Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Absence of menstruation.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The unmarried man or woman.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Painful menstruation.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Size and composition of the family.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/387)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Oral contraceptive use and risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. (2/387)

BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic disease refers to a spectrum of rare benign and malignant gynecologic disorders whose pathogenesis is not well understood. Recent studies from China and the United States have raised the hypothesis that long-term use of oral contraceptives before conception may increase the risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. A multicenter case-control study of gestational trophoblastic tumors was undertaken to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 235 case patients, including 50 with gestational choriocarcinoma, and 413 control subjects matched on recentness of pregnancy, age at pregnancy, and area of residence. Relative risks (odds ratios) were computed by conditional logistic regression. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: The relative risk estimate for ever having used oral contraceptives before the index pregnancy was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.0), and the risk increased with duration of use (P for trend = .05). The estimate was highest for women who used oral contraceptives during the cycle in which they became pregnant (relative risk = 4.0; 95% CI=1.6-10), but there was no consistent pattern according to the time interval since last use. Separate analyses of choriocarcinoma and persistent mole yielded similar results, i.e., the relative risk estimates for oral contraceptive use were 2.2 (95% CI=0.8-6.4) and 1.8 (95% CI=1.0-3.0), respectively. Control for the number of sexual partners, which was independently associated with risk (P for trend = .05), did not materially change the results. CONCLUSIONS: This study, the largest to date, indicates that long duration of oral contraceptive use before conception increases the risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. These findings may provide clues to the pathogenesis of this rare disease. Changes in use of oral contraceptives are not warranted, however, because the incidence attributable to oral contraceptive use is very low.  (+info)

Reproductive factors of ovarian and endometrial cancer risk in a high fertility population in Mexico. (3/387)

A case-control study was carried out in Mexico City during 1995-1997 among women with epithelial ovarian cancer (84 cases) and endometrial cancer (85 cases). The control group consisted of 668 healthy women, matched according to age categories. In a multivariate analysis, the reproductive risk factors for ovarian and endometrial cancer are similar. The risk of ovarian cancer was inversely related to the number of full-term pregnancies; the odds ratio (OR) was 0.17 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.05-0.54 when comparing nulliparous women versus those with more than seven pregnancies. For endometrial cancer, a similar association was observed (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.34). The use of oral contraceptive hormones was inversely associated with both ovarian (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.83) and endometrial cancer risk (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90). In women with a history of more than 8.7 years without ovulation, the risk of ovarian cancer decreased four times (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.50), and that of endometrial cancer decreased more than five times (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.35). These two neoplasms are clearly typified as hormone dependent, and it is possible to establish that "ovulation" and "exfoliative" mechanisms jointly determine the level of risk for both ovarian and endometrial cancer.  (+info)

Jugular vein thrombosis: a rare presentation of atypical chronic myeloproliferative disorder in a young woman. (4/387)

Venous thromboembolism is common in subjects with chronic myeloproliferative disorders and is a recognized presenting feature of occult myeloproliferation. We report the case of a young woman who presented with acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein and pulmonary embolism. Splenomegaly and myeloid proliferation with bone marrow fibrosis, in the absence of the criteria for typical myeloproliferative disorders, allowed a diagnosis of an atypical form of chronic myeloproliferative disorder. This form carries a high risk of thrombosis and venous thromboembolism can be the presenting feature, though the course is often indolent. Acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein has not been so far described in these subjects. The outcome of young people with myelofibrosis is unpredictable, but a normal level of hemoglobin and the absence of blast cells and constitutional symptoms at presentation identifies subjects with a low probability of rapid disease progression.  (+info)

Effects of oral contraceptives on body fluid regulation. (5/387)

To test the hypothesis that estrogen reduces the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP), thirst, and body water balance, we studied nine women (25 +/- 1 yr) during 150 min of dehydrating exercise followed by 180 min of ad libitum rehydration. Subjects were tested six different times, during the early-follicular (twice) and midluteal (twice) menstrual phases and after 4 wk of combined [estradiol-norethindrone (progestin), OC E + P] and 4 wk of norethindrone (progestin only, OC P) oral contraceptive administration, in a randomized crossover design. Basal plasma osmolality (P(osm)) was lower in the luteal phase (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means, P < 0.05), OC E + P (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0.05), and OC P (282 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0. 05) than in the follicular phase (286 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means). High plasma estradiol concentration lowered the P(osm) threshold for AVP release during the luteal phase and during OC E + P [x-intercepts, 282 +/- 2, 278 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O, for follicular, luteal (combined means), OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, luteal phase and OC E + P vs. follicular phase] during exercise dehydration, and 17beta-estradiol administration lowered the P(osm) threshold for thirst stimulation [x-intercepts, 280 +/- 2, 279 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O for follicular, luteal, OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, OC E + P vs. follicular phase], without affecting body fluid balance. When plasma 17beta-estradiol concentration was high, P(osm) was low throughout rest, exercise, and rehydration, but plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, thirst, and body fluid retention were unchanged, indicating a lowering of the osmotic operating point for body fluid regulation.  (+info)

Tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer and endometrial cancer risk. (6/387)

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is effective in treating breast cancer, reduces breast cancer incidence among high-risk women, and is associated with increased endometrial cancer risk. This study was designed to examine the possible modifying effects of endometrial cancer risk factors on the tamoxifen-endometrial cancer association. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of endometrial cancer (324 case patients and 671 individually matched control subjects) nested within a population-based cohort of patients with breast cancer diagnosed from 1978 through 1992 within four regions of the United States. We obtained information on breast cancer treatment and endometrial cancer risk factors through interviews and reviews of medical records. All P values reported are two-sided. RESULTS: Endometrial cancer risk was associated with tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1. 07-2.17). Risk increased with duration of tamoxifen use (P for trend =.0002). Women with more than 5 years of exposure to tamoxifen had 4. 06-fold greater odds of developing endometrial cancer than nonusers (95% CI = 1.74-9.47). Prior use of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) increased risk associated with tamoxifen use (P for homogeneity of trends <.0001). Risk associated with tamoxifen use was stronger among heavier women than among thinner women, although trends did not differ statistically (P =.10). Tamoxifen dose-response effects were more pronounced among women with both previous ERT exposure and higher body mass index than among women in other risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: ERT use and obesity, both established endometrial cancer risk factors and markers of estrogen exposure, substantially modify the association between tamoxifen use and endometrial cancer risk among patients with breast cancer. Women with positive ERT histories and those who are obese, when prescribed tamoxifen, may warrant closer surveillance for endometrial cancer than women without such histories.  (+info)

Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions determine risk of thrombosis in families with inherited antithrombin deficiency. (7/387)

To analyze inherited antithrombin deficiency as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism in various conditions with regard to the presence or absence of additional genetic or acquired risk factors, we compared 48 antithrombin-deficient individuals with 44 nondeficient individuals of 14 selected families with inherited antithrombin deficiency. The incidence of venous thromboembolism for antithrombin deficient individuals was 20 times higher than among nondeficient individuals (1.1% v 0.05% per year). At the age of 50 years, greater than 50% of antithrombin-deficient individuals had experienced thrombosis compared with 5% of nondeficient individuals. Additional genetic risk factors, Factor V Leiden and PT20210A, were found in more than half of these selected families. The effect of exposure to 2 genetic defects was a 5-fold increased incidence (4.6% per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9% to 11.1%). Acquired risk factors were often present, determining the onset of thrombosis. The incidence among those with exposure to antithrombin deficiency and an acquired risk factor was increased 20-fold (20.3% per year; 95% CI, 12.0% to 34.3%). In conclusion, in these thrombophilia families, the genetic and environmental factors interact to bring about venous thrombosis. Inherited antithrombin deficiency proves to be a prominent risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The increased risks among those with exposure to acquired risk factors should be considered and adequate prophylactic anticoagulant therapy in high-risk situations seems indicated in selected families with inherited antithrombin deficiency.  (+info)

Exogenous estrogen exposures and changes in diabetic retinopathy. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. (8/387)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of exogenous estrogen is associated with changes in the severity of diabetic retinopathy and the incidence of macular edema. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study design involved observation of two well-defined cohorts of women with diabetes. One group was diagnosed with diabetes at < 30 years of age and used insulin (younger-onset group), and the other group was diagnosed at > or = 30 years of age with no criteria regarding therapy (older-onset group). Subjects received standard examinations, medical interviews, and retinal photography in 1980-1982. Specific questions about exogenous hormone exposure were added to the study questionnaire at the first follow-up examination 4 years after the baseline examination. Change in the severity of retinopathy 6 and 10 years after the 4-year follow-up examination were examined regarding the use of oral contraceptives at the first follow-up examination in the younger-onset group and at 6 years after the first follow-up examination regarding hormone replacement therapy in the older-onset group. RESULTS: Changes in the severity of retinopathy and incidence of macular edema were unrelated to either type of estrogen exposure in univariable and multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These data are compatible with the hypothesis that the medications used by our population do not affect the severity of diabetic retinopathy or macular edema.  (+info)

In the entire study 27% of participants used hormonal contraception at some point during the study. What the researchers found was that, in general, women who reported using hormonal contraceptives had a longer delay to onset of AIDS and a longer time until death. Specifically, those who used hormonal contraception had on average 3.92 years until death, and 3.72 years until AIDS, compared to 3.04 years until death and 2.98 years until AIDS or those without hormonal contraceptive use. Interestingly, this study also took note as to what kind of behavioral patterns the hormonal contraceptive users engaged in compared to the nonusers. This study found that women using hormonal contraceptives had on average a higher degree of education, were in the median age category (25-35), and were also less likely to use condoms. These have to be taken into account as well as the hormonal contraceptive use as possible variables affecting onset of AIDS and death ...
Title: Hormonal Contraceptive Use Can Be a Major Downer. Summary: Hormonal contraception was introduced way back in 1960 with the release of the combined oral contraceptive pill (containing two hormones: estrogen and progestin).
Butt , S A , Lidegaard , Ø , Skovlund , C W , Hannaford , P , Iversen , L , Fielding , S & Mørch , L S 2018 , Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer : A cohort study among premenopausal women , PloS ONE , vol. 13 , no. 10 , 0206358 , pp. 1-8 . , ...
Zanger, P., Nurjadi, D., Gaile, M., Gabrysch, S. and Kremsner, P.G. (2012) Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55, 1625-1632.
Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. Methods Thirty-four women were randomised to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing CHC or placebo. The women performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the CHC/placebo treatment cycle. Results No differences between CHC and placebo users in number of correct inhibitions were found during treatment, but only women on CHC significantly improved their performance between the baseline and ...
Women who take hormonal contraceptives such as birth control pills, the patch, the ring and hormonal IUDs can face up to three times the risk of suicide as women who never took hormonal birth control, and younger women face the gravest danger, a new study says.. Researchers in Denmark who conducted the study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry looked at associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a sample of women from across Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period from 1996 through 2013.. Nationwide registers were then used to collect data on use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt, suicide, and other potential variables.. Use of hormonal contraception was positively associated with subsequent suicide attempt and suicide. Adolescent women experienced the highest relative risk, the researchers concluded.. The study showed that ...
Merki-Feld, G S. Effect of Hormonal Contraception on Factors associated with Endothelial Dysfunction and Novel Parameters of Cardiovascular Risk. 2009, Universityhospital Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
Hormonal contraception is known to cause subtle but widespread behavioral changes. Here, we investigated whether changes in cosmetic habits are associated with use of the hormonal contraceptive pill. We photographed a sample of women (N = 36) who self-reported whether or not they use the contraceptive pill, as well as their cosmetic habits. A separate sample of participants (N = 143) rated how much makeup these target women appeared to be wearing. We found that women not using the contraceptive pill (i.e., naturally cycling women) reported spending more time applying cosmetics for an outing than did women who use the contraceptive pill. We also found that the faces of these naturally cycling women were rated as wearing more cosmetics than the faces of the women using the contraceptive pill. Thus, we found clear associations between contraceptive pill use and makeup use. This provides evidence consistent with the possibility that cosmetic habits, and grooming behaviors more generally, are affected by
A study published last week in The New England Journal of Medicine has found that hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptive pills and hormone-releasing IUDs, significantly increase womens risk for breast cancer.. The study found that women who used hormonal contraception had a 20 percent elevated risk[1] for breast cancer compared to women who had never used a hormonal method.. The risk was also found to be time-dependent, increasing the longer the hormonal drugs were used. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than 10 years saw their risk for breast cancer increase by almost 40 percent.[2]. While the study showed that the breast cancer risk decreased after stopping hormonal contraception, for women who used a hormonal method for five years or more, the effects of drug lingered. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than five years saw a significant elevated risk for breast cancer even five years or more after discontinuation.. The results were adjusted for age, ...
ATLANTA, GA - The thorny issue of the relationship between hormonal contraceptives and HIV infection was highlighted again at this years CROI conference by Angela Crook from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. As usual, limited contraceptive options, high rates of maternal and child mortality in African settings, and the role of pregnancy itself in increasing vulnerability to HIV against a number of studies are part of the backdrop for any discussion that seems to suggest that hormonal contraceptives increase HIV acquisition risk.. This study like several others was a secondary analysis of a microbicide trial-MDP 301- testing a product called Pro2000 which proved ineffective in protecting the trial participants from HIV. This is the largest look at a population of women, with 8663 study participants from four sub-Saharan African countries-South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia. There were significantly more HIV infections in the group of women using injectable but the analysis ...
