Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Norethynodrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.Ethynodiol Diacetate: A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Norpregnenes: Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential: Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Ethisterone: 17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Metrorrhagia: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.XanthurenatesAbortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Coitus Interruptus: A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.United StatesNorprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Religion and SexReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)MissouriAntispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.NicaraguaReproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Nandrolone: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Great BritainCervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Uterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Megaloblasts: Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.GuatemalaPregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Intrauterine Device Migration: The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Libido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Abortion, Criminal: Illegal termination of pregnancy.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Gossypol: A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

Department of health changes advice on third generation pills.(1/254)

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Altered reflex control of cutaneous circulation by female sex steroids is independent of prostaglandins. (2/254)

We tested the hypothesis that the shift in the cutaneous vasodilator response to hyperthermia seen with elevated female reproductive hormones is a prostaglandin-dependent resetting of thermoregulation to higher internal temperatures, similar to that seen in the febrile response to bacterial infection. Using water-perfused suits to control body temperature, we conducted heat stress experiments in resting women under conditions of low and high progesterone and estrogen and repeated these experiments after an acute dose of ibuprofen (800 mg). In six women the hormones were exogenous (oral contraceptives); three women had regular menstrual cycles and were tested in the early follicular and midluteal phases. Resting oral temperature (Tor) was significantly elevated with high hormone status (P < 0.05); this was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (P > 0.2). The Tor threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly increased by high hormone status (+0.27 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0. 02); the shift was not affected by ibuprofen treatment (with ibuprofen: +0.29 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P > 0.2 vs. control experiments). The Tor threshold for sweating was similarly increased by high hormone status (+0.22 +/- 0.05 degrees C, P < 0.05); this shift was not influenced by ibuprofen (with ibuprofen: +0.35 +/- 0. 05, P > 0.1 vs. control experiments). Thus the shift in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow and sweating mediated by female reproductive steroids is not sensitive to ibuprofen; it therefore appears that this shift is independent of prostaglandins.  (+info)

Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: A re-analysis of the MediPlus database. (3/254)

In October 1995 the Committee on Safety of Medicines advised UK doctors and pharmacists that oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene were associated with double the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) compared to pills containing other progestogens. In 1997 data was analysed from the MediPlus database of UK general practitioner records, which reported odds ratios for desogestrel and gestodene lower than that for levonorgestrel. Here the results of a more stringent nested case control analysis on the MediPlus database are reported. The study was larger and cases were verified. A crude incidence of idiopathic VTE was found amongst users of combined oral contraceptives of 4.6 per 10 000 exposed women years. Using levonorgestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg as reference, non-significant odds ratios of 1.1 (0.5-2.6) for desogestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg and 1.1 (0.5-2.4) for gestodene 75 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg were found. The results of this study show no significant difference in risk between different formulations of combined oral contraceptive.  (+info)

Oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction: results of the MICA case-control study. (4/254)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between myocardial infarction and use of different types of oral contraception in young women. DESIGN: Community based case-control study. Data from interviews and general practice records. SETTING: England, Scotland, and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Cases (n=448) were recruited from women aged between 16 and 44 who had suffered an incident myocardial infarction between 1 October 1993 and 16 October 1995. Controls (n=1728) were women without a diagnosis of myocardial infarction matched for age and general practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios for myocardial infarction in current users of all combined oral contraceptives stratified by their progestagen content compared with non-users; current users of third generation versus second generation oral contraceptives. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio for myocardial infarction was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 2. 52) for all combined oral contraceptive users, 1.10 (0.52 to 2.30) for second generation users, and 1.96 (0.87 to 4.39) for third generation users. Subgroup analysis by progestagen content did not show any significant difference from 1, and there was no effect of duration of use. The adjusted odds ratio for third generation users versus second generation users was 1.78 (0.66 to 4.83). 87% of cases were not exposed to an oral contraceptive, and 88% had clinical cardiovascular risk factors or were smokers, or both. Smoking was strongly associated with myocardial infarction: adjusted odds ratio 12.5 (7.29 to 21.5) for smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association between the use of oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction. The modest and non-significant point estimates for this association have wide confidence intervals. There was no significant difference between second and third generation products.  (+info)

Combined oral contraceptives, smoking, and cardiovascular risk. (5/254)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess age specific incidence and mortality of stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with use of modern low dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) and the interaction with smoking. DESIGN: Hospital-based case-control study. SETTING: Hospitals in Oxford region in the United Kingdom, which covered a defined population, during the period 1989-1993. METHODS: Relative risk estimates from the WHO Collaborative Study and observed incidence rates from the Oxford region were used to estimate age specific incidence of each disease among women without cardiovascular risk factors and model total cardiovascular incidence and mortality. RESULTS: Among women who did not use OCs, smoke nor had any other cardiovascular risk factors, total incidence of stroke and AMI were less than 2 events per 100,000 woman years in those aged 20-24 years and rose exponentially with age to 8 events per 100,000 among women aged 40-44 years. Incidence of idiopathic VTE among women who did not use OCs rose linearly with age (from 3.3 per 100,000 at ages 20-24 years to 5.8 per 100,000 at ages 40-44 years). The increased risk of idiopathic VTE associated with OC use among non-smokers constituted over 90% of all cardiovascular events for women aged 20-24 years and more than 60% in those aged 40-44 years. Fatal cardiovascular events were dominated by haemorrhagic stroke and AMI, and among OC users who smoked these two diseases accounted for 80% of cardiovascular deaths among women aged 20-24 years, rising to 97% among those aged 40-44 years. Cardiovascular mortality associated