Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Absence of menstruation.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The unmarried man or woman.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Painful menstruation.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Size and composition of the family.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/387)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Oral contraceptive use and risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. (2/387)

BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic disease refers to a spectrum of rare benign and malignant gynecologic disorders whose pathogenesis is not well understood. Recent studies from China and the United States have raised the hypothesis that long-term use of oral contraceptives before conception may increase the risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. A multicenter case-control study of gestational trophoblastic tumors was undertaken to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 235 case patients, including 50 with gestational choriocarcinoma, and 413 control subjects matched on recentness of pregnancy, age at pregnancy, and area of residence. Relative risks (odds ratios) were computed by conditional logistic regression. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: The relative risk estimate for ever having used oral contraceptives before the index pregnancy was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.0), and the risk increased with duration of use (P for trend = .05). The estimate was highest for women who used oral contraceptives during the cycle in which they became pregnant (relative risk = 4.0; 95% CI=1.6-10), but there was no consistent pattern according to the time interval since last use. Separate analyses of choriocarcinoma and persistent mole yielded similar results, i.e., the relative risk estimates for oral contraceptive use were 2.2 (95% CI=0.8-6.4) and 1.8 (95% CI=1.0-3.0), respectively. Control for the number of sexual partners, which was independently associated with risk (P for trend = .05), did not materially change the results. CONCLUSIONS: This study, the largest to date, indicates that long duration of oral contraceptive use before conception increases the risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. These findings may provide clues to the pathogenesis of this rare disease. Changes in use of oral contraceptives are not warranted, however, because the incidence attributable to oral contraceptive use is very low.  (+info)

Reproductive factors of ovarian and endometrial cancer risk in a high fertility population in Mexico. (3/387)

A case-control study was carried out in Mexico City during 1995-1997 among women with epithelial ovarian cancer (84 cases) and endometrial cancer (85 cases). The control group consisted of 668 healthy women, matched according to age categories. In a multivariate analysis, the reproductive risk factors for ovarian and endometrial cancer are similar. The risk of ovarian cancer was inversely related to the number of full-term pregnancies; the odds ratio (OR) was 0.17 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.05-0.54 when comparing nulliparous women versus those with more than seven pregnancies. For endometrial cancer, a similar association was observed (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.34). The use of oral contraceptive hormones was inversely associated with both ovarian (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.83) and endometrial cancer risk (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90). In women with a history of more than 8.7 years without ovulation, the risk of ovarian cancer decreased four times (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.50), and that of endometrial cancer decreased more than five times (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.35). These two neoplasms are clearly typified as hormone dependent, and it is possible to establish that "ovulation" and "exfoliative" mechanisms jointly determine the level of risk for both ovarian and endometrial cancer.  (+info)

Jugular vein thrombosis: a rare presentation of atypical chronic myeloproliferative disorder in a young woman. (4/387)

Venous thromboembolism is common in subjects with chronic myeloproliferative disorders and is a recognized presenting feature of occult myeloproliferation. We report the case of a young woman who presented with acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein and pulmonary embolism. Splenomegaly and myeloid proliferation with bone marrow fibrosis, in the absence of the criteria for typical myeloproliferative disorders, allowed a diagnosis of an atypical form of chronic myeloproliferative disorder. This form carries a high risk of thrombosis and venous thromboembolism can be the presenting feature, though the course is often indolent. Acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein has not been so far described in these subjects. The outcome of young people with myelofibrosis is unpredictable, but a normal level of hemoglobin and the absence of blast cells and constitutional symptoms at presentation identifies subjects with a low probability of rapid disease progression.  (+info)

Effects of oral contraceptives on body fluid regulation. (5/387)

To test the hypothesis that estrogen reduces the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP), thirst, and body water balance, we studied nine women (25 +/- 1 yr) during 150 min of dehydrating exercise followed by 180 min of ad libitum rehydration. Subjects were tested six different times, during the early-follicular (twice) and midluteal (twice) menstrual phases and after 4 wk of combined [estradiol-norethindrone (progestin), OC E + P] and 4 wk of norethindrone (progestin only, OC P) oral contraceptive administration, in a randomized crossover design. Basal plasma osmolality (P(osm)) was lower in the luteal phase (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means, P < 0.05), OC E + P (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0.05), and OC P (282 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0. 05) than in the follicular phase (286 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means). High plasma estradiol concentration lowered the P(osm) threshold for AVP release during the luteal phase and during OC E + P [x-intercepts, 282 +/- 2, 278 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O, for follicular, luteal (combined means), OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, luteal phase and OC E + P vs. follicular phase] during exercise dehydration, and 17beta-estradiol administration lowered the P(osm) threshold for thirst stimulation [x-intercepts, 280 +/- 2, 279 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O for follicular, luteal, OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, OC E + P vs. follicular phase], without affecting body fluid balance. When plasma 17beta-estradiol concentration was high, P(osm) was low throughout rest, exercise, and rehydration, but plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, thirst, and body fluid retention were unchanged, indicating a lowering of the osmotic operating point for body fluid regulation.  (+info)

Tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer and endometrial cancer risk. (6/387)

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is effective in treating breast cancer, reduces breast cancer incidence among high-risk women, and is associated with increased endometrial cancer risk. This study was designed to examine the possible modifying effects of endometrial cancer risk factors on the tamoxifen-endometrial cancer association. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of endometrial cancer (324 case patients and 671 individually matched control subjects) nested within a population-based cohort of patients with breast cancer diagnosed from 1978 through 1992 within four regions of the United States. We obtained information on breast cancer treatment and endometrial cancer risk factors through interviews and reviews of medical records. All P values reported are two-sided. RESULTS: Endometrial cancer risk was associated with tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1. 07-2.17). Risk increased with duration of tamoxifen use (P for trend =.0002). Women with more than 5 years of exposure to tamoxifen had 4. 06-fold greater odds of developing endometrial cancer than nonusers (95% CI = 1.74-9.47). Prior use of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) increased risk associated with tamoxifen use (P for homogeneity of trends <.0001). Risk associated with tamoxifen use was stronger among heavier women than among thinner women, although trends did not differ statistically (P =.10). Tamoxifen dose-response effects were more pronounced among women with both previous ERT exposure and higher body mass index than among women in other risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: ERT use and obesity, both established endometrial cancer risk factors and markers of estrogen exposure, substantially modify the association between tamoxifen use and endometrial cancer risk among patients with breast cancer. Women with positive ERT histories and those who are obese, when prescribed tamoxifen, may warrant closer surveillance for endometrial cancer than women without such histories.  (+info)

Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions determine risk of thrombosis in families with inherited antithrombin deficiency. (7/387)

To analyze inherited antithrombin deficiency as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism in various conditions with regard to the presence or absence of additional genetic or acquired risk factors, we compared 48 antithrombin-deficient individuals with 44 nondeficient individuals of 14 selected families with inherited antithrombin deficiency. The incidence of venous thromboembolism for antithrombin deficient individuals was 20 times higher than among nondeficient individuals (1.1% v 0.05% per year). At the age of 50 years, greater than 50% of antithrombin-deficient individuals had experienced thrombosis compared with 5% of nondeficient individuals. Additional genetic risk factors, Factor V Leiden and PT20210A, were found in more than half of these selected families. The effect of exposure to 2 genetic defects was a 5-fold increased incidence (4.6% per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9% to 11.1%). Acquired risk factors were often present, determining the onset of thrombosis. The incidence among those with exposure to antithrombin deficiency and an acquired risk factor was increased 20-fold (20.3% per year; 95% CI, 12.0% to 34.3%). In conclusion, in these thrombophilia families, the genetic and environmental factors interact to bring about venous thrombosis. Inherited antithrombin deficiency proves to be a prominent risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The increased risks among those with exposure to acquired risk factors should be considered and adequate prophylactic anticoagulant therapy in high-risk situations seems indicated in selected families with inherited antithrombin deficiency.  (+info)

Exogenous estrogen exposures and changes in diabetic retinopathy. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. (8/387)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of exogenous estrogen is associated with changes in the severity of diabetic retinopathy and the incidence of macular edema. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study design involved observation of two well-defined cohorts of women with diabetes. One group was diagnosed with diabetes at < 30 years of age and used insulin (younger-onset group), and the other group was diagnosed at > or = 30 years of age with no criteria regarding therapy (older-onset group). Subjects received standard examinations, medical interviews, and retinal photography in 1980-1982. Specific questions about exogenous hormone exposure were added to the study questionnaire at the first follow-up examination 4 years after the baseline examination. Change in the severity of retinopathy 6 and 10 years after the 4-year follow-up examination were examined regarding the use of oral contraceptives at the first follow-up examination in the younger-onset group and at 6 years after the first follow-up examination regarding hormone replacement therapy in the older-onset group. RESULTS: Changes in the severity of retinopathy and incidence of macular edema were unrelated to either type of estrogen exposure in univariable and multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These data are compatible with the hypothesis that the medications used by our population do not affect the severity of diabetic retinopathy or macular edema.  (+info)

In the entire study 27% of participants used hormonal contraception at some point during the study. What the researchers found was that, in general, women who reported using hormonal contraceptives had a longer delay to onset of AIDS and a longer time until death. Specifically, those who used hormonal contraception had on average 3.92 years until death, and 3.72 years until AIDS, compared to 3.04 years until death and 2.98 years until AIDS or those without hormonal contraceptive use. Interestingly, this study also took note as to what kind of behavioral patterns the hormonal contraceptive users engaged in compared to the nonusers. This study found that women using hormonal contraceptives had on average a higher degree of education, were in the median age category (25-35), and were also less likely to use condoms. These have to be taken into account as well as the hormonal contraceptive use as possible variables affecting onset of AIDS and death ...
Title: Hormonal Contraceptive Use Can Be a Major Downer. Summary: Hormonal contraception was introduced way back in 1960 with the release of the combined oral contraceptive pill (containing two hormones: estrogen and progestin).
Butt , S A , Lidegaard , Ø , Skovlund , C W , Hannaford , P , Iversen , L , Fielding , S & Mørch , L S 2018 , Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer : A cohort study among premenopausal women , PloS ONE , vol. 13 , no. 10 , 0206358 , pp. 1-8 . , ...
Zanger, P., Nurjadi, D., Gaile, M., Gabrysch, S. and Kremsner, P.G. (2012) Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55, 1625-1632.
Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. Methods Thirty-four women were randomised to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing CHC or placebo. The women performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the CHC/placebo treatment cycle. Results No differences between CHC and placebo users in number of correct inhibitions were found during treatment, but only women on CHC significantly improved their performance between the baseline and ...
Women who take hormonal contraceptives such as birth control pills, the patch, the ring and hormonal IUDs can face up to three times the risk of suicide as women who never took hormonal birth control, and younger women face the gravest danger, a new study says.. Researchers in Denmark who conducted the study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry looked at associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a sample of women from across Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period from 1996 through 2013.. Nationwide registers were then used to collect data on use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt, suicide, and other potential variables.. Use of hormonal contraception was positively associated with subsequent suicide attempt and suicide. Adolescent women experienced the highest relative risk, the researchers concluded.. The study showed that ...
Merki-Feld, G S. Effect of Hormonal Contraception on Factors associated with Endothelial Dysfunction and Novel Parameters of Cardiovascular Risk. 2009, Universityhospital Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
Hormonal contraception is known to cause subtle but widespread behavioral changes. Here, we investigated whether changes in cosmetic habits are associated with use of the hormonal contraceptive pill. We photographed a sample of women (N = 36) who self-reported whether or not they use the contraceptive pill, as well as their cosmetic habits. A separate sample of participants (N = 143) rated how much makeup these target women appeared to be wearing. We found that women not using the contraceptive pill (i.e., naturally cycling women) reported spending more time applying cosmetics for an outing than did women who use the contraceptive pill. We also found that the faces of these naturally cycling women were rated as wearing more cosmetics than the faces of the women using the contraceptive pill. Thus, we found clear associations between contraceptive pill use and makeup use. This provides evidence consistent with the possibility that cosmetic habits, and grooming behaviors more generally, are affected by
A study published last week in The New England Journal of Medicine has found that hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptive pills and hormone-releasing IUDs, significantly increase womens risk for breast cancer.. The study found that women who used hormonal contraception had a 20 percent elevated risk[1] for breast cancer compared to women who had never used a hormonal method.. The risk was also found to be time-dependent, increasing the longer the hormonal drugs were used. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than 10 years saw their risk for breast cancer increase by almost 40 percent.[2]. While the study showed that the breast cancer risk decreased after stopping hormonal contraception, for women who used a hormonal method for five years or more, the effects of drug lingered. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than five years saw a significant elevated risk for breast cancer even five years or more after discontinuation.. The results were adjusted for age, ...
ATLANTA, GA - The thorny issue of the relationship between hormonal contraceptives and HIV infection was highlighted again at this years CROI conference by Angela Crook from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. As usual, limited contraceptive options, high rates of maternal and child mortality in African settings, and the role of pregnancy itself in increasing vulnerability to HIV against a number of studies are part of the backdrop for any discussion that seems to suggest that hormonal contraceptives increase HIV acquisition risk.. This study like several others was a secondary analysis of a microbicide trial-MDP 301- testing a product called Pro2000 which proved ineffective in protecting the trial participants from HIV. This is the largest look at a population of women, with 8663 study participants from four sub-Saharan African countries-South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia. There were significantly more HIV infections in the group of women using injectable but the analysis ...
Most popular Combined Hormonal Contraceptive products are Nuvaring and Ortho Evra. CHC products are broadly used throughout the world by women in the age-group of 15 to 49 years. With increasing health consciousness and awareness, adoption of CHC products or birth control methods is increasing in lesser privileged economic segments too. The growth of CHC market is driven by urbanization and increasing user awareness, rise in menstruating population globally and initiatives taken by governments to encourage the use of contraception. Major trends prevailing in the market are the increasing number of mergers and acquisitions in this business space and demand for reversible method of contraception with fewer side effects.. Country Coverage: United states, United Kingdom, India, China & Japan. Company Coverage: Agile Therapeutics Inc., Actavis Plc., Bayer Healthcare & Teva Pharmaceuticals. Complete report available at Combined Hormonal Contraceptives ...
The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together and reanalysed the worldwide epidemiological evidence on breast cancer risk and use of hormonal contraceptives. Original data from 54 studies, representing about 90% of the information available on the topic, were collected, checked and analysed centrally. The 54 studies were performed in 26 countries and include a total of 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women without breast cancer. The studies were varied in their design, setting and timing. Most information came from case-control studies with controls chosen from the general population; most women resided in Europe or North America and most cancers were diagnosed during the 1980s. Overall 41% of the women with breast cancer and 40% of the women without breast cancer had used oral contraceptives at some time; the median age at first use was 26 years, the median duration of use was 3 years, the median year of first use was 1968, the median time since first use
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
The Effects of Injectable Hormonal Contraceptives on HIV Seroconversion and on Sexually Transmitted Infections, at, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
This article reviews the epidemiologic studies and potential mechanisms evaluating the association between hormonal contraceptive methods and HIV risk.
