Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Absence of menstruation.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The unmarried man or woman.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Painful menstruation.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Size and composition of the family.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

Department of health changes advice on third generation pills.(1/254)

 (+info)

Altered reflex control of cutaneous circulation by female sex steroids is independent of prostaglandins. (2/254)

We tested the hypothesis that the shift in the cutaneous vasodilator response to hyperthermia seen with elevated female reproductive hormones is a prostaglandin-dependent resetting of thermoregulation to higher internal temperatures, similar to that seen in the febrile response to bacterial infection. Using water-perfused suits to control body temperature, we conducted heat stress experiments in resting women under conditions of low and high progesterone and estrogen and repeated these experiments after an acute dose of ibuprofen (800 mg). In six women the hormones were exogenous (oral contraceptives); three women had regular menstrual cycles and were tested in the early follicular and midluteal phases. Resting oral temperature (Tor) was significantly elevated with high hormone status (P < 0.05); this was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (P > 0.2). The Tor threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly increased by high hormone status (+0.27 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0. 02); the shift was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (with ibuprofen: +0.29 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P > 0.2 vs. control experiments). The Tor threshold for sweating was similarly increased by high hormone status (+0.22 +/- 0.05 degrees C, P < 0.05); this shift was not influenced by ibuprofen (with ibuprofen: +0.35 +/- 0. 05, P > 0.1 vs. control experiments). Thus the shift in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow and sweating mediated by female reproductive steroids is not sensitive to ibuprofen; it therefore appears that this shift is independent of prostaglandins.  (+info)

Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: A re-analysis of the MediPlus database. (3/254)

In October 1995 the Committee on Safety of Medicines advised UK doctors and pharmacists that oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene were associated with double the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) compared to pills containing other progestogens. In 1997 data was analysed from the MediPlus database of UK general practitioner records, which reported odds ratios for desogestrel and gestodene lower than that for levonorgestrel. Here the results of a more stringent nested case control analysis on the MediPlus database are reported. The study was larger and cases were verified. A crude incidence of idiopathic VTE was found amongst users of combined oral contraceptives of 4.6 per 10 000 exposed women years. Using levonorgestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg as reference, non-significant odds ratios of 1.1 (0.5-2.6) for desogestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg and 1.1 (0.5-2.4) for gestodene 75 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg were found. The results of this study show no significant difference in risk between different formulations of combined oral contraceptive.  (+info)

Oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction: results of the MICA case-control study. (4/254)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between myocardial infarction and use of different types of oral contraception in young women. DESIGN: Community based case-control study. Data from interviews and general practice records. SETTING: England, Scotland, and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Cases (n=448) were recruited from women aged between 16 and 44 who had suffered an incident myocardial infarction between 1 October 1993 and 16 October 1995. Controls (n=1728) were women without a diagnosis of myocardial infarction matched for age and general practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios for myocardial infarction in current users of all combined oral contraceptives stratified by their progestagen content compared with non-users; current users of third generation versus second generation oral contraceptives. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio for myocardial infarction was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 2. 52) for all combined oral contraceptive users, 1.10 (0.52 to 2.30) for second generation users, and 1.96 (0.87 to 4.39) for third generation users. Subgroup analysis by progestagen content did not show any significant difference from 1, and there was no effect of duration of use. The adjusted odds ratio for third generation users versus second generation users was 1.78 (0.66 to 4.83). 87% of cases were not exposed to an oral contraceptive, and 88% had clinical cardiovascular risk factors or were smokers, or both. Smoking was strongly associated with myocardial infarction: adjusted odds ratio 12.5 (7.29 to 21.5) for smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association between the use of oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction. The modest and non-significant point estimates for this association have wide confidence intervals. There was no significant difference between second and third generation products.  (+info)

Combined oral contraceptives, smoking, and cardiovascular risk. (5/254)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess age specific incidence and mortality of stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with use of modern low dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) and the interaction with smoking. DESIGN: Hospital-based case-control study. SETTING: Hospitals in Oxford region in the United Kingdom, which covered a defined population, during the period 1989-1993. METHODS: Relative risk estimates from the WHO Collaborative Study and observed incidence rates from the Oxford region were used to estimate age specific incidence of each disease among women without cardiovascular risk factors and model total cardiovascular incidence and mortality. RESULTS: Among women who did not use OCs, smoke nor had any other cardiovascular risk factors, total incidence of stroke and AMI were less than 2 events per 100,000 woman years in those aged 20-24 years and rose exponentially with age to 8 events per 100,000 among women aged 40-44 years. Incidence of idiopathic VTE among women who did not use OCs rose linearly with age (from 3.3 per 100,000 at ages 20-24 years to 5.8 per 100,000 at ages 40-44 years). The increased risk of idiopathic VTE associated with OC use among non-smokers constituted over 90% of all cardiovascular events for women aged 20-24 years and more than 60% in those aged 40-44 years. Fatal cardiovascular events were dominated by haemorrhagic stroke and AMI, and among OC users who smoked these two diseases accounted for 80% of cardiovascular deaths among women aged 20-24 years, rising to 97% among those aged 40-44 years. Cardiovascular mortality associated with smoking was greater than that associated with OC use at all ages. Attributable risk associated with OC use was 1 death per 370,000 users annually among women aged 20-24 years, 1 per 170,000 at ages 30-34 years, and 1 per 37,000 at ages 40-44 years. Among smokers, the cardiovascular mortality attributable to OC use was estimated to be about 1 per 100,000 users annually among women aged less than 35 years, and about 1 per 10,000 users annually among those above the age of 35 years. CONCLUSION: The incidence of fatal cardiovascular events among women aged less than 35 years is low. The VTE risk associated with OC use is the largest contributor to OC induced adverse effects. The potentially avoidable excess VTE risk associated with the newer progestogens desogestrel and gestodene would account for a substantial proportion of total cardiovascular morbidity in this age group. For women over age 35 years the absolute risks associated with OC use and smoking are greater because of the steeply rising incidence of arterial diseases. The combination of smoking and OC use among such women is associated with particularly increased risks. Any potential reduction in AMI or stroke risk with use of third generation OCs would be a more important consideration among older compared with younger women, particularly if they smoke. However, the mortality associated with smoking is far greater than that associated with OC use (of any type) at all ages.  (+info)

Oral contraceptives and oral antibiotics: interactions and advice in an accident and emergency setting. (6/254)

OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine what advice, if any, would be given by accident and emergency (A&E) doctors to women who were taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) if they had been issued with broad spectrum antibiotics and (2) after an audit programme had been instigated, whether appropriate advice was given to such women. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to 12 doctors working in the Exeter A&E department to assess their level of knowledge in prescribing antibiotics to women taking the OCP. Notes of women aged 15-50 who had been prescribed broad spectrum antibiotics were examined to see if a contraceptive history had been taken. If the patient was found to be taking the combined OCP it was noted whether documented advice had been given about using an additional form of contraception. Six months later after two education sessions had been held, prescriptions and notes were examined. A patient education leaflet was produced to be given to these women, indicating what additional precautions should be taken after having been prescribed antibiotics. SETTING: The A&E department of a busy district general hospital. SUBJECTS: Women aged 15-50 who had been issued with broad spectrum antibiotics. RESULTS: The level of knowledge in regard to contraceptive advice given to women taking the OCP among doctors working in an A&E department was poor. However, after educational sessions and the production of a patient information leaflet, there was an improvement in women receiving correct advice. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical significance of drug interactions between oral contraceptives and antibiotics indicates the importance of asking a full contraceptive drug history of any woman of childbearing age and documenting this in the notes. Regular audit of this topic is needed to keep it at the front of doctors' minds.  (+info)

Antibiotics, the pill, and pregnancy. (7/254)

OBJECTIVES: To establish if advice concerning risks of pregnancy when taking oral contraceptive pill and antibiotics is being offered. METHOD: A retrospective audit of notes of 100 female patients aged 15-39 who were prescribed antibiotics. RESULTS: Documentation of use of contraception was noted in 3% of patients. Advice concerning risks and further precautions was noted in this 3% but not in any other records. CONCLUSION: The audit identified a gap in documentation and/or clinical practice in advising women of childbearing age of the risk of conceiving when using oral contraceptive pill and antibiotics. Recommendations are given as to how this may be addressed.  (+info)

Effects of progestins on cardiovascular diseases: the haemostatic system. (8/254)

The effect of progestin-only therapy on the haemostatic system has mainly been studied in premenopausal women. Although these studies are difficult to compare, most authors agree that there is no consistent pattern of effects on haemostasis. Oestrogen-progestin combinations have been extensively studied in pre- (combined oral contraceptives) and postmenopausal women (sequential and continuous combined hormone replacement therapy), but mostly with emphasis on the effects of oestrogens. Comparative studies into the differential effects of progestins in combined preparations are scarce. Based on these studies, there is evidence for modifying effects of progestins on oestrogen-induced changes, particularly on fibrinogen, factor VII and the fibrinolytic system. The modifying effects appear to vary among certain progestins, the variation being most likely due to differential effects on lipid metabolism. The clinical interpretation of steroid-induced effects on the haemostatic system is difficult. Retrospective analyses linking certain patterns of haemostatic regulation to the risk of venous or arterial vascular diseases are subject to bias, and no interventional studies are yet available. In the absence of such prospective studies and well-designed comparative studies, the available data do not support the notion of a superiority of certain progestins with regard to cardiovascular risks of combined preparations.  (+info)

Also known as: Menstrual Disorders, Menstrual Abnormalities, Dysmenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea.

Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:

* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.

It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.