with smoking was greater than that associated with OC use at all ages. Attributable risk associated with OC use was 1 death per 370,000 users annually among women aged 20-24 years, 1 per 170,000 at ages 30-34 years, and 1 per 37,000 at ages 40-44 years. Among smokers, the cardiovascular mortality attributable to OC use was estimated to be about 1 per 100,000 users annually among women aged less than 35 years, and about 1 per 10,000 users annually among those above the age of 35 years. CONCLUSION: The incidence of fatal cardiovascular events among women aged less than 35 years is low. The VTE risk associated with OC use is the largest contributor to OC induced adverse effects. The potentially avoidable excess VTE risk associated with the newer progestogens desogestrel and gestodene would account for a substantial proportion of total cardiovascular morbidity in this age group. For women over age 35 years the absolute risks associated with OC use and smoking are greater because of the steeply rising incidence of arterial diseases. The combination of smoking and OC use among such women is associated with particularly increased risks. Any potential reduction in AMI or stroke risk with use of third generation OCs would be a more important consideration among older compared with younger women, particularly if they smoke. However, the mortality associated with smoking is far greater than that associated with OC use (of any type) at all ages.  (+info)

Oral contraceptives and oral antibiotics: interactions and advice in an accident and emergency setting. (6/254)

OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine what advice, if any, would be given by accident and emergency (A&E) doctors to women who were taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) if they had been issued with broad spectrum antibiotics and (2) after an audit programme had been instigated, whether appropriate advice was given to such women. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to 12 doctors working in the Exeter A&E department to assess their level of knowledge in prescribing antibiotics to women taking the OCP. Notes of women aged 15-50 who had been prescribed broad spectrum antibiotics were examined to see if a contraceptive history had been taken. If the patient was found to be taking the combined OCP it was noted whether documented advice had been given about using an additional form of contraception. Six months later after two education sessions had been held, prescriptions and notes were examined. A patient education leaflet was produced to be given to these women, indicating what additional precautions should be taken after having been prescribed antibiotics. SETTING: The A&E department of a busy district general hospital. SUBJECTS: Women aged 15-50 who had been issued with broad spectrum antibiotics. RESULTS: The level of knowledge in regard to contraceptive advice given to women taking the OCP among doctors working in an A&E department was poor. However, after educational sessions and the production of a patient information leaflet, there was an improvement in women receiving correct advice. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical significance of drug interactions between oral contraceptives and antibiotics indicates the importance of asking a full contraceptive drug history of any woman of childbearing age and documenting this in the notes. Regular audit of this topic is needed to keep it at the front of doctors' minds.  (+info)

Antibiotics, the pill, and pregnancy. (7/254)

OBJECTIVES: To establish if advice concerning risks of pregnancy when taking oral contraceptive pill and antibiotics is being offered. METHOD: A retrospective audit of notes of 100 female patients aged 15-39 who were prescribed antibiotics. RESULTS: Documentation of use of contraception was noted in 3% of patients. Advice concerning risks and further precautions was noted in this 3% but not in any other records. CONCLUSION: The audit identified a gap in documentation and/or clinical practice in advising women of childbearing age of the risk of conceiving when using oral contraceptive pill and antibiotics. Recommendations are given as to how this may be addressed.  (+info)

Effects of progestins on cardiovascular diseases: the haemostatic system. (8/254)

The effect of progestin-only therapy on the haemostatic system has mainly been studied in premenopausal women. Although these studies are difficult to compare, most authors agree that there is no consistent pattern of effects on haemostasis. Oestrogen-progestin combinations have been extensively studied in pre- (combined oral contraceptives) and postmenopausal women (sequential and continuous combined hormone replacement therapy), but mostly with emphasis on the effects of oestrogens. Comparative studies into the differential effects of progestins in combined preparations are scarce. Based on these studies, there is evidence for modifying effects of progestins on oestrogen-induced changes, particularly on fibrinogen, factor VII and the fibrinolytic system. The modifying effects appear to vary among certain progestins, the variation being most likely due to differential effects on lipid metabolism. The clinical interpretation of steroid-induced effects on the haemostatic system is difficult. Retrospective analyses linking certain patterns of haemostatic regulation to the risk of venous or arterial vascular diseases are subject to bias, and no interventional studies are yet available. In the absence of such prospective studies and well-designed comparative studies, the available data do not support the notion of a superiority of certain progestins with regard to cardiovascular risks of combined preparations.  (+info)

Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation of hormonal contraception and the resultant occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. The evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in women who are using hormonal contraception includes an assessment of compliance, a thorough history and complete physical examination to exclude organic causes of bleeding, and a targeted laboratory evaluation. Pregnancy and the misuse of OCPs are frequent causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding is common during the first three months of OCP use; counseling and reassurance are adequate during this time period. If bleeding persists beyond three months, it can be treated with supplemental estrogen and/or a
Evidence on the association between antibiotic use and combination oral contraceptive (COC) failure remains controversial, with recent studies reporting no evidence to support decreased effectiveness of birth control with the use of antibiotics except rifampin and rifabutin.. However, some doctors will ask an oral contraceptive user to use additional protection while using an antibiotic. The reasoning that antibiotics might interfere with the effectiveness of COCs revolves around the antibiotic decreasing steroid hormones plasma concentrations by hepatic microsomal enzyme induction or inhibition, interference with enterohepatic circulation of COC metabolites, interference with absorption from the GI tract, competition between two drugs for the same metabolizing enzyme, alterations in plasma protein binding, induction of an opposite physiologic effect, or increased urinary or fecal excretion of the contraceptive.. The strongest evidence is for rifabutin and rifampin: a significant decrease in ...
In December 1976, the federal FDA proposed mandatory patient package inserts accompany all pill prescriptions: "The Food and Drug Administration will regard as misbranded and subject to regulatory action any oral contraceptive that is shipped in interstate commerce … after April 6, 1977 without labeling that is substantially the same as set forth in this notice." Thus, the FDA required pill manufacturers to tell physicians that the pill included a mode of action that every physician would understand from his medical training to be an early abortion: "Combination oral contraceptives … Although the primary mechanism of action is inhibition of ovulation, alterations … in the endometrium (which reduce the likelihood of implantation) may also contribute to contraceptive effectiveness … progestin oral contraceptives are known to … exert a progestational effect on the endometrium, interfering with implantation, and, in some patients suppress ovulation."16. Physician package inserts for the ...
