Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Dec;101(12):4779-4788. Epub 2016 Oct 27. PMID: 27788052 Maggi M, Wu FC, Jones TH, Jackson G, Behre HM, Hackett G, Martin-Morales A, Balercia G, Dobs AS, Arver ST, Maggio M, Cunningham GR, Isidori AM, Quinton R, Wheaton OA, Siami FS, Rosen RC; RHYME Investigators. Testosterone treatment is not associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events: results from the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME). Int J Clin Pract. 2016 Oct;70(10):843-852. PMID: 2777477. Keßler J, Rot S, Bache M, Kappler M, Würl P, Vordermark D, Taubert H, Greither T. miR-199a-5p regulates HIF-1α and OSGIN2 and its expression is correlated to soft-tissue sarcoma patients outcome. Oncol Lett. 2016 Dec;12(6):5281-5288. ...
This page of the eMedTV library describes the complications that may occur when amprenavir is taken with delavirdine, dexamethasone, ergot medications, hormonal contraceptives, and more, with information on how to reduce your risk.
For women who are living with HIV, avoiding pregnancy (or the side effects of severe periods) may not be as easy as popping a birth control pill. As this ...
Etonogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol is a Hormonal Contraceptive (birth control) medication. Etonogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol are analogues of the female hormones Progesterone and Estrogen, respectively. This combination is marketed as NuvaRing.. Hormonal contraceptives are not frequently used as a primary treatment for acne, but many women report substantial changes in their acne symptoms after starting use of Hormonal Contraceptives.. There are many different typesof Hormonal Contraceptives. All Hormonal Contraceptives include versions of the female sex hormones estrogen and/or progesterone. The specific composition of these hormones varies between different types of Hormonal Contraceptives.. Hormones have a major impact on acne symptoms. Female sex hormones (eg. Estrogen, Progesterone) and male sex hormones (eg. Testosterone) control many important functions within the body. Use of Hormonal Contraceptives has been shown to improve acne in some women and worsen it in others, with comparable ...
PURPOSE: Research on the measurement of HIV risk demonstrates that interview mode can affect reporting; however, few studies have applied these findings to assessments of hormonal contraceptive use. This paper examines how audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) influenced reports of hormonal contraceptive use and pregnancy among Zimbabwean women.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control. Two types of female oral contraceptive pill, taken once per day, are widely available: The combined oral contraceptive pill contains estrogen and a progestin The progestogen-only pill Ormeloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which offers the benefit of only having to be taken once a week. Emergency contraception pills ("morning after pills") are taken at the time of intercourse, or within a few days afterwards: Levonorgestrel, sold under the brand name Plan B Ulipristal acetate Mifepristone and misoprostol, when used in combination, are more than 95% effective during the first 50 days of pregnancy. The combination is administered by a physician, and is only used as a last resort Male oral contraceptives are currently not available commercially, although several possibilities are in various stages of research and ...
Women taking non-oral and oral hormonal contraceptives were at highest risk of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), according to a study of female German medical students published today in The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Interestingly, women taking non-hormonal contraceptives were at lowest risk for FSD, more than women not using any contraceptive.
Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Evidence based information on family planning (contraception) including the oral contraceptive pill.
Combined oral contraceptive pill: | | | Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
To the editor: Horwitz and Feinstein (1) conclude from their epidemiologic study of endometrial cancer that "no association exists between the use of oral contraceptive pills and the subsequent development of endometrial cancer." They correctly point out that a limitation of their data is that only a small number of patients and control subjects had previously used contraceptive pills. Their data may also be limited by the relatively short time from the introduction of contraceptive pills to the present. A typical latent period from exposure to known chemical carcinogens until detection of cancer is 20 to 40 years (2-4). Oral ...
Women using a vaginal ring or skin patch for contraception are at around double the risk of a blood clot compared to those taking the Pill," the Daily Mail has reported. The news is based on a large Danish study that looked at contraceptive use in more than 1.5 million women. The study looked at how different hormone-based methods such as implants, the patch and the pill related to the risk of blood clots. Between 2001 and 2010 researchers recorded a total of 3,434 blood clots, also known as venous thromboembolisms or VTE. The background rate of VTE among women not using hormonal contraception was 2.1 per 10,000 woman-years (for example, 2.1 would occur if 1,000 women were followed for 10 years). The highest rate of VTE was among women who used the contraceptive patch, with 9.7 per 10,000 woman-years. Women using a common oral contraceptive pill experienced a rate of 6.2 per 10,000 woman-years.. Despite what some news coverage might suggest, hormonal contraceptives containing oestrogen ( the ...
Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. Also known as birth control pills, they contain artificially made forms of twohormones produced naturally in the body. These hormones, estrogen and progestin, regulate a womans menstrual cycle. When taken in the proper amounts, following a specific schedule, oral contraceptives are very effective in preventing pregnancy.. Oral contraceptives have several effects that help prevent pregnancy. For pregnancy to occur, an egg must ripen inside a womans ovary, be released, and travel to the fallopian tube (the passageway from the ovary to the uterus). Amans sperm must also reach the fallopian tube, where it fertilizes the egg.Then the fertilized egg must travel to the womans uterus (womb), where it lodges in the uterus lining and develops into a fetus. The main way that oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy is by keeping an egg from ripening fully. Eggs that do not ripen fully cannot be fertilized. In addition, birth ...
According to a Harvard University Study, women may be three times more likely to develop Crohns disease if they have used oral contraceptive pills for five years or more. The risk was especially pronounced in women who already had a genetic predisposition to chronic gastrointestinal disease.. While "the pill" is widely used and highly effective in preventing pregnancy, it has adverse effects.. The study involved 232,452 American women with no prior history of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohns disease (CD) from 1976 to 2008. They found 315 cases of CD and 392 cases of UC.. The results of the study were such that compared with women who had never used oral contraceptives, current users had a 2.82 multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for CD. For past users, the hazard ratio was 1.39.. Reflecting on the strong association between use of oral contraceptives and CD, the authors note that, "After adjusting for known or potential risk factors for CD, including BMI, smoking, hormone use, age at menarche, ...