Metrorrhagia can be diagnosed through a pelvic exam, ultrasound or hysteroscopy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition, and may include medications to regulate hormones or shrink fibroids, or surgery to remove polyps or fibroids. It is important for women who experience metrorrhagia to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment to rule out any serious underlying conditions such as endometrial cancer.

Word origin: Greek "metro" meaning month + "rhagia" meaning flow.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.

Some of the most common STDs include:

* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.

It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.

If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.

It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.

In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.

Causes:

There are several possible causes of amenorrhea, including:

1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalance of hormones can prevent the uterus from preparing for menstruation.
2. Pregnancy: Pregnancy is one of the most common causes of amenorrhea.
3. Menopause: Women going through menopause may experience amenorrhea due to the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods or amenorrhea.
5. Thyroid Disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause amenorrhea.
6. Obesity: Women who are significantly overweight may experience amenorrhea due to the hormonal imbalance caused by excess body fat.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
8. Surgery or Trauma: Certain surgeries, such as hysterectomy or removal of the ovaries, can cause amenorrhea. Trauma, such as a severe injury or infection, can also cause amenorrhea.
9. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and chemotherapy drugs, can cause amenorrhea as a side effect.
10. Endocrine Disorders: Disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism can cause amenorrhea.

Symptoms:

Amenorrhea can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. No menstrual period
2. Difficulty getting pregnant (infertility)
3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
4. Painful intercourse
5. Weight gain or loss
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
7. Fatigue
8. Headaches
9. Insomnia
10. Hot flashes

Diagnosis:

Amenorrhea is typically diagnosed based on a patient's medical history and physical examination. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of amenorrhea, such as:

1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, to evaluate the ovaries and uterus
3. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to visually examine the ovaries and fallopian tubes
4. Hysteroscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus

Treatment:

The treatment of amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:

1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore hormone balance and promote menstruation
2. Medications to stimulate ovulation, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole
3. Surgery to remove fibroids, cysts, or other structural abnormalities that may be contributing to amenorrhea
4. Infertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the patient is experiencing difficulty getting pregnant
5. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or exercise, to improve overall health and promote menstruation

Prevention:

There is no specific way to prevent amenorrhea, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing any underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some tips for prevention include:

1. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
2. Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve overall health
3. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation
4. Getting enough sleep each night
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
6. Maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI) to reduce the risk of developing hormonal imbalances
7. Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders
8. Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins that can disrupt hormone balance.

Thromboembolism can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, surgery, cancer, and certain medical conditions like atrial fibrillation. It can also be inherited or acquired through genetic mutations.

The symptoms of thromboembolism depend on the location of the clot and the severity of the blockage. They may include:

* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
* Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
* Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting

Thromboembolism can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, thrombolysis or clot-busting drugs may be used to dissolve the clot. Filters can also be placed in the vena cava to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.

Prevention of thromboembolism includes:

* Moving around regularly to improve blood flow
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Elevating the affected limb to reduce swelling
* Compression stockings to improve blood flow
* Avoiding smoking and managing weight
* Taking anticoagulant medications if recommended by a healthcare provider.

There are two main types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by uterine muscle contractions that occur during menstruation, while secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by an underlying medical condition such as endometriosis, fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea may include:

* Cramping pain in the lower abdomen, usually beginning before or at the onset of menstruation and lasting for 1-3 days
* Pain that can be sharp, dull, or throbbing
* Pelvic discomfort or heaviness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Mild fever

While dysmenorrhea is not a life-threatening condition, it can significantly impact a woman's quality of life, particularly during her reproductive years. The exact cause of primary dysmenorrhea is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause uterine muscle contractions and increased blood flow to the pelvis.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea may include over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or naproxen, as well as home remedies such as heat application, exercise, and relaxation techniques. In some cases, prescription medications or surgery may be necessary to address underlying conditions that are contributing to the dysmenorrhea.

It's important for women who experience severe or persistent dysmenorrhea to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may need treatment. With proper diagnosis and management, most women with dysmenorrhea can find relief from their symptoms and lead normal, active lives.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).

Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.

Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.

There are several types of acne, including:

1. Comedonal acne: characterized by blackheads and whiteheads.
2. Inflammatory acne: characterized by papules, pustules, and nodules.
3. Cystic acne: characterized by large, painful cysts that can cause scarring.
4. Acne rosacea: a type of acne that occurs in adults, characterized by redness, flushing, and telangiectasias (small blood vessels).

There are several treatment options for acne vulgaris, including:

1. Topical treatments: such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and sulfur.
2. Oral antibiotics: such as doxycycline and minocycline.
3. Retinoids: derived from vitamin A, used to unclog pores and reduce inflammation.
4. Hormonal therapies: such as birth control pills, used to regulate hormones that can contribute to acne.
5. Isotretinoin: a powerful oral medication used for severe cases of cystic acne that have not responded to other treatments.
6. Laser and light therapy: such as blue light therapy and photodynamic therapy, used to reduce inflammation and kill bacteria.
7. Lifestyle modifications: such as using non-comedogenic products, wearing sunscreen, and avoiding picking or popping pimples.

It is important to note that acne can be a persistent condition, and it may take time and experimentation to find the right treatment approach. It's best to consult with a dermatologist for personalized advice on treating acne vulgaris.

Causes of Menorrhagia
-------------------

There are several potential causes of menorrhagia, including:

1. Hormonal imbalance: Hormonal changes can lead to an imbalance in the uterus, causing excessive bleeding.
2. Uterine fibroids: These noncancerous growths in the uterus can cause heavy bleeding during menstruation.
3. Adenomyosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, leading to heavy bleeding.
4. Endometrial polyps: These are growths that can develop on the lining of the uterus and cause heavy bleeding.
5. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause menorrhagia.
6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause scarring and lead to heavy bleeding.
7. IUDs: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) can cause heavy bleeding, especially during the first few months after insertion.
8. Medications: Certain medications such as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs can increase the risk of menorrhagia.
9. Bleeding disorders: Women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease or platelet dysfunction, may experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
10. Cancer: In rare cases, menorrhagia can be a symptom of uterine cancer.

Symptoms of Menorrhagia
-------------------------

The primary symptom of menorrhagia is heavy menstrual bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeds that are heavier than usual. Other symptoms may include:

1. Soaking through sanitary products every hour or two
2. Using double sanitary products (e.g., a pad and a tampon) to control bleeding
3. Bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days
4. Menstrual blood clots larger than a quarter
5. Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
6. Passing large blood clots during bowel movements or urination
7. Fatigue, dizziness, or fainting due to anemia
8. Weakness or shortness of breath

Diagnosis and Treatment of Menorrhagia
-------------------------------------

If you experience any of the symptoms of menorrhagia, it is important to see a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. The healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order one or more of the following tests to determine the cause of heavy menstrual bleeding:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC) to check for anemia and other blood abnormalities
2. Blood smear examination to look for abnormal cells or blood clotting disorders
3. Ultrasound to evaluate the uterus and ovaries
4. Endometrial biopsy to examine the lining of the uterus
5. Hysteroscopy to visualize the inside of the uterus
6. Laparoscopy to evaluate the pelvic organs

Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications such as hormonal contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or iron supplements to control bleeding and anemia
2. Surgical procedures such as endometrial ablation or hysterectomy in severe cases that do not respond to other treatments
3. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, as well as taking regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to regulate hormonal imbalances
5. Platelet transfusions or blood transfusions in cases of severe bleeding

It's important to note that menorrhagia can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it's essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

1. Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding (more than 7 days)
2. Bleeding between periods or after sex
3. Painful periods or difficulty using tampons
4. Fever, chills, or vomiting during menstruation
5. Unusual vaginal discharge or odor
6. Abdominal pain or bloating

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications of menorrhagia, such as anemia, fatigue, and infertility.

There are two main types of thrombophlebitis:

1. Superficial thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the superficial veins, which are located just under the skin. It is often caused by injury or trauma to the vein, and it can cause redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
2. Deep vein thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the deep veins, which are located deeper in the body. It is often caused by blood clots that form in the legs or arms, and it can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected limb.

Thrombophlebitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Injury or trauma to the vein
2. Blood clotting disorders
3. Prolonged bed rest or immobility
4. Surgery or medical procedures
5. Certain medications, such as hormone replacement therapy or chemotherapy
6. Age, as the risk of developing thrombophlebitis increases with age
7. Family history of blood clotting disorders
8. Increased pressure on the veins, such as during pregnancy or obesity

Thrombophlebitis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

1. Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the veins and can help identify blood clots or inflammation.
2. Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to make it visible under X-ray imaging.
3. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of blood clotting disorders or other underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of thrombophlebitis.

Treatment for thrombophlebitis typically involves anticoagulation therapy, which is designed to prevent the blood clot from growing larger and to prevent new clots from forming. This can involve medications such as heparin or warfarin, or other drugs that work by blocking the production of clots. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.

In addition to anticoagulation therapy, treatment for thrombophlebitis may also include:

1. Elevation of the affected limb to reduce swelling
2. Compression stockings to help reduce swelling and improve blood flow
3. Pain management with medication or heat or cold applications
4. Antibiotics if there is an infection
5. Rest and avoiding strenuous activities until the symptoms resolve.

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the affected vein.

It's important to note that early diagnosis and treatment of thrombophlebitis can help prevent complications such as infection, inflammation, or damage to the valves in the affected vein. If you suspect you or someone else may have thrombophlebitis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Precancerous changes in the uterine cervix are called dysplasias, and they can be detected by a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test for women. If dysplasia is found, it can be treated with cryotherapy (freezing), laser therapy, or cone biopsy, which removes the affected cells.

Cervical cancer is rare in developed countries where Pap screening is widely available, but it remains a common cancer in developing countries where access to healthcare and screening is limited. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous changes and cancer.

