Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Norethynodrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.Ethynodiol Diacetate: A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Norpregnenes: Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential: Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Ethisterone: 17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Metrorrhagia: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.XanthurenatesAbortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Coitus Interruptus: A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.United StatesNorprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Religion and SexReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)MissouriAntispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.NicaraguaReproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Nandrolone: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Great BritainCervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Uterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Megaloblasts: Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.GuatemalaPregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Intrauterine Device Migration: The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Libido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Abortion, Criminal: Illegal termination of pregnancy.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Gossypol: A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

Changed levels of endogenous sex steroids in women on oral contraceptives. (1/1279)

Serum and urinary levels of unconjugated testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and oestradiol were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in 10 healthy women in the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and in nine healthy women taking oral contraceptives. The contraceptive group had testosterone levels 1-3 times higher and dihydrotestosterone levels two times higher than those in the controls. Serum oestradiol levels in the contraceptive group were much lower than those in the controls and similar to levels in postmenopausal women. The contraceptive group had about twice the urinary excretion of unconjugated (free) testosterone and dihydrotestosterone of the controls, but their excretion of unconjugated oestradiol was 2-7 times lower. The great increase in serum and urinary androgen concentrations, as well as the suppression of oestradiol, may be related to the antiovulatory effect of oral contraceptives.  (+info)

Oral contraceptive use: interview data versus pharmacy records. (2/1279)

BACKGROUND: If women tend to forget and underreport their past oral contraceptive (OC) use, but the recall among cases is enhanced by the presence of disease, recall bias may explain some reported health effects of OC use. METHODS: Two different sources of information on lifetime OC use were compared for 427 (84%) of a community-based sample of 511 women aged 20-34: (i) structured interviews, using a life event calendar and picture display as memory aids, and (ii) a register of all prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies in the county since 1970. RESULTS: Interview data and pharmacy records showed high levels of agreement for any OC use, current use, time since first and last use, total duration of use, and for duration of use in different 'time windows'. But there was a tendency to under-report specific kinds of OC used in the past. CONCLUSION: Underreporting of OC use among non-cases would usually introduce little or no bias (as compared to pharmacy records) for this kind of interview and women. However, it may be preferable to use interviews for current OC use, and pharmacy records for specific kinds of OC used in the past.  (+info)

T(3/1279)

he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

Pigment epithelial windows and drusen: an animal model. (4/1279)

Aging rhesus monkeys, both controls and those undergoing long-term administration of investigational oral contraceptive steroids, developed widespread hyperfluorescent dots at the posterior pole. The dots were considered to represent drusen. Histologic (including electron microscopic) study showed the "drusen" in some of the animals to be almost exclusively pigment epithelial windows produced by a lipoidal degeneration of the pigment epithelial cells. The experiment provided a fortuitous model for direct correlation of clinical and histologic observations of myriad uniform, tiny, depigmented, hyperfluorescent, nonleaking spots at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium.  (+info)

Medicolegal file.(5/1279)

Tell everything you know about birth control pills.  (+info)

Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns. (6/1279)

High-risk mammographic patterns may be used as a surrogate end point for breast cancer in etiologic research as well as in prevention studies. Physical activity may be one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the relationship between physical activity and mammographic patterns among 2720 Norwegian women, ages 40-56 years, who participated in both the Second and Third Tromso studies. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Two questions from the Second Tromso study and five questions from the Third elicited information on physical activity. The mammograms were categorized into five groups based on anatomical-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I through III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odds ratios that were adjusted for age, education, menopausal status, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol intake, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression. Women who reported moderate physical activity, i.e., more than 2 h/week, were 20% less likely (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1) to have high-risk mammographic patterns compared with those who reported being inactive. This relationship remains consistent when stratified by menopausal status, parity, and tertiles of body mass index. However, all of the associations between various measures of physical activity and high-risk patterns found in this study are weak with confidence intervals that include 1.0. Thus, chance is a reasonable explanation for the weak associations found. The relationship between physical activity and high-risk patterns should be examined further as a means to explore the biologic mechanisms relating physical activity to breast cancer risk.  (+info)

The risk of serious illness among oral contraceptive users: evidence from the RCGP's oral contraceptive study. (7/1279)