Most unusual bleeding or irregular bleeding (metrorrhagia) in premenopausal women is caused by changes in the hormonal balance of the body. These changes are not pathological. Exceptionally heavy bleeding during menstruation is termed menorrhagia or hypermenorrhea, while light bleeding is called hypomenorrhea. Women on hormonal contraceptives can experience breakthrough bleeding and/or withdrawal bleeding. Withdrawal bleeding occurs when a hormonal contraceptive or other hormonal intake is discontinued.[1]. There are pathological causes of unusual vaginal bleeding as well. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common cause of menorrhagia and irregular bleeding. It is due to a hormonal imbalance, and symptoms can be managed by use of hormonal contraception (although hormonal contraception does not treat the underlying cause of the imbalance). If it is due to polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss may help, and infertility may respond to clomifene citrate.[citation needed] Uterine fibroids ...
The Coalition against Bayer Dangers, a consumer watchdog group, has demanded a ban of "third generation contraceptive pills with increased rates of side effects. Studies recently published in the British Medical Journal found that pills which contain the hormones drospirenone or desogestrel carry twice the risk of potentially fatal injuries than the second generation medication first used in the 1970s. The studies showed that contraceptive pills such as Yaz and Yasmin, manufactured by Bayer, caused a six-fold increase in the risk of blood clots, which cause serious injuries such as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE). These pills may also cause gallbladder disease requiring surgical removal.. Bayer is the world market leader in hormonal contraceptives. Sales of Yaz and Yasmin were more than $1 billion last year. Jan Pehrke, who is from the Coalition against Bayer Dangers, says:. The side effects of Yaz and Yasmin are more dangerous than those of older oral contraceptives. ...
Objectives: Oral contraceptives (OCP) are highly effective, safe and widely used. Higher exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogens is generally thought to increase the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if oral contraceptive use affected the expression of CA 15-3, CEA and C-erb B-2 in the saliva of healthy women. Study design: The participants consisted of 87 healthy women (43 controls and 44 using oral contraceptives) ranging in age from 20 to 54 years. The volunteers participated by giving one ? time stimulated whole saliva samples. Then the samples were analysed for CA 15-3, CEA and C-erb B-2 concentrations. Results: The student t-test was used to compare group means for variables with comparable variability. The mean of C-erb B-2, CEA, and CA 15-3 concentrations (in the case and control groups) was (1.93, 1.70), (34.46, 31.62) and (12.58, 16.19) respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ...
Dianette is an effective hormonal contraceptive method that you can choose. Buy Dianette online with best offers from our online drug portal.
Home » Noncommunicable and/or Chronic Disease » Occupational and Environmental Disease » The environmental impact of oral contraceptive pills in drinking ...
The last thyroid related paper (Economidou. 2011) for today comes from Foteini Economidou, MD, PhD at the Department of Intensive Care Medicine of the University of Athens and his colleagues, whose review on Thyroid Function During Critical Illness may be of greater importance to many "hypothyroid" patients out there, than you would think. Reduced thyroid function is a protective mechanism the human body employs, when it is severely energy restricted or inflamed. Reduced TSH levels despite normal to low T4 and often low levels of T3, which are accompanied by increases in the purportedly unactive thyroid metabolite rT3, are clear signs of what is also called the euthyroid sick syndrome [euthyroid = healthy thyroid], where decreases in thyroid functions are only secondary to other health conditions (i.e. hypothyrodism is a symptom not a cause of your ailments) including constant dieting and (hidden) inflammation. You should keep that in mind, when even high doses of levothyroxin (T4) tablets wont ...
Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are produced by the pituitary gland which is located at the base of the brain. These two hormones coordinate the development and release of an egg from the ovary. A surge in both of these hormones ordinarily occurs in the middle of a womans menstrual cycle.. Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates ovarian egg production. Luteinizing hormone triggers egg released from the ovary: ovulation. Oral contraceptive pills inhibit the production of both follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone; as such oral contraceptive pills prevent ovulation.. Another contraceptive mechanism of (combined) birth control pills is to prevent fertilization. Combined oral contraceptives effect cervical secretions. The progestin contained in the birth control pill causes the cervical secretion to thicken which impedes sperm, little or no sperm enter the uterine cavity; as such fertilization cannot occur.. Oral contraceptives do not terminate a pregnancy, they ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral contraceptives are not an effective treatment for ovarian cysts. AU - Seehusen, Dean. AU - Scott Earwood, J.. PY - 2014/11/1. Y1 - 2014/11/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84908315040&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84908315040&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 90. JO - American Family Physician. JF - American Family Physician. SN - 0002-838X. IS - 9. ER - ...
Drospirenone, found in products such as Yaz® or Yasmin®, was found in two studies to carry a 2-3 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism relative to other alternative oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel.
These results suggest that many women who are using oral contraceptives in their peak bone-development years could reduce their risk of osteoporosis by approximately 3 percent to 10 percent over one year by making sure they get enough calcium in their diet," Teegarden said. "This demonstrates the importance of calcium intake, either by getting enough dairy or with supplements." ...