Many women and physicians believe that a common side effect of combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and contraceptive patches is weight gain. This is the most common reason for not initiating the use of combination OCPs or patches, or for discontinuing their use at an early stage. However, the association between combination OCPs and weight gain has not been scientifically established. In fact, women who stop using combination OCPs may be more likely to gain weight than those who continue to use them. Gallo and colleagues studied the association between the use of combination OCPs and patches and weight changes.. To identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of combination OCPs or patches that included data on weight changes, the authors searched relevant databases and contacted appropriate study investigators and combination OCP and patch manufacturers. RCTs were included if they were of good quality and covered at least three treatment cycles. Data were abstracted from eligible trials ...
So, what makes one combination oral contraceptive pill (OCP) different from another? Whats the difference between brand-name and generic versions, if any? The answer generally boils down to one word: progesterone. How do we know this? Because the chemical composition of the estrogen component of almost every OCP marketed in the U.S. is exactly the same. Its ethinyl estradiol. …
Women using a vaginal ring or skin patch for contraception are at around double the risk of a blood clot compared to those taking the Pill," the Daily Mail has reported. The news is based on a large Danish study that looked at contraceptive use in more than 1.5 million women. The study looked at how different hormone-based methods such as implants, the patch and the pill related to the risk of blood clots. Between 2001 and 2010 researchers recorded a total of 3,434 blood clots, also known as venous thromboembolisms or VTE. The background rate of VTE among women not using hormonal contraception was 2.1 per 10,000 woman-years (for example, 2.1 would occur if 1,000 women were followed for 10 years). The highest rate of VTE was among women who used the contraceptive patch, with 9.7 per 10,000 woman-years. Women using a common oral contraceptive pill experienced a rate of 6.2 per 10,000 woman-years.. Despite what some news coverage might suggest, hormonal contraceptives containing oestrogen ( the ...
What causes bleeding two days after suddenly stopping birth control? If a woman missed a pill, or has decided to stop taking birth control pills, she may experience bleeding as an effect of skipping pills. Bleeding that occurs during the pill-free intervals of seven days is called withdrawal bleeding, and this is quite normal. Withdrawal bleeding is the expected outcome of taking the inactive or placebo pills, taken after the 21-day active pills, and before starting with a new cycle. Missing a pill can also cause bleeding (breakthrough bleeding) because this causes the endometrium to lose its consistency that was built up during the days of on-time taking of the pill.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control. Two types of female oral contraceptive pill, taken once per day, are widely available: The combined oral contraceptive pill contains estrogen and a progestin The progestogen-only pill Ormeloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which offers the benefit of only having to be taken once a week. Emergency contraception pills ("morning after pills") are taken at the time of intercourse, or within a few days afterwards: Levonorgestrel, sold under the brand name Plan B Ulipristal acetate Mifepristone and misoprostol, when used in combination, are more than 95% effective during the first 50 days of pregnancy. The combination is administered by a physician, and is only used as a last resort Male oral contraceptives are currently not available commercially, although several possibilities are in various stages of research and ...
Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Evidence based information on family planning (contraception) including the oral contraceptive pill.
Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Combined oral contraceptive pill: | | | Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. Also known as birth control pills, they contain artificially made forms of twohormones produced naturally in the body. These hormones, estrogen and progestin, regulate a womans menstrual cycle. When taken in the proper amounts, following a specific schedule, oral contraceptives are very effective in preventing pregnancy.. Oral contraceptives have several effects that help prevent pregnancy. For pregnancy to occur, an egg must ripen inside a womans ovary, be released, and travel to the fallopian tube (the passageway from the ovary to the uterus). Amans sperm must also reach the fallopian tube, where it fertilizes the egg.Then the fertilized egg must travel to the womans uterus (womb), where it lodges in the uterus lining and develops into a fetus. The main way that oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy is by keeping an egg from ripening fully. Eggs that do not ripen fully cannot be fertilized. In addition, birth ...
To the editor: Horwitz and Feinstein (1) conclude from their epidemiologic study of endometrial cancer that "no association exists between the use of oral contraceptive pills and the subsequent development of endometrial cancer." They correctly point out that a limitation of their data is that only a small number of patients and control subjects had previously used contraceptive pills. Their data may also be limited by the relatively short time from the introduction of contraceptive pills to the present. A typical latent period from exposure to known chemical carcinogens until detection of cancer is 20 to 40 years (2-4). Oral ...
Approximately 11.6 million women in the United States use oral contraceptives (OCs) each year. The vast majority of OCs combine both estrogen and a type of progestin, or progesterone-like substance into one pill which is taken daily. Depression or a negative change in mood, apparently resulting from the use of OCs, is thought to be one of the main reasons women miss pills or stop taking their oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) altogether. Clinical observation that some women develop depression when taking progestin only OCs or when adding progestins to menopausal estrogen therapy has led to the speculation that the progestin is the likely culprit of these negative mood changes in women using combined OCPs.. The current study is designed to investigate the role of progestins in the development of mood symptoms in OCP users. Women participating in this study will receive one of two different OCPs for three months. Their mood while taking the OCPs will be compared to their mood prior to using OCPs. In ...
According to a Harvard University Study, women may be three times more likely to develop Crohns disease if they have used oral contraceptive pills for five years or more. The risk was especially pronounced in women who already had a genetic predisposition to chronic gastrointestinal disease.. While "the pill" is widely used and highly effective in preventing pregnancy, it has adverse effects.. The study involved 232,452 American women with no prior history of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohns disease (CD) from 1976 to 2008. They found 315 cases of CD and 392 cases of UC.. The results of the study were such that compared with women who had never used oral contraceptives, current users had a 2.82 multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for CD. For past users, the hazard ratio was 1.39.. Reflecting on the strong association between use of oral contraceptives and CD, the authors note that, "After adjusting for known or potential risk factors for CD, including BMI, smoking, hormone use, age at menarche, ...
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The new birth control pill Lybrel is the first oral contraceptive designed to be taken 365 days a year with no pill-free intervals. Women who use Lybrel dont…
Oral contraceptives pass into the breast milk and can change the content or lower the amount of breast milk. Also, they may shorten a womans ability to breast-feed by about 1 month, especially when the mother is only partially breast-feeding. Because the amount of hormones is so small in low-dose contraceptives, your doctor may allow you to begin using an oral contraceptive after you have been breast-feeding for a while. However, it may be necessary for you to use another method of birth control or to stop breast-feeding while taking oral contraceptives.. ...