BACKGROUND: So far, no-one has attempted to evaluate the overall balance of serious, but not necessarily fatal, disease among a cohort of oral contraceptive users. AIM: To emprirically assess the balance of risk of serious illness among a cohort of oral contraceptive users followed up for up to 28 years. METHODS: Oral contraceptive-associated serious disease was defined as that which is often life-threatening and/or associated with long-term disability, and which has been found, or postulated, to be associated with use of combined oral contraceptives. Data from the Royal College of General Practitioners' (RCGP) Oral Contraception Study were examined to determine the rate of such conditions during 335,181 woman-years of observation in 'ever users' and 228,727 woman-years in 'never users'. The rates were standardized for age, parity, social class, and smoking. RESULTS: Compared with never users, ever users had a small increased risk of any serious disease (relative risk = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.25). Ever users had an excess risk of cerebrovascular disease, pulmonary embolism, and venous thromboembolism, and reduced risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer. The increased risk was seen only in younger women; by the age of 50, ever users had the same risk as never users. The risk appeared to be confined to women using older oral contraceptives containing 50 micrograms or more of oestrogen. CONCLUSIONS: Past users of older, higher dose oral contraceptives can be reassured that the small increased risk of serious disease seen during current use does not persist after stopping, and that latent effects do not appear later in life. Currently available oral contraceptives, containing less than 50 micrograms of oestrogen accompanied by the progestogen, levonorgestrel, or norethisterone acetate, do not appear to be associated with an increased net risk of serious disease.  (+info)

Interaction between the G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene and oral contraceptive use in deep vein thrombosis. (8/1279)

Single-point mutations in the gene coding for prothrombin (factor II:A20210) or factor V (factor V:A1691) are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The use of oral contraceptives is also a strong and independent risk factor for the disease, and the interaction between factor V:A1691 and oral contraceptives greatly increases the risk. No information is available about the interaction between oral contraceptives and mutant prothrombin. We investigated 148 women with a first, objectively confirmed episode of deep vein thrombosis and 277 healthy women as controls. Fourteen patients (9.4%) were carriers of factor II:A20210, 24 (16.2%) of factor V:A1691, and 4 (2.7%) of both defects. Among controls, the prevalence was 2.5% for either factor II:A20210 or factor V:A1691, and there was no carrier of both the mutations. The relative risk of thrombosis was 6-fold for factor II:A20210 and 9-fold for factor V:A1691. The most prevalent circumstantial risk factor in patients and the only one observed in controls was oral contraceptive use, which per se conferred a 6-fold increased risk of thrombosis. The risk increased to 16.3 and 20.0 when women with factor II:A20210 or factor V:A1691 who used oral contraceptives were compared with noncarriers and nonusers. These figures indicate a multiplicative interaction between the genetic risk factors and oral contraceptives. No difference in the type of oral contraceptives was observed between patients and controls, those of third generation being the most frequently used (73% and 80%). We conclude that carriers of the prothrombin mutation who use oral contraceptives have a markedly increased risk of deep vein thrombosis, much higher than the risk conferred by either factor alone.  (+info)