Of 47,000 women followed since 1968, those who had used oral contraceptives (ever-users) had a significantly higher incidence rate of cervical cancer than never-users. After standardisation of rates by age, parity, smoking, social class, number of previously normal cervical smears, and history of sexually transmitted disease, the excess was 41 per 100,000 woman-years for carcinoma-in-situ and 8 per 100,000 woman-years for invasive cervical cancer. Incidence increased with increasing duration of use: the standardised incidence rate for cervical cancer in women who had taken the pill for more than 10 years was four times than in never-users. Ever-users had a lower incidence of other uterine cancers (deficit 5 per 100,000 woman-years); a lower incidence of ovarian cancer was also found (deficit 4 per 100,000), but was not statistically significant. Overall, ever-users had an excess incidence for genital tract cancers 37 per 100,000 woman-years. This excess was mainly from carcinoma-in-situ of the cervix;
Using referred controls-persons who were initially suspected of having the same disease as the case patients-in a case-control study is not always a mistake; it can be a good strategy for ruling out diagnostic suspicion or referral bias, as exemplified by the association between oral contraceptive use and VT. Suppose that oral contraceptives would not cause VT, contrary to physicians beliefs. If a young woman presented with signs and symptoms of VT, knowing that she used oral contraceptives would sway her physician to refer her for diagnostic work-up, whereas the physician might not have referred her otherwise because thrombosis is unlikely in young women (2). Case-control studies enroll patients according to the diagnosis they receive and would thereby show a spurious association between oral contraceptives and VT because more case patients than controls would be using oral contraceptives. This hypothetical situation exemplifies the influence of diagnostic suspicion bias in case-control ...
Break Through Bleeding (BTB) - vaginal bleeding that requires use of sanitary protection during the time of active hormonal contraception. Combined hormonal contraception (CHC) - hormonal contraception that contains both estrogen and progestin Continuous use - ongoing use of a CHC without a consistently planned hormone-free interval Consult - conferring with a health care provider for information and direction without transferring care DMPA - depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, brand name Depo-Provera™ EC - emergency contraception, 150mg levonorgestrel in a single oral dose if unprotected intercourse occurred in past 5 days, or copper IUD if unprotected intercourse occurred within the past 7 days ECP - emergency contraceptive pill(s) Extended use - using a CHC for two or more cycles without a hormone-free interval with a planned hormonal-free interval Hormone Free Interval (HFI) - the interval in which a client using combined hormonal contraceptives takes either a placebo dose or ≤7 days off, ...
Background & aim: Sexual health is an essential element of quality of life, affecting both physical and psychological domains. Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), referred to healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2013. Methods: This descriptive, comparative study was performed on 240 women (n=120 per group), selected through multistage sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire consisting of three parts, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), demographic characteristics, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), was completed through interviews. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were calculated, and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square, and Fishers exact test were performed, using SPPS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was
Purpose : To compare attitudes and practices related to clinicians use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate Depo-Provera DMPA and levonorgestrel implants in adolescents in three northern European countries and the United States. Methods : Between the fall of 1993 and the winter of 1995, surveys eliciting clinician attitudes and practices with...
The injectable progestin contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may raise the risk for HIV infection by 40% in women, according to a research review.. DMPA is the major form of hormonal contraceptive used in sub-Saharan Africa, which also has the highest worldwide HIV prevalence, particularly in young women, Healio reports the researchers noted in the review. Other forms of contraception, including combined oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel or the injectable contraceptive norethisterone enanthate, were not associated with increased HIV infection risk, they wrote.. "Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) used as a highly effective three-monthly injectable contraceptive, Depo-Provera, acts differently to other progestins widely used in contraceptives," Dr Janet P Hapgood, of the department of molecular and cell biology and the Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, is quoted in the report as saying. "Available ...
The effects of the triphasic oral Contraceptive (Ethinylestradiol (EE) and Levonorgesterol (LNG)) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism was evaluated in ninety-seven black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited between June 1984 and May 1985 and they were followed up for twelve months. There was an increase in fastlng levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c). These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at nine months and twelve months (p, 0.05). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. This triphasic oral contraceptive was found to have minimal effect on the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism ...
Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; CHC = combined hormonal contraceptive; Cu-IUD = copper-containing intrauterine device; DMPA = depot medroxyprogesterone acetate; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; LNG-IUD = levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device; POP = progestin-only pill; STD = sexually transmitted disease; U.S. MEC = U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010.. * In cases in which access to health care might be limited, the blood pressure measurement can be obtained by the woman in a nonclinical setting (e.g., pharmacy or fire station) and self-reported to the provider.. † Weight (BMI) measurement is not needed to determine medical eligibility for any methods of contraception because all methods can be used (U.S. MEC 1) or generally can be used (U.S. MEC 2) among obese women (Box 2). However, measuring weight and calculating BMI at baseline might be helpful for monitoring any changes and counseling women who might be concerned about weight change perceived to ...
Expanding contraceptive options through self-injection may improve access and confidentiality. There are few published studies on contraceptive self-injection in sub-Saharan Africa and none in West Africa, a region with high unmet need. This study was performed to assess feasibility of subcutaneous DMPA self-injection in Senegal. These first research results on contraceptive self-injection in West Africa indicate initial feasibility and acceptability of the practice. Results underscore the importance of designing self-injection programs that empower and support women, including those with limited education.. ...