Objectives: Oral contraceptives (OCP) are highly effective, safe and widely used. Higher exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogens is generally thought to increase the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if oral contraceptive use affected the expression of CA 15-3, CEA and C-erb B-2 in the saliva of healthy women. Study design: The participants consisted of 87 healthy women (43 controls and 44 using oral contraceptives) ranging in age from 20 to 54 years. The volunteers participated by giving one ? time stimulated whole saliva samples. Then the samples were analysed for CA 15-3, CEA and C-erb B-2 concentrations. Results: The student t-test was used to compare group means for variables with comparable variability. The mean of C-erb B-2, CEA, and CA 15-3 concentrations (in the case and control groups) was (1.93, 1.70), (34.46, 31.62) and (12.58, 16.19) respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ...
Question - What are the long term side effects of oral contraceptive pills when suffering from PCOS?. Ask a Doctor about Polycystic ovary syndrome, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Home » Noncommunicable and/or Chronic Disease » Occupational and Environmental Disease » The environmental impact of oral contraceptive pills in drinking ...
These results suggest that many women who are using oral contraceptives in their peak bone-development years could reduce their risk of osteoporosis by approximately 3 percent to 10 percent over one year by making sure they get enough calcium in their diet," Teegarden said. "This demonstrates the importance of calcium intake, either by getting enough dairy or with supplements." ...
Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are produced by the pituitary gland which is located at the base of the brain. These two hormones coordinate the development and release of an egg from the ovary. A surge in both of these hormones ordinarily occurs in the middle of a womans menstrual cycle.. Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates ovarian egg production. Luteinizing hormone triggers egg released from the ovary: ovulation. Oral contraceptive pills inhibit the production of both follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone; as such oral contraceptive pills prevent ovulation.. Another contraceptive mechanism of (combined) birth control pills is to prevent fertilization. Combined oral contraceptives effect cervical secretions. The progestin contained in the birth control pill causes the cervical secretion to thicken which impedes sperm, little or no sperm enter the uterine cavity; as such fertilization cannot occur.. Oral contraceptives do not terminate a pregnancy, they ...
Question - Antibiotics that interfere with oral contraceptives. Am I in risk of pregnancy?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Combined oral contraceptive pill, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
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Obese women who used oral contraceptives appeared to have increased risk for a rare type of stroke known as a cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) compared with women of normal weight who did not use oral contraceptives, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology.
A Single-center, Open-label, Controlled, Randomized Study to Investigate the Impact of a Sequential Oral Contraceptive (SH T00658ID) as Compared to a Sequential Oral Contraceptive Containing Ethinylestradiol and Levonorgestrel (SH D00264A) on Plasma Lipids, Hemostatic Variables, and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Healthy Female Volunteers Aged 18-50 Years Over 7 Treatment Cycles, Including the ...
Combined oral contraceptives are directed blocking ovulation.OK These comprise a combination of estradiol and progestin - levonorgestrel.They are divided into monophasic (the level of hormonal substances in the tablets remains unchanged throughout the reception) or three-phase (three tablets contain a combination of hormones that change during the menstrual cycle).. Low-dose monophasic OK - its like: Sizonal, Sizonik, Lybrel, Yasmin.. Mini-pill - the pill containing the hormone progestogen similar to the natural hormone progesterone, which is produced by a womans ovaries.Pure progestogen tablets contain only one component and are different from the more common combination of contraceptive pills which contain the estrogen and progestogen.. Below is a list of birth control for age, that woman gave birth or not yet, there is suffering what some hormonal or other disorders of the body.. - Mikrodozirovannye control pills. They are suitable for young, nulliparous women, leading a regular sex ...
Birth control pills (BCPs) are both the most effective and the most hazardous form of contraception. Preventing pregnancy in this way is done by taking an oral dose of a combination of the hormones estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) in amounts higher than the body?s natural levels. This prevents the pituitary hormones that stimulate ovulation and fertilization of the egg from being released, and thus prevents pregnancy. Though taking oral contraceptives regularly is 99 percent effective in birth control, there are many possible side effects. Weight gain, emotional swings, circulatory and vascular symptoms, and gastrointestinal upset are not uncommon. Blood clots, liver problems, and cancer are also possible, though relatively rare; these were more common in the 1960s with the higher-dose pills. Many women have difficulty with oral contraceptives, though many others seem to tolerate them well. The use of birth control pills is more common in young women and teenagers, which adds ...
Women who take the contraceptive pill for ten years almost halve their risk of being diagnosed with ovarian cancer, according to a new study.. But experts say this must be balanced against the risk of breast cancer, which is higher in women on the pill.. For every 100,000 women on the Pill for 10 years there are 50 extra breast cancers and 12 fewer ovarian cancers, data shows.. "Women may be reassured to know that the oral contraceptive is not only an effective contraceptive but can have the added benefit of reducing their risk of ovarian cancer," the BBC quoted Dr Richard Edmondson of the Northern Institute for Cancer Research at the University of Newcastle, as saying.. "These results are important because most women dont know that taking the Pill or getting pregnant can help reduce their risk of ovarian cancer later on in life," he added.. The study followed more than 300,000 women enrolled in a large European study known as EPIC (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer).. The women were ...
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Medications taken daily that prevent ovulation by controlling pituitary hormone secretion. Usually, oral contraceptives contain the hormones estrogen and progestin. In addition to prevention of pregnancy, oral contraceptives have several health benefits including regulating menstrual cycles and decreasing the amount and length of menstrual periods. This can help increase iron stores in women with iron deficiency associated with excessive bleeding. Prevention of certain ovarian and endometrial cancers is a significant benefit of the use of oral contraceptives. Some research has found that some benign (noncancerous) breast diseases, including fibroadenoma and cystic changes, occur less frequently with the use of oral contraceptives. Recent studies have also suggested that oral contraceptive use may reduce the occurrence of severe disabling rheumatoid arthritis.. ...