A major strength of the study was the ability to include more than a million woman years of observation, accumulated over a 39 year period and involving nearly three times as many deaths (a total of more than 4600) as before.4 A previous study has shown good agreement between the cause of death reported by the general practitioners and that on the death certificate.7 Although both sources of information are prone to error in the attribution of underlying cause of death, we have no reason to suspect systematic differences because of a womans use (or not) of oral contraception. This is especially so for more recent events, for which most of the doctors certifying the deaths will have been unaware of the contraceptive history of the deceased woman.. We were able to adjust for the potentially important confounding factors of age, smoking, social class, parity, and (for some analyses of the general practice observation subset) use of hormone replacement therapy. The adjustments tended to make little ...
If you are considering stopping birth control pills there are several things to consider. First, if you are concerned about contraception there are choices available that do not contain synthetic hormones. Also, natural hormones can be effective for dealing with menstrual issues and dont have the side effects of synthetic hormones.. When tapering off synthetic hormone birth control pills, note that the process takes several months. This allows your natural hormones to return to balance. This is important because your natural hormones were suppressed while taking birth control pills. It is also safe to use hormone supplements during this time.. Note that if you need to continue using birth control pills with synthetic hormones, ask your medical provider about supplementing with natural hormones.. Want to learn more about birth control pills? You can read the full post by Amen Clinics here: The Truth About Birth Control Pills and Hormones.. ...
Some types of progestins can have androgenic effects and some women on birth control pills with an older formulation can find hair loss or hirsutism is actually promoted by the pill. Synthetically made progestins in birth control pills are not the same as naturally produced progestins like progesterone. Some synthetic progestins are structurally very similar to testosterone and/or estrogen so their androgenic or antiandrogenic effects supplement an individuals natural hormone production levels. The response is quite variable from person to person. While some people have excess hair growth from using the pills others may develop hair loss.. New birth control pill formulations contain progestins with less androgenic activity. For example norgestimate or desogestrel are non-androgenic progestins used in modern birth control pill formulations. Those that find birth control pills promote excess hair growth or hair loss usually find switching to another formulation helps. Excess hair growth is ...
Q: I was previously on birth control for almost 2 years and in the middle of April I stopped taking birth control pills. At the begining of June I started back on birth control again. Is it safe to have protected sex now with just the pill and without using another form of birth control, or do I have to wait an entire month after starting on birth control?. A: You will be protected from getting pregnant after 7 days of consistent use of birth control pills. Consistent use means that youre taking the pill every day at the same time (plus or minus 2 hours). So basically, one week of birth control pills is enough to put the ovaries to sleep and keep you from getting pregnant.. However, having the phrases "protected sex" and "without using another form of birth control" in the same sentence makes us a little nervous. We can not stress enough that birth control pills (or patches or shots or IUDs) only protect you from getting pregnant. They do NOT protect you from contracting sexually transmitted ...
According to a Harvard University Study, women may be three times more likely to develop Crohns disease if they have used oral contraceptive pills for five years or more. The risk was especially pronounced in women who already had a genetic predisposition to chronic gastrointestinal disease.. While "the pill" is widely used and highly effective in preventing pregnancy, it has adverse effects.. The study involved 232,452 American women with no prior history of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohns disease (CD) from 1976 to 2008. They found 315 cases of CD and 392 cases of UC.. The results of the study were such that compared with women who had never used oral contraceptives, current users had a 2.82 multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for CD. For past users, the hazard ratio was 1.39.. Reflecting on the strong association between use of oral contraceptives and CD, the authors note that, "After adjusting for known or potential risk factors for CD, including BMI, smoking, hormone use, age at menarche, ...
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control. Two types of female oral contraceptive pill, taken once per day, are widely available: The combined oral contraceptive pill contains estrogen and a progestin The progestogen-only pill Ormeloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which offers the benefit of only having to be taken once a week. Emergency contraception pills ("morning after pills") are taken at the time of intercourse, or within a few days afterwards: Levonorgestrel, sold under the brand name Plan B Ulipristal acetate Mifepristone and misoprostol, when used in combination, are more than 95% effective during the first 50 days of pregnancy. The combination is administered by a physician, and is only used as a last resort Male oral contraceptives are currently not available commercially, although several possibilities are in various stages of research and ...