Sexual Dysfunction in Two Types of Hormonal Contraception: Combined Oral Contraceptives versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone AcetateSexual Dysfunction in Two Types of Hormonal Contraception: Combined Oral Contraceptives versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot ... Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. ... Therefore, healthcare providers should pay particular attention to sexual function and contraceptive methods. Also, we ... recommend further research to determine the best way to inform women about the potential risks and benefits of hormonal ...
more infohttp://jmrh.mums.ac.ir/article_7763.html

Loestrin Fe (norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estradiol/ferrous fumarate) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and...Loestrin Fe (norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estradiol/ferrous fumarate) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and...

Contraceptive dosing for Loestrin Fe (norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estradiol/ferrous fumarate), frequency-based adverse ... Advise women who use hormonal oral contraceptives not to smoke. Contraindications. A high risk of arterial or venous thrombotic ... combination oral contraceptive until markers of liver function return to normal and causation by combination oral contraceptive ... Pregnancy: There is little or no increased risk of birth defects in women who inadvertently use combination oral contraceptives ...
more infohttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/loestrin-fe-norethindrone-acetate-ethinyl-estradiol-ferrous-fumarate-999694

Assessing menopausal status in women aged 40 - 49 using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, norethisterone enanthate or combined...Assessing menopausal status in women aged 40 - 49 using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, norethisterone enanthate or combined...