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Medications taken daily that prevent ovulation by controlling pituitary hormone secretion. Usually, oral contraceptives contain the hormones estrogen and progestin. In addition to prevention of pregnancy, oral contraceptives have several health benefits including regulating menstrual cycles and decreasing the amount and length of menstrual periods. This can help increase iron stores in women with iron deficiency associated with excessive bleeding. Prevention of certain ovarian and endometrial cancers is a significant benefit of the use of oral contraceptives. Some research has found that some benign (noncancerous) breast diseases, including fibroadenoma and cystic changes, occur less frequently with the use of oral contraceptives. Recent studies have also suggested that oral contraceptive use may reduce the occurrence of severe disabling rheumatoid arthritis.. ...
Using referred controls-persons who were initially suspected of having the same disease as the case patients-in a case-control study is not always a mistake; it can be a good strategy for ruling out diagnostic suspicion or referral bias, as exemplified by the association between oral contraceptive use and VT. Suppose that oral contraceptives would not cause VT, contrary to physicians beliefs. If a young woman presented with signs and symptoms of VT, knowing that she used oral contraceptives would sway her physician to refer her for diagnostic work-up, whereas the physician might not have referred her otherwise because thrombosis is unlikely in young women (2). Case-control studies enroll patients according to the diagnosis they receive and would thereby show a spurious association between oral contraceptives and VT because more case patients than controls would be using oral contraceptives. This hypothetical situation exemplifies the influence of diagnostic suspicion bias in case-control ...
Belara contraceptive pill - Hi there, I will appreciate your help. I tool belara contraceptive pill last month for acne reasons. This is the 21 pack pill. I took all the pill su? Several cycles. Oral hormonal therapy helps resolve acne in some women, but not others. It may take several cycles of use for results to be noticed. One pack is insufficient. Consult your doctor for more instructions on use.
There is interesting research around blobbing and contraception where randomised controlled trials have been conducted on extended oral contraceptive cycles. The fact that most women on OC take the pills in 21 days followed by a pill-free and bleeding week is not medically necessary. Women can stay on OC pretty much permanently with minimal spotting and few ill effects over the general OC side effects and recommendations for use over time (i.e limit to 8 years [pdf]). And yet many choose, if made aware of the choice, to allow for a pill-free period if not monthly than every three or so months. This suggests that there may be a desire to menstruate which may be for a number of reasons: confirming no pregnancy, excuse for not having sex, the ancient Greek feeling of menstrual catharsis ...
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Drospirenone is a synthetic progestin that is an analog to spironolactone. It is found in a number of birth control formulations. Drospirenone differs from other synthetic progestins in that its pharmacological profile in preclinical studies shows it to be closer to the natural progesterone. As such it has anti-mineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is not androgenic. It was shown in animal studies that drospirenone exhibits antiandrogenic activity judging from accessory sex gland growth in castrated, androgen-treated, juvenile rats.
Endometriosis also reacts to hormonal signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, building up tissue, breaking it, and eliminating it through the menstrual period. In this article, we will discuss what is oral contraceptive pills?
Hi i am wondering what oral contraceptive i could be put on that wouldnt make me nauseas. I was on esetlle for 10 years with no problems. In the last year i got a large patch of pigment on my forehead and would get sick every time i would
oral contraceptive definition: A pill, typically containing estrogen or progesterone, that inhibits ovulation and therefore prevents conception. Also known as birth prevention supplement.; a contraceptive…
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Still unconvinced by our previous post? We have compiled a list of reasons why oral contraceptive pills should be regulated and not made available over-the-counter. With so many oral contraceptive pills on the market and a lot of medical jargon, choosing the right pill to suit you can be confusing. Doctors are qualified to prescribe…
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The contraceptive pill can cause side effects - its a well-known fact. But how can you tell the difference between which symptoms are normal, and which are more serious? Which symptoms will settle down eventually, and which means you should change pill? We ask a doctor for her expert advice.
Single Center, Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Study to Investigate the Impact of the Oral Contraceptive Yasmin (30 µg EE / 3 mg DRSP) Compared to Microgynon (30 µg / 150 LNG) on Hemostasis Parameters in 40 Female Volunteers ...
Calliope, the Contraceptive Pipeline Database, houses information on potential contraceptive targets and leads in early development, products in pre-clinical and clinical development, and a selection of products with limited market availability. Calliope is coordinated by FHI 360 as part of the Contraceptive Technology Innovation (CTI) Exchange, www.ctiexchange.org, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.. Explore the database below using the keyword search, the search filters, and the two display options. For each entry in the database, click on the entry name to view its full information.. See our How to Use page for additional guidance and our About and Glossary pages for more information.. ...
Oral contraceptives affected both the general quality of life and specific aspects like mood, well-being, self-control and energy level.
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Women who use the contraceptive pill could be damaging their fertility in the future a new study has revealed. Researchers found the hormones
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Sexual Intercourse involves more pleasure when there is a foreplay, and when there is foreplay involved, questions of pregnancy from that(rarely possible) arrives. Teens mostly have a question in their adolescent, "Is it possible to get pregnant without having sexual intercourse"?. Safety is better than cure! Considering womens health and all other factors which possibly lead to an unintended pregnancy or complications, birth control pills or other birth control measures need to be given a thought. Well, the answer lies on how unlucky you are. The possibility of getting pregnant without an actual penetration is extremely rare, still, it cannot be totally overruled. Hence it is advised to take contraceptives for precaution. You can even buy Ovral G online or from nearby stores Ejaculating near/on the vagina: Lets face it when a man is aroused foreplay would definitely make him wilder. Consequently, most men ejaculate nearer to the vaginal opening of their partners. Sperms are basically designed ...
The contraceptive injection is 99% effective at preventing pregnancy. It can protect you for eight weeks or 12 weeks. The contraceptive injection contains the hormone progestogen.
... , provides information on potential contraceptive targets and leads in early development, products in development, and a selection of novel and long-acting products with limited market availability.. Explore the database using the keyword search, filter options, and the two view options: by phase in the development pipeline (below) or by user sex and type (hormonal/nonhormonal).. More information on Calliope and using the database can be found on the About, How to Use, and Glossary pages. Calliope is coordinated by FHI 360 with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and is a part of the CTI Exchange, available at www.ctiexchange.org.. ...
According to researchers, a remote controlled contraceptive chip could be available by 2018. According to researchers from MicroCHIP Inc. in Massachusetts, a remote controlled contraceptive chip could be a possibility for women over the next few years.