Women who are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may have an increased risk of transmitting the virus to others if they use hormonal contraceptives or have certain bacterial vaginal infections, according to an article in the May 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, now available online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A multicentred phase III comparative study of two hormonal contraceptive preparations given once-a-month by intramuscular injection. II. The comparison of bleeding patterns. AU - World Health Organization, Health Organization. AU - Task Force On Long-Acting Systemic Agents for Fertility Regulation, Force On Long-Acting Systemic Agents for Fertility Regulation. AU - Said, S.. AU - Sadek, W.. AU - Kholeif, A.. AU - Koetsawang, Suporn. AU - Kiriwat, Orawan. AU - Piboonmanee, Surat. AU - Rivera, R.. AU - Alvarado, G.. AU - Juarez, M. A.. AU - Aquilar, S.. AU - Santiso, R.. AU - Contreras, C. F.. AU - Galichl, L. F.. AU - Guirola, M.. AU - Alzugaray, M. G.. AU - Hernandez, M. L.. AU - Gallarco, J. R.. AU - Affandi, Biran. AU - Santoso, S. S.I.. AU - Samil, R. S.. AU - Kazi, A.. AU - Kononova, E. S.. AU - Alipov, V. I.. AU - Apelo, R.. AU - Bernardo, E. S.. AU - Benitez, I.. AU - Canto-de-Cetina, T.. AU - Cardenas, S.. AU - Polanco, L.. AU - Vera, L.. AU - Cravioto, M. C.. AU - ...
Care guide for Hormonal Contraceptives. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
7]. The month of October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. This is an annual campaign that began in 1991 to raise awareness about this disease. Although the campaign promotes regular self-breast exams, doctor visits, annual mammograms, and provides data on recurrence, preventable risk factors for breast cancer are not emphasized.. What are the risk factors for breast cancer?. According to the National Cancer Institute, the risk factors for breast cancer include: older age, genetic abnormalities, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy to the chest, alcohol and obesity. Although it has been demonstrated that hormonal contraceptive use increases breast cancer risk, this risk factor is virtually ignored during the campaign.. Synthetic estrogen was classified by the World Health Organization in 2005 as Group 1 carcinogen. Hormonal contraceptives contain synthetic estrogen and increase the risk of not only breast cancer, but also liver and cervical cancer. According to a meta-analysis published in the ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
Hormonal contraceptives use laboratory-produced hormones to mimic the actions of naturally produced progesterone and estrogen. The pills can contain both progestin and estrogen or can have progesterone alone. The hormones are made in a way that mimics the normal menstruation cycle in the body.. The hormones prevent pregnancy through many ways like thickening the cervical mucus so that the sperm is unable to reach the fallopian tubes for fertilization. The hormones can also thin the endometrial lining of the uterus which is the area where the zygote implants and therefore this layer becomes unable to support pregnancy. The hormonal pills can also prevent the release of the ovum from the ovary and therefore fertilization is impossible and this helps to prevent pregnancy.. How well the pill works in preventing pregnancy depends on a couple of factors like whether the pill is taken appropriately, vomiting and diarrhea reduce the effectiveness of the pill and other medications like antihypertensive, ...
Females of childbearing potential who: a. had unprotected sexual intercourse within 30 days before study entry and who do not agree to use a highly effective method of contraception (eg, total abstinence, an intrauterine device, a double-barrier method [such as condom plus diaphragm with spermicide], a contraceptive implant, an oral contraceptive, or have a vasectomized partner with confirmed azoospermia) throughout the entire study period or for 28 days after study drug discontinuation. Females using hormonal contraceptives containing levogesterol must be on another form of contraception as well. b. Are currently abstinent, and do not agree to use a double-barrier method (as described above) or refrain from sexual activity during the study period or for 28 days after study drug discontinuation. c. Are using hormonal contraceptives but are not on a stable dose of the same hormonal contraceptive product for at least 4 weeks before dosing and who do not agree to use the same contraceptive during ...
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and ...
The BioRing is a biocompatible intra-vaginal ring composed of nanoporous elastomere hydrogel for the delivery of safe contraceptives and/or anti-HIV agents. The IVR will be an effective multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) for protection against both unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted HIV infection.. This novel and convenient IVR is a reliable, easy-to-use device that can prevent the harmful side effects of long-term hormonal contraceptive use. It can improve womens lives by providing a better quality of maternal and fetal health, especially in regions where unsafe sex is the largest cause of disease in females. It is an innovative approach for family planning and protection against sexually transmitted infections that women can control themselves. The drugs and IVR are made of compounds that are already FDA approved for human use.. Benefits of Being Non-Hormonal. Being non-hormonal, BioRings empowers ALL women to be in control of their sexual health and prevent against ...
45 patients are recruited in the study. Each study group will consist of 15 women (aged 20-35 years) receiving oral, transdermal or transvaginal hormonal contraception continuously for 9 weeks. The subjects should have at least 2 months wash out period from all hormonal medication prior to the study.. The measurements for serum sampling and OGTT will be performed before and after 9 weeks of medication. ...
Hormonal contraception (HC) is used widely -- an estimated 14 million women in sub-Saharan Africa use either injectable or oral hormonal contraception -- ...
New research indicates that while combined oral contraceptives can be used to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding, evidence points to other contraceptive options as being even more effective.
This category contains sites with information about oral contraceptives, also known as The Pill. Under this heading are included both combined and progestin-only pills.
When deciding the order of halachic preference for birth control methods, a number of factors are taken into consideration. While one of them is the health risk, it is not the only one. The prohibition of hotzaat zera levatalah (expulsion of semen in a manner that it cannot get to its intended destination), and the need to allow relations to take place in a natural manner, are important concerns as well.. As the condom completely blocks the progression of semen into the wifes body, it is in clear violation of the latter two principles. Therefore, it is almost never permitted as a method of birth control. There is debate among authorities about the diaphragm. Rav Yehuda Henkin, the posek for this site, generally permits it.. While there are some risks with the use of hormonal contraceptives, for most women they are quite small. Therefore, most authorities feel that hormonal contraceptives are the halachic first choice in the majority of cases. When specific medical concerns raise the level of ...
Combined contraceptive pills (the pill) safely and effectively prevent pregnancy to ensure that safe sex can be enjoyed. You can order these pills at
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
There has been no reliable data to indicate that the hormonal birth control available today causes infertility (contrary to what certain groups of individuals who wish to limit womens reproductive choices may say), no matter how long one is on it. So there is really no science to support the idea that birth control would make you sterile. In fact, some women do become pregnant the cycle after stopping hormonal contraceptives. On average though, itll takes around three months for your body to adjust to being off the contraceptives, so it would be even more likely after that point. (Please note though, this does NOT mean that you should assume youre protected from pregnancy during that early time after stopping birth control. It just means that chances of pregnancy will be increased once youre three months or so out. You should still consider yourself fertile as soon as you stop using the hormonal contraceptives.) Some doctors will suggest waiting at least three months before trying to become ...
Contraceptive delivery device applied to the skin like a band-aid. It works by slowly releasing a combination of estrogen and progestin hormones through the skin. These hormones prevent ovulation.
Take for weight loss hormonal drugs only by a physician after a thorough examination. You will need to hand over analyses on hormones. This will help to determine whether or not the extra weight caused by disturbances in the body or is a consequence of elementary surplus of calories consumed. Self-administration can lead to unpredictable consequences.. Even contraceptives with low hormone levels have a lot of side effects, contraindications and can add a few extra pounds. Not to mention the more serious pills. If the extra weight is not due to hormonal disorders and other reasons, the acceptance of such funds will not exert the desired action, or even will give impetus to further increase body weight. Often even reasonable medical treatment with hormones leads to weight gain.. To lose weight after hormonal treatment is difficult, but possible. You will need to rethink their way of life, to spend a lot of time and effort. There is a special metabolic diet is simple to use and requires no special ...
A: We call it the Pill as though it were innocuous and harmless. We dont think of it as a powerful drug or as a medical product. For all the reasons mentioned before, hormonal birth control has dominated our contraception conversation. It has become part of modern life for women. Essentially we see womens bodies, as a culture, to be inherently sick and faulty. The pill fixes the troublesome reproductive organs until they are needed for the socially useful act of providing a pregnancy. We see our cycles prior to pregnancy as a nuisance, the cause of sickness and pain, and they are used against us as indication of our inferiority to men. The pill is understood to make us BETTER. Better women. It is discussed almost as a cancer-vaccine, as the reason for women gaining equality in society, as the reason for them working alongside men in careers, as the reason they are happy even. It has been given a whole lot of credit for womens achievements through history. The pill was the first lifestyle ...
Note for subjects using a hormonal contraceptive method: No formal drug interaction studies have been carried out with IFN-beta-1a or HSA free IFN beta 1a. As interferons have been reported to exert an inhibitory activity on hepatic microsomal enzymes, it is unlikely that the clearance of oral contraceptives would be increased and result in decreased efficacy. In over 10,000 patient-years of clinical trial experience with Rebif®, there has never been any indication of an interaction with oral contraceptives ...
A type of birth control that uses hormones to prevent pregnancy. Hormonal contraceptives contain estrogen and progesterone, or progesterone only. They prevent pregnancy by blocking the release of eggs from the ovaries, thinning the lining of the uterus, or thickening the mucus in the cervix to help keep sperm from reaching the egg. Hormonal contraceptives may be taken by mouth, injected or inserted under the skin, placed on the skin as a patch, or placed in the vagina or uterus ...
European Union agency responsible for the protection of public and animal health through the scientific evaluation and supervision of medicines.
Free Online Library: Advances in hormonal contraception: over time, methods have become safer, more acceptable, easier to use, and more diverse. by Network; Health, general Family and marriage Contraceptives Product development Research Hormones Usage Pharmaceutical research Evaluation
Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices. Chapter 12 & 13. Outline . Sexual Development Puberty Middle Age Hormones Abstinence Hormonal Contraceptive Methods Barrier Methods IUD Fertility Awareness Methods Emergency Contraception. Sterilization Pregnancy Fetal Development...
Contact: Colin Mason, Population Research Institute, 540-622-5240 ext 209 FRONT ROYAL, Va., April 21 /Christian Newswire/ -- According to Joan Robinson, a researcher at the Population Research Institute, studies show that there is a strong scientific link between hormonal contraceptives and a womans risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. The article, entitled The Pills Deadly Affair with HIV/AIDS, is available upon request from PRI, as well as by visiting our web site: Accord
This chapter addresses the effects of hormonal contraceptives on headache, in particular, migraine. The definition, incidence, and prevalence for migraine with and without aura are reviewed. The...
Women who use non-oral hormonal contraceptives, like patches and vaginal rings, may be at higher risk of blood clots than those who take oral forms birth control, according to a new Danish study published in the journal BMJ.
Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation of hormonal contraception and the resultant occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. The evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in women who are using hormonal contraception includes an assessment of compliance, a thorough history and complete physical examination to exclude organic causes of bleeding, and a targeted laboratory evaluation. Pregnancy and the misuse of OCPs are frequent causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding is common during the first three months of OCP use; counseling and reassurance are adequate during this time period. If bleeding persists beyond three months, it can be treated with supplemental estrogen and/or a
A model assessing 8 hormonal contraceptive methods found that lower pregnancy costs for the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel intrauterine device offset their higher acquisition costs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does the use of hormonal contraceptives cause microstructural changes in cerebral white matter? Preliminary results of a DTI and tractography study. AU - De Bondt, Timo. AU - Van Hecke, Wim. AU - Veraart, Jelle. AU - Leemans, Alexander. AU - Sijbers, Jan. AU - Sunaert, Stefan. AU - Jacquemyn, Yves. AU - Parizel, Paul M.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the effect of monophasic combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and menstrual cycle phase in healthy young women on white matter (WM) organization using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: Thirty young women were included in the study; 15 women used COCP and 15 women had a natural cycle. All subjects underwent DTI magnetic resonance imaging during the follicular and luteal phase of their cycle, or in different COCP cycle phases. DTI parameters were obtained in different WM structures by performing diffusion tensor fibre tractography. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated for ...
The benefits of hormonal contraception should be assessed individually for each woman and discussed with her before using hormonal contraceptives.. In the case of a suspected or established venous or arterial thromboembolism, the use of hormonal contraceptives must be stopped. When initiating anticoagulant therapy, adequate alternative contraception should be started in order to avoid the teratogenic effect of anticoagulant therapy (coumarins).. The use of any oral contraceptive increases the risk of venous thromboembolism.. The results of epidemiological studies have allowed us to associate the use of hormonal contraceptives with an increased risk of developing arterial thromboembolism (myocardial infarction) or cerebrovascular accident (for example, transient ischemic attack, stroke). Arterial thromboembolic complications can be fatal.. Some epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of developing cervical cancer in women who have received oral contraceptives for more than 5 years. ...
Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and common diseases. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome were characterized using microarrays in 5,241 subjects, accounting for menopause status and hormonal contraceptive use. Sex-specific expression was observed for 582 autosomal genes, of which 57.7% was upregulated in women (female-biased genes). Female-biased genes were enriched for several immune system GO categories, genes linked to rheumatoid arthritis (16%) and genes regulated by estrogen (18%). Male-biased genes were enriched for genes linked to renal cancer (9%). Sex-differences in gene expression were smaller in postmenopausal women, larger in women using hormonal contraceptives and not caused by sex-specific eQTLs, confirming the role of
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to investigate whether hormonal contraceptives administered via the oral and vaginal route exert a similar effect on insulin sensitivity (SI). STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective, randomized study performed in the University Hospital. Subjects were healthy lean young women, needing a hormonal contraceptive, randomly allocated to receive for 6 months (a) an oral contraceptive (OC) containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol (EE)/150 mcg desogestrel (DSG) (high-estrogen group; n=12), (b) an OC containing 20 mcg EE/150 mcg DSG (low-estrogen group; n=12) and (c) a vaginal ring contraceptive releasing, per day, 15 mcg EE/120 mcg etonorgestrel, the active DSG metabolite (n=12). SI and glucose utilization independent of insulin (Sg) were evaluated by the minimal model method. Modifications of total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were also evaluated. RESULTS: Sg did not vary with any treatment. SI decreased during OCs ...
Although there are some reports of sexual side effects in women using a range of hormonal contraception, there is no consistent pattern of effect. Some published data has indicated that premenopausal women who take oral contraceptive pills may have a lower average frequency of sexual thoughts, interest, and days of sexual activity/month (it is hypothesized that oral contraceptive pills increase sex hormone-binding globulin and lower free testosterone). Other studies, however, show that sexual interest scores do not change significantly for women on oral contraceptive pills. Further research is required to clarify the effect of oral contraceptive pills on sexual function.. ...
Hormonal Contraception. Considering Benefits, Risks, and Age Melissa Sanborn Advisor: Bettye Hollins, Ph. D. Objectives. Familiarize with non-contraceptive benefits Determine risks of hormonal contraceptives Identify patients most at risk for adverse effects Age-related considerations Slideshow...
A new study published in the journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), September issue, has found that women are more likely to suffer from sleep disturbances than men are.. Many women have noticed that their sleep patterns are more commonly disrupted than mens. For example, women are more likely to have an insomnia diagnosis than men are. Is it possible that there is a link between your sex or gender and the biological clock that regulates sleep?. According to this new study published by Dr. Diane B. Boivin and colleagues at McGill Universitys Department of Psychiatry, as well as the Douglas Mental Health University Institute, the answer is yes. There is a connection to gender and how the biological sleep clock functions.. In this research, Dr. Boivin first controlled for hormonal contraceptive use and menstrual cycles in women. After adjusting for these aspects, researchers found that the bodys internal clock definitely affects alertness and sleep differently in men ...