Background: Understanding the effect of oral contraceptives on risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers is important because oral contraceptive use is a common, modifiable practice.. Methods: We studied 497 BRCA1 and 307 BRCA2 mutation carriers, of whom 195 and 128, respectively, had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Case-control analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression with adjustments for family history and familial relationships and were restricted to subjects with a reference age under 50 years.. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was no significant association between risk of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year [odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.53-1.12] or duration of oral contraceptive use (Ptrend = 0.62). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, there was no association with use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.90-2.92); however, there was an association of elevated ...
Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. Also known as birth control pills, they contain artificially made forms of twohormones produced naturally in the body. These hormones, estrogen and progestin, regulate a womans menstrual cycle. When taken in the proper amounts, following a specific schedule, oral contraceptives are very effective in preventing pregnancy.. Oral contraceptives have several effects that help prevent pregnancy. For pregnancy to occur, an egg must ripen inside a womans ovary, be released, and travel to the fallopian tube (the passageway from the ovary to the uterus). Amans sperm must also reach the fallopian tube, where it fertilizes the egg.Then the fertilized egg must travel to the womans uterus (womb), where it lodges in the uterus lining and develops into a fetus. The main way that oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy is by keeping an egg from ripening fully. Eggs that do not ripen fully cannot be fertilized. In addition, birth ...
Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are produced by the pituitary gland which is located at the base of the brain. These two hormones coordinate the development and release of an egg from the ovary. A surge in both of these hormones ordinarily occurs in the middle of a womans menstrual cycle.. Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates ovarian egg production. Luteinizing hormone triggers egg released from the ovary: ovulation. Oral contraceptive pills inhibit the production of both follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone; as such oral contraceptive pills prevent ovulation.. Another contraceptive mechanism of (combined) birth control pills is to prevent fertilization. Combined oral contraceptives effect cervical secretions. The progestin contained in the birth control pill causes the cervical secretion to thicken which impedes sperm, little or no sperm enter the uterine cavity; as such fertilization cannot occur.. Oral contraceptives do not terminate a pregnancy, they ...
Birth control pills are oral contraceptives. How effective are birth control pills? What if you forget to take the pill? Read on to know everything about birth control pills.
Side effects of birth control pills may keep women from using them as planned. Attempts to decrease side effects led to the two-phase pill. Pills with phases provide different amounts of hormones over three weeks. Whether two-phase pills lead to fewer pregnancies than one-phase pills is unknown. Nor is it known if the pills give better cycle control or have fewer side effects. This review looked at whether two-phase pills worked as well as one-phase pills. It also studied whether women had fewer side effects with these pills.. We did a computer search for studies of birth control pills with two phases versus pills with one phase. We also wrote to researchers and manufacturers to find other trials. We included randomized trials in any language. We found only one trial that looked at one-phase versus two-phase birth control pills. The study authors did not report all their methods. Many of the women dropped out of the trial, and the authors did not give the reasons. The pills did not differ in any ...
After pregnancy do I have to wait for my period to start before I can start the pill again?. How soon you can start birth control pills after a pregnancy depends on whether you gave birth, had an abortion, or had a miscarriage. It also depends on what kind of pill you use.. If youve had an abortion or a miscarriage, you can start taking birth control pills right away.. If youve given birth, when you can start taking birth control pills depends on which kind of pill youre taking. You can start taking progestin-only pills right away. If youre going to be taking combination pills (the kind of pill most people take) you need to wait at least 3 weeks after giving birth to start your pills, depending on certain health factors. If youre breastfeeding and taking combination pills, a small amount of the hormones will be in your breastmilk, but its unlikely these hormones will have any effect on your baby. If youre worried about taking a combination pill while breastfeeding, talk with your doctor ...
WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teen girls who take birth control pills may be less likely to seriously injure their knees than those who dont take the pill, a new study suggests.. "Young athletes currently use birth control pills for various reasons, including more predictable cycles and lighter periods," said study author Aaron Gray, an M.D./Ph.D. student at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.. "Injury risk reduction could potentially be added to that list," he said, if future studies confirm what the new study found. The study did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between birth control pills and knee injuries. The researchers only found an association between these factors.. Female athletes are up to twice as likely to suffer an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury as male athletes, the study authors said. The ACL connects the top and bottom parts of the knee.. Researchers reviewed data from more than 23,000 girls between the ages of 15 and 19 in the ...
Dear President Obama and HHS Secretary Sebelius: Publicize the fact that birth control pills are a Group I carcinogen (in the same group as tobacco) now that women can get them free of charge. The free availability of birth control pills (BCP) has received widespread publicity. What hasnt been publicized as well is the cancer risk associated with taking them. Its just human nature that if something is free more people will take it. So now more women than ever will probably take BCPs since they are going to be provided free of charge because of the Affordable Care Act. Yet according to the World Health Organizations 2012 Review of Human Carcinogens: "There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of combined estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives. Combined estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives cause cancer of the breast, in-situ and invasive cancer of the uterine cervix, and cancer of the liver."1 Even the American Cancer Society classifies estrogen-progestogen oral ...