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Progesterone is the naturally occurring female sex hormone acting as natures contraceptive by preventing women from conceiving during pregnancy
Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovaries. A woman is born with all her eggs.. Once she starts her periods, one egg develops and is released during each menstrual cycle. After ovulation, the egg lives for 24 hours.. Pregnancy happens if a mans sperm meet and fertilise the egg. Sperm can survive in the fallopian tubes for up to seven days after sex.. Occasionally, more than one egg is released during ovulation. If more than one egg is fertilised it can lead to a multiple pregnancy, such as twins.. A woman cant get pregnant if ovulation doesnt occur. Some methods of hormonal contraception - such as the combined pill, the contraceptive patch and the contraceptive injection - work by stopping ovulation. ...
The pill contains two hormones - an oestrogen and a progestogen. If taken correctly, it is a very effective form of contraception.
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Ortho Tri-Cyclen (Triquilar) - Ortho Tri-Cyclen is a highly effective oral contraceptive containing a combination of female hormones that can prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary) and pregnancy. It is a low-hormone reliable birth control pill with a low occurrence of common side effects.
Ortho Tri-Cyclen (Triquilar) - Ortho Tri-Cyclen is a highly effective oral contraceptive containing a combination of female hormones that can prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary) and pregnancy. It is a low-hormone reliable birth control pill with a low occurrence of common side effects.
Ortho Tri-Cyclen (Triquilar) - Ortho Tri-Cyclen is a highly effective oral contraceptive containing a combination of female hormones that can prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary) and pregnancy. It is a low-hormone reliable birth control pill with a low occurrence of common side effects.
... is a combined oral contraceptive that is available by prescription only. This part of the eMedTV Web library explains how this form of birth control works, offers dosing information, and lists side effects that may occur with the pill.
... is a combined oral contraceptive that is available by prescription only. This part of the eMedTV Web library explains how this form of birth control works, offers dosing information, and lists side effects that may occur with the pill.
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One of former President Obamas most highly praised regulations was the birth control mandate for employers within the Affordable Care Act..12/18/2017 18:40:43PM EST.
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Nelson, Anita L.; Cwiak, Carrie (2011). "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)". In Hatcher, Robert A.; Trussell, James; Nelson, ... higher for women taking drospirenone oral contraceptives for 7-12 months, compared to women taking other types of oral ... It is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect an oral contraceptive as well as to provide a daily dose of ... It is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect an oral contraceptive. Safyral contains 3 mg drospirenone ...
"Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis". doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010813.pub2. Swystun, L. L.; Liaw, P. C. (27 June 2016 ... These would be losing weight, increasing exercise and the cessation of oral contraceptives. Moving during periods of travel is ... The risk of developing blood clots can be modified by life style modifications, the discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and ... Zareba, P; Wu, C; Agzarian, J; Rodriguez, D; Kearon, C (Aug 2014). "Meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing combined ...
In practice, these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1 to 2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It ... Combined oral contraceptive NET with mestranol. Low (e.g., 1 mg, 2 mg). Norethin, Noriday, Norinyl, Norquen, Ortho-Novum, ... Combined oral contraceptive NETA with estradiol. Low (e.g., 0.1 mg, 0.5 mg). Activella, Activelle, Alyacen, Cliane, Climagest, ... Arowojolu, Ayodele O.; Gallo, Maria F.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Grimes, David A. (2012-07-11). "Combined oral contraceptive pills ...
Arowojolu, AO; Gallo, MF; Lopez, LM; Grimes, DA (11 July 2012). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne". The ... produced by oral contraceptives containing gestodene is slightly less than that produced by oral contraceptives containing ... no difference in acne incidence has been observed with oral contraceptives containing gestodene and oral contraceptives ... "Progestogens in combined oral contraceptives for contraception". The WHO Reproductive Health Library. Cerel-Suhl (1999). " ...
Mefloquine: may increase valproate metabolism combined with the direct epileptogenic effects of mefloquine. Oral contraceptives ... Herzog, Andrew; Farina, Erin (June 9, 2005). "Serum Valproate Levels with Oral Contraceptive Use". Epilepsia. 46: 970-971. doi: ... Depakote Tablets (as in USA) Tablets - Orlept by Wockhardt and Epilim by Sanofi Oral solution - Orlept Sugar Free by Wockhardt ... and the clinical and experimental evidence for combining valproic acid with other antileukemic agents" (PDF). Clin Epigenetics ...
First prescription of the combined oral contraceptive pill. Independence of the Federation of Malaya. 1958: French Fifth ...
Combined oral contraceptives in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. NEJM 353:2550-2558 (2005). Grimaldi, C., Jeganathan, V ...
Such preparations were used in early combined oral contraceptive pills. The unmodified steroid has estrogenic activity. The ... Successful storage of yams requires: initial selection of sound and healthy yams proper curing, if possible combined with ...
... as in combined oral contraceptives, presents an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. Women who take contraceptive pills ... has been available as a combined oral contraceptive since 1978. This formulation is taken once daily for 21 days, followed by a ... "Effects of seven low-dose combined oral contraceptives on sex hormone binding globulin, corticosteroid binding globulin, total ... "Review of clinical experience with estradiol in combined oral contraceptives". Contraception. 81 (1): 8-15. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... but certain regular combined oral contraceptive pills may be used as emergency contraceptive pills. Progestin-only emergency ... found in regular combined oral contraceptive pills. Taken after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure, such ... As of 2014, there are 26 brands of regular combined oral contraceptive pills containing levonorgestrel or norgestrel available ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (February 25, 1997). "Certain combined oral contraceptives for use as postcoital emergency ...
See also: Combined oral contraceptive pill § Mechanism of action. Birth control methods usually prevent fertilization. This ... and a study of the combined oral contraceptive pill has been proposed.[27] ... eds.). Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ed.). New York: Ardent Media. p. 120. ISBN 0-9664902-0-7. .. ... "Ethical Issues Regarding Hormonal Contraceptives". The Truth About Birth Control. Retrieved 14 March 2011.. ...