Cervical cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. The prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer is good, but advanced-stage cancer can be difficult to treat and may have a poor prognosis.

The following are some types of uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when glandular cells on the surface of the cervix become abnormal and grow out of control.
2. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. There are several types of CIN, ranging from mild to severe.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the cervix.
4. Adnexal carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the glands or ducts near the cervix.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cervical cancer that grows rapidly and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
6. Micropapillary uterine carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that grows in a finger-like shape and can be difficult to diagnose.
7. Clear cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from clear cells and can be more aggressive than other types of cervical cancer.
8. Adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cervical cancer that arises from glandular cells and can be less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma.
9. Sarcoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the connective tissue of the cervix.

The treatment options for uterine cervical neoplasms depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. The following are some common treatments for uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Hysterectomy: This is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and may be recommended for early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
2. Cryotherapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
3. Laser therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laser to remove or destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
4. Cone biopsy: This is a surgical procedure to remove a small cone-shaped sample of tissue from the cervix to diagnose and treat early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
5. Radiation therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
6. Chemotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
7. Immunotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
8. Targeted therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and development and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.

It is important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their doctor and develop a personalized plan that is right for them.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Some common examples of drug-induced abnormalities include:

1. Allergic reactions: Some drugs can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
2. Side effects: Many drugs can cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and fatigue, which can be mild or severe.
3. Toxic reactions: Some drugs can cause toxic reactions, which can damage the body's organs and tissues.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Certain drugs can trigger autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause a range of symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, and skin rashes.
5. Gastrointestinal problems: Some drugs can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, or constipation.
6. Neurological disorders: Certain drugs can cause neurological disorders, such as seizures, tremors, and changes in mood or behavior.
7. Cardiovascular problems: Some drugs can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.
8. Metabolic changes: Certain drugs can cause metabolic changes, such as weight gain or loss, and changes in blood sugar levels.
9. Endocrine disorders: Some drugs can affect the body's endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of symptoms including changes in mood, energy levels, and sexual function.
10. Kidney damage: Certain drugs can cause kidney damage or failure, especially in people with pre-existing kidney problems.

It's important to note that not all drugs will cause side effects, and the severity of side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific drug being taken. However, it's important to be aware of the potential risks associated with any medication you are taking, and to discuss any concerns or questions you have with your healthcare provider.

There are different types of uterine perforation, including:

1. Cervical perforation: A tear in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
2. Uterine wall perforation: A tear or hole in the muscular wall of the uterus, which can be caused by instruments used during surgery or delivery.
3. Endometrial perforation: A tear in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is more common during invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or endometrial ablation.

Symptoms of uterine perforation may include:

* Severe abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal bleeding
* Fever
* Nausea and vomiting

If you suspect that you have a uterine perforation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the damage. Treatment options may include:

1. Observation: In mild cases, the body may be able to heal on its own without any intervention.
2. Surgery: Depending on the severity of the perforation, surgical repair or removal of the damaged tissue may be necessary.
3. Antibiotics: If there is an infection, antibiotics will be prescribed to treat it.
4. Blood transfusions: In cases where there is significant bleeding, blood transfusions may be required.

Prevention of uterine perforation is crucial, and it involves proper training and use of instruments during surgery or delivery, as well as careful monitoring of the patient's condition during these procedures.

Benign ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.

Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.

Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

The symptoms of intrauterine device migration can vary depending on the location and size of the migrated IUD. Some common symptoms include:

* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful menstrual cramps
* Difficulty inserting or removing the IUD during routine check-ups
* Fever, chills, or other signs of infection

If intrauterine device migration is suspected, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as an ultrasound or X-ray, to confirm the location and size of the migrated IUD. Treatment options for intrauterine device migration depend on the severity of the complication and can include:

* Removal of the migrated IUD
* Insertion of a new IUD in a different location
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Surgical intervention to repair any damage caused by the migrated IUD.

It is important for women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) as a form of birth control to be aware of the risk of migration and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms that may indicate a problem with their IUD. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help detect any issues early on and prevent complications associated with intrauterine device migration.

The exact cause of PMS is not known, but it is thought to be related to changes in hormone levels, particularly estrogen and progesterone, which can affect the brain and body. Some women may be more susceptible to PMS due to factors such as stress, genetics, or other medical conditions.

Common symptoms of PMS include:

1. Mood changes: anxiety, irritability, sadness, and mood swings
2. Physical symptoms: breast tenderness, bloating, cramps, headaches, and fatigue
3. Behavioral changes: changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and social withdrawal
4. Cognitive changes: difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and confusion

There is no single test for PMS, and diagnosis is based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and ruling out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms. Treatment for PMS usually involves a combination of lifestyle changes, over-the-counter medications, and prescription medications, depending on the severity of symptoms.

Some common lifestyle changes that can help manage PMS include:

1. Exercise regularly: regular physical activity can help reduce symptoms of PMS
2. Eat a balanced diet: a healthy, nutrient-rich diet can help alleviate symptoms
3. Get enough sleep: adequate rest and relaxation can help improve mood and reduce fatigue
4. Reduce stress: stress management techniques such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing can help reduce the impact of PMS

Over-the-counter medications that may be used to treat PMS include:

1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): these medications can help reduce cramps, bloating, and breast tenderness
2. Antihistamines: these medications can help with sleep disturbances and mood changes
3. Acetaminophen: this medication can help with headaches and other painful symptoms

Prescription medications that may be used to treat PMS include:

1. Hormonal birth control: oral contraceptives can help regulate hormones and reduce symptoms of PMS
2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): these medications can help with mood changes, anxiety, and depression associated with PMS
3. Gabapentin: this medication can help with painful symptoms such as cramps and breast tenderness

It's important to note that the specific treatment plan for PMS will depend on the severity of symptoms and individual factors such as medical history, age, and other health conditions. It's best to consult a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate course of treatment.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): DVT occurs when a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the body, usually in the legs. This can cause swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.

Pulmonary Embolism (PE): PE occurs when a blood clot from the deep veins of the body travels to the lungs, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up bloody mucus.

The risk factors for VTE include:

* Prolonged immobility (e.g., long-distance travel or bed rest)
* Injury or surgery
* Age > 60 years
* Family history of VTE
* Cancer and its treatment
* Hormone replacement therapy or birth control pills
* Inherited blood-clotting disorders
* Inflammatory bowel disease

Prevention methods include:

* Moving around regularly during long-distance travel or bed rest
* Avoiding crossing your legs or ankles, which can restrict blood flow
* Wearing compression stockings during travel or when advised by a healthcare professional
* Elevating the affected leg when sitting or lying down
* Taking blood-thinning medication as prescribed by a healthcare professional

Early diagnosis and treatment of VTE can help prevent serious complications such as PE. Treatment options include anticoagulant medications, thrombolysis (dissolving the clot), and filtration devices.

Symptoms of PID may include:

* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Heavy vaginal discharge with a strong odor
* Pain during sex
* Painful urination

PID can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as pelvic exams, ultrasound, or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, and may also involve hospitalization for severe cases. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage caused by the infection.

Preventive measures for PID include:

* Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms and avoiding sexual intercourse during outbreaks of STIs
* Regular gynecological exams and screening for STIs
* Avoiding the use of douches or other products that can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina.

* Rashes, lesions, or sores
* Redness, swelling, or inflammation
* Skin thickening or thinning
* Pigmentation changes
* Growths or tumors
* Ulcers or wounds that do not heal properly

Skin manifestations can be a symptom of a wide range of medical conditions, including:

* Infections such as bacterial, fungal, or viral infections
* Autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis, eczema, or lupus
* Cancer such as melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or basal cell carcinoma
* Genetic conditions such as ichthyosis or epidermolysis bullosa
* Metabolic disorders such as diabetes or kidney disease
* Nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin deficiency or malnutrition

Skin manifestations can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsy, blood tests, or imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying condition and may include topical medications, systemic medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

In some cases, skin manifestations can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is important to seek medical advice if you notice any unusual changes in your skin or if you experience any symptoms such as pain, itching, or bleeding.

Some of the symptoms of hirsutism include:

* Thick, dark hair on the face, chest, back, and buttocks
* Hair growth on the arms, legs, and other areas of the body
* Thinning or loss of hair on the head
* Acne and oily skin

Hirsutism can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Hormonal imbalances: Excessive levels of androgens, such as testosterone, can cause hirsutism.
* Genetics: Inheritance plays a role in the development of hirsutism.
* Medications: Certain medications, such as anabolic steroids and certain antidepressants, can cause hirsutism as a side effect.
* Other medical conditions: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and other endocrine disorders can also cause hirsutism.

There are several treatment options for hirsutism, including:

* Medications such as anti-androgens and retinoids to reduce hair growth and improve skin texture
* Electrolysis and laser therapy to remove unwanted hair
* Hormonal therapies such as birth control pills and spironolactone to regulate hormone levels and reduce hair growth
* Plastic surgery to remove excess hair-bearing skin.

It is important for individuals with hirsutism to seek medical attention if they experience any of the following symptoms:

* Sudden or excessive hair growth
* Hair growth on the face, chest, back, or buttocks
* Thinning or loss of hair on the head
* Acne and oily skin.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms of hirsutism and improve quality of life for individuals affected by this condition.