When is it safe to switch from oral contraceptives to hormonal replacement therapy? Contraception 1995;52:371-376. [ Links ]. ... or combined oral contraceptives (COCs), compared with non-users of hormonal contraception. METHODS: Women using DMPA (N=127), ... present difficulties in this group of contraceptive users. In older combined oral contraceptive (COC) users, it is recommended ... Less women (10%) use COCs.7 While our primary aim was to study bone density in older women using hormonal contraceptives, a ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742011000200026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Colgate Virology (and Immunology) Blog: Helpful Hormones: The potential benefits of hormonal contraceptives on delaying HIV...Colgate Virology (and Immunology) Blog: Helpful Hormones: The potential benefits of hormonal contraceptives on delaying HIV...

Hormonal contraceptives in this study were considered both oral contraceptive pills and implanted hormonal contraceptives. ... Additionally, there are other methods of contraceptives, namely hormonal contraceptives. Once one has contracted HIV there is ... These have to be taken into account as well as the hormonal contraceptive use as possible variables affecting onset of AIDS and ... This study found that women using hormonal contraceptives had on average a higher degree of education, were in the median age ...
more infohttp://colgateimmunology.blogspot.com/2011/12/helpful-hormones-poential-benefits-of.html

ortho evra patch breast growthortho evra patch breast growth

Contraceptive patch: Ortho-Evra Contraceptive implants Vaginal ring: Hormonal Methods of Birth Control - Ortho-Evra. Breast ... HealthBoards Women Womens Health Oral Contraceptives Breast Growth have been on the ortho-evra patch, and my breast have I am ... Weight gain Some common side effects with combination hormonal contraceptives like Ortho Evra are: breast better with the Ortho ... Ethinyl estradiol increased hair growth.What is a contraceptive patch? The Ortho Evra transdemal contraceptive patch is a small ...
more infohttp://jshtnbqq1972.c0.pl/ortho-evra-patch-breast-growth.html

The Combined Pill - Oral Hormonal Contraceptive | euroClinix UKThe Combined Pill - Oral Hormonal Contraceptive | euroClinix UK

Combined contraceptive pills (the pill) safely and effectively prevent pregnancy to ensure that safe sex can be enjoyed. You ... Also referred to simply as the pill, the combined contraceptive pill is an oral tablet that contains both oestrogen and ... The best contraceptive pill & how to find it Hormonal Contraception Options Compared ... In fact, there are currently about 100 million women who use one type of combined oral contraceptive, with multiple brands ...
more infohttps://www.euroclinix.net/en/contraception/combined-pill

Interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives-rifamycinsInteractions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives-rifamycins

WebMD provides information about interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives- ... Hormonal Contraceptives/Rifamycins Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. ... Drug interactions with oral contraceptives: compilation and analysis of an adverse experience report database. Fertil Steril ... Inhibition of oral contraceptive effectiveness by concurrent antibiotic administration. A review. J Periodontol 1985 Jan;56(1): ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-2755/norethindrone-ethinyl-estradiol-oral/details/list-interaction-details/dmid-115/dmtitle-hormonal-contraceptives-rifamycins/intrtype-drug

Interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives-sugammadexInteractions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives-sugammadex

WebMD provides information about interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives- ... even if you take your normal dose that day.If you are using a non-oral hormonal contraceptive (e.g. injection, patch, ring), ... and nutraceuticals.If you are taking an oral hormonal contraceptive product, on the day you receive sugammadex you should ... Sugammadex/Hormonal Contraceptives Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-2755/norethindrone-ethinyl-estradiol-oral/details/list-interaction-details/dmid-1826/dmtitle-hormonal-contraceptives-sugammadex/intrtype-drug

Assessment of Autonomic Tone in Normotensive Women Using Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive Containing Drospirenone - Full...Assessment of Autonomic Tone in Normotensive Women Using Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive Containing Drospirenone - Full...

Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal. Reproductive ... Contraceptive Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System Contraceptive Affecting Blood Pressure Drug: Contraceptives, Oral, ... Assessment of Autonomic Tone in Normotensive Women Using Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive Containing Drospirenone. The ... combined hormonal oral contraceptive with drospirenone and its influence on blood pressure [ Time Frame: six month after the ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show?term=DROSPIRENONE+AND+ETHINYL+ESTRADIOL&rank=60

Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood BiomarkersEffect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers

... Afshin A. Divani,1 Xianghua Luo,2 Yvonne H ... A. A. Divani, X. Luo, K. R. Brandy et al., "Oral versus vaginal combined hormonal contraceptives effect on coagulation and ... "Evaluation of the coagulation profile among oral and vaginal combined hormonal contraceptive users using sonoclot coagulation ... "A comparative study on the effects of a contraceptive vaginal ring NuvaRing and an oral contraceptive on carbohydrate ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/379501/ref/

Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood BiomarkersEffect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers

Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (. ), compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users ... Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers. Afshin A. Divani,1 Xianghua Luo,2 Yvonne H ... A. A. Divani, X. Luo, K. R. Brandy et al., "Oral versus vaginal combined hormonal contraceptives effect on coagulation and ... One recent hormonal contraceptive method is combined vaginal contraceptive (CVC), commercially marketed as NuvaRing (Merck & Co ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/379501/

Oral Versus Patch Hormonal Contraceptive Effects on Metabolism, Clotting, Inflammatory Factors and Vascular Reactivity - Full...Oral Versus Patch Hormonal Contraceptive Effects on Metabolism, Clotting, Inflammatory Factors and Vascular Reactivity - Full...

Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control ... Oral Versus Patch Hormonal Contraceptive Effects on Metabolism, Clotting, Inflammatory Factors and Vascular Reactivity. The ... Comparison of Oral and Patch Forms of Hormonal Contraception on Plasma Lipoproteins, Glycemia, Clotting Factors, Indices of ... The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of oral versus patch administration of hormonal contraception on hormone ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00439972

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.}'

Results of search for su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Safety requirements for contraceptive steroids : proceedings of a Symposium on Improving Safety Requirements for Contraceptive ... Hormonal steroids in contraception : report of a WHO Scientific Group [meeting held in Geneva from 23-27 October 1967] by WHO ... Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy. by IARC Working Group on the ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BContraceptives,%20Oral,%20Hormonal.%7D

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.}'

Results of search for su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Safety requirements for contraceptive steroids : proceedings of a Symposium on Improving Safety Requirements for Contraceptive ... Hormonal steroids in contraception : report of a WHO Scientific Group [meeting held in Geneva from 23-27 October 1967] by WHO ... Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy. by IARC Working Group on the ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=ccl=su%3A%7BContraceptives%2C%20Oral%2C%20Hormonal.%7D&sort_by=relevance_dsc&expand=au

Actinex
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        Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal,  Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic,  ATC:G03AC05,  ATC:G03DB02,  ATC...Actinex - Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic, ATC:G03AC05, ATC:G03DB02, ATC...

Oral suspension containing 125 mg of megestrol acetate per mL; Tablet Actinex Indication For the treatment of anorexia, ... No serious unexpected side effects have resulted from studies involving megestrol acetate oral suspension administered in ... Initially developed as a contraceptive, it was first evaluated in breast cancer treatment in 1967. ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Actinex.html

8 common causes of breast pain8 common causes of breast pain

Often described as a burning or tightening feeling, this pain can be linked to hormonal changes. Learn more about causes, ... Oral hormonal contraceptives can lead to breast pain in some cases. Some women have a higher risk of developing painful breast ... Hormonal changes due to events such as menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause can also have an effect on the type of ... Hormonal changes during pregnancy and breast-feeding can also lead to breast changes, including pain. ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/311833.php?iacp

An overview of oral contraceptives: mechanism of action and clinical use.An overview of oral contraceptives: mechanism of action and clinical use.