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Health, By a href http://www.healthday.com/healthday...THURSDAY July 31 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Birth control pills contai... There are numerous oral contraceptive formulations explained lead r...Overall birth control pill use within the past year was associated wi...This study was designed to find a possible link between oral contracep...,Some,Birth,Control,Pills,May,Up,Breast,Cancer,Risk,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Continuous oral contraceptive administration entails women taking hormonally active pills for 28 days without a seven day placebo week to avoid hormonal withdrawal bleeding. Unfortunately, with continuous administration, timed, regular bleeding can be replace by irregular, unscheduled bleeding, which often leads to dissatisfaction, discontinuation and the possibility of unplanned pregnancy.. MMPs, a group of zinc-dependant proteases, are hypothesized to play a role in endometrial degradation. The purpose of this study is to describe the expression of MMPs in endometrial biopsy (EMB) specimens collected 1) prior to initiating oral contraceptives 2) while taking cyclic oral contraceptive 3) while taking continuous oral contraceptives and 4) while taking continuous oral contraceptives along with sub-antimicrobial doxycycline. ...
Combined oral contraceptives are directed blocking ovulation.OK These comprise a combination of estradiol and progestin - levonorgestrel.They are divided into monophasic (the level of hormonal substances in the tablets remains unchanged throughout the reception) or three-phase (three tablets contain a combination of hormones that change during the menstrual cycle).. Low-dose monophasic OK - its like: Sizonal, Sizonik, Lybrel, Yasmin.. Mini-pill - the pill containing the hormone progestogen similar to the natural hormone progesterone, which is produced by a womans ovaries.Pure progestogen tablets contain only one component and are different from the more common combination of contraceptive pills which contain the estrogen and progestogen.. Below is a list of birth control for age, that woman gave birth or not yet, there is suffering what some hormonal or other disorders of the body.. - Mikrodozirovannye control pills. They are suitable for young, nulliparous women, leading a regular sex ...
There are two kinds of hormonal birth control pills: (1) the combination pill which contains estrogen and progestin and (2) the progestin-only pill (known as the minipill). Combo pills are significantly more effective than progestin-only pills and have the added benefit of less breakthrough bleeding. However, some women cannot tolerate estrogen and prefer the progestin-only pill. Both types of pills are available in several different brands, each of which have slightly different blends of hormones.. These two kinds of hormonal birth control are available in other forms besides pills. The combination formula is also available as a patch and a vaginal ring. The progestin-only formula is also available in intramuscular shots (Depo-Provera), an implant (Implanon), and in intrauterine devices (the Mirena IUD).. Some women may prefer these other forms of hormonal birth control because they can be taken less often (and consequently are easier to remember). While birth control pills must be taken ...
Birth control pills are made of hormones that prevent ovulation. The hormones in the pill also cause changes in the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus. The cervical mucus thickens, which blocks the sperm from entering the cervix. The lining of the uterus thins, making it less likely that a fertilized egg can attach to it. Together, these events make it very unlikely that someone taking the pill will become pregnant.. The pill is a very effective form of birth control. When women use the pill correctly, fewer than 1 in 100 will get pregnant over 1 year. But, about 8 in 100 typical users (8%) will become pregnant. This is because one or more pills may be missed or are not absorbed (due to vomiting for instance). If this occurs, a backup method of birth control, such as a condom or spermicides, should be used. If pills are missed and a backup method is not used, emergency contraception can be used to prevent pregnancy.. The birth control pill is easy to use and convenient. But it does not ...
Yaz, Yasmin, Ocella & Gianvi birth control pills linked to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Injured by birth control side effects? We have lawyer & lawsuit information.
Leg pain and birth control pills - I have varicose venis on my leg. Can I take birth control pills "yaz"? Birth control & vein. There are many risk factors for developing blood clots & the more risk factors that you have the higher the chance that you could develop a blood clot. Both hormonal birth control & varicose veins increase your risk for blood clots, so adding the 2 risks is worse than 1 risk alone. Best option is treating the varicose veins so that this risk no longer exists, making birth control less of an issue
Ortho Tricyclen and Ortho-Cyclen, each with 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol, contain slightly higher amounts of estrogen in each type of pill than Ortho Tricyclen Lo) YASMIN and YAZ are two more low dose birth control pills containing 0.03 mg and 0.02 mg respectively. of estrogen but they have a different type of progestin from the other pills called drospirenone (3.0 mg). On the down side, since Yasmin/Yaz can increase levels of potassium, it is not recommended for women with liver, adrenal or kidney problems but on the up side, Yasmin/Yaz appear to reduce water retention and therefore bloating and in some women gives a sense of well being. These pills also have a following among acne sufferers as they seem to improve this skin condition in a lot of cases.As with many other types of birth control pills, Yasmin may not be suitable for you if you also take other over-the-counter pain relievers, potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements or specific medications so you MUST check this out ...