1. Atrial fibrillation (a type of irregular heartbeat)
2. Heart disease or valve problems
3. Blood clots in the legs or lungs
4. Infective endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves)
5. Cancer and its treatment
6. Trauma to the head or neck
7. High blood pressure
8. Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)

When a blockage occurs in one of the blood vessels of the brain, it can deprive the brain of oxygen and nutrients, leading to cell death and potentially causing a range of symptoms including:

1. Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
2. Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
4. Sudden severe headache
5. Dizziness or loss of balance
6. Fainting or falling

Intracranial embolism and thrombosis can be diagnosed through a variety of imaging tests, including:

1. Computed tomography (CT) scan
2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
3. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
4. Cerebral angiography
5. Doppler ultrasound

Treatment options for intracranial embolism and thrombosis depend on the underlying cause of the blockage, but may include:

1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clotting
2. Surgery to remove the blockage or repair the affected blood vessel
3. Endovascular procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels
4. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and pain management, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

There are several types of thrombophilia, including:

1. Factor V Leiden: This is the most common inherited thrombophilia and is caused by a mutation in the Factor V gene.
2. Prothrombin G20210A: This is another inherited thrombophilia that is caused by a mutation in the Prothrombin gene.
3. Protein C and S deficiency: These are acquired deficiencies of protein C and S, which are important proteins that help to prevent blood clots.
4. Antiphospholipid syndrome: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body to produce antibodies against phospholipids, which can lead to blood clots.
5. Cancer-associated thrombophilia: This is a condition where cancer patients are at a higher risk of developing blood clots due to their cancer and its treatment.
6. Hormone-related thrombophilia: This is a condition where hormonal changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy or with the use of hormone replacement therapy, increase the risk of blood clots.
7. Inherited platelet disorders: These are rare conditions that affect the way platelets function and can increase the risk of blood clots.
8. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies: These are autoantibodies that can cause blood clots.
9. Lupus anticoagulant: This is an autoantibody that can cause blood clots.
10. Combined genetic and acquired risk factors: Some people may have a combination of inherited and acquired risk factors for thrombophilia.

Thrombophilia can be diagnosed through various tests, including:

1. Blood tests: These tests measure the levels of certain proteins in the blood that are associated with an increased risk of blood clots.
2. Genetic testing: This can help identify inherited risk factors for thrombophilia.
3. Imaging tests: These tests, such as ultrasound and venography, can help doctors visualize the blood vessels and look for signs of blood clots.
4. Thrombin generation assay: This test measures the body's ability to produce thrombin, a protein that helps form blood clots.
5. Platelet function tests: These tests assess how well platelets work and whether they are contributing to the development of blood clots.

Treatment for thrombophilia usually involves medications to prevent or dissolve blood clots, as well as measures to reduce the risk of developing new clots. These may include:

1. Anticoagulant drugs: These medications, such as warfarin and heparin, are used to prevent blood clots from forming.
2. Thrombolytic drugs: These medications are used to dissolve blood clots that have already formed.
3. Compression stockings: These stockings can help reduce swelling and improve blood flow in the affected limb.
4. Elevating the affected limb: This can help reduce swelling and improve blood flow.
5. Avoiding long periods of immobility: This can help reduce the risk of developing blood clots.

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a blood clot or repair a damaged blood vessel. In addition, people with thrombophilia may need to make lifestyle changes, such as avoiding long periods of immobility and taking regular breaks to move around, to reduce their risk of developing blood clots.

Overall, the prognosis for thrombophilia is generally good if the condition is properly diagnosed and treated. However, if left untreated, thrombophilia can lead to serious complications, such as pulmonary embolism or stroke, which can be life-threatening. It is important for people with thrombophilia to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications.

Teratogens can include drugs, alcohol, certain chemicals, and even some viral infections. Exposure to these substances during pregnancy can interfere with normal fetal development, leading to a wide range of birth defects, including physical abnormalities such as heart defects or facial deformities, as well as cognitive and behavioral disorders such as autism or learning disabilities.

The study of teratogenesis is known as teratology, and it plays an important role in helping healthcare providers understand the causes of birth defects and develop strategies for preventing them. By identifying and avoiding teratogens during pregnancy, women can help ensure a healthy and normal fetal development.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

A vitamin B6 deficiency happens when the body does not get enough of this essential nutrient. Vitamin B6 is needed for many bodily functions, such as making new blood cells, keeping the nervous system healthy, and helping to convert food into energy.

The symptoms of a vitamin B6 deficiency can range from mild to severe and may include:

1. Fatigue or weakness: A lack of vitamin B6 can cause tiredness, weakness, and a general feeling of being unwell.
2. Irritability or depression: Vitamin B6 plays a role in the production of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, which are important for mood regulation. A deficiency can lead to feelings of irritability, anxiety, and depression.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Vitamin B6 helps with the absorption of nutrients from food, so a deficiency can cause nausea and vomiting.
4. Skin problems: Vitamin B6 is important for the health of the skin, and a deficiency can lead to conditions such as acne, eczema, and dermatitis.
5. Weight loss: A vitamin B6 deficiency can make it harder to gain weight or maintain weight loss.

Causes of Vitamin B6 Deficiency:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in vitamin B6 can lead to a deficiency. Foods rich in vitamin B6 include meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, and leafy green vegetables.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease, can make it harder for the body to absorb vitamin B6 from food.
3. Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding have a higher need for vitamin B6 and may be more likely to develop a deficiency if they do not consume enough of this nutrient.
4. Alcoholism: Heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with the absorption of vitamin B6, leading to a deficiency.
5. Certain medications: Some medications, such as antidepressants and anti-inflammatory drugs, can interfere with the absorption of vitamin B6.

Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin B6 Deficiency:

1. Depression or anxiety
2. Fatigue or weakness
3. Irritability or mood swings
4. Skin problems, such as acne or eczema
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Weight loss or difficulty gaining weight
7. Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
8. Headaches or migraines
9. Muscle weakness or cramps
10. Seizures or convulsions (in severe cases)

Treatment of Vitamin B6 Deficiency:

1. Dietary changes: Increasing the intake of vitamin B6-rich foods, such as lean meats, whole grains, and vegetables, can help treat a deficiency.
2. Supplements: Taking a vitamin B6 supplement can help treat a deficiency. The recommended daily dose is 1.3-2.0 mg per day for adults.
3. Addressing underlying causes: If the deficiency is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as celiac disease or alcoholism, treating the condition can help resolve the deficiency.
4. Vitamin B complex supplements: Taking a vitamin B complex supplement that contains all eight B vitamins can help ensure that the body is getting enough of this essential nutrient.

In conclusion, vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions. Deficiency in this vitamin can lead to a range of health problems, from mild discomforts like fatigue and nausea to more severe conditions like seizures and convulsions. Treatment of a deficiency typically involves dietary changes, supplements, and addressing any underlying medical conditions. It is important to seek medical advice if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1. Irregular menstrual cycles, or amenorrhea (the absence of periods).
2. Cysts on the ovaries, which are fluid-filled sacs that can be detected by ultrasound.
3. Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including acne, excessive hair growth, and male pattern baldness.
4. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.

PCOS is a complex disorder, and there is no single cause. However, genetics, hormonal imbalances, and insulin resistance are thought to play a role in its development. It is estimated that 5-10% of women of childbearing age have PCOS, making it one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women.

There are several symptoms of PCOS, including:

1. Irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea
2. Weight gain or obesity
3. Acne
4. Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back
5. Male pattern baldness
6. Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
7. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
8. Sleep apnea

PCOS can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

1. Pelvic exam: A doctor will examine the ovaries and uterus to look for cysts or other abnormalities.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to detect cysts on the ovaries and to evaluate the thickness of the uterine lining.
3. Hormone testing: Blood tests can be used to measure levels of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.
4. Glucose tolerance test: This test is used to check for insulin resistance, which is a common finding in women with PCOS.
5. Laparoscopy: A small camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to visualize the ovaries and uterus and to diagnose PCOS.

There is no cure for PCOS, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Treatment options include:

1. Weight loss: Losing weight can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce androgen levels.
2. Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels.
3. Fertility medications: Clomiphene citrate and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS.
4. Injectable fertility medications: Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), can be used to stimulate ovulation.
5. Surgery: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or laser surgery can improve ovulation and fertility in women with PCOS.
6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to help women with PCOS conceive.
7. Alternative therapies: Some complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and herbal supplements, may be helpful in managing symptoms of PCOS.

It is important for women with PCOS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that meets their individual needs and goals. With appropriate treatment, many women with PCOS can improve their menstrual regularity, fertility, and overall health.