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Contraception is an important topic for women, men and healthcare professionals. Several methods of contraception are available. It is important for the pharmacist to have a solid understanding of the subject in order to give appropriate advice. When used correctly, modern contraceptives are highly effective in preventing pregnancy. Most women can safely use hormonal contraceptives. This article focuses on the use of hormonal contraception in women who may not necessarily be young or healthy, provides answers to practical questions that are not frequently asked, and addresses a few common misperceptions about hormonal contraception.
CHICAGO - Modern birth control pills that are lower in estrogen have fewer side effects than past oral contraceptives. But a large Danish study suggests that, like older pills, they still modestly raise the risk of breast cancer, especially with long-term use.. Researchers found a similar breast cancer risk with the progestin-only intrauterine device, and they couldnt rule out a risk for other hormonal contraceptives like the patch and the implant.. But the overall increased risk was small, amounting to one extra case of breast cancer among 7,700 women using such contraceptives per year. Experts who reviewed the research say women should balance the news against known benefits of the pill - including lowering the risk of other cancers.. Hormonal contraception should still be perceived as a safe and effective option for family planning, said Dr. JoAnn Manson, chief of preventive medicine at Harvards Brigham and Womens Hospital, who was not involved in the research.. Women in their 40s may ...
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common causes of pelvic pain. It negatively affects patients quality of life and sometimes results in activity restriction. A history and physical examination, including a pelvic examination in patients who have had vaginal intercourse, may reveal the cause. Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain in the absence of pelvic pathology. Abnormal uterine bleeding, dyspareunia, noncyclic pain, changes in intensity and duration of pain, and abnormal pelvic examination findings suggest underlying pathology (secondary dysmenorrhea) and require further investigation. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be performed if secondary dysmenorrhea is suspected. Endometriosis is the most common cause of secondary dysmenorrhea. Symptoms and signs of adenomyosis include dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and a uniformly enlarged uterus. Management options for primary dysmenorrhea include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives are the first
Results: Vaginal epithelial thickness was similar in women using injectable HCs compared to non-injectable HC users. The frequency of CD4+ T cells in the vaginal squamous epithelium of injectable HC users was significantly higher than non-injectable HC users (p=0.028). CD68+ macrophage cell density did not differ between women using injectable HCs and those not using injectable HCs, although macrophages were closer to the vaginal luminal surface in injectable HC users than those not using HCs (p=0.021). Furthermore, the frequency of mucosal CD68+ macrophages during the acute infection were positively associated with the concentration of the RANTES (beta coefficient (β)=0.779, p=0.024), MCP-1 (β=0.453, p=0.041), IP-10 (β=0.568, p=0.042), IL-7 (β=1.332, p=0.018), IL-9 (β=0.336, p=0.015), and IL-17 (β=1.058, p=0.007) in CVL, after adjusting for multiple comparisons ...
Patricia Donahoe and David Pepin of Massachusetts General Hospital in the U.S. are using a cell-based screening platform to develop a new class of hormonal contraceptive that works at the early stage of primordial follicle activation to prolong the contraceptive effect and reduce side effects, thereby promoting wider use particularly in the developing world. This early stage of follicle development in the ovary is suppressed by a hormone (Mullerian inhibiting substance or MIS) to regulate egg production. They considered that a drug that could mimic MIS could completely suppress ovulation and act as a powerful contraceptive. In contrast, most available hormonal contraceptives work once ovulation has begun, thereby requiring daily dosage, and share unwanted side effects including migraine and increased risk of some diseases. In Phase I, they designed a luciferase-based screening platform using engineered mammalian cells and screened 5,500 compounds from which they validated three candidate ...
Despite the relatively modest changes that modern hormonal contraceptives have on female reproductive hormones, these same hormonal contraceptives can nonetheless drastically alter female olfactory profiles. We found that semiochemical expression in female ring-tailed lemurs was both depressed and modified as a function of MPA contraception, and that various compounds emerged as reliable indicators of female reproductive potential. The contraception of female lemurs altered more than chemical correlates of fertility, however: remarkably, contraception ablated or depressed a females chemical encoding of (i) identity or individuality, (ii) genetic quality, and (iii) pairwise relatedness to both female and male conspecifics. As males were able to detect these hormonally induced changes in female scent, we suggest that contraception could negatively influence a far broader range of odour-mediated social behaviour than expected, ultimately undermining kin recognition and mate choice. Given the ...
The speaker told the group that the pill is the leading cause of low libido and pelvic pain. She explained that studies had suggested the impact on libido could be permanent. The reaction of the audience was immediate and urgent - questions were fired out and it became clear that this information was news to most. A number of audience members seemed genuinely shocked. Whats the science behind that? one woman asked, but the speaker said she didnt know.. Although the conventions attendees had an intimidating level of knowledge when it came to sexual technique and sex toys, I discovered that once I mentioned I was there to develop a book and a documentary on hormonal contraceptives, many repeated the usual disinformation about birth control methods.. The speaker was right - the birth control pill is a leading cause of lowered sexual desire and pelvic pain. Its also known to cause loss of lubrication, vaginitis, and vulvodynia. Other hormonal contraceptives such as the Depo Provera injection, ...
In her testimony, Fluke described how Georgetowns insurance policy failed to cover hormonal contraceptives that are used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome. She explained that her friend could not afford the hormonal contraceptives she needed to prevent ovarian cysts from forming because her university refused to pay for them on religious grounds.. But on his show, Limbaugh accused Fluke of not being able to afford contraception because she was having so much sex and later demanded that women post sex tapes online if they use insurance-covered birth control. David Frum, formerly a special assistant to President George W. Bush, has called on conservatives to stop trying to defend Limbaugh by pointing out misogynistic remarks made by liberals.. I cant recall anything as brutal, ugly and deliberate ever being said by such a prominent person and so emphatically repeated, he wrote at CNN on Monday. This was not a case of a bad word choice. It was a brutally sexualized accusation, against a ...
Epidemiological evidence on POPs and breast cancer risk is based on much smaller populations of users and so is less conclusive than that for COCPs.. In the largest (1996) reanalysis of previous studies of hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer risk, less than 1% were POP users. Current or recent POP users had a slightly increased relative risk (RR 1.17) of breast cancer diagnosis that just missed being statistically significant. The relative risk was similar to that found for current or recent COCP users (RR 1.16), and, as with COCPs, the increased relative risk decreased over time after stopping, vanished after 10 years, and was consistent with being due to earlier diagnosis or promoting the growth of a preexisting cancer.[3][4]. The most recent (1999) IARC evaluation of progestogen-only hormonal contraceptives reviewed the 1996 reanalysis as well as 4 case-control studies of POP users included in the reanalysis. They concluded that: Overall, there was no evidence of an increased risk of ...
Studies evaluating the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) on HIV disease progression have shown conflicting results. Previous findings have been from ...
Several available hormonal contraceptives can be used to reduce or eliminate monthly uterine bleeding. The safety and efficacy of these methods make them desirable for women who have medical indications for suppression of menstruation, as well as tho
The Pill & Depression Link A newly published study from the University of Copenhagen has confirmed a link between hormonal contraceptives and depression. The largest of its kind, with one million Danish women between the ages of 15 and 34 tracked for a total of 13 years.. Researchers found that women taking the combined oral contraceptive were 23% more likely to be diagnosed with depression and those using progestin-only pills (also known as the mini-pill) were 34% more likely.. Teens were at the greatest risk of depression, with an 80% increase when taking the combined pill, and that risk is two-fold with the progestin-only pill.. More alarmingly, other hormone-based methods commonly offered to women seeking an alternative to the pill - such as the hormonal IUS/coil, the patch and the ring - were shown to increase depression at a rate much higher than either kind of oral contraceptives.. On the Pill and Pregnant - When the Pill Fails. Failure rates quoted in Pill leaflets are around 0.2 to 1 ...
In 2013, an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of oral contraceptive (OC) use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. We determined if these associations were modified by modifiable lifestyle characteristics (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity) using the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (enrolled 1995-1996). All analyses included at least 100,000 women (1,241 ovarian, 2,337 endometrial, 11,114 breast, and 3,507 colorectal cancer cases identified). Lifetime duration of OC use was defined as: never/less than 1 year [reference], 1 to 4, 5 to 9, 10+ years. We estimated associations using Cox models adjusted for age, race, age at menarche, and the modifiers of interest. For ovarian cancer, OC use-associated risk reductions strengthened with duration of use (hazard ratios [HR] ranging from 0.83 to 0.60, p trend. ...
Women with CF are able to get pregnant. An unplanned pregnancy can have a big effect on your health. Some CF medications are teratogenic, meaning that they can cause birth defects, so it is very important to prevent pregnancy if you are taking these medications. Whether or not you have CF, if you have sex, you definitely need to think about how to prevent getting pregnant and how to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There are many different types of contraceptives or birth control you and/or your partner can choose from. Hormonal contraceptives can also be used for other reasons such as irregular periods, menstrual cramps, or acne. Some women report that using a hormonal form of contraception may help with CF symptoms that are worse during their menstrual cycle. ...
Bloodcurdling howl drills, as well as groans patient clinic on the whole floor - do not worry, its not footage from a horror movie. In fact, this past dentistry in the Soviet times, when visiting the dentist for every third seemed something of a suicide. In our time, in the 21 century, everything changed, and modern technologies allow for the treatment of teeth with absolutely no pain and, in some cases, without anesthesia. The best treatment - this is without doubt, prevention. This wisdom is directly related to dentistry. After all, judge for yourself, its better, every six months to visit the dentist only for routine inspection, rather than once every 2-3 years, but no longer for dental treatment, and removal. Oddly, some still remained so negative impressions of the dental office since the socialist past that now modify or eliminate formed stereotype still hard enough. Your first step in this direction - to change the dental and medical facility. Thus, public dental health facilities due ...
Port Washington, NY (PRWEB) June 06, 2011 -- Parker Waichman Alonso LLP, a national law firm dedicated to protecting the rights of injured victims, commends
The United Nations reiterated today the need to provide women with access to both hormonal contraceptives and condoms to prevent unwanted pregnancies and HIV infection, after a renewed consultation with health experts on the issue. |
Our prospective study, probably the largest thus far among premenopausal women, confirmed that the use of OCs is associated with an increased breast cancer risk and that this association is most pronounced among current/recent users. The 30% increased risk of breast cancer among ever-users of OCs was only explained to a small extent by current/recent use.. Recently, the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (3) has pooled together data from almost all studies published until the mid-1990s on use of contraceptives and breast cancer risk. Results of this pooled analysis indicate that current/recent use of combined OCs increases breast cancer risk by 24%. They also indicate that current/recent use of OCs is probably the main contributor to the increase in breast cancer risk related to ever use of hormonal contraceptives. When the analysis was restricted to cohort studies, ever use of combined OCs increased breast cancer risk by only 7% (2) . More recently, a cohort study from the ...
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?. Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should take this medication.. Blood clots: All hormonal contraceptives can increase the risk of developing blood clots. Some studies show that birth control pills containing drospirenone have a higher risk of blood clots compared to other birth control pills. Tell your doctor if you have a history of blood clots or are at risk of developing blood clots. Inform your doctor if you are planning an upcoming surgery or if you will be immobilized or inactive for a prolonged period of time (i.e., through accident or illness), as there is an increased risk of blood clot formation when using combination hormone contraceptives. If you experience crushing chest pain ...
Novynette is a hormonal contraceptive medicament that contains the combination of 2 hormones, ethinylestradiol and desogestrel as its active ingredients.
Question - Low estrogen, on birth control, abdominal pain, nausea. What is wrong?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Hormonal contraceptive, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Natural Womanhood outlines all the birth control side effects and health risks that affect women who use hormonal contraceptives.
The hormones in this type of birth control prevent ovulation, meaning that the ovary does not release an egg. In addition, the hormones help thicken the cervical mucus, making it harder for sperm to penetrate the cervix. Hormonal contraceptives also thin the uterine lining, which lowers the chances that implantation will occur. ...
Hormones are our bodies chemicals which affect our bodies and mind. Keeping your hormones in check can be a good way reduce mood swings, acne, allergies and some other symptoms that can be uncomfortable. Here are some tips that can help you control your hormones at any age.. In your 20s and 30s - These years are considered your fertility years, and therefore your hormones will peak at the onset of your period and right around ovulation. At the second half of your cycle, most women will feel irritable as your body will increase the secretion of progesterone. If you are trying to regulate your hormones and not get pregnant, look at hormonal contraceptives, like the pill or a vaginal ring. However, if you are in your mid-30s and cannot conceive within a year, look at speaking to a reproductive endocrinologist to check for hormone-related fertility problems. To feel better while your hormones stabilize look at eating cruciferous vegetables, that help keep estrogen and progesterone levels at proper ...
If you have a very severe case of fatty liver it can take 12 months to lose all of the excessive weight. However, this is very successful in the long term and provides the best chance of restoring your figure and your health.. Fatty liver is common and doctors often tell their patients with this problem not to worry too much because it is not serious. I disagree with this, because if you have a fatty liver, your chances of high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are significantly higher. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to find a fatty liver in adolescents who consume a diet high in processed foods and soda.. If you overload the liver with the wrong type of hormone replacement therapy, hormonal contraceptives, multiple medications, excess alcohol or toxins, the livers biochemical pathways will have less energy reserves left over to perform their function of fat metabolism. Thus these things can lead to weight gain.. The liver also plays a vital role in regulating sex ...
The Billings Ovulation Method® is a simple, yet scientific, natural method of fertility management that teaches you to recognize the bodys natural signs of fertility.. Pure and simple! Based on over 50 years of ongoing scientific research, the Billings Ovulation Method® is a highly effective, yet simple way to postpone or achieve pregnancy and monitor reproductive health without drugs or devices. The Billings Ovulation Method® can work effectively for women whether they are coming off hormonal contraceptives, breastfeeding, weaning or approaching menopause. Regardless of the particular situation, the four simple rules of the method are the same for everyone.. ...
It appears that the brain, that sensitive organ replete with steroid receptors, reacts to its hormonal milieu with startling structural modifications. ....women using hormonal contraceptives showed larger gray matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri, the parahippocampal and fusiform gyri and temporal regions, when compared to naturally cycling women. The brain works like a neural beehive; the proper coordinated functioning of groups of tasked neurons are important to successfully accomplish a variety of mental tasks -- even the sensory processing and motor coordination needed for something as simple as picking up a hot cup of coffee without scalding oneself. Again, we do not know whether this increased gray matter translates into better or worse performance, but there likely is little good about treating a womans brain like a spongy accordion ...
In the UK only 3% of women choose the Depo-Provera injection as their form or birth-control but many others claim the side effects are too problematic and feel as though it should be banned… just how safe is it? Depo-provera is a form of hormonal contraceptive used by women that requires an injection every three Continue Reading. ...
Question - Prolonged periods cycle. Taking provera to stop bleeding, heavy bleeding, clots. Treatment?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Hormonal contraceptive, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
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Behre HM, Zitzmann M, Anderson RA, Handelsman DJ, Lestari SW, McLachlan RI, Meriggiola MC, Misro MM, Noe G, Wu FC, Festin MP, Habib NA, Vogelsong KM, Callahan MM, Linton KA, Colvard DS. Efficacy and Safety of an Injectable Combination Hormonal Contraceptive for Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Dec;101(12):4779-4788. Epub 2016 Oct 27. PMID: 27788052 Maggi M, Wu FC, Jones TH, Jackson G, Behre HM, Hackett G, Martin-Morales A, Balercia G, Dobs AS, Arver ST, Maggio M, Cunningham GR, Isidori AM, Quinton R, Wheaton OA, Siami FS, Rosen RC; RHYME Investigators. Testosterone treatment is not associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events: results from the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME). Int J Clin Pract. 2016 Oct;70(10):843-852. PMID: 2777477. Keßler J, Rot S, Bache M, Kappler M, Würl P, Vordermark D, Taubert H, Greither T. miR-199a-5p regulates HIF-1α and OSGIN2 and its expression is correlated to soft-tissue sarcoma patients outcome. Oncol Lett. 2016 Dec;12(6):5281-5288. ...