It is most commonly used as contraception in combined oral contraceptives (COC), also known as birth control, to prevent ... Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (2012). "An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing ... 20 mcg estrogen combined oral contraceptives for contraception". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD003989. doi:10.1002/14651858 ... "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and risk assessment". ...
Women who use combined oral contraceptive pills have a modestly increased risk of myocardial infarction, especially in the ... Roach, RE; Helmerhorst, FM; Lijfering, WM; Stijnen, T; Algra, A; Dekkers, OM (27 August 2015). "Combined oral contraceptives: ... Most guidelines recommend combining different preventive strategies. A 2015 Cochrane Review found some evidence that such an ...
Patients who use and then cease using contraceptives like the combined oral contraceptive pill may experience secondary ... Although oral contraceptives can causes menses to return, oral contraceptives should not be the initial treatment as they can ... "Combined Oral Contraceptive (Follow-up and Common Problems)". Weisberg, E (December 1982). "Fertility after discontinuation of ... New contraceptive pills, like continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) which do not have the normal 7 days of placebo pills ...
... these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1-2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It has been ... Arowojolu, Ayodele O.; Gallo, Maria F.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Grimes, David A. (2012-07-11). "Combined oral contraceptive pills ... in combined oral contraceptive pills and alone in progestogen-only pills. Norethisterone has also been proven to be effective ... This is notably not the case with combined oral contraceptives that contain norethisterone and EE, however. Such formulations ...
Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA (July 2012). Arowojolu AO (ed.). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment ... Powell A (April 2017). "Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 64 ... Wiegratz I, Kuhl H (2002). "Managing cutaneous manifestations of hyperandrogenic disorders: the role of oral contraceptives". ...
Combined oral contraceptives reduce the risk of pregnancy primarily by inhibiting ovulation. This product combines drospirenone ... and raising folate levels to prevent neural tube defects for women who chose an oral contraceptive method. Oral contraceptive ... Adverse reactions commonly reported by combined oral contraceptive users are irregular uterine bleeding, nausea, breast ... Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure." "Use ...
Hormonal contraception is commonly used; common forms include the combined oral contraceptive pill and the contraceptive patch ... and adverse effects produced by oral contraceptive pills. The National Institute of Mental Health research definition compares ...
Half-used blister pack of a combined oral contraceptive. The white pills are placebos, mainly for the purpose of reminding the ... Several combined hormonal contraceptives-the pill, NuvaRing, and the contraceptive patch-are usually used in a way that causes ... Combined hormonal contraceptives include both an estrogen and a progestogen. Estrogen negative feedback on the anterior ... If withdrawal bleeding is not desired, combined hormonal contraceptives may be taken continuously, although this increases the ...
In the United States, it is available only in combination with ethinylestradiol as a combined oral contraceptive; it is not ... Indeed, combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol and desogestrel have been found to significantly decrease free ... op ten Berg M (1991). "Desogestrel: using a selective progestogen in a combined oral contraceptive". Adv Contracept. 7 (2-3): ... op ten Berg M (1991). "Desogestrel: using a selective progestogen in a combined oral contraceptive". Adv Contracept. 7 (2-3): ...
Schering's best-known products are probably its brands of combined oral contraceptive pills. Other key products included the ...
There are two types of oral birth control pills, the combined oral contraceptive pills (which contain both estrogen and a ... The most common method in the developed world is condoms and oral contraceptives, while in Africa it is oral contraceptives and ... Combined oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer and do not change the risk of breast ... ISBN 978-0-8160-7407-5. Nelson, Anita L.; Cwiak, Carrie (2011). "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)". In Hatcher, Robert A.; ...
The theoretical efficacy is similar to that of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP). However, this pill is taken ... Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive Oral contraceptive formulations Trussell, James (2011). "Contraceptive efficacy". In ... Borgelt-Hansen Laura (2001). "Oral Contraceptives: An Update on Health Benefits and Risks: Progestin-Only Minipill". J Am Pharm ... Lacking the estrogen of combined pills, they are not associated with increased risks of deep vein thrombosis or heart disease. ...
Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations. The main division is between combined oral contraceptive pills, ... Hatcher, Robert A.; Nelson, Anita (2004). "Combined Hormonal Contraceptive Methods". In Hatcher; Robert A. Contraceptive ... Combined oral contraceptive pills also come in varying types, including varying doses of estrogen, and whether the dose of ... Mestranol/noretynodrel (Enovid) - the first oral contraceptive List of progestogens available in the United States List of ...
Unlike the combined oral contraceptive pill etonogestrel contraceptive implant is not contraindicated in women with past ... Drug interactions: It is possible that the implant has similar drug interactions as combined oral contraceptives.[13] However, ... Raymond, EG (2011). "Contraceptive Implants". In Hatcher, Robert A.; Nelson, TJ; Guest, F; et al. Contraceptive technology ( ... Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D (1999). "The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive ...
Inconsistent use was reported by 49% of those using condoms and 76% of those using the combined oral contraceptive pill; 42% of ... Jones, Rachel K., Darroch, Jacqueline E., Henshaw, Stanley K. (2002). Contraceptive Use Among U.S. Women Having Abortions in ...
All indicate that there is an increased risk of venous thromboembolism associated with combined oral contraceptives containing ... In particular, the excess risk of venous thromboembolism with combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene ... recent advice1 on combined oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism.2 3 4 5 6 I doubt, however, whether your readers will ... and the public about the increased risk of thromboembolism with combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or ...
Clinical Assessment of Low Oestrogen Combined Oral Contraceptive Br Med J 1973; 2 :389 ... Clinical Assessment of Low Oestrogen Combined Oral Contraceptive. Br Med J 1973; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5863.389 ... Results of experience with a low-oestrogen combined contraceptive in 1,085 women showed that a dosage of less than 50 μg is ...
Contraceptive UseEdit. Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of oral medication that is designed to be taken every day, ... Combined oral contraceptive pills were developed to prevent ovulation by suppressing the release of gonadotropins. Combined ... Main article: Oral contraceptive formulations. Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations, some containing both ... "Low-dose combined oral contraceptives". Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (3rd ed.). Geneva: Reproductive ...
Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Estrogens. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes ... Interactions Between Antiretrovirals (ARVs) and Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs). The safety and scientific validity of this ... to study interactions between nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapies and combined oral contraceptive pills. ... Nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy does not reduce oral contraceptive effectiveness. AIDS. 2013 Oct;27 Suppl 1:S17-25. doi ...
Home > RHL Topics > Fertility regulation > Contraception > Combined Oral Contraceptives and venous thrombosis ... Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% ... Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and ... Com-bined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review 2014, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD010813. DOI ...
... (COCP) Background B.C. type Hormonal First use 1960 Failure ... Contraceptive sponge. Hormonal:. Combined: Combined oral contraceptive pill (the Pill), Contraceptive patch, NuvaRing ... Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations. The main division is between combined oral contraceptive pills, ... Combined oral contraceptive pills must be ingested at the same time each day. Contraceptive effectiveness may be reduced if a ...
... Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Dec ... Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives: Effects on metabolism. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Dec ... the risk-benefit profile of combined oral contraceptives (COC) has substantially changed, with new combinations, dosages and ...
cyclic use of combined oral contraceptives for contraception.. Edelman AB1, Gallo MF, Jensen JT, Nichols MD, Schulz KF, Grimes ... cyclic use of combined hormonal contraceptives for contraception. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014] ... of combination oral contraceptives (COCs) has gained legitimacy through its use in treating endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and ... Study findings were similar between 28-day and extended cycles in regard to contraceptive efficacy (i.e., pregnancy rates) and ...
Combined contraceptive pills (the pill) safely and effectively prevent pregnancy to ensure that safe sex can be enjoyed. You ... Also referred to simply as the pill, the combined contraceptive pill is an oral tablet that contains both oestrogen and ... In fact, there are currently about 100 million women who use one type of combined oral contraceptive, with multiple brands ... there may be a certain type of combined oral contraceptive that is more suitable than others. If you would like to combat ...
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Combined oral contraceptive pill versus placebo. Two trials compared COCP with a placebo. These studies were at high risk of ... Combined oral contraceptive pill versus placebo. We found two trials including 354 women that compared the COCP with a placebo ... Combined oral contraceptive pill versus other medical treatment. We found one trial of 50 women that compared the COCP with ... Combined oral contraceptive pill versus medical therapies. One underpowered trial compared the COCP with another medical ...
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Venous Thromboembolism in Women Taking Combined Oral Contraceptives: Risk Factors A Egun; A Egun ... A Egun, A Uzoigwe, G Riding, CN McCollum; Venous Thromboembolism in Women Taking Combined Oral Contraceptives: Risk Factors. ...
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To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) on ... Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one ... Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one ... Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one ...
Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal. Reproductive ... Contraceptive Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System Contraceptive Affecting Blood Pressure Drug: Contraceptives, Oral, ... Assessment of Autonomic Tone in Normotensive Women Using Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive Containing Drospirenone. The ... combined hormonal oral contraceptive with drospirenone and its influence on blood pressure [ Time Frame: six month after the ...
Effects on Ovarian Function of the Combined Oral Contraceptive NOMAC-E2 Compared to a COC Containing DRSP/EE (292003)(COMPLETED ... Duijkers IJ, Klipping C, Grob P, Korver T. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate ... Nomegestrol Acetate (NOMAC) and Estradiol (E2), 2.5 mg NOMAC and 1.5 mg E2 monophasic combined oral contraceptive ... Drospirenone (DRSP) and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), 3 mg DRSP and 30 mcg EE monophasic combined oral contraceptive ...
Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Estradiol. Polyestradiol phosphate. Ethinyl ... Efficacy and Safety of the Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC) NOMAC-E2 Compared to a COC Containing DRSP/EE (292001)(COMPLETED)( ... Drospirenone (DRSP) and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), 3 mg DRSP and 30 mcg EE monophasic combined oral contraceptive ... combined oral contraceptive (COC) in a large group of women aged 18-50 years. ...
Efficacy and Safety Study of the Combined Oral Contraceptive NOMAC-E2 Compared to a COC Containing DRSP/EE (292002)(P05722). ... Monophasic combined oral contraceptive (COC) tablets containing 2.5 mg Nomegestrol Acetate (NOMAC) and 1.5 mg Estradiol (E2) ... Monophasic combined oral contraceptive (COC) tablets containing 2.5 mg Nomegestrol Acetate (NOMAC) and 1.5 mg Estradiol (E2) ... Monophasic combined oral contraceptive (COC) tablets containing 2.5 mg Nomegestrol Acetate (NOMAC) and 1.5 mg Estradiol (E2) ...
The study was designed to test the long-term influence of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive upon lactation and infant ... Long-term influence of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive initiated at day 30 postpartum upon lactation and infant growth. ... The oral contraceptive group had a significantly lower percentage of cases in full nursing from the 4th through the 10th ... Contraceptives, Oral/pharmacology*. *Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/administration & dosage. *Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/ ...
  • The antiprogestin ulipristal acetate is available as a micronized emergency contraceptive tablet, effective up to 120 hours after intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antiprogestin mifepristone (also known as RU-486) is available in five countries as a low-dose or mid-dose emergency contraceptive tablet, effective up to 120 hours after intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early 1951, reproductive physiologist Gregory Pincus , a leader in hormone research and co-founder of the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology (WFEB) in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, first met American birth control movement founder Margaret Sanger at a Manhattan dinner hosted by Abraham Stone, medical director and vice president of Planned Parenthood (PPFA), who helped Pincus obtain a small grant from PPFA to begin hormonal contraceptive research. (bionity.com)
  • In 1951, Margaret Sanger met Pincus at a dinner hosted by Abraham Stone, director of the Margaret Sanger Research Bureau and medical director and vice president of Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), and procured a small grant from PPFA for Pincus to begin hormonal contraceptive research. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent publication from the study using incident cancer data has suggested that ever users of oral contraceptives may have a reduced overall risk of cancer. (bmj.com)
  • 18 - 20 Particularly, the differential changes of the proteins involved in the protein C system may contribute to the thrombotic effects of oral contraceptives. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2 3 A later report, based on up to 25 years of follow-up, suggested that most of the mortality effects of oral contraceptives occurred in current or recent users, with few effects persisting beyond 10 years after stopping use. (bmj.com)
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