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Sehovic N, Smith KP (May 2010). "Risk of venous thromboembolism with drospirenone in combined oral contraceptive products". Ann ... Nelson, Anita L.; Cwiak, Carrie (2011). "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)". In Hatcher, Robert A.; Trussell, James; Nelson, ... Rapkin RB, Creinin MD (October 2011). "The combined oral contraceptive pill containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol plus ... "Risk of venous thromboembolism in women taking the combined oral contraceptive: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Aust ...
She had been taking an oral contraceptive combining ethinylestradiol and quingestrone since 1980. Denis Frank Hawkins (1974). ... Edgren RA, Sturtevant FM (August 1976). "Potencies of oral contraceptives". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 125 (8): 1029-38. doi: ... Oral Advisory Group (1965). Handbook on oral contraception. Little, Brown. p. 18. OCLC 2717593. Larrey D, Geneve J, Pessayre D ... and oral or intraperitoneal doses of quingestrone 20 to 40 times those of oral or intraperitoneal progesterone were unable to ...
"Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)". In Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, Cates W, Kowal D, Policar MS (eds.). Contraceptive ... Combined hormonal contraceptives inhibit follicular development and prevent ovulation as a primary mechanism of action. The ...
There are two types of oral birth control pills, the combined oral contraceptive pills (which contain both estrogen and a ... The most common method in the developed world is condoms and oral contraceptives, while in Africa it is oral contraceptives and ... Combined oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer and do not change the risk of breast ... ISBN 978-0-8160-7407-5. Nelson A, Cwiak C (2011). "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)". In Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, ...
When compared to other forms of contraception (combined oral contraceptives, contraceptive patch), the contraceptive vaginal ... Meyer S (August 2009). "Contraceptive patch and vaginal ring vs. combined oral contraceptives". American Family Physician. 80 ( ... The one-year combined hormonal contraceptive ring is also known as Annovera. It is a silicone elastomer vaginal ring containing ... Oral contraceptive users experienced more adverse events of nausea and vomiting. However on the other hand, vaginal ring users ...
"Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD010813. doi:10.1002/ ... The risk of developing blood clots can be lowered by life style modifications, the discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and ... These would be losing weight, increasing exercise and the cessation of oral contraceptives. Moving during periods of travel is ... The discontinuation of contraceptives also prevents blood clots. The therapeutic effects of warfarin may be decreased by ...
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Arowojolu, AO; Gallo, MF; Lopez, LM; Grimes, DA (11 July 2012). Arowojolu, Ayodele O (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills ... produced by oral contraceptives containing gestodene is slightly less than that produced by oral contraceptives containing ... no difference in acne incidence has been observed with oral contraceptives containing gestodene and oral contraceptives ... and gestodene-containing oral contraceptives in comparison with levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives: a review". Am. J ...
Mefloquine: may increase valproate metabolism combined with the direct epileptogenic effects of mefloquine. Oral contraceptives ... Herzog AG, Farina EL, Blum AS (June 2005). "Serum valproate levels with oral contraceptive use". Epilepsia. 46 (6): 970-971. ... Elimination half-life is 16±3 hours and can decrease to 4-9 hours when combined with enzyme inducers. Valproic acid is a ... Depakote Tablets (as in USA) Tablets - Orlept by Wockhardt and Epilim by Sanofi Oral solution - Orlept Sugar Free by Wockhardt ...
"Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives 3. Inhibition of ovulation". Expert Review of Clinical ... It has greater oral bioavailability than does micronized estradiol due to absorption via the lymphatic system and hence partial ... Dahlgren E, Crona N, Janson PO, Samsioe G (1985). "Oral replacement with estradiol-cyclooctyl acetate: a new estradiol analogue ... which has been studied for use in hormone replacement therapy for ovariectomized women and as a hormonal contraceptive in ...
"Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives: 2. effects on hemostasis". Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 10 ( ... Douxfils J, Morimont L, Bouvy C (November 2020). "Oral Contraceptives and Venous Thromboembolism: Focus on Testing that May ... Likewise, FpA levels have been reported to increase with estrogen therapy, including with combined birth control pills and ...
In the United States, it is available only in combination with ethinylestradiol as a combined oral contraceptive; it is not ... Indeed, combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol and desogestrel have been found to significantly decrease free ... op ten Berg M (1991). "Desogestrel: using a selective progestogen in a combined oral contraceptive". Adv Contracept. 7 (2-3): ... Serious side effects of combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel may include venous thromboembolism, arterial ...
... these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1 to 2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It has been ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... It was the second progestin, after noretynodrel in 1960, to be used in an oral contraceptive. In 1964, additional contraceptive ... in combined oral contraceptive pills and alone in progestogen-only pills. Another medical use of norethisterone is to alleviate ...
"Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives: 2. effects on hemostasis". Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 10 ( ... Douxfils J, Morimont L, Bouvy C (November 2020). "Oral Contraceptives and Venous Thromboembolism: Focus on Testing that May ... Levels of fibrin monomers may be increased with pregnancy and by estrogen-containing combined birth control pills. Refaai MA, ...
Grandi G, Facchinetti F, Bitzer J (February 2022). "Confirmation of the safety of combined oral contraceptives containing ... combined oral contraception Estetrol (as monohydrate) 15 mg and drospirenone 3 mg Drovelis (EU) - combined oral contraception ... "Combined Oral Contraceptives and Venous Thromboembolism: Review and Perspective to Mitigate the Risk". Front Endocrinol ( ... bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives". Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 20 (6 ...
"Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives: 2. effects on hemostasis". Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 10 ( ... Kluft C, Lansink M (July 1997). "Effect of oral contraceptives on haemostasis variables". Thromb Haemost. 78 (1): 315-26. doi: ...
First prescription of the combined oral contraceptive pill. Beginning of the Asian flu in China, leading to a worldwide ...
Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Fruzzetti F, Bitzer J (2010). "Review of clinical experience with estradiol in combined oral contraceptives". Contraception. 81 ... "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing estradiol: focus on estradiol valerate/dienogest". ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ...
... found in regular combined oral contraceptive pills. Combined estrogen and progestin pills are no longer recommended as ... As of 2014, there are 26 brands of regular combined oral contraceptive pills containing levonorgestrel or norgestrel available ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (February 25, 1997). "Certain combined oral contraceptives for use as postcoital emergency ... FDA (February 25, 1997). "Certain combined oral contraceptives for use as postcoital emergency contraception". Fed Regist. 62 ( ...
Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (May 2012). "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing ... Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (May 2012). "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing ... Borgelt LM, Martell CW (January 2012). "Estradiol valerate/dienogest: a novel combined oral contraceptive". Clin Ther. 34 (1): ... "Noncontraceptive benefits of the estradiol valerate/dienogest combined oral contraceptive: a review of the literature". Int J ...
Morimont L, Haguet H, Dogné JM, Gaspard U, Douxfils J (2021). "Combined Oral Contraceptives and Venous Thromboembolism: Review ... Oral Contraceptive Hemostasis Study Group (March 2003). "The effects of seven monophasic oral contraceptive regimens on ... Grandi G, Facchinetti F, Bitzer J (February 2022). "Confirmation of the safety of combined oral contraceptives containing ... 1974). Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study: A Prospective Study of the Side Effects of Oral Contraceptives, Volume 3. ...
see Combined oral contraceptive pill § Role of Placebo Pills Puri V (1988). "Results of multicentric trial of Centchroman". In ... Compared to combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only contraceptives typically produce a more regular bleeding pattern. ... Oral contraceptives are another option, these are commonly known as 'the pill'. These are prescribed by a doctor and must be ... The failure rate of both of these oral contraceptives is 7%. Some choose to get an injection or a shot in order to prevent ...
It is most commonly used as contraception in combined oral contraceptives (COC), also known as birth control, to prevent ... A stronger suppression of testosterone levels was observed in men following daily treatment with a combined oral contraceptive ... Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (2012). "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing ... "20 µg versus 20 µg estrogen combined oral contraceptives for contraception". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): ...
Women who use combined oral contraceptive pills have a modestly increased risk of myocardial infarction, especially in the ... Roach RE, Helmerhorst FM, Lijfering WM, Stijnen T, Algra A, Dekkers OM (August 2015). "Combined oral contraceptives: the risk ... Most guidelines recommend combining different preventive strategies. A 2015 Cochrane Review found some evidence that such an ...
Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Although oral estrogens decrease IGF-1 levels in some situations, which could theoretically improve acne symptoms, combined ... Studies have shown a 40 to 70% reduction in acne lesions with combined birth control pills. A 2014 review found that oral ...
These agents are generally used if oral contraceptives and NSAIDs are ineffective. GnRH can be combined with estrogen and ...
... was introduced as a component of combined oral contraceptives in 1986. Based on its year of introduction, ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... With a typical oral contraceptive dosage of norgestimate of 200 to 250 µg/day, an amount of 50 to 60 µg/day levonorgestrel may ... 878-. ISBN 978-1-4160-4907-4. Sven O. Skouby (15 July 1997). Clinical Perspectives on a New Gestodene Oral Contraceptive ...
An innovative use of the combined oral contraceptive pill in Judaism is employed by some young brides. The laws of family ... The Midrash of Genesis speaks of the origins of oral contraceptives: "In the early time of creation, in the time of Lemech, a ... Contraceptive measures that lead to male sterility, are not ever permitted for their interfering with a man's obligation, only ... When Orthodox Jewish couples contemplate the use of contraceptives, they generally consult a rabbi competent on this topic who ...
Long-term use of oral contraceptives is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in women who have had HPV. Women who ... More recently, CIN2 and CIN3 have been combined into CIN2/3. These results are what a pathologist might report from a biopsy.[ ... oral contraceptive use, and hormone replacement therapy use and cervical carcinogenesis: a review of the literature". ... have used oral contraceptives for 5 to 9 years have about three times the incidence of invasive cancer, and those who used them ...
The combined oral contraceptive pill, popularly known as "the Pill", was approved for sale as a medicine in US markets in 1957 ... "Contraceptive Use in the United States". Fact Sheet. Guttmacher Institute. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. ... therefore supplying young black women with a reason to use contraceptives. Dara Abubakari, a black separatist, wrote that " ...