This page of the eMedTV library describes the complications that may occur when amprenavir is taken with delavirdine, dexamethasone, ergot medications, hormonal contraceptives, and more, with information on how to reduce your risk.
For women who are living with HIV, avoiding pregnancy (or the side effects of severe periods) may not be as easy as popping a birth control pill. As this ...
The studies considered in these analyses include most of the epidemiological data on the role of exogenous hormone use in the etiology of thyroid cancer, and they provide reassuring evidence on the absence of an association of practical relevance. The moderate excess risk in current OC users, if not …
For research papers The BMJ has fully open peer review. This means that accepted research papers published from early 2015 onwards usually have their prepublication history posted alongside them on This prepublication history comprises all previous versions of the manuscript, the study protocol (submitting the protocol is mandatory for all clinical trials and encouraged for all other studies at The BMJ), the report from the manuscript committee meeting, the reviewers comments, and the authors responses to all the comments from reviewers and editors.. In rare instances we determine after careful consideration that we should not make certain portions of the prepublication record publicly available. For example, in cases of stigmatised illnesses we seek to protect the confidentiality of reviewers who have these illnesses. In other instances there may be legal or regulatory considerations that make it inadvisable or impermissible to make available certain parts of the prepublication ...
Summary Background Oral contraceptives are known to reduce the incidence rate of endometrial cancer, but it is uncertain how long this effect lasts after use ceases, or whether it is modified by other factors ...
22.1 Contraceptives *22.1.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives. *22.1.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives ... Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and availability. ... In acute diarrhoea zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts ... cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration due to better bioavailability. ...
Oral hormonal contraceptives have an 8% failure rate. The popularity of oral hormonal contraceptives among women changes over ... Hormonal methods Implant Injection Combined oral contraceptives Progestin-only pill Patch Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring ... Women under the age of thirty more commonly use hormonal oral contraception as their preferred method. Hormonal contraceptives ... of women deciding to discontinue use of an oral hormonal contraceptive after one year of typical use. A large stigma exists ...
"An effective hormonal male contraceptive using testosterone undecanoate with oral or injectable norethisterone preparations". ... these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1 to 2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It has been ... to be used in an oral contraceptive. In 1964, additional contraceptive preparations containing norethisterone in combination ... This is the progestogen component of the first oral contraceptive to be offered for sale (i.e., Enovid). Treatment of the ...
Patients with adenomas should avoid oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy. Pregnancy could cause the adenoma to ... The role of oral contraceptive use". JAMA. 242 (7): 644-8. doi:10.1001/jama.242.7.644. PMID 221698. "Hepatocellular Adenoma: ... The majority of hepatic adenomas arise in women aged 20-40, most of whom use oral contraceptives. Other medications which also ... classically in women taking estrogen-containing oral contraceptive medication. About 25-50% of hepatic adenomas cause pain in ...
Oral contraception can assist with management of various medical conditions, such as menorrhagia. However, oral contraceptives ... Birth control can be hormonal or physical in nature. ... "Association of Use of Oral Contraceptives With Depressive ... "Oral contraceptive pills for heavy menstrual bleeding". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD000154. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000154 ... Treatment varies from creams that can be applied in or around the vaginal area to oral tablets that stop the growth of fungus. ...
Hormonal contraception is commonly used; common forms include the combined oral contraceptive pill and the contraceptive patch ... and adverse effects produced by oral contraceptive pills. The National Institute of Mental Health research definition compares ... "Hormonal Causes of Premenstrual Tension".[citation needed] The specific term premenstrual syndrome appears to date from an ...
These agents are generally used if oral contraceptives and NSAIDs are ineffective. GnRH can be combined with estrogen and ... Typically, this is achieved initially using hormonal contraception. This can also be accomplished with progestational agents (i ...
Oral contraceptives[6]. *Hormonal replacement therapy,[6] esp. oral. *Central venous catheters[6] ... The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 100,000 woman years in current use of combined oral contraceptives is ... Compared with combined oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel (LNG), and with the same dose of estrogen and duration of ... the rate ratio of deep venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with norethisterone is 0.98, with norgestimate 1.19, ...
"Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol hormonal oral contraceptive and breast cancer risk". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 25 (7): 745-750. doi: ... Oral NOMAC was under development for the treatment of breast cancer and for use as a progestogen-only pill for birth control ... A continuous oral formulation of estradiol and NOMAC was under development for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and the ... NOMAC is well-absorbed, with an oral bioavailability of 63%. It is 97.5 to 98% protein-bound, to albumin, and does not bind to ...
Słopień R, Milewska E, Rynio P, Męczekalski B (March 2018). "Use of oral contraceptives for management of acne vulgaris and ... hormonal agents, and oral retinoids. Recommended therapies for first-line use in acne vulgaris treatment include topical ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ...
The 1984 Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study suggests that, in the long-term, oral contraceptives ... Hormonal contraceptives[edit]. Women are almost twice as likely as men to form gallstones especially during the fertile years; ... Oral contraceptives were shown as risk factors for gallbladder disease, although the risk is of sufficient magnitude to be of ... A new 4th generation progestin, drospirenone, used in some oral contraceptives may further heighten the risk of gallstone ...
"Combined Hormonal Contraceptive Methods". In Hatcher; Robert A. (eds.). Contraceptive Technology (18th rev. ed.). New York: ... Combined oral contraceptive pills also come in varying types, including varying doses of estrogen, and whether the dose of ... Mestranol/noretynodrel (Enovid) - the first oral contraceptive List of progestogens available in the United States List of ... ISBN 0-7817-6488-2. "US Patent:Oral contraceptive:Patent 6451778 Issued on September 17, 2002 Estimated Expiration Date: July 2 ...
The most common negative side-effect of hormonal IUDs is irregular menstrual bleeding or spotting. Oral contraceptives reduce ... Oral contraceptives may even lead to short-term regression of adenomyosis. Progesterone or Progestins: Progesterone counteracts ... The use of hormonal IUDs in patients with adenomyosis have been proven to reduce menstrual bleeding, improve anemia and iron ... Hormonal factors such as local hyperestrogenism and elevated levels of s-prolactin as well as autoimmune factors have also been ...
Limited evidence indicates that the use of combined oral contraceptives is associated with a reduced risk of endometriosis, as ... Hormonal birth control therapy: Birth control pills reduce the menstrual pain and recurrence rate for endometrioma following ... Vercellini P, Eskenazi B, Consonni D, Somigliana E, Parazzini F, Abbiati A, Fedele L (1 March 2011). "Oral contraceptives and ... Tentative evidence suggests that the use of combined oral contraceptives reduces the risk of endometriosis. Exercise and ...
Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development. ... Hamada H, Nagao H, Toyoda H, Hayashi H, Akihiro L, & Kotaki S (1970). [Clinical observation on oral contraceptive effect by R- ... It has also been studied in combination with estrogens, such as moxestrol, as an oral contraceptive and treatment for ... Iizuka R, Hayashi M, Kamouchi Y, Yamanaka K (1971). "Evaluation of a low-dose progestagen as a contraceptive". Nihon Funin ...
... or by sustained use of oral contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the secretion of the ... Hormonal contraception that contains estrogen, such as combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs, often referred to as birth ... Hormonal contraception is available in a variety of forms such as pills, patches, skin implants and hormonal intrauterine ... Polis CB, Hussain R, Berry A (June 2018). "There might be blood: a scoping review on women's responses to contraceptive-induced ...
Archer JS, Archer DF (June 2002). "Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked". Journal of the ... It was once believed that tetracycline antibiotics impair the effectiveness of many types of hormonal contraception. Recent ... DeRossi SS, Hersh EV (October 2002). "Antibiotics and oral contraceptives". Dental Clinics of North America. 46 (4): 653-64. ... For example, it was used to check uptake of oral rabies vaccine baits by raccoons in the USA. However, this is an invasive ...
Dukes, M.N.G. (2002). Sex hormones and related compounds, including hormonal contraceptives. Side Effects of Drugs Annual. 25. ... Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (May 2012). "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing ... ISBN 978-0-683-03631-2. The synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol, more commonly used in oral contraceptives, has a biological ... Leinung MC, Feustel PJ, Joseph J (2018). "Hormonal Treatment of Transgender Women with Oral Estradiol". Transgender Health. 3 ( ...
Used in the treatment of gynecological disorders and in hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives (with estradiol as ... Used in combination with estrogen in hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives (with ethinylestradiol as Yasmin, ... Used as an oral contraceptive (with estradiol valerate as Natazia and Qlaira and with ethinylestradiol as Valette) and in the ... Widely used in oral contraceptives as well (with ethinylestradiol under the brand names Diane and Diane-35). Not available in ...
... was used as an oral, once-a-month, or postcoital hormonal contraceptive. Quingestanol acetate is a ... 73-. ISBN 978-0-300-16791-7. Population Reports: Oral contraceptives. Department of Medical and Public Affairs, George ... "Further experience with quingestanol acetate as a postcoital oral contraceptive". Contraception. 9 (3): 221-5. doi:10.1016/0010 ... It has weak androgenic and estrogenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. The medication is a prodrug of ...
FNH is associated with women of childbearing years and has been associated with women taking hormonal oral contraceptives. This ... their size does not change when taking or not taking oral contraceptives containing estrogen or anabolic steroids), which is ... They are most common in women using contraceptives or hormone replacement therapies containing estrogen, women who are pregnant ... when estrogen-containing contraceptives, steroids are stopped, or post-partum). Women of childbearing age with hepatic adenomas ...
They are taking any hormonal contraception that contain ethinylestradiol (often found in combined oral contraceptives or ... "Safety Information - Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir tablets; dasabuvir tablets), Copackaged for Oral Use ...
Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). Combined oral ... Hormonal therapy is only beneficial in certain types of endometrial cancer. It was once thought to be beneficial in most cases ... In 2010 hormonal therapy is of unclear effect in those with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. There is insufficient ... This risk reduction continues for at least fifteen years after contraceptive use has been stopped. Obese women may need higher ...
Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen like the oral contraceptive Micronor, and especially higher-dose ... Although oral contraceptives can causes menses to return, oral contraceptives should not be the initial treatment as they can ... New contraceptive pills, like continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) which do not have the normal 7 days of placebo pills ... Patients who use and then cease using contraceptives like the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) may experience secondary ...
Besides oral contraceptives, other forms of combined hormonal contraception include contraceptive patches, contraceptive ... high doses of ethinylestradiol are no longer used in combined oral contraceptives, and all modern combined oral contraceptives ... Ethinylestradiol is generally used in oral contraceptives instead of estradiol because it has superior oral pharmacokinetics ( ... Only a few clinical studies have compared oral conjugated estrogens and oral estradiol. Oral conjugated estrogens have been ...
Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development. ... SGA is used as a hormonal contraceptive and in the treatment of endometriosis. Side effects of SGA are similar to those of ... The oral bioavailability of SGA has been reported to be only 10%. However, it has also been reported that the medication is ... It has been reported that the biological half-life of SGA with oral administration is only 1 to 2 hours. In contrast to all of ...
Douxfils J, Morimont L, Bouvy C (October 2020). "Oral Contraceptives and Venous Thromboembolism: Focus on Testing that May ... Fruzzetti F, Cagnacci A (2018). "Venous thrombosis and hormonal contraception: what's new with estradiol-based hormonal ... "A randomized, double-blind study of two combined oral contraceptives containing the same progestogen, but different estrogens. ... Stanczyk FZ, Archer DF, Bhavnani BR (2013). "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: ...
... produced by oral contraceptives containing gestodene is slightly less than that produced by oral contraceptives containing ... Szabó L, Nagy K, Godó G (March 1998). "[Experience with gestodene-containing hormonal contraceptive]". Orv Hetil (in Hungarian ... no difference in acne incidence has been observed with oral contraceptives containing gestodene and oral contraceptives ... and gestodene-containing oral contraceptives in comparison with levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives: a review". Am. J ...
Emerging research is showing that hormonal contraception methods like oral contraceptive pills (which rely on estrogen and ... Oral contraceptives lower androgen levels in users, and lowered androgen levels generally lead to a decrease in sexual desire. ... However, usage of oral contraceptives has shown to typically not have a connection with lowered libido in women. Multiple ... Research is showing that even after ending a hormonal contraceptive method, SHBG levels remain elevated and no reliable data ...
... about new methods of hormonal contraception and advocates use of barrier methods over oral or injectable contraceptives. She ...
Powell A (April 2017). "Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 64 ... Hormonal agents[edit]. In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ...
Combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol have been found to increase circulating SHBG levels by 2- to 4-fold in ... James VH, Pasqualini JR (22 October 2013). Hormonal Steroids: Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Hormonal ... Oral, topical. 1977. 3,650,000. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, SC. 1958. ... oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol are effective in treating these conditions, and may be combined with AR ...
"Molecular Diagnosis of 5α-Reductase Deficiency in 4 Elite Young Female Athletes Through Hormonal Screening for ... Oral and maxillofacial surgery. *Orthopedic surgery. *Hand surgery. *Otolaryngology (ENT). *Pediatric surgery ...
A short course of oral prednisolone may be required. Some dermatologists favour a few weeks of pre-treatment with oral ... and adding a warning to the label advising women to start taking contraceptives a month before starting the drug. However use ... "Isotretinoin (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic".. *^ Merritt B, Burkhart CN, Morrell DS (June 2009). "Use ... Oral Isotretinoin is best absorbed when taken with a high-fat meal, because it has a high level of lipophilicity.[74] The ...
Oral Herstorians Collection at Sinister Wisdom. *Dyke, A Quarterly, published 1975-1979 (online annotated archive, live website ... Vo, Christine, Carney, Michael (December 2007). "Ovarian Cancer Hormonal and Environmental Risk Effect", Obstetrics and ... contraceptives, breast feeding, and miscarriages.[199] ... Unfortunately, depending on an oral tradition to impart our ... oral breast and genital stimulation, and object-vaginal penetration. (Kinsey, pp. 466-467.) ...
Women starting an estrogen-containing oral contraceptive may need to increase the dosage of lamotrigine to maintain its level ... which can be of particular concern for women on estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives. Ethinylestradiol, the ingredient ... Estimate of the mean apparent volume of distribution of lamotrigine following oral administration ranges from 0.9 to 1.3 L/kg. ... Lamotrigine is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration. Its absolute bioavailability is 98% and its plasma C ...
... such as oral contraceptive pills or male condoms.[6] ... Avoidance of hormonal medications[edit]. Many forms of female- ... "Trends in Contraceptive Use Worldwide" (PDF). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations. ... "Contraceptive Use in the United States". Guttmacher Institute. 4 August 2004. Retrieved 9 July 2019.. ... "U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013". Retrieved 9 July 2019.. ...
... written and oral exams), and then certify in reproductive endocrinology and infertility (written and oral exams). ... is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal ... reproductive endocrinologists are trained to also test and treat hormonal dysfunctions in females and males outside infertility ...