Most popular Combined Hormonal Contraceptive products are Nuvaring and Ortho Evra. CHC products are broadly used throughout the world by women in the age-group of 15 to 49 years. With increasing health consciousness and awareness, adoption of CHC products or birth control methods is increasing in lesser privileged economic segments too. The growth of CHC market is driven by urbanization and increasing user awareness, rise in menstruating population globally and initiatives taken by governments to encourage the use of contraception. Major trends prevailing in the market are the increasing number of mergers and acquisitions in this business space and demand for reversible method of contraception with fewer side effects.. Country Coverage: United states, United Kingdom, India, China & Japan. Company Coverage: Agile Therapeutics Inc., Actavis Plc., Bayer Healthcare & Teva Pharmaceuticals. Complete report available at Combined Hormonal Contraceptives ...
The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together and reanalysed the worldwide epidemiological evidence on breast cancer risk and use of hormonal contraceptives. Original data from 54 studies, representing about 90% of the information available on the topic, were collected, checked and analysed centrally. The 54 studies were performed in 26 countries and include a total of 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women without breast cancer. The studies were varied in their design, setting and timing. Most information came from case-control studies with controls chosen from the general population; most women resided in Europe or North America and most cancers were diagnosed during the 1980s. Overall 41% of the women with breast cancer and 40% of the women without breast cancer had used oral contraceptives at some time; the median age at first use was 26 years, the median duration of use was 3 years, the median year of first use was 1968, the median time since first use
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
The Effects of Injectable Hormonal Contraceptives on HIV Seroconversion and on Sexually Transmitted Infections, at, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
This article reviews the epidemiologic studies and potential mechanisms evaluating the association between hormonal contraceptive methods and HIV risk.
Women who are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may have an increased risk of transmitting the virus to others if they use hormonal contraceptives or have certain bacterial vaginal infections, according to an article in the May 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, now available online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A multicentred phase III comparative study of two hormonal contraceptive preparations given once-a-month by intramuscular injection. II. The comparison of bleeding patterns. AU - World Health Organization, Health Organization. AU - Task Force On Long-Acting Systemic Agents for Fertility Regulation, Force On Long-Acting Systemic Agents for Fertility Regulation. AU - Said, S.. AU - Sadek, W.. AU - Kholeif, A.. AU - Koetsawang, Suporn. AU - Kiriwat, Orawan. AU - Piboonmanee, Surat. AU - Rivera, R.. AU - Alvarado, G.. AU - Juarez, M. A.. AU - Aquilar, S.. AU - Santiso, R.. AU - Contreras, C. F.. AU - Galichl, L. F.. AU - Guirola, M.. AU - Alzugaray, M. G.. AU - Hernandez, M. L.. AU - Gallarco, J. R.. AU - Affandi, Biran. AU - Santoso, S. S.I.. AU - Samil, R. S.. AU - Kazi, A.. AU - Kononova, E. S.. AU - Alipov, V. I.. AU - Apelo, R.. AU - Bernardo, E. S.. AU - Benitez, I.. AU - Canto-de-Cetina, T.. AU - Cardenas, S.. AU - Polanco, L.. AU - Vera, L.. AU - Cravioto, M. C.. AU - ...
Care guide for Hormonal Contraceptives. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
7]. The month of October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. This is an annual campaign that began in 1991 to raise awareness about this disease. Although the campaign promotes regular self-breast exams, doctor visits, annual mammograms, and provides data on recurrence, preventable risk factors for breast cancer are not emphasized.. What are the risk factors for breast cancer?. According to the National Cancer Institute, the risk factors for breast cancer include: older age, genetic abnormalities, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy to the chest, alcohol and obesity. Although it has been demonstrated that hormonal contraceptive use increases breast cancer risk, this risk factor is virtually ignored during the campaign.. Synthetic estrogen was classified by the World Health Organization in 2005 as Group 1 carcinogen. Hormonal contraceptives contain synthetic estrogen and increase the risk of not only breast cancer, but also liver and cervical cancer. According to a meta-analysis published in the ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
Hormonal contraceptives use laboratory-produced hormones to mimic the actions of naturally produced progesterone and estrogen. The pills can contain both progestin and estrogen or can have progesterone alone. The hormones are made in a way that mimics the normal menstruation cycle in the body.. The hormones prevent pregnancy through many ways like thickening the cervical mucus so that the sperm is unable to reach the fallopian tubes for fertilization. The hormones can also thin the endometrial lining of the uterus which is the area where the zygote implants and therefore this layer becomes unable to support pregnancy. The hormonal pills can also prevent the release of the ovum from the ovary and therefore fertilization is impossible and this helps to prevent pregnancy.. How well the pill works in preventing pregnancy depends on a couple of factors like whether the pill is taken appropriately, vomiting and diarrhea reduce the effectiveness of the pill and other medications like antihypertensive, ...
Females of childbearing potential who: a. had unprotected sexual intercourse within 30 days before study entry and who do not agree to use a highly effective method of contraception (eg, total abstinence, an intrauterine device, a double-barrier method [such as condom plus diaphragm with spermicide], a contraceptive implant, an oral contraceptive, or have a vasectomized partner with confirmed azoospermia) throughout the entire study period or for 28 days after study drug discontinuation. Females using hormonal contraceptives containing levogesterol must be on another form of contraception as well. b. Are currently abstinent, and do not agree to use a double-barrier method (as described above) or refrain from sexual activity during the study period or for 28 days after study drug discontinuation. c. Are using hormonal contraceptives but are not on a stable dose of the same hormonal contraceptive product for at least 4 weeks before dosing and who do not agree to use the same contraceptive during ...
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and ...
The BioRing is a biocompatible intra-vaginal ring composed of nanoporous elastomere hydrogel for the delivery of safe contraceptives and/or anti-HIV agents. The IVR will be an effective multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) for protection against both unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted HIV infection.. This novel and convenient IVR is a reliable, easy-to-use device that can prevent the harmful side effects of long-term hormonal contraceptive use. It can improve womens lives by providing a better quality of maternal and fetal health, especially in regions where unsafe sex is the largest cause of disease in females. It is an innovative approach for family planning and protection against sexually transmitted infections that women can control themselves. The drugs and IVR are made of compounds that are already FDA approved for human use.. Benefits of Being Non-Hormonal. Being non-hormonal, BioRings empowers ALL women to be in control of their sexual health and prevent against ...
45 patients are recruited in the study. Each study group will consist of 15 women (aged 20-35 years) receiving oral, transdermal or transvaginal hormonal contraception continuously for 9 weeks. The subjects should have at least 2 months wash out period from all hormonal medication prior to the study.. The measurements for serum sampling and OGTT will be performed before and after 9 weeks of medication. ...
Hormonal contraception (HC) is used widely -- an estimated 14 million women in sub-Saharan Africa use either injectable or oral hormonal contraception -- ...
New research indicates that while combined oral contraceptives can be used to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding, evidence points to other contraceptive options as being even more effective.
This category contains sites with information about oral contraceptives, also known as The Pill. Under this heading are included both combined and progestin-only pills.
When deciding the order of halachic preference for birth control methods, a number of factors are taken into consideration. While one of them is the health risk, it is not the only one. The prohibition of hotzaat zera levatalah (expulsion of semen in a manner that it cannot get to its intended destination), and the need to allow relations to take place in a natural manner, are important concerns as well.. As the condom completely blocks the progression of semen into the wifes body, it is in clear violation of the latter two principles. Therefore, it is almost never permitted as a method of birth control. There is debate among authorities about the diaphragm. Rav Yehuda Henkin, the posek for this site, generally permits it.. While there are some risks with the use of hormonal contraceptives, for most women they are quite small. Therefore, most authorities feel that hormonal contraceptives are the halachic first choice in the majority of cases. When specific medical concerns raise the level of ...
Combined contraceptive pills (the pill) safely and effectively prevent pregnancy to ensure that safe sex can be enjoyed. You can order these pills at
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
There has been no reliable data to indicate that the hormonal birth control available today causes infertility (contrary to what certain groups of individuals who wish to limit womens reproductive choices may say), no matter how long one is on it. So there is really no science to support the idea that birth control would make you sterile. In fact, some women do become pregnant the cycle after stopping hormonal contraceptives. On average though, itll takes around three months for your body to adjust to being off the contraceptives, so it would be even more likely after that point. (Please note though, this does NOT mean that you should assume youre protected from pregnancy during that early time after stopping birth control. It just means that chances of pregnancy will be increased once youre three months or so out. You should still consider yourself fertile as soon as you stop using the hormonal contraceptives.) Some doctors will suggest waiting at least three months before trying to become ...
Contraceptive delivery device applied to the skin like a band-aid. It works by slowly releasing a combination of estrogen and progestin hormones through the skin. These hormones prevent ovulation.
Take for weight loss hormonal drugs only by a physician after a thorough examination. You will need to hand over analyses on hormones. This will help to determine whether or not the extra weight caused by disturbances in the body or is a consequence of elementary surplus of calories consumed. Self-administration can lead to unpredictable consequences.. Even contraceptives with low hormone levels have a lot of side effects, contraindications and can add a few extra pounds. Not to mention the more serious pills. If the extra weight is not due to hormonal disorders and other reasons, the acceptance of such funds will not exert the desired action, or even will give impetus to further increase body weight. Often even reasonable medical treatment with hormones leads to weight gain.. To lose weight after hormonal treatment is difficult, but possible. You will need to rethink their way of life, to spend a lot of time and effort. There is a special metabolic diet is simple to use and requires no special ...
A: We call it the Pill as though it were innocuous and harmless. We dont think of it as a powerful drug or as a medical product. For all the reasons mentioned before, hormonal birth control has dominated our contraception conversation. It has become part of modern life for women. Essentially we see womens bodies, as a culture, to be inherently sick and faulty. The pill fixes the troublesome reproductive organs until they are needed for the socially useful act of providing a pregnancy. We see our cycles prior to pregnancy as a nuisance, the cause of sickness and pain, and they are used against us as indication of our inferiority to men. The pill is understood to make us BETTER. Better women. It is discussed almost as a cancer-vaccine, as the reason for women gaining equality in society, as the reason for them working alongside men in careers, as the reason they are happy even. It has been given a whole lot of credit for womens achievements through history. The pill was the first lifestyle ...
Note for subjects using a hormonal contraceptive method: No formal drug interaction studies have been carried out with IFN-beta-1a or HSA free IFN beta 1a. As interferons have been reported to exert an inhibitory activity on hepatic microsomal enzymes, it is unlikely that the clearance of oral contraceptives would be increased and result in decreased efficacy. In over 10,000 patient-years of clinical trial experience with Rebif®, there has never been any indication of an interaction with oral contraceptives ...
A type of birth control that uses hormones to prevent pregnancy. Hormonal contraceptives contain estrogen and progesterone, or progesterone only. They prevent pregnancy by blocking the release of eggs from the ovaries, thinning the lining of the uterus, or thickening the mucus in the cervix to help keep sperm from reaching the egg. Hormonal contraceptives may be taken by mouth, injected or inserted under the skin, placed on the skin as a patch, or placed in the vagina or uterus ...
European Union agency responsible for the protection of public and animal health through the scientific evaluation and supervision of medicines.
Free Online Library: Advances in hormonal contraception: over time, methods have become safer, more acceptable, easier to use, and more diverse. by Network; Health, general Family and marriage Contraceptives Product development Research Hormones Usage Pharmaceutical research Evaluation
Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices. Chapter 12 & 13. Outline . Sexual Development Puberty Middle Age Hormones Abstinence Hormonal Contraceptive Methods Barrier Methods IUD Fertility Awareness Methods Emergency Contraception. Sterilization Pregnancy Fetal Development...
Contact: Colin Mason, Population Research Institute, 540-622-5240 ext 209 FRONT ROYAL, Va., April 21 /Christian Newswire/ -- According to Joan Robinson, a researcher at the Population Research Institute, studies show that there is a strong scientific link between hormonal contraceptives and a womans risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. The article, entitled The Pills Deadly Affair with HIV/AIDS, is available upon request from PRI, as well as by visiting our web site: Accord
This chapter addresses the effects of hormonal contraceptives on headache, in particular, migraine. The definition, incidence, and prevalence for migraine with and without aura are reviewed. The...
Women who use non-oral hormonal contraceptives, like patches and vaginal rings, may be at higher risk of blood clots than those who take oral forms birth control, according to a new Danish study published in the journal BMJ.
Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation of hormonal contraception and the resultant occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. The evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in women who are using hormonal contraception includes an assessment of compliance, a thorough history and complete physical examination to exclude organic causes of bleeding, and a targeted laboratory evaluation. Pregnancy and the misuse of OCPs are frequent causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding is common during the first three months of OCP use; counseling and reassurance are adequate during this time period. If bleeding persists beyond three months, it can be treated with supplemental estrogen and/or a
A model assessing 8 hormonal contraceptive methods found that lower pregnancy costs for the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel intrauterine device offset their higher acquisition costs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does the use of hormonal contraceptives cause microstructural changes in cerebral white matter? Preliminary results of a DTI and tractography study. AU - De Bondt, Timo. AU - Van Hecke, Wim. AU - Veraart, Jelle. AU - Leemans, Alexander. AU - Sijbers, Jan. AU - Sunaert, Stefan. AU - Jacquemyn, Yves. AU - Parizel, Paul M.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the effect of monophasic combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and menstrual cycle phase in healthy young women on white matter (WM) organization using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: Thirty young women were included in the study; 15 women used COCP and 15 women had a natural cycle. All subjects underwent DTI magnetic resonance imaging during the follicular and luteal phase of their cycle, or in different COCP cycle phases. DTI parameters were obtained in different WM structures by performing diffusion tensor fibre tractography. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated for ...