What happens when you stop taking yaz birth control pills - Would birth control pills like Yaz (drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol) treat oligomenorrhea even after you stop taking them? And for how long do you take them as a treatment pls? Yaz (drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol) I suggest you see an OB if you want to treat oligomenorrhea, but hormones and naturopathic remedies can help as well. The BCP effects are not there unless they are taken regularly, and are the current main treatment to keep periods regular. If you have PCOS you need to see a Gyne-Endo to treat your problem effectively
Quoted from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/01/business/01drug.html U.S. Orders Review of Risks of Some Birth Control Pills By BLOOMBERG NEWS Published: May 31, 2011 Bayers birth control pills will be reviewed by regulators after some studies suggested they may cause more blood clots than competing medicines. Two recent reports in the British Medical Journal found a twofold to threefold greater risk of blood clots in women taking pills like Bayers Yaz, the Food and Drug Administration said Tuesday in a statement. European regulators said last week that they were revising the products prescribing information to include the new safety findings. While all birth control...
Some people wrongly believe that if they take birth control pills, they are protecting themselves not only from getting pregnant but also from infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Birth control pills or other types of birth control, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs), Depo-Provera, or tubal ligation will NOT protect you from HIV and other STDs.. The male latex condom is the only birth control method that is proven to help protect you from HIV and other STDs. If you are allergic to latex, there are condoms made of polyurethane that you can use. Condoms come lubricated (which can make sexual intercourse more comfortable and pleasurable) and non-lubricated (which can be used for oral sex).. It is important to only use latex or polyurethane condoms to protect against HIV and other STDs. Natural" or "lambskin" condoms have tiny pores that may allow for the passage of viruses like HIV, hepatitis B and herpes. If you use non-lubricated condoms for vaginal or anal sex, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral contraceptives are not an effective treatment for ovarian cysts. AU - Seehusen, Dean. AU - Scott Earwood, J.. PY - 2014/11/1. Y1 - 2014/11/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84908315040&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84908315040&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 90. JO - American Family Physician. JF - American Family Physician. SN - 0002-838X. IS - 9. ER - ...
Actually Sandra, a lot of women stop taking birth control pills because they believed that it causes them to gain weight however a study have shown that birth control pills do not cause weight gain in a lot of women. Your gained weight might be due to lack of exercise and of poor diet. Were you been this active lately or did you do any workout?. ...
Hi. Its Jenny at AnxietyBoss.com. Our question today is from Elizabeth in Shopville, Kentucky. I am taking birth control pills and its giving me anxiety. Ive read that birth control pills can increase the risk of blood clots which is about 6 in 30,000 and it gives me anxiety. What can I do about it?. Well, a 6 out of 30,000 chance of an adverse event, thats pretty slim. Six out of 30,000 is a .002 percent chance, if Ive figured this out correctly. When someone has anxiety, its very easy to focus in on a detail, expand it and start worrying.. A few years ago, I had minor surgery. The surgeon was going to give me bupivacaine, a long lasting local anesthetic, so I looked it up. And I found that theres a risk of cardiac arrest with difficult resuscitation. This can only occur if the anesthesiologist or surgeon misses their target and hits a large blood vessel, typically a vein. Do you know whats worse than cardiac arrest? Is cardiac arrest with difficult resuscitation? I felt so freaked out ...
The blockbuster birth control pill with benefits, Yaz was pitched as the choice for women desperate for relief from severe PMS and acne. But now, new independent studies have found that Yaz carries higher blood clotting risks than other leading birth control pills.
Objectives: Oral contraceptives (OCP) are highly effective, safe and widely used. Higher exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogens is generally thought to increase the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if oral contraceptive use affected the expression of CA 15-3, CEA and C-erb B-2 in the saliva of healthy women. Study design: The participants consisted of 87 healthy women (43 controls and 44 using oral contraceptives) ranging in age from 20 to 54 years. The volunteers participated by giving one ? time stimulated whole saliva samples. Then the samples were analysed for CA 15-3, CEA and C-erb B-2 concentrations. Results: The student t-test was used to compare group means for variables with comparable variability. The mean of C-erb B-2, CEA, and CA 15-3 concentrations (in the case and control groups) was (1.93, 1.70), (34.46, 31.62) and (12.58, 16.19) respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ...
Approximately 11.6 million women in the United States use oral contraceptives (OCs) each year. The vast majority of OCs combine both estrogen and a type of progestin, or progesterone-like substance into one pill which is taken daily. Depression or a negative change in mood, apparently resulting from the use of OCs, is thought to be one of the main reasons women miss pills or stop taking their oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) altogether. Clinical observation that some women develop depression when taking progestin only OCs or when adding progestins to menopausal estrogen therapy has led to the speculation that the progestin is the likely culprit of these negative mood changes in women using combined OCPs.. The current study is designed to investigate the role of progestins in the development of mood symptoms in OCP users. Women participating in this study will receive one of two different OCPs for three months. Their mood while taking the OCPs will be compared to their mood prior to using OCPs. In ...