The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by FDA in 1960. Oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation and so prevent ... Hormonal contraception. *Ormeloxifene. *Spermicide. For obstetrics and gynecologyEdit. NSAIDs, anticholinergics, haemostatic ... As early as 1960, oral contraceptives were available in several different strengths by every manufacturer. In the 1980s and ... a new delivery system for the oral contraceptive via a transdermal patch. In 1982, a new version of the Pill was introduced, ...
... has been studied as a potential hormonal contraceptive to prevent pregnancy in women.[80] ... With oral administration, domperidone is extensively metabolized in the liver (almost exclusively by CYP3A4/5, though minor ... domperidone 1 mg/ml oral suspension (200 ml) Russia. Janssen Pharmaceutica. Motilium. domperidone 10 mg film-coated tablets & ... domperidone does not appear to be strongly associated with QT prolongation at oral doses of 20 mg QID in healthy volunteers. ...
"Hormonal Contraception". Volume 328:1543-1549 May 27, 1993 Number 21 Review Article - Drug Therapy. New England Journal of ... The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is a contraceptive for women. It is often called birth control pill or simply "The ... the combined oral contraceptive pill was created.[1] The combined oral contraceptive pill has two female hormones: estrogen and ... "Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk: Questions and Answers". National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet. National Cancer Institute ( ...
Hormonal modulators (oral contraceptives or antiandrogens such as spironolactone and flutamide) can be used for female-pattern ... Oral pills for extensive hair loss may be used for alopecia areata. Results may take up to a month to be seen. ... The most severe form of the condition, cystic acne, arises from the same hormonal imbalances that cause hair loss and is ... Bergler-Czop, B; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L (2004). "Hormonal factors in etiology of common acne". Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski : Organ ...
... and oral contraceptive use in healthy nulligravid women aged 19-25 years". Am. J. Epidemiol. 145 (7): 571-80. doi:10.1093/ ... Brisken, Cathrin (2002). "Hormonal Control of Alveolar Development and Its Implications for Breast Carcinogenesis". J. Mammary ... as well as with high IGF-1 levels during oral contraceptive use and with lessening of the normal age-associated decline in ... "Familial hyperestrogenism in both sexes: clinical, hormonal, and molecular studies of two siblings". The Journal of Clinical ...
"Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer.". Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic 83 (1): 86-90; quiz 90-1. Ionawr 2008 ... Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (Awst 2002). "Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative ... "Oral contraceptive use and breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers: a meta-analysis.". European journal of cancer ( ... "Oral contraceptive use as a risk factor for premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis.". Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo ...
... such as those found in oral contraceptives with high estrogenic activity), certain antidepressants (such as venlafaxine), ... and combined methods of hormonal contraception (those containing ethinylestradiol) can cause hypertension while in use. *Heavy ...
... oral contraceptives can contain 150 micrograms of levonorgestrel.[39] The hormonal IUD releases the levonorgestrel directly ... The hormonal IUD is a long-acting reversible contraceptive, and is considered one of the most effective forms of birth control ... The U.S. FDA does not recommend any hormonal method, including Mirena, as a first choice of contraceptive for nursing mothers.[ ... "Hormonal Contraceptives, Progestogens Only". International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1999. Archived from the original on ...
Intrauterine device (Hormonal IUD. *Copper IUD). *Contraceptive implant (Etonogestrel implant, Levonorgestrel implant) ... The early first-trimester medical abortion regimen (200 mg of oral mifepristone, followed 24-48 hours later by 800 mcg of ... The medical abortion regimen (200 mg of oral mifepristone, followed 24-48 hours later by 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol) ...
As with all hormonal therapies, GnRH antagonists are commonly associated with hormonal side effects such as hot flushes, ... Oral. 2019. 44,900 Notes: Launch/status = Launch year or developmental status (as of February 2018). Hits = Google Search hits ... Amory JK (March 2007). Contraceptive developments for men. Drugs Today (Barc.) 43: 179-192. ... Oral. Phase III[16]. 9,730 Relugolix. Relumina. Uterine fibroids. Non-peptide. ...
Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne»։ Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7): CD004425։ July 2012։ PMID 22786490։ ... The use of hormonal agents in the treatment of acne»։ Semin Cutan Med Surg 35 (2): 68-73։ June 2016։ PMID 27416311։ doi: ... Use of oral contraceptives for management of acne vulgaris and hirsutism in women of reproductive and late reproductive age»։ ... Powell A (April 2017)։ «Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens»։ Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review) 64 ( ...
... contraceptive pills that contain both oestrogen and progesterone, the combined oral contraceptive pills, work mainly by ... The size and shape of the ectocervix and the external opening (external os) can vary according to age, hormonal state, and ... Women taking an oral contraceptive pill also have thick mucus from the effects of progesterone.[20] Thick mucus also prevents ... NSW, Family Planning (2009). Contraception : healthy choices : a contraceptive clinic in a book (2nd ed.). Sydney, New South ...
Cawson RA, Odell EW, Porter S (2008). Cawson's essentials of oral pathology and oral medicine (8th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill ... Hormonal factors are capable of altering the mucosal barrier. In one study, a small group of females with aphthous stomatitis ... had fewer occurrences of aphthous ulcers during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or with use of the contraceptive pill.[ ... Scully C, Porter S (April 2008). "Oral mucosal disease: recurrent aphthous stomatitis". The British Journal of Oral & ...
2011.) "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)", Contraceptive technology, 20. izmjenjeno izdanje, str. str. 249.-341., New York: ... Shulman, LP (rujan 2011.). "The state of hormonal contraception today: benefits and risks of hormonal contraceptives: combined ... Burke, AE (rujan 2011.). "The state of hormonal contraception today: benefits and risks of hormonal contraceptives: progestin- ... Jensen, JT (rujan 2011.). "The future of contraception: innovations in contraceptive agents: tomorrow's hormonal contraceptive ...
See also: Sex-hormonal agent and List of sex-hormonal medications available in the United States ... Oral. Estradiol. 0.5-1 mg/day. 1-2 mg/day. 2-4 mg/day ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined ... The main hormonal medications used in HRT for menopausal symptoms are estrogens and progestogens, among which progesterone is ... Zouboulis CC, Makrantonaki E (June 2012). "Hormonal therapy of intrinsic aging". Rejuvenation Res. 15 (3): 302-12. doi:10.1089/ ...
The methods of contraception used include injectables (40%), condoms (16%), traditional methods (16%), oral contraceptive pills ... This period of rest allows the mother to completely recover physically and mentally, adjust to hormonal changes and to her new ... In one study, they found that fewer than 20% of postpartum women initiated contraceptive use within 6 months of return of ... Dhadwal V. (2012). Education for contraceptive use by women after childbirth: RHL commentary. The WHO Reproductive Health ...
FDA (1975). "Diethylstilbestrol as posticoital oral contraceptive; patient labeling". Fed Regist. 40 (25): 5451-5.. ; 40 FR ... Seftel AD, Spirnak JP, Resnick MI (1989). "Hormonal therapy for advanced prostatic carcinoma". J Surg Oncol Suppl. 1: 14-20. ... DES is well-absorbed with oral administration.[1] With an oral dosage of 1 mg/day DES, plasma levels of DES at 20 hours ... Relative oral potencies of estrogens Estrogen. Type. HF. VE. UCa. FSH. LH. HDL-C. SHBG. CBG. AGT. Liver ...
en:Combined oral contraceptive pill (38) → 경구 피임약 *en:Complications of hypertension (2) ... en:Hormonal contraception (11). *en:Hormone replacement therapy (13) → 호르몬 대체요법 *en:Human feces (11) ...
... perhaps more so than a woman who has been on an oral contraceptive or similar for years prior.[72] ... and cure various ailments by somehow boosting the hormonal output of the vasectomized testicle.[65] This surgery, which became ... contraceptive economy' of a relationship, in which women have maintained responsibility of the contraceptive task up until the ... "Contraceptive Use 2011". UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2012.. ...
In practice, these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1 to 2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It ... This means that norethisterone could also be an effective male hormonal contraceptive. Aside from its use as a contraceptive, ... to be used in an oral contraceptive.[12] In 1964, additional contraceptive preparations containing norethisterone in ... Progestogen-only oral contraceptive NET or NETA only. High (e.g., 5 mg, 10 mg). Aygestin, Lupaneta Pack (combination pack with ...
Vinyl chloride, combined oral contraceptive pill, anabolic steroid, arsenic, thorotrast. Diagnosis[edit]. ... f) Hormonal: Tamoxifen. Granuloma[edit]. Drug-induced hepatic granulomas are usually associated with granulomas in other ... a) Bland: Oral contraceptive pills, anabolic steroid, androgens. (b) Inflammatory: Allopurinol, co-amoxiclav, carbamazepine. (c ... Hepatic vein thrombosis: Oral contraceptives. Neoplasm[edit]. Neoplasms have been described with prolonged exposure to some ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives- ... Hormonal Contraceptives/Rifamycins Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. ... Drug interactions with oral contraceptives: compilation and analysis of an adverse experience report database. Fertil Steril ... Inhibition of oral contraceptive effectiveness by concurrent antibiotic administration. A review. J Periodontol 1985 Jan;56(1): ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives- ... even if you take your normal dose that day.If you are using a non-oral hormonal contraceptive (e.g. injection, patch, ring), ... and nutraceuticals.If you are taking an oral hormonal contraceptive product, on the day you receive sugammadex you should ... Sugammadex/Hormonal Contraceptives Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. ...
... Afshin A. Divani,1 Xianghua Luo,2 Yvonne H ... A. A. Divani, X. Luo, K. R. Brandy et al., "Oral versus vaginal combined hormonal contraceptives effect on coagulation and ... "Evaluation of the coagulation profile among oral and vaginal combined hormonal contraceptive users using sonoclot coagulation ... "A comparative study on the effects of a contraceptive vaginal ring NuvaRing and an oral contraceptive on carbohydrate ...
There is a potential link between using an oral contraceptive and an increased risk of developing some cancers. Here is what ... Liver cancer and oral contraceptive use. Oral contraceptive use has been linked to an increased risk for hepatocellular ... Breast Cancer and Hormonal Contraceptives. [4]. ^. American Association for Cancer Research: Recent Oral Contraceptive Use by ... Do Oral Contraceptives Disrupt Your Hormonal Balance And Lead To Cancer?. Amber Pariona. EFL Teacher, Lifehack Writer, English/ ...
Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (. ), compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users ... Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers. Afshin A. Divani,1 Xianghua Luo,2 Yvonne H ... A. A. Divani, X. Luo, K. R. Brandy et al., "Oral versus vaginal combined hormonal contraceptives effect on coagulation and ... One recent hormonal contraceptive method is combined vaginal contraceptive (CVC), commercially marketed as NuvaRing (Merck & Co ...
Combined contraceptive pills (the pill) safely and effectively prevent pregnancy to ensure that safe sex can be enjoyed. You ... Combined Contraceptive Pill. Information on available combined contraceptive pills The combined contraceptive pill is an ... Also referred to simply as the pill, the combined contraceptive pill is an oral tablet that contains both oestrogen and ... In fact, there are currently about 100 million women who use one type of combined oral contraceptive, with multiple brands ...
Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal. Reproductive ... Contraceptive Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System Contraceptive Affecting Blood Pressure Drug: Contraceptives, Oral, ... Assessment of Autonomic Tone in Normotensive Women Using Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive Containing Drospirenone. The ... combined hormonal oral contraceptive with drospirenone and its influence on blood pressure [ Time Frame: six month after the ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control ... Oral Versus Patch Hormonal Contraceptive Effects on Metabolism, Clotting, Inflammatory Factors and Vascular Reactivity. The ... Comparison of Oral and Patch Forms of Hormonal Contraception on Plasma Lipoproteins, Glycemia, Clotting Factors, Indices of ... The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of oral versus patch administration of hormonal contraception on hormone ...
As primary malignant liver cancer is very rare in this country, any effect due to oral contraceptives should be apparent in ... There is increasing concern that contraceptive pill usage may increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Sex hormonal preparations and the liver *S. P. Dourakis. * & G. Tolls. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive ... Forman, D., Doll, R. & Peto, R. Trends in mortality from carcinoma of the liver and the use of oral contraceptives. Br J Cancer ...
22.1 Contraceptives *22.1.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives. *22.1.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives ... Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and availability. ... In acute diarrhoea zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts ... cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration due to better bioavailability. ...
Included studies reported on incident HIV infection among women using hormonal contraception (injectables, oral contraceptives ... Recommendations for other hormonal contraceptive methods (including combined hormonal methods, implants, and progestin-only ... Update to CDCs U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal ... BOX. Categories for classifying hormonal contraceptives. 1 = A condition for which there is no restriction for the use of the ...
Oral combined hormonal contraceptives: reviewed in 2001. In 2001, the EMAs scientific committee then called the Committee for ... Generations of hormonal contraceptive products - a history. Hormonal contraceptives are sometimes classified by generations, ... For more information on the scientific opinion see Combined hormonal contraceptives.. What are combined hormonal contraceptives ... There are also hormonal contraceptives that contain a progestogen only, and these products fall outside the scope of this ...
Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; COC = combined oral contraceptive; Cu-IUD = copper-containing IUD; DMPA = depot ... Categories for Classifying Hormonal Contraceptives and IUDs. 1 = A condition for which there is no restriction for the use of ... Summary of classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices*. Condition. Cu-IUD. LNG-IUD. Implants. ... Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human ...
Hormonal contraceptives can be beneficial for some dermatologic conditions, while detrimental to others. Review their use in a ... Table 3. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on hair loss Contraceptive. Conclusions. Combined oral contraceptive. Improves AGA ( ... Table 1. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on acne Contraceptive. Conclusions. Combined oral contraceptive. Improves acne ( ... Table 4. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on rosacea Contraceptive. Conclusions. Combined oral contraceptive. Unclear effect ...
A large Danish study shows that use of hormonal birth control increases the risk of developing depression, with adolescents ... Women who use oral hormonal contraceptives are at increased risk of developing depression, and adolescents seem most vulnerable ... Mood changes are a known reason for stopping hormonal contraceptives, but few studies have quantified the effect of low-dose ... They also found that after 6 months of starting hormonal contraceptives, the relative risk peaked at 1.4 (95% CI, 1.34 - 1.46) ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. ... are affected by hormonal contraceptive use. The investigators hypothesize that progestin-containing hormonal contraceptives (i. ... Modulation of Mucosal and Systemic Immunity by Hormonal Contraceptives. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Initiation of Oral Contraception (OC) Initiation of Depo-Provera (DMPA) Initiation of Mirena (LNG-IUD) Drug: Mirena Drug: Oral ...
... brought together and reanalysed the worldwide epidemiological evidence on breast cancer risk and use of hormonal contraceptives ... The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has ... For women whose use of oral contraceptives ceased more than 10 ... Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: further results. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer ... Overall 41% of the women with breast cancer and 40% of the women without breast cancer had used oral contraceptives at some ...
... injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2- ... Effect of long-acting progestagen-only injectable contraceptives on carbohydrate metabolism and its hormonal profile ... injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2- ... Contraceptive Agents, Female / standards * Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic / administration & dosage * Contraceptives, Oral, ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal. Grant support. *CA 40935/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... Past use of oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis in the context of the Nurses Health Study.. ... Past use of oral contraceptives has little or no impact on risks of subsequent cardiovascular diseases. ... We examined the effects of past use of oral contraceptives on risks of cardiovascular diseases prospectively in the Nurses ...
hormonal and metabolic parameters.. Exploratory Objectives: evaluation of the relationships between hormonal parameters, ... Patients requiring combined Oral Contraceptives therapy.. Drug: Combined Estrogen-Progestin Oral Contraceptives All patients ... Contraceptive Usage Sexual Behavior Mental Health Wellness 1 Drug: Combined Estrogen-Progestin Oral Contraceptives Phase 4 ... Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral. Estrogens. Progestins. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs ...