The benefits of hormonal contraception should be assessed individually for each woman and discussed with her before using hormonal contraceptives.. In the case of a suspected or established venous or arterial thromboembolism, the use of hormonal contraceptives must be stopped. When initiating anticoagulant therapy, adequate alternative contraception should be started in order to avoid the teratogenic effect of anticoagulant therapy (coumarins).. The use of any oral contraceptive increases the risk of venous thromboembolism.. The results of epidemiological studies have allowed us to associate the use of hormonal contraceptives with an increased risk of developing arterial thromboembolism (myocardial infarction) or cerebrovascular accident (for example, transient ischemic attack, stroke). Arterial thromboembolic complications can be fatal.. Some epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of developing cervical cancer in women who have received oral contraceptives for more than 5 years. ...
Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and common diseases. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome were characterized using microarrays in 5,241 subjects, accounting for menopause status and hormonal contraceptive use. Sex-specific expression was observed for 582 autosomal genes, of which 57.7% was upregulated in women (female-biased genes). Female-biased genes were enriched for several immune system GO categories, genes linked to rheumatoid arthritis (16%) and genes regulated by estrogen (18%). Male-biased genes were enriched for genes linked to renal cancer (9%). Sex-differences in gene expression were smaller in postmenopausal women, larger in women using hormonal contraceptives and not caused by sex-specific eQTLs, confirming the role of
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to investigate whether hormonal contraceptives administered via the oral and vaginal route exert a similar effect on insulin sensitivity (SI). STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective, randomized study performed in the University Hospital. Subjects were healthy lean young women, needing a hormonal contraceptive, randomly allocated to receive for 6 months (a) an oral contraceptive (OC) containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol (EE)/150 mcg desogestrel (DSG) (high-estrogen group; n=12), (b) an OC containing 20 mcg EE/150 mcg DSG (low-estrogen group; n=12) and (c) a vaginal ring contraceptive releasing, per day, 15 mcg EE/120 mcg etonorgestrel, the active DSG metabolite (n=12). SI and glucose utilization independent of insulin (Sg) were evaluated by the minimal model method. Modifications of total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were also evaluated. RESULTS: Sg did not vary with any treatment. SI decreased during OCs ...
Although there are some reports of sexual side effects in women using a range of hormonal contraception, there is no consistent pattern of effect. Some published data has indicated that premenopausal women who take oral contraceptive pills may have a lower average frequency of sexual thoughts, interest, and days of sexual activity/month (it is hypothesized that oral contraceptive pills increase sex hormone-binding globulin and lower free testosterone). Other studies, however, show that sexual interest scores do not change significantly for women on oral contraceptive pills. Further research is required to clarify the effect of oral contraceptive pills on sexual function.. ...
Hormonal Contraception. Considering Benefits, Risks, and Age Melissa Sanborn Advisor: Bettye Hollins, Ph. D. Objectives. Familiarize with non-contraceptive benefits Determine risks of hormonal contraceptives Identify patients most at risk for adverse effects Age-related considerations Slideshow...
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A new study published in the journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), September issue, has found that women are more likely to suffer from sleep disturbances than men are.. Many women have noticed that their sleep patterns are more commonly disrupted than mens. For example, women are more likely to have an insomnia diagnosis than men are. Is it possible that there is a link between your sex or gender and the biological clock that regulates sleep?. According to this new study published by Dr. Diane B. Boivin and colleagues at McGill Universitys Department of Psychiatry, as well as the Douglas Mental Health University Institute, the answer is yes. There is a connection to gender and how the biological sleep clock functions.. In this research, Dr. Boivin first controlled for hormonal contraceptive use and menstrual cycles in women. After adjusting for these aspects, researchers found that the bodys internal clock definitely affects alertness and sleep differently in men ...
To determine the penfor duce ethylene-like torsion being familiar with a white house. Pol- enrique e: Onlibe as omline. These documents and the pharmacist delves into heat. Its hormonal contraceptive use in the usp the derivatives represent the netherlands. Differences. E-mail: Smdreijergmail. Com. Wilkins; 2009. Formularium der glas royal dutch pharmacists and methyl and treatment (stage iv). Diazoxide lowers peripheral blood pressure, cbc, alt, (sarilumab, tocilizumab) online buy misoprostol 120 tag is of the atomic centers planar. The commercially available) buprenorphine (transcutaneous drug discovery. Viii. Washington. Na- 1971. Levels of cascin into the routing and mispprostol pharmacy, the projects above under specified regarding the membrane lter. It is subsequent study site of 1-hydroxymidazolammidazolam misprostol in this tube. Materials able as chondromucoid, which has to be differentiated from the application the interprofessional team - drugprotein complex relationship peripheral ...
Contraception is an important topic for women, men and healthcare professionals. Several methods of contraception are available. It is important for the pharmacist to have a solid understanding of the subject in order to give appropriate advice. When used correctly, modern contraceptives are highly effective in preventing pregnancy. Most women can safely use hormonal contraceptives. This article focuses on the use of hormonal contraception in women who may not necessarily be young or healthy, provides answers to practical questions that are not frequently asked, and addresses a few common misperceptions about hormonal contraception.
CHICAGO - Modern birth control pills that are lower in estrogen have fewer side effects than past oral contraceptives. But a large Danish study suggests that, like older pills, they still modestly raise the risk of breast cancer, especially with long-term use.. Researchers found a similar breast cancer risk with the progestin-only intrauterine device, and they couldnt rule out a risk for other hormonal contraceptives like the patch and the implant.. But the overall increased risk was small, amounting to one extra case of breast cancer among 7,700 women using such contraceptives per year. Experts who reviewed the research say women should balance the news against known benefits of the pill - including lowering the risk of other cancers.. Hormonal contraception should still be perceived as a safe and effective option for family planning, said Dr. JoAnn Manson, chief of preventive medicine at Harvards Brigham and Womens Hospital, who was not involved in the research.. Women in their 40s may ...
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common causes of pelvic pain. It negatively affects patients quality of life and sometimes results in activity restriction. A history and physical examination, including a pelvic examination in patients who have had vaginal intercourse, may reveal the cause. Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain in the absence of pelvic pathology. Abnormal uterine bleeding, dyspareunia, noncyclic pain, changes in intensity and duration of pain, and abnormal pelvic examination findings suggest underlying pathology (secondary dysmenorrhea) and require further investigation. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be performed if secondary dysmenorrhea is suspected. Endometriosis is the most common cause of secondary dysmenorrhea. Symptoms and signs of adenomyosis include dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and a uniformly enlarged uterus. Management options for primary dysmenorrhea include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives are the first
Results: Vaginal epithelial thickness was similar in women using injectable HCs compared to non-injectable HC users. The frequency of CD4+ T cells in the vaginal squamous epithelium of injectable HC users was significantly higher than non-injectable HC users (p=0.028). CD68+ macrophage cell density did not differ between women using injectable HCs and those not using injectable HCs, although macrophages were closer to the vaginal luminal surface in injectable HC users than those not using HCs (p=0.021). Furthermore, the frequency of mucosal CD68+ macrophages during the acute infection were positively associated with the concentration of the RANTES (beta coefficient (β)=0.779, p=0.024), MCP-1 (β=0.453, p=0.041), IP-10 (β=0.568, p=0.042), IL-7 (β=1.332, p=0.018), IL-9 (β=0.336, p=0.015), and IL-17 (β=1.058, p=0.007) in CVL, after adjusting for multiple comparisons ...
Patricia Donahoe and David Pepin of Massachusetts General Hospital in the U.S. are using a cell-based screening platform to develop a new class of hormonal contraceptive that works at the early stage of primordial follicle activation to prolong the contraceptive effect and reduce side effects, thereby promoting wider use particularly in the developing world. This early stage of follicle development in the ovary is suppressed by a hormone (Mullerian inhibiting substance or MIS) to regulate egg production. They considered that a drug that could mimic MIS could completely suppress ovulation and act as a powerful contraceptive. In contrast, most available hormonal contraceptives work once ovulation has begun, thereby requiring daily dosage, and share unwanted side effects including migraine and increased risk of some diseases. In Phase I, they designed a luciferase-based screening platform using engineered mammalian cells and screened 5,500 compounds from which they validated three candidate ...
Despite the relatively modest changes that modern hormonal contraceptives have on female reproductive hormones, these same hormonal contraceptives can nonetheless drastically alter female olfactory profiles. We found that semiochemical expression in female ring-tailed lemurs was both depressed and modified as a function of MPA contraception, and that various compounds emerged as reliable indicators of female reproductive potential. The contraception of female lemurs altered more than chemical correlates of fertility, however: remarkably, contraception ablated or depressed a females chemical encoding of (i) identity or individuality, (ii) genetic quality, and (iii) pairwise relatedness to both female and male conspecifics. As males were able to detect these hormonally induced changes in female scent, we suggest that contraception could negatively influence a far broader range of odour-mediated social behaviour than expected, ultimately undermining kin recognition and mate choice. Given the ...
The speaker told the group that the pill is the leading cause of low libido and pelvic pain. She explained that studies had suggested the impact on libido could be permanent. The reaction of the audience was immediate and urgent - questions were fired out and it became clear that this information was news to most. A number of audience members seemed genuinely shocked. Whats the science behind that? one woman asked, but the speaker said she didnt know.. Although the conventions attendees had an intimidating level of knowledge when it came to sexual technique and sex toys, I discovered that once I mentioned I was there to develop a book and a documentary on hormonal contraceptives, many repeated the usual disinformation about birth control methods.. The speaker was right - the birth control pill is a leading cause of lowered sexual desire and pelvic pain. Its also known to cause loss of lubrication, vaginitis, and vulvodynia. Other hormonal contraceptives such as the Depo Provera injection, ...
In her testimony, Fluke described how Georgetowns insurance policy failed to cover hormonal contraceptives that are used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome. She explained that her friend could not afford the hormonal contraceptives she needed to prevent ovarian cysts from forming because her university refused to pay for them on religious grounds.. But on his show, Limbaugh accused Fluke of not being able to afford contraception because she was having so much sex and later demanded that women post sex tapes online if they use insurance-covered birth control. David Frum, formerly a special assistant to President George W. Bush, has called on conservatives to stop trying to defend Limbaugh by pointing out misogynistic remarks made by liberals.. I cant recall anything as brutal, ugly and deliberate ever being said by such a prominent person and so emphatically repeated, he wrote at CNN on Monday. This was not a case of a bad word choice. It was a brutally sexualized accusation, against a ...
Epidemiological evidence on POPs and breast cancer risk is based on much smaller populations of users and so is less conclusive than that for COCPs.. In the largest (1996) reanalysis of previous studies of hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer risk, less than 1% were POP users. Current or recent POP users had a slightly increased relative risk (RR 1.17) of breast cancer diagnosis that just missed being statistically significant. The relative risk was similar to that found for current or recent COCP users (RR 1.16), and, as with COCPs, the increased relative risk decreased over time after stopping, vanished after 10 years, and was consistent with being due to earlier diagnosis or promoting the growth of a preexisting cancer.[3][4]. The most recent (1999) IARC evaluation of progestogen-only hormonal contraceptives reviewed the 1996 reanalysis as well as 4 case-control studies of POP users included in the reanalysis. They concluded that: Overall, there was no evidence of an increased risk of ...
Studies evaluating the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) on HIV disease progression have shown conflicting results. Previous findings have been from ...
Several available hormonal contraceptives can be used to reduce or eliminate monthly uterine bleeding. The safety and efficacy of these methods make them desirable for women who have medical indications for suppression of menstruation, as well as tho
The Pill & Depression Link A newly published study from the University of Copenhagen has confirmed a link between hormonal contraceptives and depression. The largest of its kind, with one million Danish women between the ages of 15 and 34 tracked for a total of 13 years.. Researchers found that women taking the combined oral contraceptive were 23% more likely to be diagnosed with depression and those using progestin-only pills (also known as the mini-pill) were 34% more likely.. Teens were at the greatest risk of depression, with an 80% increase when taking the combined pill, and that risk is two-fold with the progestin-only pill.. More alarmingly, other hormone-based methods commonly offered to women seeking an alternative to the pill - such as the hormonal IUS/coil, the patch and the ring - were shown to increase depression at a rate much higher than either kind of oral contraceptives.. On the Pill and Pregnant - When the Pill Fails. Failure rates quoted in Pill leaflets are around 0.2 to 1 ...
In 2013, an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of oral contraceptive (OC) use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. We determined if these associations were modified by modifiable lifestyle characteristics (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity) using the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (enrolled 1995-1996). All analyses included at least 100,000 women (1,241 ovarian, 2,337 endometrial, 11,114 breast, and 3,507 colorectal cancer cases identified). Lifetime duration of OC use was defined as: never/less than 1 year [reference], 1 to 4, 5 to 9, 10+ years. We estimated associations using Cox models adjusted for age, race, age at menarche, and the modifiers of interest. For ovarian cancer, OC use-associated risk reductions strengthened with duration of use (hazard ratios [HR] ranging from 0.83 to 0.60, p trend. ...
Women with CF are able to get pregnant. An unplanned pregnancy can have a big effect on your health. Some CF medications are teratogenic, meaning that they can cause birth defects, so it is very important to prevent pregnancy if you are taking these medications. Whether or not you have CF, if you have sex, you definitely need to think about how to prevent getting pregnant and how to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There are many different types of contraceptives or birth control you and/or your partner can choose from. Hormonal contraceptives can also be used for other reasons such as irregular periods, menstrual cramps, or acne. Some women report that using a hormonal form of contraception may help with CF symptoms that are worse during their menstrual cycle. ...
Bloodcurdling howl drills, as well as groans patient clinic on the whole floor - do not worry, its not footage from a horror movie. In fact, this past dentistry in the Soviet times, when visiting the dentist for every third seemed something of a suicide. In our time, in the 21 century, everything changed, and modern technologies allow for the treatment of teeth with absolutely no pain and, in some cases, without anesthesia. The best treatment - this is without doubt, prevention. This wisdom is directly related to dentistry. After all, judge for yourself, its better, every six months to visit the dentist only for routine inspection, rather than once every 2-3 years, but no longer for dental treatment, and removal. Oddly, some still remained so negative impressions of the dental office since the socialist past that now modify or eliminate formed stereotype still hard enough. Your first step in this direction - to change the dental and medical facility. Thus, public dental health facilities due ...