If youre familiar with MTHFR mutations, then youve probably already figured out why this is a no-win situation for us MTHFR gals, but if youre not then read on. Birth Control Pills are known to deplete folate levels in women and have been known to do so since the 80s. This is a problem for all women, but especially those who have compromised folate metabolism in the first place (ahem, thats us MTHFR folks). This folate depletion is part of the reason for some of the most common side effects of birth control pills - fatigue, mild depression, even acne. Its also linked to an increased risk of neural tube defects in babies born to women who have recently stopped using birth control pills.. Due to the risk of neural-tube defects in women who become pregnant after recently stopping birth control pills, a new folate-fortified pill called Beyaz ® has been developed. In good news, it is supplemented with an active form of folate so if youre an MTHFR gal and you absolutely must take oral ...
New research shows that during natural menstrual cycles, women with asthma who were not taking oral contraceptives (OC) had lower exhaled nitric oxide levels (eNO), a marker of airway inflammation associated with asthma, ...
As mentioned earlier, female contraceptives have a number of negative side effects. A March 2018 study added a new complication: Women who take oral contraceptives run the risk of ischemic strokes. An ischemic stroke occurs when an artery that supplies blood to the brain gets clogged up.. "[Among] women with other stroke risk factors, the risk seems higher and, in most cases, oral contraceptive use should be discouraged," warned the Loyola University Chicago (Loyola) study that came across this finding.. The risk is not limited to just birth control pills. Patches and jabs can increase the chances of a blood clot that can clog up a vital artery. The researchers made sure to point out that this mainly applies to women who smoke, suffer from high blood pressure, and exhibit or indulge in risk factors for clotting. The risk for healthy women is lower.. Furthermore, the Loyola study clarifies that female contraceptives do not affect the chances of hemorrhagic strokes. That type of stroke stems from ...
Birth control pills (BCPs) are both the most effective and the most hazardous form of contraception. Preventing pregnancy in this way is done by taking an oral dose of a combination of the hormones estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) in amounts higher than the body?s natural levels. This prevents the pituitary hormones that stimulate ovulation and fertilization of the egg from being released, and thus prevents pregnancy. Though taking oral contraceptives regularly is 99 percent effective in birth control, there are many possible side effects. Weight gain, emotional swings, circulatory and vascular symptoms, and gastrointestinal upset are not uncommon. Blood clots, liver problems, and cancer are also possible, though relatively rare; these were more common in the 1960s with the higher-dose pills. Many women have difficulty with oral contraceptives, though many others seem to tolerate them well. The use of birth control pills is more common in young women and teenagers, which adds ...
Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Evidence based information on family planning (contraception) including the oral contraceptive pill.
Abstract. We describe a fulminant autochthonous hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E (HEV) in a patient admitted in our hospital for liver-transplant evaluation. The only risk factor recorded for this severe course was the use of oral contraceptives that are known to mimic a hormonal status similar to pregnancy. The diagnosis was based on the presence of IgG and IgM anti-HEV in the serum of the patient and confirmed by the isolation of a strain of HEV genotype 3f from a blood sample obtained the fourth day after hospital admission. HEV genotype 3 is present in human and swine populations in Spain. The patient began to recover while waiting for a liver transplant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fulminant hepatitis E in a non-pregnant European patient on oral contraceptives.
The simultaneous effects of cigarette smoking and oral contraceptives on serum estradiol and progesterone levels were investigated in 114 premenopausal women. Serum 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. In smokers, estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly lower (p less than 0.025). In smokers using oral contraceptives, estradiol and progesterone levels were the lowest (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively). The findings suggest that smoking and oral contraceptives independently lower serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations in premenopausal women and that the effects may be additive.
Birth control pills are the most common choice among women when it comes to protection against unwanted pregnancy, and because women are different, there are many different types of birth control pills.. Birth control pills, if taken correctly, are highly effective in preventing the unwanted pregnancy. They are one of the most popular methods of contraception among women. The pill is 99.9% effective if taken correctly. It provides protection from unwanted pregnancy, but not the protection against sexually transmitted diseases.. You should take birth control pills only after previous consultation with the doctor, not on your own. There are various manufacturers on the market that produce contraceptives with different doses of hormones. Also, birth control pills cannot be taken by all women because side effects can affect certain health problems. This is why you should discuss the benefits and risks with the doctor before making a decision.. ...
Although there are some reports of sexual side effects in women using a range of hormonal contraception, there is no consistent pattern of effect. Some published data has indicated that premenopausal women who take oral contraceptive pills may have a lower average frequency of sexual thoughts, interest, and days of sexual activity/month (it is hypothesized that oral contraceptive pills increase sex hormone-binding globulin and lower free testosterone). Other studies, however, show that sexual interest scores do not change significantly for women on oral contraceptive pills. Further research is required to clarify the effect of oral contraceptive pills on sexual function.. ...