"Hormonal Contraception". Volume 328:1543-1549 May 27, 1993 Number 21 Review Article - Drug Therapy. New England Journal of ... The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is a contraceptive for women. It is often called birth control pill or simply "The ... the combined oral contraceptive pill was created.[1] The combined oral contraceptive pill has two female hormones: estrogen and ... "Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk: Questions and Answers". National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet. National Cancer Institute ( ...
Results of search for su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Safety requirements for contraceptive steroids : proceedings of a Symposium on Improving Safety Requirements for Contraceptive ... Hormonal steroids in contraception : report of a WHO Scientific Group [meeting held in Geneva from 23-27 October 1967] by WHO ... Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy. by IARC Working Group on the ...
Main article: Extended cycle combined oral contraceptive pill. If the pill formulation is monophasic, meaning each hormonal ... Contraceptive UseEdit. Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of oral medication that is designed to be taken every day, ... Main article: Oral contraceptive formulations. Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations, some containing both ... to test and monitor oral contraceptives which began animal testing of oral contraceptives and in 1960 and 1961 began three ...
What are the contraceptives used for men and women? and find homework help for other Contraception questions at eNotes ... Hormonal contraceptives. These include oral contraceptives, patches, and implants. They all work by preventing ovulation. ... If you are asking for a list of all contraceptive methods for either men or women, here is a list of some of the most common. ... If you are asking about a contraceptive that is used for both men and women, there really is not one. There are such things as ...
... pregnancy and oral contraceptive use alter attraction to apparent health in faces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B ... Can Contraceptive Pill Affect Future Offsprings Health? The Implications of Using Hormonal Birth Control for Human Evolution. ... MHC-correlated odour preferences in humans and the use of oral contraceptives. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: ... Childrens health Contraceptive pills Mate choice Menstrual cycle MHC This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
1.65 (SD 1.68)in the Matsuda index at 9 weeks of treatment with oral contraceptive pill.. Power analysis indicated that 14 ... no use of hormonal contraceptives or wash-out period of at least two months. - no contraindications to hormonal contraception. ... The Effects of Contraceptive Pill and Hormonal Vaginal Ring on Hormonal, Inflammatory and Metabolic Parameters in Women of ... The Effects of Contraceptive Pill and Hormonal Vaginal Ring on Hormonal, Inflammatory and Metabolic Parameters in Women of ...
Oral medications can help balance your hormones and clear up the skin. A variety of natural plant-based treatments may also ... Hormonal acne is tied to fluctuations in your hormones, whether from puberty, menopause, or stress. Its typically associated ... Common options include oral contraceptives and anti-androgen drugs. Oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives specifically used ... Oral contraceptives may not be an option for you if you have a history of blood clots, high blood pressure, or breast cancer. ...
... in patients being prescribed combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and highlighted new resources for use by healthcare ... First oral GLP-1 agonist launched for type II diabetes Prescribers can now consider a GLP-1 agonist as an... ... Women should be reminded to read the patient information leaflet for combined hormonal contraceptives and to mention they are ... The risk of thromboembolism associated with combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) is small, a review of the latest evidence ...
Oral contraceptives[6]. *Hormonal replacement therapy,[6] esp. oral. *Central venous catheters[6] ... The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 100,000 woman years in current use of combined oral contraceptives is ... Compared with combined oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel (LNG), and with the same dose of estrogen and duration of ... the rate ratio of deep venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with norethisterone is 0.98, with norgestimate 1.19, ...
In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot ... Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. ... Therefore, healthcare providers should pay particular attention to sexual function and contraceptive methods. Also, we ... recommend further research to determine the best way to inform women about the potential risks and benefits of hormonal ...
  • The combined contraceptive pill is an extremely efficient method of contraception, and one of the most popular types of contraceptives in the UK - which is why roughly 3.5 million women in Britain are using it as their preferred method of pregnancy prevention. (
  • Few studies have been conducted in the field of hormonal contraception and evaluation of the autonomic nervous system work and no prospective, controlled study was published so far. (
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of oral versus patch administration of hormonal contraception on hormone sensitive proteins such as lipoproteins, clotting factors and inflammatory proteins as well as blood sugar and insulin levels, antioxidant status and flow-mediated dilation of arm and forearm vessels. (
  • CDC recently evaluated the evidence and the updated WHO guidance on the risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among women using hormonal contraception. (
  • Health-care providers can use the summary table as a quick reference guide to the classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine contraception to compare classifications across these methods ( Box K1 ) ( Table K1 ). (
  • Hormonal contraception is the most common form of female birth control. (
  • While COCs are the most recognized and developed forms of hormonal contraception, there are also non-pill options. (
  • Women should generally be informed about this potential side effect with use of hormonal contraception, so they can react appropriately in case of mood changes or even depression development. (
  • Mood changes are a known reason for stopping hormonal contraceptives, but few studies have quantified the effect of low-dose hormonal contraception on the risk for depression, the researchers note. (
  • During follow-up, 55.5% of participants were current or recent users of hormonal contraception. (
  • During follow-up, compared with nonusers, women and adolescents who used hormonal contraception were more likely to be prescribed an antidepressant for the first time. (
  • The risk varied by type of hormonal contraception. (
  • Dr Lidegaard told Medscape Medical News , "This is the first study ever conducted which has followed a large cohort of previously mentally healthy women starting on hormonal contraception. (
  • and then followed these women for 13 years for their eventual start on antidepressant therapy or getting a depression diagnosis, as compared with age-matched women not starting on hormonal contraception. (
  • On the other hand, it should be noted that previous studies do present conflicting evidence about the relationship between hormonal contraception and women's mental health. (
  • Hormonal contraception : pills, injections & implants / Joseph W. Goldzieher. (
  • Second, it was the first contraceptive to completely separate the act of contraception (in this case the taking of a pill) from sexual intercourse itself. (
  • Sexual Dysfunction in Two Types of Hormonal Contraception: Combined Oral Contraceptives versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate', Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health , 5(1), pp. 806-813. (
  • Also, we recommend further research to determine the best way to inform women about the potential risks and benefits of hormonal contraception. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives - emergency contraception. (
  • The reviewers' conclusions are straightforward: evidence from the well-conducted trials is inadequate to make recommendations regarding hormonal contraceptive use in lactating women and to establish an effect of hormonal contraception on milk volume or quality. (
  • Given the limited data available, decisions about type and timing of hormonal contraception in postpartum lactating women should be made on other grounds. (
  • Hormonal methods of contraception contain synthetic versions of reproductive hormones a woman's body produces. (
  • Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). (
  • The investigators noted that this was the largest cohort to date to suggest that the concomitant used of hormonal contraception with EFV-based ART might reduce the effectiveness of contraception. (
  • Compared with non-users of hormonal contraception, the relative risk of confirmed venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing 30-40 µg ethinylestradiol with levonorgestrel was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 3.8), with desogestrel was 6.6 (5.6 to 7.8), with gestodene was 6.2 (5.6 to 7.0), and with drospirenone was 6.4 (5.4 to 7.5). (
  • Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. (
  • 2 , 3 Although condoms are the most frequently used form of contraception (52% of females reported condom use at last sex), use of more effective hormonal methods, including combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and other hormonal methods, was lower, at 31% and 12%, respectively, in 2011. (
  • Additionally, medical indications for hormonal contraception, such as dysmenorrhea, heavy menstrual bleeding or other abnormal uterine bleeding, acne, and polycystic ovary syndrome, are often uncovered during adolescent visits. (
  • In the early 1990s two new modes of progestin-only hormonal contraception became available to women living in the U.S. The following decade has been notable for the emergence of type 2 diabetes among adolescent girls (more than boys) ( 1 ) and a rising prevalence of gestational diabetes ( 2 ). (
  • Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides. (
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. (
  • Nationwide registers provided individually updated information about use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt, suicide, and potential confounding variables. (
  • Adjusted hazard ratios for suicide attempt and suicide were estimated for users of hormonal contraception as compared with those who never used hormonal contraception. (
  • Use of hormonal contraception was positively associated with subsequent suicide attempt and suicide. (
  • Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system . (
  • Hormonal contraception is highly effective: when taken on the prescribed schedule, users of steroid hormone methods experience pregnancy rates of less than 1% per year. (
  • In men there is nothing that is like hormonal contraception . (
  • There isn't a single known cause of a decidual cast, but it may be related to hormonal contraception or ectopic pregnancies . (
  • You may be more at risk of developing a decidual cast if you take hormonal contraception. (
  • From 2015 to 2017, 12.6% of women aged 15-49 in the US reported using oral contraception, making it the second most common method of contraception in this age range with female sterilization being the most common method. (
  • The study found that women who used hormonal contraception had a 20 percent elevated risk [1] for breast cancer compared to women who had never used a hormonal method. (
  • Women who used hormonal contraception longer than 10 years saw their risk for breast cancer increase by almost 40 percent. (
  • While the study showed that the breast cancer risk decreased after stopping hormonal contraception, for women who used a hormonal method for five years or more, the effects of drug lingered. (
  • Women who used hormonal contraception longer than five years saw a significant elevated risk for breast cancer even five years or more after discontinuation. (
  • The Mørch study is the largest and most comprehensive study ever carried out assessing the link between breast cancer and hormonal contraception. (
  • The popularization of sex steroid hormone contraception (oral contraception) is credited for beginning the sexual revolution and allowing women to use safe, reversible contraception that also provided noncontraceptive benefits. (
  • World Health Organization Task Force on Oral Contraception. (
  • This article reviews the clinical effects of hormonal contraception. (
  • They are also known as postcoital contraception or "morning-after" pills if they are oral tablets. (
  • 12,407 patients) conducted in Europe, Asia, and the Americas evaluated the likelihood of pregnancy with repeated use of precoital and postcoital hormonal contraception. (
  • The brought together the Guidelines Steering Group, Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use other experts on hormonal contraception, experts provides recommendations on the use of various on steroidal hormones and experts in neonatal contraceptive methods by women and men development and care, to evaluate all available with specific characteristics or with known pre- scientific data in this area. (
  • Along with the presentation of updated systematic monitors the publication of new research evidence reviews of direct human evidence on the use and, together with the Guidelines Steering Group, of combined hormonal contraception and keeps these guidelines up to date with the state of progestogen-only contraception during lactation knowledge in the field. (
  • Department updated systematic reviews with new of endogenous estrogen and progesterone on evidence on hormonal contraception use among brain development in animal models. (
  • Katya tablets are a type of hormonal contraception commonly known as 'the pill' or combined oral contraceptive pill. (
  • Briefly, women between 19 and 30 years of age were recruited in three groups: (1) nonuser subjects: women who had not been on any hormonal contraceptive for a minimum of six months, (2) COC users: women who have been using pills for a minimum of six months, and (3) CVC users: women who have been using vaginal rings (NuvaRing) for a minimum of six months. (
  • The CHCs being reviewed are sometimes referred to as 'third-generation' or 'fourth-generation' contraceptives and are available as pills, skin patches and vaginal rings. (
  • The first generation of contraceptive pills, developed in the 1960s, used a high concentration of oestrogen with no progestogen component. (
  • In this group, the relative risk for first use of an antidepressant was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.75 - 1.84) with combined oral contraceptives and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.99 - 2.52) with progestin-only pills. (
  • To test this hypothesis, the investigators will collect blood and genital tract samples from women before and after their initiation of a hormonal contraceptive (either birth control pills, Depo-Provera, or Mirena). (
  • Some oral contraceptive pills have only progesterone. (
  • There are two major kinds of oral contraceptive pills. (
  • Contraceptive pills, however, reverse women's preferences, leading them to be attracted to men with a similar immune system. (
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of oral medication that is designed to be taken every day, at the same time of day, in order to prevent pregnancy. (
  • Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines used to prevent pregnancy. (
  • More recent data from the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada show oral contraceptive pills have plummeted in popularity among teens, ages 15 to 19, from 69 per cent in 2006 to 32 per cent in 2016. (
  • These include injectable contraceptives, hormonal oral pills, and topical contraceptives. (
  • For diabetic women free of microvascular or macrovascular disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledges that progestin-only contraceptives in general (i.e., progestin-only pills as well as injections and implants) may slightly influence carbohydrate metabolism, but the WHO also indicates that the advantages of DMPA or LNG implants generally outweigh their theoretical or proven risks ( 6 ). (
  • Based on product type, the market is bifurcated into drugs (combined oral contraceptive pills, combined injectable birth control, and combined emergency contraceptive pills) and devices (combined vaginal rings, and combined transdermal patches). (
  • Use of low-dose oral contraceptive pills in women over 35 years of age provides protection against unwanted pregnancy, maintains a stable hormonal environment and decreases abnormal menstrual bleeding. (
  • Data from several studies suggest that perimenopausal administration of low-dose oral contraceptive pills can help prevent the acceleration of bone turnover and substantially reverse the decreasing bone density and resultant osteoporosis that occur during the menopausal years. (
  • The effectiveness of the combined oral contraceptive pill appears to be similar whether the active pills are taken continuously for prolonged periods of time or if they are taken for 21 active days and 7 days as placebo. (
  • Factors that may contribute to a decrease in effectiveness: missing more than one active pill in a packet, delay in starting the next packet of active pills (i.e., extending the pill-free, inactive or placebo pill period beyond 7 days), intestinal malabsorption of active pills due to vomiting or diarrhea, drug interactions with active pills that decrease contraceptive estrogen or progestogen levels. (
  • A study published last week in The New England Journal of Medicine has found that hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptive pills and hormone-releasing IUDs, significantly increase women's risk for breast cancer. (
  • However, Mørch's study now makes it clear that today's oral contraceptives carry the same level of risk for breast cancer that the old pills did. (
  • Extended or continuous cycle combined oral contraceptive pills are a packaging of combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) that reduce or eliminate the withdrawal bleeding that would occur once every 28 days in traditionally packaged COCPs. (
  • Oral contraceptive (OC) pills are frequently prescribed for a variety of clinical purposes. (
  • Most commercially available combination hormonal contraceptive pills contain between 20 and 35 µg of ethinyl estradiol. (
  • There are two types of contraceptive pills. (
  • Hormonal Birth Control: Birth control pills and irregular periods sometimes go hand in hand. (
  • Contraceptive pills can be taken orally and are very effective at preventing pregnancy. (
  • Some newer brands of pills, though, require you to take the hormonal pills for 90 or more consecutive days. (
  • The uterine lining grows and sheds in direct response to the pills' hormonal content. (
  • Birth control pills (oral contraceptives) take advantage of this effect by regulating hormone levels. (
  • Also referred to simply as 'the pill', the combined contraceptive pill is an oral tablet that contains both oestrogen and progestogen and is proven to be 99% effective at preventing pregnancy. (
  • There is increasing concern that contraceptive pill usage may increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill ( COCP ) is a contraceptive for women. (
  • After this discovery, the combined oral contraceptive pill was created. (
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill is thought to be safe and usually works well. (
  • In the United States, the combined oral contraceptive pill was first given to women in 1960. (
  • Can Contraceptive Pill Affect Future Offspring's Health? (
  • Does the contraceptive pill alter mate choice in humans? (