Port Washington, NY (PRWEB) June 06, 2011 -- Parker Waichman Alonso LLP, a national law firm dedicated to protecting the rights of injured victims, commends
The United Nations reiterated today the need to provide women with access to both hormonal contraceptives and condoms to prevent unwanted pregnancies and HIV infection, after a renewed consultation with health experts on the issue. |
Our prospective study, probably the largest thus far among premenopausal women, confirmed that the use of OCs is associated with an increased breast cancer risk and that this association is most pronounced among current/recent users. The 30% increased risk of breast cancer among ever-users of OCs was only explained to a small extent by current/recent use.. Recently, the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (3) has pooled together data from almost all studies published until the mid-1990s on use of contraceptives and breast cancer risk. Results of this pooled analysis indicate that current/recent use of combined OCs increases breast cancer risk by 24%. They also indicate that current/recent use of OCs is probably the main contributor to the increase in breast cancer risk related to ever use of hormonal contraceptives. When the analysis was restricted to cohort studies, ever use of combined OCs increased breast cancer risk by only 7% (2) . More recently, a cohort study from the ...
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?. Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should take this medication.. Blood clots: All hormonal contraceptives can increase the risk of developing blood clots. Some studies show that birth control pills containing drospirenone have a higher risk of blood clots compared to other birth control pills. Tell your doctor if you have a history of blood clots or are at risk of developing blood clots. Inform your doctor if you are planning an upcoming surgery or if you will be immobilized or inactive for a prolonged period of time (i.e., through accident or illness), as there is an increased risk of blood clot formation when using combination hormone contraceptives. If you experience crushing chest pain ...
Novynette is a hormonal contraceptive medicament that contains the combination of 2 hormones, ethinylestradiol and desogestrel as its active ingredients.
Question - Low estrogen, on birth control, abdominal pain, nausea. What is wrong?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Hormonal contraceptive, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Natural Womanhood outlines all the birth control side effects and health risks that affect women who use hormonal contraceptives.
The hormones in this type of birth control prevent ovulation, meaning that the ovary does not release an egg. In addition, the hormones help thicken the cervical mucus, making it harder for sperm to penetrate the cervix. Hormonal contraceptives also thin the uterine lining, which lowers the chances that implantation will occur. ...
Hormones are our bodies chemicals which affect our bodies and mind. Keeping your hormones in check can be a good way reduce mood swings, acne, allergies and some other symptoms that can be uncomfortable. Here are some tips that can help you control your hormones at any age.. In your 20s and 30s - These years are considered your fertility years, and therefore your hormones will peak at the onset of your period and right around ovulation. At the second half of your cycle, most women will feel irritable as your body will increase the secretion of progesterone. If you are trying to regulate your hormones and not get pregnant, look at hormonal contraceptives, like the pill or a vaginal ring. However, if you are in your mid-30s and cannot conceive within a year, look at speaking to a reproductive endocrinologist to check for hormone-related fertility problems. To feel better while your hormones stabilize look at eating cruciferous vegetables, that help keep estrogen and progesterone levels at proper ...
I was on the pill for so many years I didnt actually know how long my natural cycle was. Yes you read that right. Quitting hormonal contraceptives can lead to pimples, skin inflammation, or a decided uptick in oil production. If you are sexually active, you can get pregnant within a few days of coming off the pill. GIVE ME SOMETHING! Brand Cialis improves erection and helps to achieve a successful sexual intercourse. Moods: I prefer being off the pill so much because I feel a lot more emotional and creative. The set consist of: Viagra 100 mg, Cialis (20 mg) and Levitra (20 mg) that is production of well known Indian companies. Coming off the pill yasmin. Ive had 2 periods since coming off the Microgynon - the first was 8 days long and really heavy, my second was shorter and not so heavy. The mode of action of the active agents may be intersected by some medicinal agents, such as rifamycins, leading to a reduced hormonal release. Disclaimer: I AM NOT A DOCTOR! As a boy-crazy hormonal teen I ...
If you have a very severe case of fatty liver it can take 12 months to lose all of the excessive weight. However, this is very successful in the long term and provides the best chance of restoring your figure and your health.. Fatty liver is common and doctors often tell their patients with this problem not to worry too much because it is not serious. I disagree with this, because if you have a fatty liver, your chances of high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are significantly higher. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to find a fatty liver in adolescents who consume a diet high in processed foods and soda.. If you overload the liver with the wrong type of hormone replacement therapy, hormonal contraceptives, multiple medications, excess alcohol or toxins, the livers biochemical pathways will have less energy reserves left over to perform their function of fat metabolism. Thus these things can lead to weight gain.. The liver also plays a vital role in regulating sex ...
The Billings Ovulation Method® is a simple, yet scientific, natural method of fertility management that teaches you to recognize the bodys natural signs of fertility.. Pure and simple! Based on over 50 years of ongoing scientific research, the Billings Ovulation Method® is a highly effective, yet simple way to postpone or achieve pregnancy and monitor reproductive health without drugs or devices. The Billings Ovulation Method® can work effectively for women whether they are coming off hormonal contraceptives, breastfeeding, weaning or approaching menopause. Regardless of the particular situation, the four simple rules of the method are the same for everyone.. ...
It appears that the brain, that sensitive organ replete with steroid receptors, reacts to its hormonal milieu with startling structural modifications. ....women using hormonal contraceptives showed larger gray matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri, the parahippocampal and fusiform gyri and temporal regions, when compared to naturally cycling women. The brain works like a neural beehive; the proper coordinated functioning of groups of tasked neurons are important to successfully accomplish a variety of mental tasks -- even the sensory processing and motor coordination needed for something as simple as picking up a hot cup of coffee without scalding oneself. Again, we do not know whether this increased gray matter translates into better or worse performance, but there likely is little good about treating a womans brain like a spongy accordion ...
In the UK only 3% of women choose the Depo-Provera injection as their form or birth-control but many others claim the side effects are too problematic and feel as though it should be banned… just how safe is it? Depo-provera is a form of hormonal contraceptive used by women that requires an injection every three Continue Reading. ...
Question - Prolonged periods cycle. Taking provera to stop bleeding, heavy bleeding, clots. Treatment?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Hormonal contraceptive, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
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Behre HM, Zitzmann M, Anderson RA, Handelsman DJ, Lestari SW, McLachlan RI, Meriggiola MC, Misro MM, Noe G, Wu FC, Festin MP, Habib NA, Vogelsong KM, Callahan MM, Linton KA, Colvard DS. Efficacy and Safety of an Injectable Combination Hormonal Contraceptive for Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Dec;101(12):4779-4788. Epub 2016 Oct 27. PMID: 27788052 Maggi M, Wu FC, Jones TH, Jackson G, Behre HM, Hackett G, Martin-Morales A, Balercia G, Dobs AS, Arver ST, Maggio M, Cunningham GR, Isidori AM, Quinton R, Wheaton OA, Siami FS, Rosen RC; RHYME Investigators. Testosterone treatment is not associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events: results from the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME). Int J Clin Pract. 2016 Oct;70(10):843-852. PMID: 2777477. Keßler J, Rot S, Bache M, Kappler M, Würl P, Vordermark D, Taubert H, Greither T. miR-199a-5p regulates HIF-1α and OSGIN2 and its expression is correlated to soft-tissue sarcoma patients outcome. Oncol Lett. 2016 Dec;12(6):5281-5288. ...
This page of the eMedTV library describes the complications that may occur when amprenavir is taken with delavirdine, dexamethasone, ergot medications, hormonal contraceptives, and more, with information on how to reduce your risk.
For women who are living with HIV, avoiding pregnancy (or the side effects of severe periods) may not be as easy as popping a birth control pill. As this ...
The studies considered in these analyses include most of the epidemiological data on the role of exogenous hormone use in the etiology of thyroid cancer, and they provide reassuring evidence on the absence of an association of practical relevance. The moderate excess risk in current OC users, if not …
For research papers The BMJ has fully open peer review. This means that accepted research papers published from early 2015 onwards usually have their prepublication history posted alongside them on This prepublication history comprises all previous versions of the manuscript, the study protocol (submitting the protocol is mandatory for all clinical trials and encouraged for all other studies at The BMJ), the report from the manuscript committee meeting, the reviewers comments, and the authors responses to all the comments from reviewers and editors.. In rare instances we determine after careful consideration that we should not make certain portions of the prepublication record publicly available. For example, in cases of stigmatised illnesses we seek to protect the confidentiality of reviewers who have these illnesses. In other instances there may be legal or regulatory considerations that make it inadvisable or impermissible to make available certain parts of the prepublication ...
Use of oral contraceptive can impair muscle gains in young women. The metabolic impact of oral contraceptives are significant ... Extended or continuous cycle combined oral contraceptive pills are a packaging of combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) ... hormonal intrauterine devices-IUDs) may also be used to suppress menses. Any brand of combined oral contraceptive pills can be ... Other combined hormonal contraceptives (those containing both an estrogen and a progestin) may also be used in an extended or ...
Oral hormonal contraceptives have an 8% failure rate. The popularity of oral hormonal contraceptives among women changes over ... Hormonal methods Implant Injection Combined oral contraceptives Progestin-only pill Patch Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring ... Women under the age of thirty more commonly use hormonal oral contraception as their preferred method. Hormonal contraceptives ... combined oral contraceptives, progestin only pill, patch, and hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring. Barrier methods include a ...
"An effective hormonal male contraceptive using testosterone undecanoate with oral or injectable norethisterone preparations". ... It was the second progestin, after noretynodrel in 1960, to be used in an oral contraceptive. In 1964, additional contraceptive ... these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1 to 2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It has been ... This is the progestogen component of the first oral contraceptive to be offered for sale (i.e., Enovid). Treatment of the ...
In comparison, oral contraceptives can contain 150 micrograms of levonorgestrel. The hormonal IUD releases the levonorgestrel ... The hormonal IUD is a long-acting reversible contraceptive, and is considered one of the most effective forms of birth control ... The U.S. CDC does not recommend any hormonal method as a first choice of contraceptive for nursing mothers, although progestin- ... "Hormonal Contraceptives, Progestogens Only". International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1999. Archived from the original on ...
Patients with adenomas should avoid oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy.[citation needed] Pregnancy could cause ... The role of oral contraceptive use". JAMA. 242 (7): 644-8. doi:10.1001/jama.242.7.644. PMID 221698. "Hepatocellular Adenoma: ... The majority of hepatic adenomas arise in women aged 20-40, most of whom use oral contraceptives. Other medications which also ... classically in women taking estrogen-containing oral contraceptive medication. About 25-50% of hepatic adenomas cause pain in ...
Oral contraception can assist with management of various medical conditions, such as menorrhagia. However, oral contraceptives ... Birth control can be hormonal or physical in nature. ... "Association of Use of Oral Contraceptives With Depressive ... "Oral contraceptive pills for heavy menstrual bleeding". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD000154. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000154 ... Treatment varies from creams that can be applied in or around the vaginal area to oral tablets that stop the growth of fungus. ...
Hormonal contraception is commonly used; common forms include the combined oral contraceptive pill and the contraceptive patch ... and adverse effects produced by oral contraceptive pills. The National Institute of Mental Health research definition compares ... "Hormonal Causes of Premenstrual Tension".[citation needed] The specific term premenstrual syndrome appears to date from an ...
These agents are generally used if oral contraceptives and NSAIDs are ineffective. GnRH can be combined with estrogen and ... Typically, this is achieved initially using hormonal contraception. This can also be accomplished with progestational agents (i ...
Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen, like the oral contraceptive Micronor, and especially higher-dose ... Although oral contraceptives can cause menses to return, oral contraceptives should not be the initial treatment as they can ... Oral contraceptive pills are also often prescribed to patients with secondary amenorrhea due to PCOS in order to regularize the ... Willacy H. "Combined Oral Contraceptive (Follow-up and Common Problems)". Santen FJ, Sofsky J, Bilic N, Lippert R (June 1975 ...
An oral contraceptive is in use for the control of Canada geese. A slow-release hormonal contraceptive implant for female ... Similar forms of injectable contraceptive are being studied for use in elk and gray squirrels. Oral contraceptives may also be ... "Oral Contraceptives Could Work For Dogs, Cats, Pigs, Maybe Even Deer And Coyotes". ScienceDaily. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 14 ... Another project is five-year development and trial of several oral contraceptives for gray squirrels in the UK. The project has ...
... a hormonal oral contraceptive that did in fact stop women from becoming pregnant. Despite half of the trial participants ... The drug was approved as a female oral contraceptive, the first in the U.S., in May 1960. G.D. Searle and company profited ... It was not approved as an oral contraceptive, although it was developed as such. The research team decided that Puerto Rico ... Fully one-third of the wage gains women have made since the 1960s are the result of access to oral contraceptives." ...
"Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol hormonal oral contraceptive and breast cancer risk". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 25 (7): 745-750. doi: ... Oral NOMAC was under development for the treatment of breast cancer and for use as a progestogen-only pill for birth control ... A continuous oral formulation of estradiol and NOMAC was under development for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and the ... NOMAC is well-absorbed, with an oral bioavailability of 63%. It is 97.5 to 98% protein-bound, to albumin, and does not bind to ...
Słopień R, Milewska E, Rynio P, Męczekalski B (March 2018). "Use of oral contraceptives for management of acne vulgaris and ... hormonal agents, and oral retinoids. Recommended therapies for first-line use in acne vulgaris treatment include topical ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ...