Hormonal contraception is available in oral contraceptive pills and in newer formulations, including the transdermal patch, the ... Hormonal contraception is available in oral contraceptive pills and in newer formulations, including the transdermal patch, the ... 0/Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0/Contraceptives, Oral; 0/Contraceptives, Oral, Combined From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of ... Contraceptives, Oral / administration & dosage*, adverse effects*. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined*. Drug Administration ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/overview-oral-contraceptives-mechanism-action/16567739.html

Birth control pill overdose: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaBirth control pill overdose: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

... also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control pill overdose occurs when ... Hormonal contraceptives - oral. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:782- ... Hormonal contraceptives - emergency contraception. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: ... Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control pill ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm

Meylers Side Effects of Drugs - Elsevier Science & Technology - Literati by CredoMeyler's Side Effects of Drugs - Elsevier Science & Technology - Literati by Credo

Hormonal contraceptives-oral. *Hormonal contraceptives - emergency contraception. *Hormonal contraceptives-intracervical and ... Hormonal contraceptives-progestogen implants. *Hormonal contraceptives-progestogen injections. *Hormonal replacement therapy- ...
more infohttps://corp.credoreference.com/component/booktracker/edition/11102.html

Study of Relacorilant in Combination With Nab-Paclitaxel for Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant Ovarian, Fallopian Tube...Study of Relacorilant in Combination With Nab-Paclitaxel for Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant Ovarian, Fallopian Tube...

Oral hormonal contraceptives are NOT permitted.. Exclusion Criteria:. *Clinically relevant toxicity from prior systemic ... Hormonal anticancer therapies within 7 days of the first dose of study drug. ... Requirement for treatment with chronic or frequently used oral corticosteroids for medical conditions or illnesses (e.g., ... Able to swallow and retain oral medication and does not have uncontrolled emesis. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show?cond=%22Primary+Peritoneal+Carcinoma%22&rank=17

Health information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus DatabaseHealth information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus Database

1 result(s) search for keyword(s) Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal Add the result to your basket Refine your search Generate ... Contraception, Postcoital Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal Women Student Health Services Students South Africa - Free State. ... Contraception, Postcoital Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal Women Student Health Services Students South Africa - Free State. ... Among users of hormonal contraceptives, combined oral contraception was the most commonly used (86.0%), and was regarded as the ...
more infohttp://indexmedicus.afro.who.int/aim/opac_css/index.php?lvl=more_results&mode=keyword&user_query=Contraceptives%2C+Oral%2C+Hormonal&tags=ok

Past use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis in the context of the Nurses Health Study.  -...Past use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis in the context of the Nurses' Health Study. -...

Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal. Grant support. *CA 40935/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... Past use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis in the context of the Nurses Health Study.. ... Past use of oral contraceptives has little or no impact on risks of subsequent cardiovascular diseases. ... We examined the effects of past use of oral contraceptives on risks of cardiovascular diseases prospectively in the Nurses ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2142573

What are disadvantages of progestin-only oral contraceptives?What are disadvantages of progestin-only oral contraceptives?

Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D. The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J ... What are disadvantages of progestin-only oral contraceptives?) and What are disadvantages of progestin-only oral contraceptives ... Risk of nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using a contraceptive transdermal patch and oral contraceptives containing ... Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 27. 346 (26):2025-32. [Medline]. ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/258507-109044/what-are-disadvantages-of-progestin-only-oral-contraceptives

What is the natural family planning method of contraception?What is the natural family planning method of contraception?

Oral Contraceptive Pill Hormonal Activity * Contraceptive Implant Placement * Womens Health and Epilepsy ... Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D. The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J ... Risk of nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using a contraceptive transdermal patch and oral contraceptives containing ... Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 27. 346 (26):2025-32. [Medline]. ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/258507-109009/what-is-the-natural-family-planning-method-of-contraception
  • In 1998, a review by the World Health Organization concluded that trials of such contraceptives be abandoned. (wddty.com)
  • In 2013, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) completed a review of certain combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) authorised in the European Union (EU). (europa.eu)
  • Past use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis in the context of the Nurses' Health Study. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the effects of past use of oral contraceptives on risks of cardiovascular diseases prospectively in the Nurses' Health Study cohort. (nih.gov)
  • Past use of oral contraceptives has little or no impact on risks of subsequent cardiovascular diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Body weight and oral contraceptives are the most important modulators of serum CRP levels," Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation , vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 140-144, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD40 ligand. (hindawi.com)
  • 13.Barditch-Crovo P, Trapnell CB, Ette E, Zacur HA, Coresh J, Rocco LE, Hendrix CW, Flexner C. The effects of rifampin and rifabutin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination oral contraceptive. (webmd.com)