  • The Effects of Contraceptive Pill and Hormonal Vaginal Ring on Hormonal, Inflammatory and Metabolic Parameters in Women of Reproductive Age With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). (
  • Methods Sample size Our previous study comparing the metabolic effects of the same preparations (Mercilon and Nuvaring) in young healthy women shown an significant decrease of 1.65 (SD 1.68)in the Matsuda index at 9 weeks of treatment with oral contraceptive pill. (
  • The used preparations are: Vaginal ring, depotproduct: ethinylestradiol 2.7 mg (0,015 mg/day) and etonogestrel 11.7 mg (0,120 mg/day)and the contraceptive pill, ethinylestradiol tabl 20 µg, desogestrel 150 µg. (
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill ( COCP ), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as " the pill ", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally. (
  • [8] As of 2012, 16% of U.S. women aged 15-44 reported being on the birth control pill, making it the most widely used contraceptive method among women of that age range. (
  • For instance, someone using oral forms of hormonal birth control might be given incorrect information by a health care provider as to the frequency of intake, forget to take the pill one day, or simply not go to the pharmacy on time to renew the prescription. (
  • Women should be reminded to read the patient information leaflet for combined hormonal contraceptives and to mention they are taking the contraceptive pill if asked whether they are taking any other medicines. (
  • A new Canadian study on how the birth control pill affects a woman's ability to think is the latest to address a decades-old knowledge gap researchers say needs to be fixed: How oral contraceptives impact the brain. (
  • Since the introduction of the pill in the 1960s, hormonal contraceptives - which contain estrogen, progestin, or a combination of both - have become a preferred option for many women. (
  • The Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill ( COCP ), often referred to as " the Pill ", is a combination of an estrogen ( oestrogen ) and a progestin (progestogen), taken by mouth to inhibit normal fertility. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives available in the UK include two types of oral contraceptives: the combined hormonal pill and the progestogen only pill . (
  • The original hormonal method-the combined oral contraceptive pill -was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. (
  • Clinical trial of a new oral contraceptive pill containing the natural oestrogen 17 beta-oestradiol. (
  • To compare the efficacy of a new low-dose oral contraceptive pill (OCP) formulation with placebo in reducing symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. (
  • Do I need a pelvic exam before going on the oral contraceptive pill? (
  • ETH in il es tra DYE ole) is an oral contraceptive (birth control pill). (
  • To get the contraceptive pill, you will need a prescription from your doctor. (
  • When you take an oral combination pill (those with both estrogen and progesterone), the hormones present block the release of an egg from the ovary. (
  • Taking the contraceptive pill usually results in lighter, less painful and more regular menstrual bleeding. (
  • The hypothesis is that oral administration of contraceptive hormones will result in higher plasma levels of estrogen sensitive proteins originating from the liver while patch administration of contraceptive hormones will result in greater systemic effects of estrogen on vascular reactivity and antioxidant status. (
  • The dermatologic effects of hormonal contraceptives are due to their capacity to affect androgen receptors through progestins, as well as estrogen receptors through mestranol or ethinylestradiol (EE). (
  • All patients enrolled will undergo Combined Estrogen-Progestin Oral Contraceptives. (
  • Compared with combined oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel (LNG), and with the same dose of estrogen and duration of use, the rate ratio of deep venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with norethisterone is 0.98, with norgestimate 1.19, with desogestrel (DSG) 1.82, with gestodene 1.86, with drospirenone (DRSP) 1.64, and with cyproterone acetate 1.88. (
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has stated that among diabetic women who have vascular disease or are older than 35 years, the use of progestin-only oral contraceptives, DMPA, or implants may be safer than combination (i.e., estrogen plus progestin) oral contraceptives ( 7 ). (
  • Few guidelines exist for the use of estrogen, particularly low-dose oral contraceptives, during the perimenopausal years. (
  • Almost all methods are composed of steroid hormones , although in India one selective estrogen receptor modulator is marketed as a contraceptive. (
  • When studies came out decades ago linking synthetic estrogens with breast cancer, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began pulling high-dose estrogen oral contraceptives off the market in the early 1990s. (
  • Other combined hormonal contraceptives (those containing both an estrogen and a progestin) may also be used in an extended or continuous cycle. (
  • Progestin-only contraceptives are considered appropriate for women who should avoid estrogen due to medical conditions. (
  • Oral contraceptives containing estrogen may also relieve menstrual cramps and some perimenopausal symptoms and regulate menstrual cycles in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). (
  • Several studies have investigated the relation between combined oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 including newer large scale studies. (
  • Contact your doctor if you experience breakthrough bleeding, spotting, or pregnancy.Emergency contraceptives may be less effective also. (
  • Rifampin, oral contraceptives, and pregnancy. (
  • Induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and pregnancy while taking oral contraceptives. (
  • The blood levels of your contraceptive may decrease, causing breakthrough bleeding, spotting, or pregnancy. (
  • While hormonal contraceptives are generally reliable at preventing pregnancy, the various forms are not equal in efficacy. (
  • Why aren't contraceptives guaranted to avoid pregnancy and diseases? (
  • The study population consists of women of reproductive age with PCOS, no wish of pregnancy and no other contraindications to hormonal contraceptives. (
  • Hormonal changes due to events such as menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause can also have an effect on the type of breast pain experienced. (
  • Incident pregnancy rates in HIV positive women using the subdermal hormonal implant with efavirenz (EFV)-based ART were 2.6 times higher than in women using nevirapine (NVP)-based ART -- according to a study conducted in western Kenya, presented at the 5th International Workshop on HIV & Women. (
  • Contraceptive methods are designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy . (
  • Hormonal contraceptives are equally effective in preventing pregnancy. (
  • Perfect-use pregnancy rates for most hormonal contraceptives are usually around the 0.3% rate or less. (
  • If you leave the contraceptive ring in your vagina for up to 4 weeks (28 days) you will still be getting pregnancy protection. (
  • Two groups, each composed of 20 women, who used depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2-hours) levels of serum insulin, growth hormone, glucagon, cortisol and blood pyruvate. (
  • The use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) elevates the level of circulating CRP [ 16 - 20 ]. (
  • There is sufficient evidence that hormonal contraceptives, particularly COCs and vaginal rings, may effectively treat acne and hirsutism. (
  • A 30-year-old patient conceived a child while taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) inconsistently. (
  • Is the use of contraceptive patches or vaginal rings more effective or safer than COCs? (
  • To compare the contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, compliance, and safety of the skin patch or the vaginal ring versus combination oral contraceptives (COCs). (
  • The Lancet study similarly found that combined oral contraceptives (COC) increase women's risk for breast cancer by 24 percent among current users and by 16 percent among women who have stopped using COCs within one year. (
  • The hormonal components of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have various metabolic and haemostatic effects. (
  • The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. (
  • CDC's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (U.S. MEC) (first published in 2010 and updated in 2016) provides evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among U.S. women with certain characteristics or medical conditions ( 1 ), and is adapted from global guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and kept up to date based on continual review of published literature ( 2 ). (
  • Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and women using these methods should be counseled that consistent and correct use of the male latex condom reduces the risk for transmission of HIV and other STDs. (
  • Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. (
  • Therefore, healthcare providers should pay particular attention to sexual function and contraceptive methods. (
  • If you are asking for a list of all contraceptive methods for either men or women, here is a list of some of the most common. (
  • Between 10% and over 60% of women in China do not use an effective contraceptive method at the time of first intercourse post partum, and more than 80% of Chinese women say they do not need a contraceptive at 3 months post partum (4, 5).The main contraceptive methods used at that time are LAM, the condom, and the intrauterine device (IUD). (
  • The temporal overlap of a diabetes increase among young women and availability of new contraceptive methods has stimulated us to review the published literature on insulin-glucose metabolism in the presence of these hormonal agents. (
  • The factors driving the combined hormonal contraceptives market include increase in adoption of combined hormonal contraceptives products or birth control methods in the developing countries and incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (
  • Newer contraceptive methods and new techniques for old methods (such as hysteroscopic sterilization) are attractive to patients, and their contraceptive provider (or referring provider) should have a grasp of the wide range of options. (
  • In the ensuing decades many other delivery methods have been developed, although the oral and injectable methods are by far the most popular. (
  • Altogether, 18% of the world's contraceptive users rely on hormonal methods. (
  • Mørch and colleagues found the breast cancer risk remained statistically significant across hormonal methods regardless of which progestin was used. (
  • Temporary methods are hormonal and non-hormonal. (
  • Utilizing the qualitative methods of one-on-one interviews and focus groups, this study interviewed both account planners and the target market of hormonal contraceptives. (
  • The methods existing in literature for the analysis of combination oral contraceptive products do not address advances in the new chemistries and instrumentation. (
  • One expert declared a conflict of interest guidance on how to use contraceptive methods relevant to the subject matter 1 and was not asked safely and effectively once they are deemed to withdraw from recommendation formulation. (
  • 2 Others had private insurance that either did not cover preventive gynecologic care or certain contraceptive methods or supplies, or did not provide women with care from familiar providers or with the level of confidentiality that they desired. (
  • Oral contraceptives (OCs) ameliorate hyperandrogenism and regulate menstrual cycles. (
  • Preference for darker faces in photographs at different phases of the menstrual cycle: preliminary assessment of evidence for a hormonal relationship. (
  • Possible indications for prescribing hormonal contraceptives, such as menstrual disorders, acne or hirsutism will be included in the analyses as confounding factors. (
  • Extended cycle use of COCPs may also be called menstrual suppression, although other hormonal medications or medication delivery systems (hormonal intrauterine devices--IUDs) may also be used to suppress menses. (
  • Irregular menstrual periods are usually the result of hormonal signals that have been thrown out of sync. (
  • Oral contraceptives may also be suggested to lower the risk of cysts developing in future menstrual cycles and decrease the possibility of ovarian cancer. (
  • Combined oral contraceptives like Katya work by over-riding the normal menstrual cycle . (
  • However, if you have a short menstrual cycle (with your period coming every 23 days or less), starting as late as the fifth day of your cycle may not provide you with immediate contraceptive protection. (
  • Progestin-only contraceptives administered by injection (Depo-Provera) or subcutaneous implant (Norplant) have been available to U.S. women for about a decade. (
  • U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. (
  • The report provides information about the current and upcoming trends in the global combined hormonal contraceptives market from 2016 to 2023, which helps to determine the prevailing opportunities. (
  • IUDs are effective long-acting contraceptives with rising popularity in recent years. (
  • Hormonal IUDs function by releasing levonorgestrel into the uterus with minimal systemic absorption. (
  • 1 Use of highly effective long-acting reversible contraceptives, such as implants or intrauterine devices (IUDs), was much lower. (
  • As contraceptives and hormonal therapies continue to advance and increase in popularity, it is important for dermatologists to understand their mechanisms and dermatologic effects given the intricate interplay between hormones and the skin. (
  • Hormonal acne is exactly what it sounds like - acne tied to fluctuations in your hormones. (
  • Although the Mayo Clinic says hormones generally aren't a factor in adult acne, hormonal imbalances may contribute to acne in adults with underlying medical conditions. (
  • Oral medications can work from the inside out to balance your hormones and clear up the skin. (
  • Contraceptive choices for lactating women may be limited due to concerns about effects steroidal hormones. (
  • The Mørch study found that progestins-synthetic hormones that mimic certain properties of progesterone and are used in contraceptive drugs on their own or combined with estrogens-also appear to increase women's risk for breast cancer. (
  • It can take a while for your body to adjust to the new levels of hormones delivered by hormonal birth control. (
  • We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD40 ligand. (
  • No obvious adverse effect of hormonal contraceptives on infant growth has been documented. (
  • These include oral contraceptives, patches, and implants. (
  • Concerns have been raised by recent analyses showing EFV reduces the efficacy of subdermal contraceptive implants. (
  • Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) need to be administered less than once a month and include implants, injections, IUS and IUD. (
  • this guidance states that the advantages of progestin-only injectable contraceptive use (including depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA]) by women at high risk for HIV infection outweigh the theoretical or proven risks (U.S. MEC category 2). (
  • or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) also releases progestogen into the bloodstream and is repeated every 3 months, whereas the transdermal contraceptive patch releases both EE and norelgestromin and is applied weekly. (
  • In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), referred to healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2013. (
  • Common options include oral contraceptives and anti-androgen drugs. (
  • These may include oral contraceptives as well as those that can be injected or implanted. (
  • For women whose use of oral contraceptives ceased more than 10 years before there was some suggestion of a reduction in breast cancer risk in certain subgroups, with a deficit of tumors that had spread beyond the breast, especially among women who had used preparations containing the highest doses of oestrogen and progestogen. (
  • What evidence there is suggests, however, no major differences in the effects for specific types of oestrogen or of progestogen and that the pattern of risk associated with use of hormonal contraceptives containing progestogens alone may be similar to that observed for preparations containing both oestrogens and progestogens. (
  • The contraceptive implant works by releasing the hormone progestogen for three years. (
  • Objective To assess the risk of venous thromboembolism from use of combined oral contraceptives according to progestogen type and oestrogen dose. (
  • A randomized, double-blind study of two combined oral contraceptives containing the same progestogen, but different estrogens. (
  • DMPA and NET-EN caused significant changes in mean blood glucose and pyruvate and in mean serum insulin, growth hormone and glucagon, but not in mean fasting cortisol. (
  • Although significant changes in blood glucose levels occurred with both DMPA and NET-EN, yet they did not reach the lower cut-off levels for impaired glucose tolerance in any user. (
  • With the same spacing of injections, i.e. every 84 +/- 5 days for NET-EN and every 90 +/- 5 days for DMPA, the effects on various parameters studied were less with NET-EN. (
  • The DMPA injection must be repeated every 3 months for continuing contraceptive benefit. (
  • The objective of these study was to evaluate the effect of the use of a contraceptive containing 20 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 3mg of drospirenone in the autonomic nervous system in healthy women. (
  • It was hoped that the formulations for combined oral contraceptives on the market today-which utilize smaller doses of synthetic estrogens like ethinyl estradiol and estradiol valerate-would be safer to use. (
  • Desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol are hormonal contraceptives available as a combination product. (
  • With users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel as reference and after adjusting for length of use, the rate ratio of confirmed venous thromboembolism for users of oral contraceptives with desogestrel was 2.2 (1.7 to 3.0), with gestodene was 2.1 (1.6 to 2.8), and with drospirenone was 2.1 (1.6 to 2.8). (
  • Conclusion After adjustment for length of use, users of oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or drospirenone were at least at twice the risk of venous thromboembolism compared with users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. (
  • 8 14 19 In addition, four studies reported a higher relative risk of venous thromboembolism among users of combined oral contraceptives with drospirenone compared with those containing levonorgestrel, 17 18 20 21 whereas two other studies reported no difference. (
  • PhD candidate Laura Gravelsins, one of the reachers at University of Toronto's Einstein Lab who is studying the effects of hormonal contraceptives on the brain, poses for a portrait at in a testing room at the University in Toronto, March 29, 2019. (
  • Some other side effects of hormonal contraceptives can include spotting as well as vomiting and nausea. (
  • 17 18 19 These new studies showed an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in current users of combined oral contraceptives and a decreasing risk by both time of use and decreasing oestrogen dose. (
  • The findings support the theory of progesterone involvement in the etiology of depression, because progestin dominates combined and progestin-only contraceptives, the investigators say. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives , especially those that include a high dose of progesterone, may increase your risk for decidual cast. (
  • The pharmacodynamic effects of an oral contraceptive containing 3mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol and 0.150mg desogestrel for 21 days, followed by 0.030 mg desogestrel only for 7 days. (