The combined oral contraceptive pill was first approved in 1960 for contraceptive use in the United States. "The Pill" helped ... The State's crime against nature by solicitation law is used when a person is accused of engaging in oral or anal sex in ... In time, Mustang Ranch became Nevada's largest brothel, with more revenue than all other legal Nevada brothels combined. By ... more than the shipping and brewing industries combined. Some army officers, however, encouraged the presence of prostitutes ...
... the sale of contraceptives such as the combined oral contraceptive pill, which was legalized in 1967. The second, passed on 17 ...
... is available in the form of 5 mg oral tablets. It is typically used at a dosage of 5 to 40 mg/day. In Japan, a 25 ... The effective ovulation-inhibiting or contraceptive dosage of allylestrenol in women has been studied, albeit limitedly. At 20 ... 375/2 Each tablet of the combined hormone preparation, 'Premenquil', contains 5 mg. of allyloestrenol. [...] Medical ... Following oral administration, peak levels of allylestrenol occur after 2 to 4 hours. The medication shows considerable plasma ...
... a study of women on combined oral contraceptives". Thromb Res. 130 (4): 636-9. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2011.11.006. PMID ...
"Biological effects of eleven combined oral contraceptives on serum triglycerides, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ... Estrogen-containing oral contraceptives Men with recent heart surgery, malnutrition, magnesium deficiency, or severe anemia ... When particular mutant versions of alkaline phosphatase were combined, the heterodimeric enzymes formed as a result exhibited a ...
... does not reduce the bioavailability of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel". Journal of Clinical ... "FDA approves first oral GLP-1 treatment for type 2 diabetes" (Press release). FDA. 20 September 2019. Archived from the ... "Rybelsus- oral semaglutide tablet". DailyMed. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021. "Wegovy- ... Davies M, Pieber TR, Hartoft-Nielsen ML, Hansen OK, Jabbour S, Rosenstock J (October 2017). "Effect of Oral Semaglutide ...
... double-blind study of two combined oral contraceptives containing the same progestogen, but different estrogens". Contraception ... Task Force on Oral Contraceptives; Koetsawang, Suporn; Mandlekar, A.V.; Krishna, Usha R.; Purandare, V.N.; Deshpande, C.K.; ... Treatment options include oral, parenteral, subcutaneous implant, and transdermal (patches, gels). Dosing is patient-specific ... Most commonly, an estrogen is combined with an antiandrogen to suppress and block testosterone. This allows for ...
Pastor Z, Holla K, Chmel R (February 2013). "The influence of combined oral contraceptives on female sexual desire: a ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... "Combined Oral Contraception and Bicalutamide in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Severe Hirsutism: A Double-Blind Randomized ... Sexual desire is increased or unchanged in most women taking a combined birth control pill. This is in spite of the fact that ...
... combined vaccinations) and an oral vaccine") may be more acceptable to parents than "we're going to vaccinate against seven ... or contraceptive counseling regardless of whether they received the HPV vaccine. Thousands of Americans die each year from ... The lack of evidence supporting the vaccine overload hypothesis, combined with these findings directly contradicting it, has ... Combined vaccines are like a sudden onslaught to the body's immune system': parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and ' ...
Min Chueh Chang was the co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill and is known for his pioneering work and ... Since the start of the program in 2001, aspects of Chinese culture have been listed by UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and ... The newly merged Yanhuang tribes then combined forces to defeat their common enemy from the east, Chiyou of the Jiuli (九黎) ...
The use of the birth control pill is common in western countries, and two forms of combined oral contraceptives are on the ... When taken correctly, the combined oral contraceptive pill is over 99% effective at preventing pregnancy. However, it does not ... Types of Contraceptives The copper IUD has been provided less frequently than other contraceptive methods but there have been ... Contraceptive Accessibility The updated contraceptive guidelines in South Africa attempt to improve accessibility by providing ...
Stanczyk FZ, Archer DF, Bhavnani BR (June 2013). "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: ... has recently been approved as a new estrogenic component of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) and estetrol alone is in ... bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives". The European Journal of Contraception & ... "Endocrine and metabolic effects of an oral contraceptive containing estetrol and drospirenone". Contraception. 103 (4): 213-221 ...
Contraceptives became more expensive over time and had a high failure rate. Unlike contraceptives, abortion did not need any ... In 2013, the first oral history archive of the United Kingdom women's liberation movement (titled Sisterhood and After) was ... Historians Keith Thomas and his student Alan Macfarlane revolutionised the study of witchcraft by combining historical research ... Tavernor, Rachel (8 March 2013). "Sisterhood and after: first oral history archive of the UK Women's Liberation Movement". ...
Combined oral contraceptive pills were first approved for use in the United States in 1960, during the time of the women's ... The male domination of these fields led technologies such as oral contraceptives to be developed around what men considered to ... Decades prior to this, activists such as Margaret Sanger and Katharine McCormick fought for female contraceptives, seeing it as ... which emerged from decades of feminist critique on the way gender and other identity markers are entangled in the combined ...
Luque-Ramírez M, Nattero-Chávez L, Ortiz Flores AE, Escobar-Morreale HF (March 2018). "Combined oral contraceptives and/or ... Metformin has an oral bioavailability of 50-60% under fasting conditions, and is absorbed slowly. Peak plasma concentrations ( ... Jia Y, Lao Y, Zhu H, Li N, Leung SW (January 2019). "Is metformin still the most efficacious first-line oral hypoglycaemic drug ... Nicholson W, Bolen S, Witkop CT, Neale D, Wilson L, Bass E (January 2009). "Benefits and risks of oral diabetes agents compared ...
... diacetate is used in combination with an estrogen such as ethinylestradiol or mestranol in combined oral contraceptives for ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Upon oral administration and during first-pass metabolism in the liver, etynodiol diacetate is rapidly converted by esterases ...
Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Methylestradiol is marketed in combination with normethandrone in the form of oral tablets containing 0.3 mg methylestradiol ... HEGEMANN O (May 1959). "[Oral hormonal treatment with methylestrene-olone & methylestradiol as early pregnancy tests]". ... "Reappraisal of the health risks associated with the use of high doses of oral and injectable androgenic steroids". NIDA Res. ...
Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). Combined oral ... This risk reduction continues for at least fifteen years after contraceptive use has been stopped. Obese women may need higher ... contraceptives reduce risk more the longer they are taken: by 56% after four years, 67% after eight years, and 72% after twelve ...
Some medications that may contribute to dyslipidemia are thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, oral contraceptives, atypical ... In combined hyperlipidemia, there is an overproduction of apoB-100 in the liver. This causes high amounts of LDL and VLDL ... combined hyperlipidemia, and HDL-C metabolism disorders. In familial hypercholesterolemia, a mutation in the LDLR, PCSK9, or ...
April 9 - Gregory Goodwin Pincus (died 1967), American biologist, co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill. April 25 ...
Massachusetts institution where researchers developed the combined oral contraceptive pill during the early 1960s. Accredited ...
This eventually led to the development at Syntex of the combined oral contraceptive pill and synthetic cortisone - and to the ... Today, progesterone can be used to make cortisone and oral contraceptives. Mexican Chemical Society at the VI International ...
Brat T (1974). "Clinical trial with a new low oestrogen combined oral contraceptive". Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2 ( ... Committee on the Relationship Between Oral Contraceptives and BreastCancer (1 January 1991). Oral Contraceptives and Breast ... At low doses, levonorgestrel is used in monophasic and triphasic formulations of combined oral contraceptive pills, with ... Combined emergency contraceptive pills. Several clinical studies have shown that combined ECPs containing ethinyl estradiol and ...
... of combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) users during the initial 3 to 4 months of use, it then usually resolves on its own. ... usually referring to mid-cycle bleeding in users of combined oral contraceptives, as attributed to insufficient estrogens. It ... If spotting continues beyond the first 3-4 cycles of oral contraceptive use, a woman should have her prescription adjusted to a ... "Oral contraceptives and breakthrough bleeding: What patients need to know". The Journal of Family Practise. 55 (10): 872-80. ...
Another treatment option is oral contraceptive pills. The CYP 21A2 gene for the P450c21 enzyme (also known as 21-hydroxylase) ... "Non-Classic Disorder of Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Clinical Dilemmas in 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency Combined with Backdoor ... is made more difficult to obtain by the imperfect replication of normal diurnal plasma cortisol levels produced by 2 or 3 oral ...
The weight of current evidence seems to indicate that combination oral contraceptives probably do not affect the composition of ... Contraceptives, Oral, Combined No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ... Combined oral contraceptives might transiently affect growth negatively during the first month after introduction. The ... Fertility regulation in nursing women: V. Long-term influence of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive initiated at day 90 ...
The weight of current evidence seems to indicate that combination oral contraceptives probably do not affect the composition of ... Contraceptives, Oral, Combined No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ... Combined oral contraceptives might transiently affect growth negatively during the first month after introduction. The ... Fertility regulation in nursing women: V. Long-term influence of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive initiated at day 90 ...
"We found that combined oral contraceptive use reduced dysmenorrhoea by 0.3 units, which means that every third woman went one ... Combined oral contraceptive pill eases painful periods. Washington, Wed, 18 Jan 2012 ANI ... Although some previous studies and anecdotal evidence have suggested that the combined oral contraceptive pill could have an ... found that women who used the combined oral contraceptive pill suffered less severe pain compared with women who did not use it ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. EN. dc.title. Use of combined oral contraceptives: retrospective study in Isfahan, Islamic ... Use of combined oral contraceptives: retrospective study in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. dc.contributor.author. Savabi ... We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study on 500 women in Isfahan who started taking combined oral contraceptives [‎ ...
Combined oral contraceptives as victims of drug interactions. Li Li, Xinning Yang, Doanh Tran, Shirley K Seo and Yanhui Lu ... Combined oral contraceptives as victims of drug interactions Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Drug ... Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are widely used in women of reproductive age in the United States. Metabolism plays an ... Drug interactions of oral contraceptives. Li Li, Xinning Yang, Doanh Tran, Shirley K Seo and Yanhui Lu ...
Use of combined oral contraceptives: retrospective study in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran ... Outcomes of adolescents using levonorgestrel implants vs oral contraceptives or other contraceptive methods. Archives of ... Combined oral contraceptives were used by 5.8% of the women and withdrawal by 11.6%. Sterilization was preferred by 2.8% and ... Use of combined oral contraceptives: retrospective study in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran ...
Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception - Panminerva Medica 2014 September;56(3):233-44 - Minerva ... Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception. Caserta D., Ralli E., Matteucci E., Bordi G., Mallozzi M., ... It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits ... To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an ...