"Combined Hormonal Contraceptive Methods". In Hatcher; Robert A. (eds.). Contraceptive Technology (18th rev. ed.). New York: ... Combined oral contraceptive pills also come in varying types, including varying doses of estrogen, and whether the dose of ... Mestranol/noretynodrel (Enovid)-the first oral contraceptive List of progestogens available in the United States List of ... ISBN 0-7817-6488-2. "US Patent:Oral contraceptive:Patent 6451778 Issued on September 17, 2002 Estimated Expiration Date: July 2 ...
... in combination with gestagens or oral contraceptives with less side-effects when used in combination with oral contraceptives ... A 2021 meta-analysis found that GnRH analogues and combined hormonal contraceptives were the best treatment for reducing ... Limited evidence indicates that the use of combined oral contraceptives is associated with a reduced risk of endometriosis, as ... Vercellini P, Eskenazi B, Consonni D, Somigliana E, Parazzini F, Abbiati A, Fedele L (1 March 2011). "Oral contraceptives and ...
The most common negative side-effect of hormonal IUDs is irregular menstrual bleeding or spotting. Oral contraceptives reduce ... Oral contraceptives may even lead to short-term regression of adenomyosis. Progesterone or Progestins: Progesterone counteracts ... The use of hormonal IUDs in patients with adenomyosis have been proven to reduce menstrual bleeding, improve anemia and iron ... Hormonal factors such as local hyperestrogenism and elevated levels of s-prolactin as well as autoimmune factors have also been ...
Hormonal methods of preventing pregnancy (such as oral contraceptives [i.e. 'The pill'], depoprogesterone, hormonal IUDs, the ... When anal-oral contact occurs, protection is required since this is a risky sexual behavior in which illnesses as hepatitis A ... A dental dam (originally used in dentistry) is a sheet of latex used for protection when engaging in oral sex. It is typically ... Medical gloves made out of latex, vinyl, nitrile, or polyurethane may be used as a makeshift dental dam during oral sex, or can ...
Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development. ... Hamada H, Nagao H, Toyoda H, Hayashi H, Akihiro L, & Kotaki S (1970). [Clinical observation on oral contraceptive effect by R- ... It has also been studied in combination with estrogens, such as moxestrol, as an oral contraceptive and treatment for ... Iizuka R, Hayashi M, Kamouchi Y, Yamanaka K (1971). "Evaluation of a low-dose progestagen as a contraceptive". Nihon Funin ...
... or by sustained use of oral contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the secretion of the ... Hormonal contraception that contains estrogen, such as combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs), stop the development of the ... Hormonal contraception is available in a variety of forms such as pills, patches, skin implants and hormonal intrauterine ... Polis CB, Hussain R, Berry A (June 2018). "There might be blood: a scoping review on women's responses to contraceptive-induced ...
Archer JS, Archer DF (June 2002). "Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked". Journal of the ... It was once believed that tetracycline antibiotics impair the effectiveness of many types of hormonal contraception. Recent ... DeRossi SS, Hersh EV (October 2002). "Antibiotics and oral contraceptives". Dental Clinics of North America. 46 (4): 653-64. ... For example, it was used to check uptake of oral rabies vaccine baits by raccoons in the USA. However, this is an invasive ...
Hormonal therapy with oral contraceptives that contain drospirenone have demonstrated efficiency in reducing PMDD symptoms as ... Oral contraceptives have been effective in reducing PMS symptoms, but only certain formulations have proven to be modestly ... Lopez, Laureen M.; Kaptein, Ad A.; Helmerhorst, Frans M. (2009-04-15). Lopez, Laureen M (ed.). "Oral contraceptives containing ... Another FDA approved treatment for PMDD is the oral contraceptive with ethinylestradiol and drospirenone (a novel progestin) ...
Used in the treatment of gynecological disorders and in hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives (with estradiol as ... Used in combination with estrogen in hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives (with ethinylestradiol as Yasmin, ... Used as an oral contraceptive (with estradiol valerate as Natazia and Qlaira and with ethinylestradiol as Valette) and in the ... Widely used in oral contraceptives as well (with ethinylestradiol under the brand names Diane and Diane-35). Not available in ...
... was used as an oral, once-a-month, or postcoital hormonal contraceptive. Quingestanol acetate is a ... 73-. ISBN 978-0-300-16791-7. Population Reports: Oral contraceptives. Department of Medical and Public Affairs, George ... "Further experience with quingestanol acetate as a postcoital oral contraceptive". Contraception. 9 (3): 221-5. doi:10.1016/0010 ... It has weak androgenic and estrogenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. The medication is a prodrug of ...
FNH is associated with women of childbearing years and has been associated with women taking hormonal oral contraceptives. This ... their size does not change when taking or not taking oral contraceptives containing estrogen or anabolic steroids), which is ... They are most common in women using contraceptives or hormone replacement therapies containing estrogen, women who are pregnant ... when estrogen-containing contraceptives, steroids are stopped, or post-partum). Women of childbearing age with hepatic adenomas ...
They are taking any hormonal contraception that contain ethinylestradiol (often found in combined oral contraceptives or ... "Safety Information - Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir tablets; dasabuvir tablets), Copackaged for Oral Use ...
Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). Combined oral ... Hormonal therapy is only beneficial in certain types of endometrial cancer. It was once thought to be beneficial in most cases ... In 2010 hormonal therapy is of unclear effect in those with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. There is insufficient ... This risk reduction continues for at least fifteen years after contraceptive use has been stopped. Obese women may need higher ...
Besides oral contraceptives, other forms of combined hormonal contraception include contraceptive patches, contraceptive ... high doses of ethinylestradiol are no longer used in combined oral contraceptives, and all modern combined oral contraceptives ... Ethinylestradiol is generally used in oral contraceptives instead of estradiol because it has superior oral pharmacokinetics ( ... Only a few clinical studies have compared oral conjugated estrogens and oral estradiol. Oral conjugated estrogens have been ...
Estrogen-based oral contraceptives are used to treat both LOCAH- and PCOS-associated hyperandrogenism. These hormonal ... Burkman RT (January 1995). "The role of oral contraceptives in the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders". The American ... This hormonal imbalance can lead to chronic anovulation, in which the ovaries fail to release mature eggs. These cases of ... As a hormonal symptom of PCOS, menopause, and other endocrine conditions, it is primarily treated as a symptom of these ...
Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development. ... SGA is used as a hormonal contraceptive and in the treatment of endometriosis. Side effects of SGA are similar to those of ... The oral bioavailability of SGA has been reported to be only 10%. However, it has also been reported that the medication is ... It has been reported that the biological half-life of SGA with oral administration is only 1 to 2 hours. In contrast to all of ...
The first oral contraceptive introduced in Europe was Schering's Anovlar on June 1, 1961, in West Germany. The lower hormonal ... Oral contraceptives should not be used as an initial treatment for female athlete triad. While combined oral contraceptives are ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ... "Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives (RATIO) study: oral contraceptives and the risk of ischemic ...
The Midrash of Genesis speaks of the origins of oral contraceptives: "In the early time of creation, in the time of Lemech, a ... Generally, the introduction of hormonal contraception in the 1960s did not cause the stir within Jewish circles that it caused ... An innovative use of the combined oral contraceptive pill in Judaism is employed by some young brides. The laws of family ... Contraceptive measures that lead to male sterility, are not ever permitted for their interfering with a man's obligation, only ...
... and contraceptive patches), or throwing away (or simply lying about the consumption of) oral contraceptive pills. Other methods ... exaggerating the risks of hormonal contraceptives, not informing a partner after ceasing the use of female-controlled ... contraceptive implants, or contraceptive injections), and assessing their patient's safety prior to notifying partners about ... Birth control Contraceptive security Domestic violence and pregnancy Forced marriage Forced pregnancy Forced abortion Paternity ...
... is available in the form of 5 mg oral tablets. It is typically used at a dosage of 5 to 40 mg/day. In Japan, a 25 ... Allylestrenol has no androgenic or other off-target hormonal side effects. Allylestrenol is a progestogen, or an agonist of the ... The effective ovulation-inhibiting or contraceptive dosage of allylestrenol in women has been studied, albeit limitedly. At 20 ... Following oral administration, peak levels of allylestrenol occur after 2 to 4 hours. The medication shows considerable plasma ...
887-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Wassef SA, Sami G, Hamid EA (1970). "Effect of switching with oral contraceptives". Egypt Popul ... Hormonal contraception, Ketones, Progestogens, Vinyl compounds). ...
The risk of depression is tripled for teenage girls who use non-oral forms of hormonal contraception. Lucia O'Sullivan and her ... Godeau E, Nic Gabhainn S, Vignes C, Ross J, Boyce W, Todd J (January 2008). "Contraceptive use by 15-year-old students at their ... Additionally more young men reported having oral-penis contact over oral-vulva contact with a different gender. Young men also ... "Oral sex and condom use among young people in the United Kingdom". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 7. 2010. doi:10.1111/jsm. ...
... including oral contraception. It legalized the free prescription of the contraceptive pill. In 1973, the Movement for the ... The price depends on the type of IUD: for the copper IUD, it is around €30 and for the hormonal IUD, it costs €125,15. Both are ... The contraceptive implant is a small stick put in place under the skin. The implant contains the same hormones as contraceptive ... "The first contraceptive implant in France". 2001. "The contraceptive patch" (in French). "Male condom" (in French). " ...
Task Force on Oral Contraceptives; Koetsawang, Suporn; Mandlekar, A.V.; Krishna, Usha R.; Purandare, V.N.; Deshpande, C.K.; ... one's anatomic sex A wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's ... double-blind study of two combined oral contraceptives containing the same progestogen, but different estrogens". Contraception ... Treatment options include oral, parenteral, subcutaneous implant, and transdermal (patches, gels). Dosing is patient-specific ...
Pastor Z, Holla K, Chmel R (February 2013). "The influence of combined oral contraceptives on female sexual desire: a ... Burrows LJ, Basha M, Goldstein AT (September 2012). "The effects of hormonal contraceptives on female sexuality: a review". J ... The hormonal influences of sexual motivation are much more clearly understood for nonprimate females. Suppression of estrogen ... Cummings J. A.; Becker J. B. (2012). "Quantitative assessment of female sexual motivation in the rat: Hormonal control of ...
In women, symptoms may worsen just before and during menstrual periods, after taking oral contraceptives, and around menopause ... hormonal issues related to menstrual cycles, liver damage, or liver and kidney failure. As a symptom rather than a disease, ...
There's still controversy whether benign breast conditions improve or worsen with the use of oral contraceptives or hormone ... Chronic hormonal fluctuations eventually produce small cysts and/or areas of dense or fibrotic tissue over the years. By the ... This condition is an accumulative process, partly caused by the normal hormonal variation during a woman's monthly cycle. The ... Symptoms may worsen during certain parts of the menstrual cycle due to hormonal stimulation. These are normal breast changes, ...
This is usually evident after physical examination as yellow pigment deposits on the skin, in the oral mucosa, or conjunctiva. ... The etiology of ICP is multifactorial and likely involves hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors. Several observations ... 17 Bland cholestasis is almost always caused by anabolic steroids or estrogen contraceptive use, while many drugs may cause ... Frezza M, Surrenti C, Manzillo G, Fiaccadori F, Bortolini M, Di Padova C (July 1990). "Oral S-adenosylmethionine in the ...
... diacetate is used in combination with an estrogen such as ethinylestradiol or mestranol in combined oral contraceptives for ... It has weak androgenic and estrogenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. The medication is a prodrug of ... Upon oral administration and during first-pass metabolism in the liver, etynodiol diacetate is rapidly converted by esterases ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ...
... it has been suggested that the use of oral contraceptives in women is behind the disparity between the sexes. A 1995 report ... especially polycythemia vera and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Use of estrogen-containing forms of hormonal contraception ... especially in combination with oral contraceptive use Sickle cell anemia Dehydration, primarily in infants and children ...
HEGEMANN O (May 1959). "[Oral hormonal treatment with methylestrene-olone & methylestradiol as early pregnancy tests]". ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Methylestradiol is marketed in combination with normethandrone in the form of oral tablets containing 0.3 mg methylestradiol ... "Reappraisal of the health risks associated with the use of high doses of oral and injectable androgenic steroids". NIDA Res. ...
... which has been studied for use in hormone replacement therapy for ovariectomized women and as a hormonal contraceptive in ... "Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives 3. Inhibition of ovulation". Expert Review of Clinical ... It has greater oral bioavailability than does micronized estradiol due to absorption via the lymphatic system and hence partial ... Dahlgren E, Crona N, Janson PO, Samsioe G (1985). "Oral replacement with estradiol-cyclooctyl acetate: a new estradiol analogue ...
Committee on the Relationship Between Oral Contraceptives and BreastCancer (1 January 1991). Oral Contraceptives and Breast ... Leung VW, Levine M, Soon JA (February 2010). "Mechanisms of action of hormonal emergency contraceptives". Pharmacotherapy. 30 ( ... However, the long term side effects common with oral contraceptives such as arterial disease are lower with levonorgestrel than ... Brat T (1974). "Clinical trial with a new low oestrogen combined oral contraceptive". Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2 ( ...
If spotting continues beyond the first 3-4 cycles of oral contraceptive use, a woman should have her prescription adjusted to a ... The term breakthrough bleeding or breakthrough spotting is usually used for women using hormonal contraceptives, such as IUDs ... It may also occur with other hormonal contraceptives. Sometimes, breakthrough bleeding is classified as abnormal and thereby as ... of combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) users during the initial 3 to 4 months of use, it then usually resolves on its own. ...
Women starting an estrogen-containing oral contraceptive may need to increase the dosage of lamotrigine to maintain its level ... which can be of particular concern for women on estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives. Ethinylestradiol, an ingredient of ... Estimate of the mean apparent volume of distribution of lamotrigine following oral administration ranges from 0.9 to 1.3 L/kg. ... Lamotrigine is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration. Its absolute bioavailability is 98% and its plasma ...