  • 10.Baciewicz AM. Oral contraceptive drug interactions. (
  • Drug interactions with oral contraceptives: compilation and analysis of an adverse experience report database. (
  • In 2018, the Canadian Paediatric Society recommended long-acting reversible contraceptives, including hormone-releasing intrauterine devices, as a first-line option for young Canadians. (
  • Extended or continuous use of COCPs or other combined hormonal contraceptives carries the same risk of side effects and medical risks as traditional COCP use. (
  • Based on moderate quality evidence, contraceptive effectiveness of the vaginal ring or patch is similar to COC. (
  • The delivery of combination contraceptive steroids from a skin patch or vaginal ring offers potential advantages over the traditional oral route. (
  • The authors searched Medline, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and LILACS for trials of the contraceptive patch or the vaginal ring, and contacted manufacturers and researchers to identify other trials. (
  • Risk estimates for suicide attempt were 1.91 (95% CI=1.79-2.03) for oral combined products, 2.29 (95% CI=1.77-2.95) for oral progestin-only products, 2.58 (95% CI=2.06-3.22) for vaginal ring, and 3.28 (95% CI=2.08-5.16) for patch. (
  • For example, the NuvaRing vaginal ring and the contraceptive patch have been studied for extended cycle use, and the monthly combined injectable contraceptive may similarly eliminate bleeding. (
  • Oral versus vaginal combined hormonal contraceptives' effect on coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers among young adult women," Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 487-494, 2012. (
  • Oral, transdermal and vaginal combined contraceptives induce an increase in markers of chronic inflammation and impair insulin sensitivity in young healthy normal-weight women: a randomized study," Human Reproduction , vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 3046-3056, 2012. (
  • To date, recommendations for use of hormonal contraceptives among women at high risk for HIV infection have been U.S. MEC category 1 (safe for use without restriction) ( Box ). (
  • In March 2017, based on newly published studies ( 6 ), and after considering factors such as the balance of benefits and harms and ethical principles of ensuring informed contraceptive choice, WHO updated its recommendations on the safety of progestin-only injectable use among women at high risk for HIV infection from MEC category 1 to MEC category 2 (advantages of using the method generally outweigh the theoretical or proven risks). (
  • Women who use oral hormonal contraceptives are at increased risk of developing depression, and adolescents seem most vulnerable, results of a large study suggest. (
  • The main findings, summarised elsewhere, are that there is a small increase in the risk of having breast cancer diagnosed in current users of combined oral contraceptives and in women who had stopped use in the past 10 years but that there is no evidence of an increase in the risk more than 10 years after stopping use. (
  • In addition, the cancers diagnosed in women who had used oral contraceptives tended to be less advanced clinically than the cancers diagnosed in women who had not used them. (
  • On the basis of these results, there is little difference between women who have and have not used combined oral contraceptives in terms of the estimated cumulative number of breast cancers diagnosed during the period from starting use up to 20 years after stopping. (
  • The cancers diagnosed in women who have used oral contraceptives are, however, less advanced clinically than the cancers diagnosed in never users. (
  • Further research is needed to establish whether the associations described here are due to earlier diagnosis of breast cancer in women who have used oral contraceptives, to the biological effects of the hormonal contraceptives or to a combination of both. (
  • What are the contraceptives used for men and women? (
  • If you are asking about a contraceptive that is used for both men and women, there really is not one. (
  • The study aims to test the working memory of around 60 young women who use oral contraceptives, says researcher Laura Gravelsins, a PhD student with the Einstein Lab on cognitive neuroscience, gender and health at the University of Toronto. (
  • According to a 2015 Statistics Canada report , an estimated 1.3 million, or 16 per cent of non-pregnant women, ages 15 to 49, used oral contraceptives in the previous month. (
  • A large meta-analysis showed that recent oral contraceptive use was associated with a small increase in breast cancer risk, especially for young women ( 1 ). (
  • For women known to carry germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 , the two studies published to date suggest that oral contraceptive use increases breast cancer risk, at least for BRCA1 mutation carriers ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Sterilisation is a permanent contraceptive method and includes a vasectomy for men and a laparoscopic sterilisation for women. (
  • For example, women with high blood pressure or increased risk of deep vein thrombosis may not be offered hormonal contraceptives. (
  • Additional research could help clarify whether exposure to injectable or implantable contraceptives leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes in women with predisposing factors. (
  • Recent studies have indicated that the risk of developing ovarian cancer is reduced in women who have used oral contraceptives compared with women who have never used them. (
  • 8 The largest investigation to date, the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study (CASH), showed a decrease averaging 40 percent in the development of ovarian cancer in women who had taken oral contraceptives. (
  • The CASH study reported that after 12 to 23 months of oral contraceptive use, the age-adjusted risk of developing endometrial cancer was 40 percent less than the risk in women who have never used oral contraceptives. (
  • The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all women in Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period, which extended from 1996 through 2013. (
  • Compared with women who never used hormonal contraceptives, the relative risk among current and recent users was 1.97 (95% CI=1.85-2.10) for suicide attempt and 3.08 (95% CI=1.34-7.08) for suicide. (
  • Before the advent of modern contraceptives, reproductive age women spent most of their time either pregnant or nursing. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives have been related to bone changes in women. (
  • Due to concern about bone health, health care providers may not suggest hormonal contraceptives and women may not want to use them. (
  • Health care providers and women should consider the costs and benefits of these effective contraceptives. (
  • Steroidal contraceptive use has been associated with changes in bone mineral density in women. (
  • Our aim was to evaluate the effect of using hormonal contraceptives before menopause on the risk of fracture in women. (
  • Oral contraceptive containing natural estradiol for premenopausal women. (
  • This thesis presents a pilot study regarding the portrayal of women in print advertisements for hormonal contraceptives. (
  • This study determined that account planners are largely aware of the needs of their target consumers, however, the portrayal of women in print advertisements for hormonal contraceptives still received a largely negative response from the focus group participants. (
  • Oral contraceptive use may reduce central adaptations to sprint interval training in women without influencing improvements in exercise performance - potentially due to greater peripheral adaptation. (
  • It's ideal for women who don't want to use any hormonal method. (
  • contraceptives by breastfeeding women during the first six weeks postpartum. (
  • In 1994, nearly 6.6 million women received contraceptive services from the more than 7,000 clinics that make up the network of publicly funded family planning clinics in the United States. (
  • Ensuring that all women have access to affordable and accessible contraceptive care is crucial for the prevention of unintended pregnancies. (
  • Outcome measures were reasonably chosen (namely, contraceptive efficacy, milk volume and composition, duration of lactation and infant growth). (
  • Contraceptive efficacy may be impaired by numerous means. (
  • Efficacy of a New Low-Dose Oral Contraceptive With Drospiren. (
  • Source: Trussell J. Contraceptive Efficacy. (
  • Spicing up her statistics with obscene rap lyrics and lurid reports of teen orgies and the high school "craze" for oral sex, she blames the usual suspects: post-60s permissiveness, the misguided equating of condoms with safety and sexualized media imagery in, for example, Cosmopolitan and Ally McBeal. (
  • Barrier contraceptives are designed to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg, and include condoms and diaphragms. (
  • All other forms of contraceptives (ie, intra-uterine devices, condoms or vaginal barriers) were not correlated with prostate cancer incidence or mortality. (
  • Exposure to different hormonal contraceptives will be defined as at least one prescription for that contraceptive in the year before the index date. (
  • We observed virtually no differences in the rates of various cardiovascular diseases between never and past users of oral contraceptives, regardless of duration of use or time since last use. (
  • When used as prescribed, hormonal contraceptives may act by halting ovulation, blocking the implantation of fertilized eggs, and/or increasing cervical mucus secretion. (
  • Conclusions: There was no evidence that use of current low-dose oral contraceptive formulations increases risk of early-onset breast cancer for mutation carriers, and there may be a reduced risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. (
  • Because current formulations of oral contraceptives may reduce, or at least not exacerbate, ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers, they should not be contraindicated for a woman with a germ line mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 . (
  • Earlier formulations of oral contraceptives used in the 1970s and 80s used higher doses of synthetic estrogens than today's contraceptives. (
  • Once you have had a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) fitted, you won't need to think about using a contraceptive every single day (or every time you have sex). (
  • Implanon NXT is a contraceptive implant preloaded in a disposable applicator. (
  • Among regions, North America is expected to remain dominant in the global contraceptive devices market throughout the forecast period. (
  • The analysts forecast global contraceptive devices market to grow at a CAGR of 4.88% over the period 2014-2019. (
  • The report includes the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global contraceptive devices market for the period 2015-2019. (
  • The report, Global Contraceptive Devices Market 2015-2019 , has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (
  • it also covers the landscape of the global contraceptive devices market and its growth prospects in the coming years. (
  • The Global Contraceptive Devices Market derives growth from a number of factors such as increasing focus on research and development (R&D), increasing investment from leading companies towards R&D. Besides this, increasing regulatory approvals from organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have contributed significantly to the global Contraceptive Devices Market. (
  • Furthermore, newer drug discoveries as a result of emphasis on R&D have favored the growth of the global Contraceptive Devices Market and are likely to boost the market in the coming years. (
  • Backed by contributions from government as well as private organizations, the global Contraceptive Devices Market is likely to gain traction in the coming years. (
  • A study of interaction of a low-dose combination oral contraceptive with anti-tubercular drugs. (
  • 13.Barditch-Crovo P, Trapnell CB, Ette E, Zacur HA, Coresh J, Rocco LE, Hendrix CW, Flexner C. The effects of rifampin and rifabutin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination oral contraceptive. (
  • They were first approved for contraceptive use in the United States in 1960, and are a very popular form of birth control . (
  • The report further calculated the value of the contraceptives devices market as US$ 7013.8 Mn in the year 2018 and expected the market to reach US$ 11166.4 Mn by 2025. (
  • All the above factors are anticipated to witness promising growth in the contraceptive devices market between 2018 and 2025. (
  • 4 , 5 Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to ask about sensitive topics, such as sexuality and relationships, and to promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use for teenagers who are sexually active. (
  • Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. (
  • The contraceptive injection (e.g. (
  • The contraceptive injection is often called the Depo injection. (
  • The influence of specific types of combined oral contraceptives on the risk of thrombotic events remains the most important safety issue for these products. (
  • The use of combined oral contraceptives has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. (
  • 4 = A condition that represents an unacceptable health risk if the contraceptive method is used. (
  • They also found that after 6 months of starting hormonal contraceptives, the relative risk peaked at 1.4 (95% CI, 1.34 - 1.46) for first use of antidepressants and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.36 - 1.64) for diagnosis of depression. (
  • The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together and reanalysed the worldwide epidemiological evidence on breast cancer risk and use of hormonal contraceptives. (
  • Little information is as yet available about the effects on breast cancer risk of oral contraceptive use that ceased more than 20 years before and as such data accumulate it will be necessary to re-examine the worldwide evidence. (
  • The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 100,000 woman years in current use of combined oral contraceptives is approximately 60, compared to 30 in non-users. (
  • The risk of thromboembolism associated with combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) is small, a review of the latest evidence has confimed. (
  • Background: Recent oral contraceptive use has been associated with a small increase in breast cancer risk and a substantial decrease in ovarian cancer risk. (
  • For ovarian cancer, there is some evidence to suggest that oral contraceptive use reduces risk for mutation carriers, as in the general population ( 4 ), although the data are inconsistent ( 5 ). (
  • Here, we present a large population-based case-control study of oral contraceptive use as a risk factor for early-onset breast cancer for Caucasian carriers and noncarriers of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 . (
  • Exposure to combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: a protocol for nested case-control studies using the QResearch and the CPRD databases. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Many studies have found an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives, but various methodologies have been used in the study design relating to definition of VTE event and the selection of appropriate cases for analysis. (
  • 9 A protective effect has been observed with as little as three to six months of oral contraceptive use, with further decreases in risk seen with longer periods of use. (
  • For example, use of oral contraceptives for seven years or longer confers about a 60 to 80 percent reduction in the risk of developing ovarian cancer. (
  • Another benefit of low-dose oral contraceptive use during the perimenopausal years is a reduction in the risk of endometrial cancer. (
  • Psychiatric diagnoses or antidepressant use during the study period were considered potential mediators between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of suicide attempt. (
  • Contraceptive Conundrum: Use of Hormonal Contraceptives Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Suicide Attempt and Suicide. (
  • One of the biggest risk factors for developing oral cancer is tobacco use. (
  • The risk was also found to be time-dependent, increasing the longer the hormonal drugs were used. (
  • Even progestin-only contraceptives, which do not contain any synthetic estrogens, demonstrated a higher risk. (
  • Whether hormonal contraceptives affect fracture risk cannot be judged from current information. (
  • Whether steroidal contraceptives influence fracture risk cannot be determined from existing information. (
  • In 2013, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) completed a review of certain combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) authorised in the European Union (EU). (
  • Both of these new contraceptives are highly effective (≤0.3% pregnancies with typical use in the first year [ 5 ]) and require relatively little active involvement from the patient. (
  • Combined hormonal contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancies. (
  • In 1994, the provision of contraceptive services by publicly funded family planning clinics led to the prevention of an estimated 1.5 million unintended pregnancies. (
  • In this literature review, we examine the dermatologic effects, both adverse and beneficial, of these hormonal contraceptives. (
  • The possible adverse effects of the used contraceptives are observed at every appointment. (
  • In early 1951, reproductive physiologist Gregory Pincus , a leader in hormone research and co-founder of the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology (WFEB) in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, first met American birth control movement founder Margaret Sanger at a Manhattan dinner hosted by Abraham Stone, medical director and vice president of Planned Parenthood (PPFA), who helped Pincus obtain a small grant from PPFA to begin hormonal contraceptive research. (
  • Q/ Are oral emergency contraceptives a safe & effective form of long-term birth control? (
  • Contraceptive effectiveness was similar for the patch or ring and the comparison COC. (
  • A European review has concluded that emergency contraceptives. (
  • We examined the effects of past use of oral contraceptives on risks of cardiovascular diseases prospectively in the Nurses' Health Study cohort. (
  • Past use of oral contraceptives has little or no impact on risks of subsequent cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Relative risks by carrier status were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, comparing oral contraceptive use in case groups defined by mutation status with that in controls. (
  • Consequently, mutation carriers and their physicians face difficult decisions regarding the risks and benefits of oral contraceptive use. (
  • However, health risks associated with the use of contraceptives and lack of social acceptance by people restrict the market. (
  • This article discusses potential risks of oral contraceptive use in this age group, as well as recommendations about when and how to change from contraceptive therapy to postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. (
  • Increased levels of C-reactive protein after oral hormone replacement therapy may not be related to an increased inflammatory response," Circulation , vol. 107, no. 25, pp. 3165-3169, 2003. (
  • Although it's typically associated with hormone fluctuations during puberty, hormonal acne can affect adults of any age. (
  • The natural oestrogenic hormone oestradiol as a new component of combined oral contraceptives. (
  • In June, we were pleased to announce the completion of enrollment for the Ovaprene postcoital test clinical trial, an important milestone in the development of this potential first-in-category, hormone-free contraceptive candidate. (

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