general contraindications to combined oral hormonal contraceptive. contraindications / cautions for use of combined oral ... In general, a combined oral contraceptive pill with the lowest oestrogen and progestogen content which provides good cycle ... first (1st) consultation and prescription of combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill. information women need to know in order to ... A wide variety of different types of combined oral contraceptive pill are available. All contain synthetic:. * oestrogen - ...
... combined oral contraceptive pills, combined hormonal patch, and combined vaginal ring (Appendix B); progestin-only ... For example, a smoker aged ,35 years generally can use combined oral contraceptives (COCs) (Category 2). However, for a woman ... The Food and Drug Administration has in addition declared the following 22 brands of oral contraceptives to be safe and ... for disease progression or other adverse health effects in women with rheumatoid arthritis who use combined oral contraceptives ...
Combined oral contraceptives. The risk among women using combined oral contraceptives decreased with duration of use, from an ... We found the same or lower prevalence in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with oral contraceptives ... Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of oral contraceptives ... Studies have shown an increased risk of venous thrombosis with use of combined oral contraceptives.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ...
Current exposure to any combined oral contraceptive was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (adjusted ... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism, ... Odds ratios for incident venous thromboembolism and use of combined oral contraceptives in the previous year, adjusted for ... risks of venous thromboembolism associated with combined oral contraceptives were, with the exception of norgestimate, higher ...
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Emergency Contraceptive Pills: The FDA has concluded that certain combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and ... Oral contraceptives nonsmoker** 0.3. 0.5. 0.9. 1.9. 13.8. 31.6. Oral contraceptives smoker**. 2.2. 3.4. 6.6. 13.5. 51.1. 117.2 ... Stop taking oral contraceptives if you are pregnant.. There is no conclusive evidence that oral-contraceptive use is associated ... In addition, oral contraceptives may decrease the amount and quality of your milk. If possible, do not use oral contraceptives ...
Combined Oral Contraceptives Combined oral contraceptives act by suppression of gonadotropins. Although the primary mechanism ... COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES Cyclafem™ 1/35 (norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP) is tablets are a combined oral ... HEALTH BENEFITS FROM ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. In addition to preventing pregnancy, use of combined oral contraceptives may provide ... combined oral contraceptives may decrease the amount and quality of your milk. If possible, do not use combined oral ...
Progestogens in combined oral contraceptives for contraception.. Maitra, N; Kulier, R; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Helmerhorst, F M; ... The progestogen component of oral contraceptives (OC) has undergone changes since it was first recognised that their chemical ... Contraceptive effectiveness, spotting, breakthrough bleeding and the absence of withdrawal bleeding was similar when using GSD ... dose OCs containing ethinyl estradiol and different progestogens in terms of contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, side ...
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from two systematic reviews.1,2 Oral contraceptives started 2-6 weeks postpartum. Results ... Is ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid®) a safe and effective oral therapy for the treatment of COVID-19? ... 320 Oh Baby: Combined oral contraceptives during breastfeeding. CLINICAL QUESTION. Do combined oral contraceptives (COCs) ...
Results of search for su:{Contraceptives, Oral, Combined} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy. by IARC Working Group on the ... Oral contraceptives and neoplasia : report of a WHO scientific group [meeting held in Geneva from 3 to 5 December 1990] by WHO ... Text; Format: print Publication details: Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1992Title translated: Oral contraceptives ...
7.1 Effects of Other Drugs on Combined Oral Contraceptives 7.2 Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Other Drugs 7.3 ... Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Other Drugs COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. COCs ... 7.2 Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Other Drugs. COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. ... Effects of Other Drugs on Combined Oral Contraceptives Substances diminishing the efficacy of COCs: Drugs or herbal products ...
4.2 Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Other Drugs. Table 2 provides significant drug interaction information for drugs ... 4.1 Effects of Other Drugs on Combined Oral Contraceptives. Substances Decreasing the Plasma Concentrations of COCs and ... Epidemiology studies have not found a consistent association between use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and breast ... Oral contraceptives may cause some degree of fluid retention. They should be prescribed with caution, and only with careful ...
Estrogen and combined oral contraceptives. Phenytoin. Calcium channel blockers. Combining these drugs with metformin may affect ... Combining insulin and metformin may affect blood sugar control.. A person may need to check their blood sugar levels more ... When combined with metformin, these agents increase the risk of lactic acidosis. ...
... use of combined oral contraceptives; polycystic ovary syndrome; miscarriage; stillbirth; preeclampsia; diabetes during ... There was no association between heart disease risk and current use of progesterone-only contraceptives, use of non-oral ... and chemical imbalances from use of hormonal contraceptives are among the possible explanations for these associations, ... hormonal contraceptive agents or fertility treatment, the study authors noted.. More time breastfeeding was associated with a ...
BCPs are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe BCPs. ... The most common type of BCP combines the hormones estrogen and progestin. There are many different forms of this type of pill. ... Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP; ...
BCPs are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe BCPs. ... The most common type of BCP combines the hormones estrogen and progestin. There are many different forms of this type of pill. ... Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP; ...
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs, "the pill"). COCs contain a synthetic estrogen and a progestin, which functions to inhibit ... Risks for this method of contraception are similar to those for the combined oral contraceptive pills. A vaginal ring may not ... Many types of oral contraceptives are available, and a health care provider helps to determine which type best meets a womans ... The combined estrogen/progestin drugs can be delivered by pills, a patch, or a vaginal ring. The combined hormonal methods have ...
Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives: 1. Effects on metabolism. Bastianelli C, Farris M, Rosato ...
Incidence of venous thromboembolism in users of combined oral contraceptives. Risk is particularly high with first use of oral ... Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). The new oral anticoagulant factor Xa or IIa inhibitors have numerous ... In this subgroup, LMWH was shown to be more effective than oral therapy. [138, 139] Initial studies have also shown LMWH to be ... Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29. 369 (9):799-808. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ...
  • Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are widely used in women of reproductive age in the United States. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study on 500 women in Isfahan who started taking combined oral contraceptives [‎COCs]‎ during the period 21 March 1995-20 March 1997. (who.int)
  • It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. (minervamedica.it)
  • During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. (minervamedica.it)
  • Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. (minervamedica.it)
  • Although considerable work has been done on contraceptives in the Islamic Republic of Iran, little is known about the continuation rate of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and problems concerning their use. (who.int)
  • Do combined oral contraceptives (COCs) affect breastfeeding or infant outcomes? (cfpclearn.ca)
  • The use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is associated with approximately 2-fold and over 4-fold increased relative risks. (nel.edu)
  • To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. (minervamedica.it)
  • Family medical history, genetics, weight, high blood pressure and cholesterol levels , and chemical imbalances from use of hormonal contraceptives are among the possible explanations for these associations, according to study author Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, a senior clinical lecturer at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom, and colleagues. (medicinenet.com)
  • This type of medication is widely used, with more than 3 million women currently using hormonal contraceptives in the UK alone. (121doc.com)
  • Or combined pills with both progestin and estrogen. (feministpeacenetwork.org)
  • The most common type of BCP combines the hormones estrogen and progestin . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The World Health Organization listed combined (estrogen plus progestin) oral contraceptives and combined hormone replacement therapy as "Group 1 carcinogens" in July 2005. (conservapedia.com)
  • A combined oral contraceptive pill contains a formulation of the hormones progesterone and estrogen. (asu.edu)
  • the consumption of animal fat and protein (7) and alcohol (8), nonbreastfeeding (9), and use of oral contraceptives (10) and estrogen replacement therapy (11) have all been suggested. (cdc.gov)
  • Women who discontinue oral contraception often substitute a less reliable method or no method at all, often leading to unintended pregnancy. (who.int)
  • If you take your first Femodette pill between day two and day five of your period, you will need to use an alternative contraceptive method for seven days (such as barrier contraception). (121doc.com)
  • In recent years, a growing number of companies providing contraception through online platforms ("telecontraception") have entered the market and are providing a new option for people to conveniently obtain contraceptive supplies that need a prescription without the need for an in-person visit. (kff.org)
  • Organization (WHO)1 emphasized the importance freely distributed inclusive among the of the emergency contraception in the prevention adolescents3, once this public group shows of unplanned pregnancies and therefore abortions, maturity, evolution of psychological patterns, as the only contraceptive method for post-coital use. (bvsalud.org)
  • NuvaRing is a vaginal contraceptive ring. (healthline.com)
  • The authors enrolled patients in the study who were new users of either a vaginal contraceptive ring known as NuvaRing or a combined oral contraceptive pill. (asu.edu)
  • It is important to know that pregnancy also increases the risk for blood clots, and much more significantly than any hormonal contraceptive. (mountsinai.org)
  • Contraceptives are devices, drugs, or methods for preventing pregnancy either by preventing the fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm or by preventing implantation of the fertilized egg. (mountsinai.org)
  • To systematically review, summarize and assess all relevant evidence on whether the provision of a wide choice of modern contraceptive methods is associated with improved health outcomes (intermediate and ultimate) including: uptake, acceptability, adherence, continuation, satisfaction, reduction of unintended pregnancy, improved maternal health and wellbeing. (who.int)
  • Femodette is a contraceptive pill that is almost 100% effective at preventing pregnancy. (121doc.com)
  • This contraceptive, popularly known as "the from the dependent child life to the adult morning-after pill," is effective in preventing independence4, factors that often lead to the pregnancy in 98% of the cases (if used within 24 practice of unprotected sex5. (bvsalud.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend intrauterine devices (IUDs) and contraceptive implants (Nexplanon) as first-line contraceptive options for sexually active teens based on the effectiveness of these contraceptives and high rates of patient satisfaction. (mountsinai.org)