... such as oral contraceptive pills or male condoms. (See also: Comparison of birth control methods) Many forms of female- ... For patients who wish to avoid hormonal medications because of personal medical contraindications such as breast cancer, ... "Trends in Contraceptive Use Worldwide" (PDF). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations. ... "Contraceptive Use in the United States". Guttmacher Institute. 4 August 2004. Retrieved 9 July 2019. Wikimedia Commons has ...
"Oral contraceptives and liver cancer. Results of the Multicentre International Liver Tumor Study (MILTS)". Contraception. 56 (5 ... Cea-Soriano L, Blenk T, Wallander MA, Rodríguez LA (April 2012). "Hormonal therapies and meningioma: is there a link?". Cancer ... 8.2% for 3 mg/day oral diethylstilbestrol (n = 114) (EORTC Trial 30761); and 4.5% for 300 mg/day oral CPA (n = 130) vs. 0% for ... "Effects of seven low-dose combined oral contraceptives on sex hormone binding globulin, corticosteroid binding globulin, total ...
It is also used as a contraceptive for population control of Canada geese and feral pigeons. It is also a wide-spectrum anti- ... Following oral administration, nicarbazin rapidly dissociates in vivo into its two components HDP and DNC, which are absorbed ... probably due to an inadequate hormonal arrangement. Injection of LHRF in nicarbazin-treated animals results in an immediate and ... Following oral administration, nicarbazin rapidly dissociates in vivo into its two HDP and DNC components, which follow ...
... has been studied as a potential hormonal contraceptive to prevent pregnancy in women. Reddymasu SC, Soykan I, ... The oral tablets are available in the strength of 10 mg. Domperidone has been studied for use by intramuscular injection and an ... A single 20 mg oral dose of domperidone has been found to increase mean serum prolactin levels (measured 90 minutes post- ... There is a 2- to 3-fold accumulation in levels of domperidone with frequent repeated oral administration of domperidone (four ...
Sexual reproduction and different contraceptive methods are taught in grades 8 and 10 (age 14 and 16) compulsorily. In 2000, a ... They provide knowledge about masturbation, oral and anal sex as well as heterosexual, genital intercourse. In Switzerland, the ... the use of birth control such as condoms and hormonal contraception; and the impact of such use on pregnancy outside marriage, ... HB 1567/ SB 1076 - Introduced in 2009 by Villarreal, this bill would have required instruction on contraceptive use to be ...
Using hormonal combined contraceptive pills also helps in reducing the chances of PID by thickening the cervical mucosal plug ... For women with PID of mild to moderate severity, parenteral and oral therapies appear to be effective. It does not matter to ... Clinical experience guides decisions regarding transition from parenteral to oral therapy, which usually can be initiated ...
Wiegratz, I; Lee, J.H; Kutschera, E; Winkler, U.H; Kuhl, H (August 2004). "Effect of four oral contraceptives on hemostatic ... Kuhl, H. (1999). "Hormonal Contraception". In Oettel, M.; Schillinger, E. (eds.). Estrogens and Antiestrogens II: Pharmacology ... Wiegratz, I.; Jung-Hoffmann, C.; Kuhl, H. (June 1995). "Effect of two oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol and ... December 1990), "Pharmacokinetics of Oral Contraceptive Steroids and Drug Interaction: Salzburg, Austria, September 14-16, 1989 ...
The oral bioavailability of progesterone is very low. Studies using IA have generally measured the bioavailability of oral ... They are used as forms of long-lasting hormonal birth control. A one-year progesterone intrauterine device (IUD) for hormonal ... The IUD was never widely used due to a relatively high contraceptive failure rate of 2.9% and the requirement of annual ... In addition, oral progesterone today is always micronized and suspended in oil. This improves the bioavailability of oral ...
In 1988, Enovid, along with other oral contraceptives containing high doses of estrogen, was discontinued. Noretynodrel was ... The medication has weak estrogenic activity, no or only very weak androgenic activity, and no other important hormonal activity ... was introduced in the United States as the first oral contraceptive, and the combination of norethisterone and mestranol ... About 1% of an oral dose of noretynodrel is detected in breast milk. The pharmacokinetics of noretynodrel have been reviewed. ...
Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... l und 2). Horský, Jan; Presl, Jiří (1981). "Hormonal Treatment of Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle". In J. Horsky; J. Presl ( ... Int J Oral Surg. 7 (5): 463-70. doi:10.1016/S0300-9785(78)80038-6. PMID 102602. Ward HW (June 1972). "Progestogen therapy for ... Gestonorone caproate was studied by Schering for use as a progestogen-only injectable contraceptive across a dose range of 2.5 ...
Oral contraceptives containing only progestin can increase the occurrence of follicular cysts. The use of levonorgestrel- ... Theca Lutein cysts usually spontaneously resolve on their own after the source of hormonal stimulation is removed such as the ... for theca lutein cysts is very conservative due to their benign nature and ability to disappear after the removal of hormonal ...
Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolic disease : current topics / David C. G. Skegg  ... Issues to consider in the production of hormonal contraceptives / Programme for Appropriate Technology in Health  ... Hormonal steroids in contraception : report of a WHO Scientific Group [‎meeting held in Geneva from 23-27 October 1967]‎  ... Progestogen-only contraceptive use during lactation and its effects on the neonate: Geneva, Switzerland, 22 October 2008  ...
Monophasic pills Monophasic oral contraceptive pills contain a constant amount of estrogen and progestin in each active pill. ... Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal Activity * Sections Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal ... Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal Activity) and Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal ... Hormonal Activity of Oral Contraceptive Pills. Monophasic pills. Monophasic oral contraceptive pills contain a constant amount ...
Monophasic pills Monophasic oral contraceptive pills contain a constant amount of estrogen and progestin in each active pill. ... Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal Activity * Sections Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal ... Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal Activity) and Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal ... Hormonal Activity of Oral Contraceptive Pills. Monophasic pills. Monophasic oral contraceptive pills contain a constant amount ...
Included studies reported on incident HIV infection among women using hormonal contraception (injectables, oral contraceptives ... Recommendations for other hormonal contraceptive methods (including combined hormonal methods, implants, and progestin-only ... Update to CDCs U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal ... BOX. Categories for classifying hormonal contraceptives. 1 = A condition for which there is no restriction for the use of the ...
Results of search for su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... Safety requirements for contraceptive steroids : proceedings of a Symposium on Improving Safety Requirements for Contraceptive ... Hormonal steroids in contraception : report of a WHO Scientific Group [meeting held in Geneva from 23-27 October 1967] by WHO ... Hormonal contraception : pills, injections & implants / Joseph W. Goldzieher. by Goldzieher, Joseph William , Essential Medical ...
Oral contraceptives. VI. Hormonal and antihormonal effects of santonin. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 1961 Oct ...
Hormonal methods. Oral contraceptives ("the pill"). Pills that a woman takes every day. They may contain only progestin or both ... Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), which are hormonal pills which the woman takes as soon as possible after unprotected ... Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). Intrauterine device (IUD). A small, T-shaped device that a provider inserts into ... How To Use A Dental Dam As A Barrier For Oral Sex (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish ...
Contraceptives, Oral [‎28]‎. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined [‎19]‎. Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal [‎38]‎. Contraceptives, ...
Hormonal contraceptives (oral, parenteral or transdermal) for at least 3 months prior to study drug administration. ... Double-barrier method (contraceptive sponge, diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicidal jellies or cream AND a condom); ...
It is projected to grow at a compound annual rate (CAGR of 6.17%) over the forecast period.The Global Hormonal Contraceptive ... Global hormonal contraceptive market was valued at USD 15.8 Billion in 2021. ... These are the main product types covered in the Hormonal Contraceptive market report:. Oral Contraceptive Pills. Injectable ... 4. How is Hormonal Contraceptive technology preference changing consumer behavior?. 5. Which Hormonal Contraceptive messages ...
Women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus are eligible to use all hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine ... Women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus are eligible to use all hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine ... Abbreviations: C = continuation; CHC = combined hormonal contraceptive; COC = combined oral contraceptive; Cu = copper; DMPA = ... Abbreviations: ARV = antiretroviral; C = continuation; CHC = combined hormonal contraceptive; COC = combined oral contraceptive ...
... extra effort should be made to include long-term users of oral contraceptive … ... Long-term use of oral contraceptives could be a cofactor that increases risk of cervical carcinoma by up to four-fold in women ... Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric ... Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal / adverse effects* * DNA, Viral / analysis * Female * Humans * Logistic Models ...
Stephen Sudler answered: Breakthrough bleed: Missing oral contraceptive pills can result in breakthrough bleeding, which is n ... Hormonal Oral Contraceptives contain hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle. Typically, when a woman misses 1-2 pills, ... Missing oral contraceptive pills can result in breakthrough bleeding, which is not harmful. Since this has occurred, a back-up ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control ... Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. Antineoplastic Agents. ... Drug: Megestrol acetate oral suspension 625 mg/5 mL Megestrol acetate oral suspension 625 mg/5 mL. Single dose (5 mL) ... Drug: Megestrol acetate oral suspension 625 mg/5 mL Megestrol acetate oral suspension 625 mg/5 mL. Single dose (5 mL) ...
This review summarizes the latest information on hormonal therapies including: combined oral contraceptives; anti‐androgens, ... combined oral contraceptives; anti‐androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and flutamide; low‐dose ... Hormonal treatment is indicated in cases of papulopustular, nodular and conglobate acne in females with identified ... This review summarizes the latest information on hormonal therapies including: ...
Common types of hormonal birth control include: "The Pill" (oral contraceptives), injection (Depo-Provera, Lunelle), the patch ... Hormonal Methods of Birth Control. There are several different hormonal methods of birth control. The hormones can be estrogen ... What is the best form of birth control? Take this quiz to find out about hormonal, surgical, barrier, and natural methods! ... Spermicide is a type of contraceptive product that is inserted into the vagina before genital contact or sexual intercourse. It ...
Breast cancer and combined oral contraceptives: Results from the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer ... Breast cancer and combined oral contraceptives: Results from the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer ...
... of hormonal contraceptives containing an estrogen or progestogen. If an oral contraceptive is taken on the same day of ... of hormonal contraceptives containing an estrogen or progestogen. If an oral contraceptive is taken on the same day of ... Switching to intrauterine from an oral, transdermal, or vaginal hormonal contraceptive. *Insert intrauterine device at any time ... Switching to intrauterine from an oral, transdermal, or vaginal hormonal contraceptive. *Insert intrauterine device at any time ...
"Oral contraceptives and lipids and lipoproteins: Part I--Variations in mean levels by oral contraceptive type." Contraception ... "Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: further results." Contraception 54 (suppl (1996): s1-106 ... "Oral contraceptives and cervical cancer - further findings from the oxford family planning association contraceptive study." Br ... The use of oral contraceptives is contraindicated in patients with liver tumors. An increased risk of benign hepatic adenomas ...
There are various hormonal IUD options that are effective…. Over-the-Counter Access to Oral Contraceptives Written by H. Reeve ... Contraceptive Pearl: Hormonal Birth Control & Weight Gain Do hormonal contraceptives cause weight gain? One survey of American ... Hormonal IUDs Written by Samantha Glass Hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs) have been in use for over thirty years. ... Contraceptive Pearl: Contraceptive Counseling for People Living with HIV Written by Samantha Hyacinth with support from The ...
Tables & Protocols Oral Contraceptive Pill (Birth Control Pill) Hormonal Activity * 2002258507-overview ... In fact, studies have clarified that failure rates with fertility awareness methods are higher than with oral contraceptives, ... contraceptive strategy will encourage women and couples to believe that this method may be as effective as oral contraceptives ... I have likened contraceptive options to a cafeteria, meaning that more choices is a good thing. However, some are concerned ...
... effect of exogenous hormonal therapy including oral contraceptives; and (3) effect of the drug or biologic on the ... pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives.. Informed Consent Issues. A critical responsibility of the investigator and the IRB ... It is important that investigators have access to gynecologic consultants who can provide information about contraceptives and ...
Combined hormonal contraceptives include the: *Oral contraceptive pill. *Contraceptive patch. *Contraceptive ring ... Why stop now? Extended and continuous regiments of combined hormonal contraceptive methods. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2015; ... And this goes for both combined hormonal contraceptives-those that deliver both estrogen and progesterone-and progesterone-only ...
7.2 Hormonal Contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives, including oral, injectable, transdermal, and implantable forms, may not ... Hormonal contraceptives, including oral, injectable, transdermal, and implantable contraceptives should not be used as the sole ... Based on these findings, hormonal contraceptives (including oral, injectable, transdermal, and implantable contraceptives) may ... An interaction study demonstrated that coadministration of bosentan and a combination oral hormonal contraceptive produced ...
oral hormonal contraceptives; and. *HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Name of substance must be listed in National Health ( ... Prior to COVID-19, PBS Continued Dispensing was limited to oral contraceptives and statins. PBS Expanded Continued Dispensing ... the prescriber must give the pharmacist a written prescription that confirms the oral prescription within 7 days (Schedule 4 ...
Hormonal Contraceptives. Oral contraceptives have been associated with a small increased risk of breast cancer in current users ... Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: further results. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. ... used hormonal contraceptives had a higher risk of breast cancer than did women who had never used hormonal contraceptives. ... Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Wilson HG, et al.: Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 346 (26): 2025- ...
However, extended-cycle combined hormonal contraceptives may alleviate symptoms. Drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives ... 1.1 Impact of hormonal contraceptives on the risk of venous thromboembolism * 1.2 Impact of hormonal contraceptives on the risk ... 2.3 Impact of hormonal contraceptives on the treatment of ovarian cysts * 2.4 Effect of taking hormonal contraceptives when ... 3.2 Impact of hormonal contraceptives on body weight * 3.3 Impact of hormonal contraceptives on the risk of developing ...
hormonal changes in females, such as menopause, taking oral contraceptives, or pregnancy ...