  • Intrauterine contraceptive device: these are also called "coils" and are inserted into the womb, usually at the time of a smear. (rbht.nhs.uk)
  • Washington, Jan 18 (ANI): After a 30-year-long study, scientist have finally provided convincing evidence that the combined oral contraceptive pill does, indeed, alleviate the symptoms of painful menstrual periods - dysmenorrhoea. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Although some previous studies and anecdotal evidence have suggested that the combined oral contraceptive pill could have an impact on painful periods, a 2009 review of all the available research by the prestigious Cochrane Collaboration concluded that there was limited evidence for pain improvement. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Now, Dr Ingela Lindh and her colleagues at the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Sweden, found that women who used the combined oral contraceptive pill suffered less severe pain compared with women who did not use it. (newstrackindia.com)
  • If you are extra cautious, taking an oral contraceptive pill daily should be included in your routine. (feministpeacenetwork.org)
  • Women of all ages can now get the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill Plan B One-Step and its generic versions without a prescription. (mountsinai.org)
  • BCPs are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The presence of both these female sex hormones make Femodette a combined contraceptive pill. (121doc.com)
  • Femodette is suitable for women who are over the age of 18 and who want to use a combined contraceptive pill to prevent conception. (121doc.com)
  • This makes the contraceptive pill one of the safest and most researched prescription treatments available. (121doc.com)
  • This is a monophasic contraceptive treatment, meaning that each individual Femodette pill contains the same combination of hormones. (121doc.com)
  • Femodette is a popular contraceptive pill that is both well researched and widely used. (121doc.com)
  • However, some WHO recommendations were modified for use in the United States, including recommendations about contraceptive use for women with venous thromboembolism, valvular heart disease, ovarian cancer, and uterine fibroids and for postpartum and breastfeeding women. (cdc.gov)
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease driven by environmental/acquired risk factors such as age, obesity, oral contraceptives, and immobility, as well as inherited risk factors such as genetic polymorphisms. (medscape.com)
  • They can be found in several female contraceptive pills, specifically to reduce hirstuitism, which may result from medical conditions such as hormone imbalance or Polycystic Ovary syndrome. (susans.org)
  • CDC created U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, from guidance developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and finalized the recommendations after consultation with a group of health professionals who met in Atlanta, Georgia, during February 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the first edition of the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), which gave evidence-based guidance on the safety of contraceptive method use for women and men worldwide who had specific characteristics and medical conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Potential non-surgical therapies include pain medication combined with hormone therapy, as noted by Mayo Clinic . (thelist.com)
  • One example of a hormone therapy for endometriosis is oral contraceptives, which have been shown to be effective for some women at helping with pain symptoms. (thelist.com)
  • Side-effects of oral contraceptives were the most frequent reasons given by women for discontinuation of use [6]. (who.int)
  • There was no association between heart disease risk and current use of progesterone -only contraceptives, use of non-oral hormonal contraceptive agents or fertility treatment, the study authors noted. (medicinenet.com)
  • The patient was diagnosed after a positive response to an intradermal test with progesterone and was successfully treated with combined oral contraceptives. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Cases of sexual violence are fundamentally attended to, but excluding these cases, there is a drop of 10 to 30 percentage points in the distribution of emergency contraceptive to adolescents in cases of the failure or non-use of the regular contraceptive. (bvsalud.org)
  • Each group included approximately 400 to 520 women, who provided information on their height, weight, reproductive history, pattern of menstruation and menstrual pain, and contraceptive use. (newstrackindia.com)
  • We found there was a significant difference in the severity of dysmenorrhoea depending on whether or not the women used combined oral contraceptives," said Dr Lindh, who is also a registered nurse and midwife. (newstrackindia.com)
  • This guidance comprises recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • The recommendations in this document are intended to assist health-care providers when they counsel women, men, and couples about contraceptive method choice. (cdc.gov)
  • This document contains recommendations for health-care providers for the safe use of contraceptive methods by women and men with various characteristics and medical conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Consider an alternate contraceptive method for women with uncontrolled dyslipidemia. (nih.gov)
  • This three-stage approach makes Femodette one of the most effective contraceptive methods available to women. (121doc.com)
  • It is estimated that over 100 million women are currently using oral contraceptive medication in the world today. (121doc.com)
  • One study focused on characteristics of patients seeking services through one telecontraception platform and found that women ages 18-24 and 25-34 make up the majority of telecontraception users and that combined oral contraceptives were the most dispensed contraceptives. (kff.org)
  • The share of women nationally that relies on these companies to obtain contraceptives is still relatively small. (kff.org)
  • However, several changes have been made, including adaptations of selected WHO recommendations, addition of recommendations for new medical conditions, and removal of recommendations for contraceptive methods not currently available in the United States ( Appendix A ). (cdc.gov)
  • As well as being able to tell you how your condition can affect the contraceptive you take, they can advise you what methods are most suited to you. (rbht.nhs.uk)
  • The suitability of different contraceptive methods may depend on other illnesses that you have, the medicines that you are taking, and your own personal preference. (rbht.nhs.uk)
  • 5.1 Does a policy of providing a wide range of contraceptive methods, as opposed to the provision of a limited range, improve contraceptive uptake? (who.int)
  • 5.2 Does a policy of providing a wide range of contraceptive methods, as opposed to the provision of a limited range, improve contraceptive acceptability/satisfaction, and hence adherence/continuation? (who.int)
  • 5.3 Does a policy of providing a wide range of contraceptive methods, as opposed to the provision of a limited range, improve maternal health and well-being (including the reduction of unintended pregnancies)? (who.int)
  • To identify a minimum optimal range of contraceptive methods to be made available. (who.int)
  • Head-to-head randomised and non-randomised comparison studies on the effectiveness, safety, uptake, acceptability, adherence and continuation of different contraceptive methods. (who.int)
  • Over the past year, companies have expanded to offer the newest contraceptive methods like Annovera, the one-year ring, and services like acne treatment and anxiety medication. (kff.org)
  • 9. Consent of study participants to use effective contraceptive methods throughout their participation in the study. (who.int)
  • Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptives (COC) use. (nih.gov)
  • Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptive (COC) use. (nih.gov)
  • Cardiovascular risk and the use of oral contraceptives. (nel.edu)
  • Kaminski P, Szpotanska-Sikorska M, Wielgos M. Cardiovascular risk and the use of oral contraceptives. (nel.edu)
  • Continuation rates are reliable indicators of the overall use of a contraceptive method. (who.int)
  • Observational studies on the introduction of a variety of contraceptives which measure health outcomes and/or uptake, acceptability, adherence and continuation or similar parameters. (who.int)
  • Choosing the appropriate contraceptive is a personal decision. (mountsinai.org)
  • The effects are reversible and there are many non-contraceptive health benefits, some of which last for years [3]. (who.int)
  • Some of these companies specialize in contraceptive care and others have expanded services into sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and treatment, as well as other primary healthcare services. (kff.org)
  • Do not administer cholera vaccine to patients who have received oral or parenteral antibiotics within 14 days prior to vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Data from an older formulation of the CVD 103-HgR oral cholera vaccine suggest that the immune response to the vaccine might be diminished when given concomitantly with chloroquine. (cdc.gov)
  • Administer live attenuated oral cholera vaccine ≥10 days before beginning antimalarial prophylaxis with chloroquine. (cdc.gov)
  • A study in children using oral cholera vaccine suggested no decrease in immunogenicity when given with atovaquone-proguanil. (cdc.gov)
  • This position is due in part to health care professionals not being up to date on the laws and federal norms concerning Sexual and Reproductive Health, and also to the lack of knowledge of the method's mechanism action (sometimes identified as dangerous or abortive), as well as the prejudice towards adolescent sexual practices- leading to the purchasing of emergency contraceptive in drugstores and its incorrect use. (bvsalud.org)
  • Describe the effects of oral contraceptives on the risk for ovarian cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Risk conferred by genetic variants may be magnified when combined with acquired risk factors. (medscape.com)
  • Is ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid®) a safe and effective oral therapy for the treatment of COVID-19? (cfpclearn.ca)
  • Use of combined oral contraceptives alters metabolic determinants and genetic regulation of C-reactive protein. (bvsalud.org)
  • To assess the efficacy of combined mammography and physical breast examination in reducing breast cancer mortality, a large randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Health Insurance Plan in New York City in the mid-1960s (14). (cdc.gov)
  • Parenteral typhoid vaccine is an alternative to the oral typhoid vaccine for travelers who have recently received antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • We found that combined oral contraceptive use reduced dysmenorrhoea by 0.3 units, which means that every third woman went one step down on the VMS scale, for instance from severe pain to moderate pain, and which meant that they suffered less pain, improved their working ability and there was a decrease in the need for analgesics. (newstrackindia.com)
  • CDC, through close collaboration with WHO, has contributed substantially during the last 15 years to creation of WHO's global family planning guidance, which includes four documents: the medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, the selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, a decision-making tool for clients and providers, and a global family planning handbook. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for updating selected practices in contraceptive use : results of a technical meeting / editors, Kathryn M. Curtis and Patricia L. Bright. (who.int)
  • Antimicrobial agents can be active against the vaccine strains in the oral typhoid and cholera vaccines and might prevent adequate immune response to these vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Reports, opinion papers and position papers from contraceptive service suppliers/product distributors. (who.int)
  • The hydrogen peroxide combines with 4-chlorophenol under the action of peroxidase to produce an oxidation product that that does not react with the colorometric component of reagent 2. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of novel oral anticoagulants, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, is not expected to cause significant interactions, and their use has been suggested as an alternative for patients in need of anticoagulation. (cdc.gov)
  • Ibrutinib will be supplied by Pharmacyclics as 140 mg hard gelatin capsules for oral (PO) administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)