  • Lesnewski R, Prine L. Initiating hormonal contraception. (
  • CDC recently evaluated the evidence and the updated WHO guidance on the risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among women using hormonal contraception. (
  • The industry is experiencing rapid growth due to increasing awareness in emerging countries about hormonal contraception methods and growing investments by major players in the R&D of new contraceptive devices. (
  • CDC updated recommendations in the "U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use" to state that progestin-only injectable contraception (including depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) and intrauterine devices (including levonorgestrel-releasing and copper-bearing) are safe for use without restriction among women at high risk for HIV infection. (
  • Hormonal Contraception. (
  • The aim of this guideline is to provide an evidence- and consensus-based overview of the diagnostic approach and the management of hormonal contraception based on a systematic evaluation of the relevant literature. (
  • The over‐the‐counter availability of emergency contraception for women aged 17 and older 11 has reenergized the call to make regular oral contraceptives available without a prescription. (
  • Progestin‐only oral contraceptives, which contain the same class of hormone found in emergency contraception, are thought to be a better prospect for a shift to over‐the‐counter status than combined pills, because they have fewer contraindications. (
  • Some methods of hormonal contraception use the two hormones oestrogen and progesterone, or just progesterone alone, similar to those produced by women, to control menstruation. (
  • Hormonal vs. Non-Hormonal Contraception: What's the Difference? (
  • Should long-term hormonal contraception be reconsidered? (
  • Understanding the factors associated with the use of hormonal and intrauterine contraception among HIV-infected men and women may lead to interventions that can help reduce high unintended pregnancy rates. (
  • 1 But like any medication, hormonal contraception can have side effects-including weight gain. (
  • IARC Monographs, volume 72: hormonal contraception and post-menopausal hormonal therapy - summary of data reported and evaluation. (
  • Nearly five years ago, the nation's leading group of obstetricians and gynecologists issued a policy statement saying the time had come for oral contraception to be available without a prescription. (
  • In fact, she says, some of the potential negative side effects of oral contraception are less likely in younger people. (
  • The review also found no evidence that increased access to birth control would lead teenagers to have more sex or engage in riskier sex, a concern voiced by some critics of oral contraception access. (
  • So what would happen if oral contraception no longer required a prescription? (
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has issued multiple statements in the past year stressing that, while the group still supports making oral contraception available without a prescription to teens as well as adults, such a change is not enough on its own for making birth control available to everyone who needs it. (
  • Over-the-counter contraception is not an acceptable substitute for the ACA contraceptive coverage mandate," the group wrote in a statement issued in February . (
  • In 2002, the most frequent contraceptive method among women aged 15--44 years was oral contraception. (
  • Hormonal contraception which one is right the scores can then be divided into physiologic, affective, sensory-discriminative, and cognitive components (71). (
  • Monophasic oral contraceptive pills contain a constant amount of estrogen and progestin in each active pill. (
  • Biphasic oral contraceptive pills deliver the same amount of estrogen each day while progestin dose is increased halfway through cycle. (
  • Triphasic oral contraceptive pills have 3 different doses of progestin and estrogen that change approximately every 7 days. (
  • Four-phasic oral contraceptive pills provide 4 different doses of progestin/estrogen during a 28-day cycle. (
  • Ninety-one-day oral contraceptive pills provide a constant dose of estrogen and progestin for 84 days. (
  • Progesterone-only oral contraceptive pills provide a constant dose of progestin. (
  • Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), which are hormonal pills which the woman takes as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse. (
  • Accordingly, some women will find the 1-year duration of this contraceptive to be an important advantage over existing methods, including pills, the patch, and the NuvaRing. (
  • Written by H. Reeve Bright Requiring a prescription for oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) creates access barriers for patients. (
  • Missing oral contraceptive pills can result in breakthrough bleeding , which is not harmful. (
  • Design: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, oral contraceptive pills and weight loss in PCOS. (
  • Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) (eg, Plan B One-Step OTC, an enteric-coated levonorgestrel ECP that dissolves and is absorbed in the intestine), ovulation inhibition effective until the LH surge. (
  • Around 16% of American women use oral contraceptive pills that should be taken around the same time every day. (
  • They found that women who took birth control pills were at three times the risk of blood clots than those who did not use any type of hormonal birth control, but those who used other types of non-oral hormonal contraceptives were at higher risk. (
  • The mothers took hormonal birth control pills. (
  • If you don't have access to dedicated EC, oral contraceptives can be used as replacement EC, but remember the following: 1) Only some contraceptives work as EC 2) Different contraceptives require different dosages and time schedules to work as EC 3) For combined pills, you must only use the first 21 pills in 28-day packs and 4) They may be less effective than dedicated EC. (
  • In Djibouti, emergency contraceptive pills (morning after pills) are available over-the-counter at pharmacies. (
  • You can find emergency contraceptive pills (morning after pills) at pharmacies, and they are sold over-the-counter. (
  • [5] Note that ellaOne is currently the most effective form of emergency contraceptive pills available, but they also tend to be more expensive. (
  • Oral contraceptive pills and other hormonal treatments are also used to relieve cramping and lessen the blood flow. (
  • An example of a conventional dermatology approach to treating acne is a prescription of antibiotics and/or oral contraceptive pills. (
  • Levonorgestrel-IUDs prevent pregnancy primarily by inducing a sterile inflammatory response in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and ova, with additional hormonal effects on the endometrium and cervical mucus. (
  • Learn how pregnancy, menopause, and some contraceptives might play a role in hormone-related bad breath - and how you can deal with it. (
  • If you take a form of hormonal birth control, you're elevating the levels of certain hormones - estrogen and progestin - in your body to prevent pregnancy. (
  • A woman is therefore most vulnerable during times of hormonal change, such as the onset of menstruation (in the teen years), pregnancy, postpartum, and perimenopause. (
  • Women who are sensitive to hormonal shifts are therefore more likely to experience PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome), PMDD (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder , a more severe form of PMS), Pregnancy or Postpartum Depression , and mood symptoms in the Perimenopausal period. (
  • 2 Unintended pregnancy rates are also driven by women who forgo contraceptives entirely. (
  • 3 Frequent contraceptive discontinuation contributes to the high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion in the United States. (
  • Among women, younger age, not wanting a pregnancy in 2 years, being with their partner for more than 4 years, and being able to make family planning decisions by themselves were associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use. (
  • Thus when discussing contraceptive options with women who might consider switching, the option of an IUD offers not only a method that is as effective as sterilization at preventing unintended pregnancy, and which lasts five or 10 years, but that also has a lower risk of venous thrombosis,' said Hillard. (
  • Hormonal birth control, like the pill, offers women a safe, effective way to prevent pregnancy. (
  • The bacteria found in large numbers in these oral conditions have been linked to serious health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. (
  • Teen pregnancy rates are way down in the U.S., and teenagers are using contraceptives more often. (
  • The term "contraceptives" refers to pharmacological agents that prevent pregnancy. (
  • Women are at a higher risk of developing dry eye syndrome due to hormonal changes, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, and menopause. (
  • However, youve probably also noticed that these symptoms are similar to those of PMS.Paying attention to your exact fertility hormone concentrations using the Mira Plus tracker can help you pinpoint hormonal changes with greater accuracy to differentiate early pregnancy symptoms from PMS. (
  • Changes in levels of sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) in women during puberty, pregnancy, menstrual cycle, menopause and oral contraceptives use, in addition to acting in other organs, also act in the oral cavity, particularly in the periodontal tissues, as modifying factor of various types of pre-existing pathologies. (
  • According to studies, there are five situations in women's lives during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems: puberty, their menstrual cycles, pregnancy, menopause, and birth control pill usage. (
  • First things first - contraceptives prevent pregnancy, but don't necessarily protect against disease. (
  • There are two types: hormonal IUDs and copper IUDs. (
  • In fact, studies have clarified that failure rates with fertility awareness methods are higher than with oral contraceptives, and much higher than with long-acting methods like IUDs and implants. (
  • Written by Samantha Glass Hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs) have been in use for over thirty years. (
  • For the first 4-6 weeks postpartum, non-hormonal methods are the first choice, followed by IUDs and progestogen implants. (
  • Birth control implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs) are long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). (
  • The Natural Cycles app helps women track their body temperature and menstrual cycle, and advises when they should avoid sexual intercourse (or use other contraceptives such as condoms) on the most fertile days. (
  • s study included condoms as a contraceptive in their analyses. (
  • As condoms require very consistent use to be effective, they are considered to be only "moderately effective" or Tier 3 in their contraceptive effectiveness, as compared to oral contraceptives (OC) and the depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injection, which are "effective" or Tier 2, and the subdermal implant and the copper intrauterine device (IUD), which are "very effective" or Tier 1 [ 18 ]. (
  • Some contraceptives, like condoms, do both. (
  • You can use condoms for protection during penetrative or even oral sex, although many people are skipping them . (
  • If you don't want to use something hormonal or get a copper IUD , White said, spermicides are a nonhormonal, over-the-counter product that you simply add to condoms to make them more effective. (
  • Interventions: Continuous oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or intensive lifestyle modification (Lifestyle) or the combination (Combined) for 16 weeks. (
  • It would mark the beginning of more than a decade of enduring the side effects of the pill, along with other types of hormonal birth control. (
  • In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, effects of an oral contraceptive pill (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol [EE]) were investigated in 100 patients with endometriosis-associated dysmenorrhea for four cycles. (
  • Weight gain can be a side effect of hormonal birth control, like the pill. (
  • NOTE: If switching from combined oral contraceptive (OC), initiate norethindrone the day after the last active combined OC pill. (
  • That includes the pill, implanted hormonal birth control and intrauterine devices. (
  • It's a daily oral pill that can prevent HIV infection before exposure. (
  • That's 7,000 people interested in learning about HSDD and Addyi, the only FDA-Approved non-hormonal little pink pill! (
  • 91-day combination oral contraceptives - Reduce the number of menstrual cycles per year. (
  • The combined hormonal contraceptives, even those that the authors found to have an increased risk of venous thrombosis compared to other specific combination oral contraceptives, are associated with a higher risk than an individual would experience if she were pregnant,' said Hillard. (
  • this guidance states that the advantages of progestin-only injectable contraceptive use (including depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA]) by women at high risk for HIV infection outweigh the theoretical or proven risks (U.S. MEC category 2). (
  • oral, transdermal patch, and vaginal ring) and progestins (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA] and norethindrone). (
  • However, many large observational studies to date have indicated an association between the use of combined oral contraceptives or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and HIV acquisition and transmission. (
  • Although the most effective form of testosterone therapy is not reliable as a contraceptive, oral contraceptives with ethinylestradiol may help minimize hormonal fluctuations during menstruation. (
  • Monthly menstruation cycle - Hormonal changes (especially the increase in progesterone) occur during a woman's menstrual cycle. (
  • Combined hormonal contraceptives, progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, danazol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are current pharmacologic options for pain management. (
  • According to the firms, "very few" treatments are specifically indicated for the treatment of endometriosis, and associated pain is often managed with medicines such as oral contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids and hormonal therapies, as well as surgery in the most extreme cases. (
  • California authorized pharmacists to distribute most types of hormonal birth control. (
  • No matter your life stage, keep your medical and oral health care professionals informed of any hormone shifts. (
  • Are your moods affected by hormone-based oral contraceptives? (
  • AbbVie and Neurocrine have announced the US approval of Orilissa, the first and only oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist specifically developed for women with moderate to severe endometriosis pain. (
  • The study suggests that some women talk with their doctor about switching from non-oral hormone contraceptives if they are already at high risk for blood clots. (
  • Treatment consisted of a therapy with oral hygiene instruction, scaling and planing root surface, and referred to a gynecologist for hormone replacement, followed by resection of the lesion. (
  • In the absence of worldwide information about HPV status, extra effort should be made to include long-term users of oral contraceptives in cervical screening programmes. (
  • A small increase in the risk of breast cancer has been noted in users of oral contraceptives. (
  • The incidence rates for venous thromboembolism in the study population were 30.8 (95% confidence interval 25.6 to 36.8) per 100 000 woman years among users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone and 12.5 (9.61 to 15.9) per 100 000 woman years among users of oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel. (
  • Conclusions The risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism among users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone seems to be around twice that of users of oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel, after the effects of potential confounders and prescribing biases have been taken into account. (
  • In March 2017, based on newly published studies ( 6 ), and after considering factors such as the balance of benefits and harms and ethical principles of ensuring informed contraceptive choice, WHO updated its recommendations on the safety of progestin-only injectable use among women at high risk for HIV infection from MEC category 1 to MEC category 2 (advantages of using the method generally outweigh the theoretical or proven risks). (
  • The revised guidelines present two major changes to existing guidelines: (A) there are now just 2 categories of pneumonia instead of 3 ("pneumonia" which is treated at home with oral amoxicillin and "severe pneumonia" which requires injectable antibiotics) and (B) oral amoxicillin replaces oral c. (
  • Risk factors associated with endometriosis include early menarche, late menopause, blockage of menstrual discharge, low birthweight, and exposure to exogenous hormonal agents. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives: Bosentan use decreases contraceptive exposure and reduces effectiveness (7.2). (
  • Lamotrigine: some research has suggested that Lamotrigine may interact with the COCP, contraceptive patch and vaginal ring reducing the effectiveness of Lamotrigine, thus increasing the risk of breakthrough seizures. (
  • Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations. (
  • This forces women to compromise between what they can afford and the contraceptive effectiveness that they need. (
  • Many people start taking hormonal birth control during adolescence or young adulthood. (
  • Women who use non-oral hormonal contraceptives, like patches and vaginal rings, may be at higher risk of blood clots than those who take oral forms of birth control, according to a new Danish study published in the journal BMJ. (
  • Combination patch contraceptive - Releases estrogen and progesterone directly into the skin. (
  • Fibrocystic changes are associated with hormonal shifts in estrogen and progesterone, which affect the breast tissue. (
  • I have likened contraceptive options to a cafeteria, meaning that more choices is a good thing. (
  • CDC's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (U.S. MEC) (first published in 2010 and updated in 2016) provides evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among U.S. women with certain characteristics or medical conditions ( 1 ), and is adapted from global guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and kept up to date based on continual review of published literature ( 2 ). (
  • Hormonal contraceptives, also known as birth control methods that affect the endocrine systems, are birth control options. (
  • Women at high risk for HIV are eligible to use all hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices. (
  • U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use" (U.S. MEC) 2016 provides evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among U.S. women with certain characteristics or medical conditions ( 1 ). (
  • Two New Contraceptive Methods: More Choice or More Risk? (
  • Among other subjects, it considers the use of "unnatural contraceptive methods in specific circumstances, in which it would be irresponsible to have children. (
  • To pose today, as the authors of the book mentioned above do, the use of "unnatural contraceptive methods in specific circumstances … " is, beyond a theoretic intellectual exercise, an affirmation that doesn't take into account either the reality of studies on the accompaniment of marriages or the experience of so very many marriages. (
  • To improve women's satisfaction with contraceptive methods, determining what features they prefer and how these preferences are satisfied by available methods and methods under development is crucial. (
  • The contraceptive features women want are largely absent from currently available methods. (
  • Currently available contraceptive methods are not meeting many women's needs. (
  • 1 The large gap between typical‐ and perfect‐use failure rates indicates widespread inconsistent use of the most common contraceptive methods. (
  • Low levels of effective contraceptive use and high levels of dissatisfaction may be due to barriers to contraceptive availability or to a mismatch between women's preferences and the features of available methods. (
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate factors that are associated with hormonal or intrauterine contraceptive use (the most effective nonpermanent contraceptive methods) among both HIV-infected women and men. (
  • need for awareness about reproductive planning, through information and clarification regarding the use of contraceptive methods. (
  • Among 10 801 currently married women aged 15-49 years surveyed, 38.8% were not using any contraceptive method, 18.9% used traditional methods, and 42.3% relied on modern contraceptive methods. (
  • Logistic regression analysis revealed 4 significant predictors of using modern contraceptive methods: location in Central Region, residence in urban areas, age and parity. (
  • Contraceptive use is generally estimated from methods has come at the expense of modern methods. (
  • The their family by avoiding undesired pregnancies and 12-month contraceptive discontinuation rate remained consequently serving their intention to stop and/or high for all methods (48%) ( 7 ). (
  • Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) place women at increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) and arterial thrombotic events (ATEs), including acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. (
  • Contraceptive vaginal ring - Hormones are absorbed directly by the reproductive organs. (
  • The hormones-bad breath connection is another demonstration of how oral health affects your entire body - and vice versa. (
  • Combined oral contraceptives, or COCs, are drugs that affect a woman's body with the help of hormones. (
  • Natural treatments for hormonal acne are aimed at decreasing androgens (male sex hormones) in the body, often by decreasing the intake of testosterone-rich or boosting foods. (
  • Participants The study encompassed all women aged 15 to 44 years who received an oral contraceptive containing either drospirenone or levonorgestrel after 1 January 2002. (
  • It aims to meet this goal by increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) and eliminating unmet need for FP among all women, which are currently at 35% and 18.5%, respectively [ 3 ]. (
  • In Jordan, the overall contraceptive prevalence rate wide is the Demographic and Health Survey, in which has increased markedly over the past 2 decades, from 40% data have been collected through nationally representa- in 1990 to 61% in 2012. (
  • However, some are concerned that FDA approval of a fertility awareness contraceptive strategy will encourage women and couples to believe that this method may be as effective as oral contraceptives and other, more effective forms of birth control. (
  • At age 26, I was off hormonal birth control for the first time. (
  • My son is almost 1 1/2 years old now, and despite my midwife's urging, I've chosen to remain off hormonal birth control. (
  • 5 However, other studies haven't found any significant relationship between hormonal birth control and weight gain, in both women with or without obesity. (
  • If hormonal birth control was available over the counter, it too would fall outside the law's coverage mandate. (
  • Choice of which proportion of women whose last birth was unplanned contraceptive method to use is affected by factors such was 25%, accounting for 45 000 births annually ( 7 ). (
  • 52 It is essential that local arrangements that the delivery of birth control gallbladder disease answer the partnership with health and contraceptives work have a right to make a take oral their preferred based on CRCs so depending on. (
  • This double standard is as real as the difficulties - due to factors like the number of sperm produced , side effects and the lack of oral testosterone - developing a viable form of male birth control. (
  • In contrast to the effects of conventional hormonal therapies (i.e. (
  • We aimed to assess how use of oral contraceptives affected risk of cervical cancer in women who tested positive for HPV DNA. (
  • This retrospective study is based on data collected from medical records and A questionnaire was developed to assess the risk factors (such as: parity, age at first marriage, smoking, oral contraceptive, and Hormonal status) of cervical cancer among the participants. (
  • Melasma does not have one specific cause-rather, it's caused by a combination of genetics, hormonal changes, and sun exposure. (
  • And treatment hormonal fluctuations or imbalances replacement on the upper branch to that in the lower. (
  • Hormonal acne" is often caused by the normal fluctuations in the menstrual cycle. (
  • Is hormonal treatment still an option in acne today? (
  • Hormonal treatment is indicated in cases of papulopustular, nodular and conglobate acne in females with identified hyperandrogenism, in adult women who have monthly flare‐ups and when standard therapeutic options are unsuccessful or inappropriate. (
  • An update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women are provided. (
  • Dr. Diane Thiboutot, Professor of Dermatology at The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, gave a practical talk at the 2022 ODAC Dermatology, Aesthetic and Surgical Conference about hormonal treatment of acne. (
  • Oral medications may also be taken in place of topical treatments, some doctors even claim that this has a higher efficacy of preventing recurrence of this type of acne compared to topical products. (
  • With that being said, fluconazole would be the best oral medication in treating this type of acne. (
  • One of the most common misconceptions about this type of acne is that it is interchangeable with hormonal acne. (
  • Hormonal acne, on the other hand, is caused by excess sebum in the hair follicles. (
  • Hormonal acne can cause pain due to inflammation. (
  • On the other hand, hormonal acne treatment would include antibiotics and retinoids (moderate to severe acne), topical creams (blackhead and whiteheads ), benzoyl peroxide, topical retinoid, and topical antibiotic (inflammatory acne). (
  • In short, the treatments for cystic acne are similar to hormonal acne. (
  • With that being said, hormonal acne, cystic acne, and nodule acne somewhat share the same type of treatments which addresses bacteria and inflammation. (
  • Can you talk about how hormonal imbalances affect acne? (
  • What are some clues that somebody is dealing with hormonal acne? (
  • Pune, Maharashtra, November 22 2022 (Wiredrelease) -:Global hormonal contraceptive market was valued at USD 15.8 Billion in 2021. (
  • The first oral contraceptives were introduced in the early 1960s and contained high doses of both oestrogen and progestogen. (
  • 1 Over the subsequent years, oral contraceptives containing smaller doses of oestrogen and progestogen were introduced to the market in an attempt to reduce cardiovascular risk. (
  • It presents data reported and results of carcinogenicity evaluation for humans and experimental animals of oral contraceptives, progestogens, and oestrogen. (
  • As with antibiotics, there is a proven link between oral contraceptives and damaged gut flora. (
  • Other treatments would include oral antibiotics (secondary bacterial infection), adalimumab (resistance severe disease), and systemic corticosteroids (reducing inflammation). (
  • This can lead to recurrent breakouts and may need to be treated with an antibiotic gel or lotion, or oral antibiotics like doxycycline, to decrease the amount of bacteria on the skin. (
  • Objective To compare the risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women receiving oral contraceptives containing drospirenone with that in women receiving oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel. (
  • In the case-control analysis, the conditional odds ratio for venous thromboembolism comparing use of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone with use of those containing levonorgestrel was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.2). (
  • The age adjusted incidence rate ratio for venous thromboembolism for current use of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with those containing levonorgestrel was 2.8 (2.1 to 3.8). (
  • Research on ‐inconsistent contraceptive use has cited barriers to access and dissatisfaction with method characteristics as primary reasons that women experience gaps in coverage. (
  • Metabolic and inflammatory outcomes in women using oral contraceptives and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in a general population. (
  • A survey of the polycystic ovary syndrome in the Greek island of Lesbos: hormonal and metabolic profile. (
  • It's all the same stresses, disruptions at the level of hormonal and metabolic processes that can affect female functions. (
  • Available contraceptives are not meeting many women's needs, as is evident by high levels of typical‐use failure, method switching and discontinuation. (
  • For these women, refer to the recommendations in the 'U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use' for women with other factors related to STDs, and the 'U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use' on STD screening before IUD insertion" ( 1 , 3 ). (
  • During 9-12 March 2014, WHO convened a meeting of the Guideline Development Group (GDG) comprising 52 individuals representing a wide range of stakeholders, for the purpose of reviewing, and where appropriate, revising its Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, fourth edition (MEC) guidanc. (
  • In one study, 50 patients with recurrent dysmenorrhea despite treatment with a cyclic combined oral contraceptive (COC) were treated with a continuous oral contraceptive (desogestrel 0.15 mg/EE 0.02 mg) for 2 years. (
  • The type of progestogen became the focus of discussion in the mid-1990s, when concern was raised that women taking third generation oral contraceptives (which contained desogestrel or gestodene) were at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism compared with those taking second generation oral contraceptives (which contained levonorgestrel). (
  • It is a monophasic hormonal oral contraceptive containing a combination of an estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestogen (desogestrel) (150 mcg/20 mcg). (
  • It is a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive with antiandrogenic effect. (
  • It is a monophasic oral contraceptive. (
  • Dr. Thiboutot discussed the hormonal work up, indications for hormonal treatment, and guidelines for choosing a therapy, including oral contraceptives. (
  • This study concluded the importance of an integrated therapy for conditions such as presented, providing less damage to oral and systemic levels of the patient. (
  • Our preliminary findings support further studies to determine whether adding hormonal therapy might aid in reducing or preventing progression of early-stage prostate cancers during AS. (
  • A patient's choice of contraceptive method involves factors such as efficacy, safety, noncontraceptive benefits, cost, and personal considerations. (
  • Cases were women with current use of a study oral contraceptive and a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in the absence of identifiable clinical risk factors (idiopathic venous thromboembolism). (
  • We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) to evaluate factors associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use for men and women in separate models. (
  • The men and women in our study population differed in the factors associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use. (
  • The contraceptive effect is achieved due to a number of factors, the most important of which are inhibition of ovulation and changes in the cervical mucus viscosity. (
  • The contraceptive effect of combined oral contraceptives is not based on the interaction of various factors, the most important of which are the suppression of ovulation and changes in the properties of the cervical secretion. (
  • Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is considered a reactive tumor like lesion seen in the oral cavity caused due to low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. (
  • Oral PGs occur in the gingival in 75% of cases, and precipitating factors include poor oral hygiene, local irritants, and foreign material in the gingival. (
  • Daily oral administration or long-acting injection (intramuscular or subcutaneous) every 3 to 6 months. (
  • For general information on emergency contraceptives, click here and here . (
  • Emergency contraceptives were conceived and serve only as emergency medicines. (
  • This article seeks to give a comprehensive review of oral PG with its etiology, clinical features, treatment, and multiple differential diagnoses. (
  • The risk of venous thromboembolism was later also found to be increased for use of oral contraceptives containing cyproterone. (
  • Condom plus hormonal method at last intercourse: Females. (
  • 15 to 17 years who used a condom plus hormonal method at last intercourse. (
  • This measure tracks the proportion of females aged 15 to 17 years who used a condom (male or female) plus hormonal method at last intercourse. (
  • To date, recommendations for use of hormonal contraceptives among women at high risk for HIV infection have been U.S. MEC category 1 (safe for use without restriction) ( Box ). (
  • Evidence on the potential association between contraceptive use and risk for HIV acquisition among women at high risk for HIV infection has been closely monitored by CDC and WHO. (
  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives could be a cofactor that increases risk of cervical carcinoma by up to four-fold in women who are positive for cervical HPV DNA. (
  • This risk, however, drops following the cessation of contraceptive use so that, at ten years post-use, there is no significant increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • 2 3 4 5 6 In the end, the consensus was that an increased risk of venous thromboembolism existed in users of third generation oral contraceptives. (
  • 7 Thus, post-marketing surveillance to monitor newer contraceptives as they are introduced to the market is important, particularly for an established risk such as venous thromboembolism. (
  • The importance of 18 contraceptive method features was rated by 574 women seeking abortions-a group at high risk of having unprotected intercourse and unintended pregnancies-at six clinics across the United States in 2010. (
  • Most up-to-date information on oral contraceptives (OCs) and breast cancer risk comes from a collaborative re-analysis of individual data on 53297 cases and 100239 controls. (
  • While non-oral hormonal contraceptives did indeed show a higher risk of blood clots, Hillard said individuals must consider which option is best and most effective. (
  • For example, women with Factor V Leiden (FVL) who take oral contraceptives are at higher risk for developing VTE and, if tested and found to have FVL, can be prescribed a more appropriate non-hormonal contraceptive. (
  • As the Echo trial continues its investigation on certain hormonal contraceptives and the possibility they increase the risk of acquiring HIV, the conversation on the issue is heating up. (