Combined oral contraceptive pill: | | | Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
It should be noted, however, that oral contraceptives have beneficial effects for the very reason that they do interfere or compensate for the hormonal interplay of the female reproductive system. For example, the consistent use of oral contraceptives after laparoscopic excision of ovarian endometriosis, "effectively prevents endometrioma recurrence" (Vercellini et al., 2008). Endometriosis is a painful and debilitating condition that affects the uterine lining. It typically leads to infertility. The cause and cure for endometriosis is not known, but surgery can slow down the condition and help preserve fertility. As the study in the American Journal of Obstretrics and Gynecology showed, oral contraceptives can be a helpful tool in preventing a come back after surgery. Oral contraceptives have also assisted women with a reduction in acne. In one case, researchers completed a randomized, double blind study to compare the effects of a combination BCP on moderate acne. They randomized healthy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women. T2 - A prospective study of age, hormone dose, and discontinuation. AU - Scholes, Delia. AU - Hubbard, Rebecca A.. AU - Ichikawa, Laura E.. AU - LaCroix, Andrea Z.. AU - Spangler, Leslie. AU - Beasley, Jeannette M.. AU - Reed, Susan. AU - Ott, Susan M.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Context: Oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, but bone changes associated with use of contemporary OC remain unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) change in adolescent and young adultOCusers and discontinuers of two estrogen doses, relative to nonusers. Design and Setting: This was a prospective cohort study, Group Health Cooperative. Participants: Participants included 606 women aged 14-30 yr (50% adolescents aged 14-18 yr): 389 OC users [62% 30-35 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)] and 217 age-similar nonusers; there were 172 OC discontinuers. The 24-month retention ...
It is now estimated that the prevalence of oral contraceptive use in athletic women matches that of women in the general population. The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) reduces cycle-length variability
Obese women who used oral contraceptives appeared to have increased risk for a rare type of stroke known as a cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) compared with women of normal weight who did not use oral contraceptives, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology.
Pfizer announced yesterday that theyre recalling around 1 million packets of birth control pills in the U.S. Consumers wont be harmed if they do take them, but the company warned there may not be enough contraceptive to prevent pregnancy.. The announcement on the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations site says those affected by the recall are urged by Pfizer to "begin using a non-hormonal form of contraception immediately.". The issue involves 14 lots of Lo/Ovral-28 tablets and 14 lots of Norgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol tablets. Pfizers investigation found some packs of the pills might contain either an inexact count of inert or active ingredients in the pills. Some blister packs may have pills out of sequence, an important factor when taking a daily oral contraceptive.. The pills are marketed by Akrimax Pharmaceuticals and were shipped nationwide to pharmacies, warehouses and clinics.. The U.S. FDA says if you have the affected product, notify your doctor and return the product to the ...
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To the editor: Horwitz and Feinstein (1) conclude from their epidemiologic study of endometrial cancer that "no association exists between the use of oral contraceptive pills and the subsequent development of endometrial cancer." They correctly point out that a limitation of their data is that only a small number of patients and control subjects had previously used contraceptive pills. Their data may also be limited by the relatively short time from the introduction of contraceptive pills to the present. A typical latent period from exposure to known chemical carcinogens until detection of cancer is 20 to 40 years (2-4). Oral ...
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Medications taken daily that prevent ovulation by controlling pituitary hormone secretion. Usually, oral contraceptives contain the hormones estrogen and progestin. In addition to prevention of pregnancy, oral contraceptives have several health benefits including regulating menstrual cycles and decreasing the amount and length of menstrual periods. This can help increase iron stores in women with iron deficiency associated with excessive bleeding. Prevention of certain ovarian and endometrial cancers is a significant benefit of the use of oral contraceptives. Some research has found that some benign (noncancerous) breast diseases, including fibroadenoma and cystic changes, occur less frequently with the use of oral contraceptives. Recent studies have also suggested that oral contraceptive use may reduce the occurrence of severe disabling rheumatoid arthritis.. ...
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Medications taken daily that prevent ovulation by controlling pituitary hormone secretion. Usually, oral contraceptives contain the hormones estrogen and progestin. In addition to prevention of pregnancy, oral contraceptives have several health benefits including regulating menstrual cycles and decreasing the amount and length of menstrual periods. This can help increase iron stores in women with iron deficiency associated with excessive bleeding. Prevention of certain ovarian and endometrial cancers is a significant benefit of the use of oral contraceptives. Some research has found that some benign (noncancerous) breast diseases, including fibroadenoma and cystic changes, occur less frequently with the use of oral contraceptives. Recent studies have also suggested that oral contraceptive use may reduce the occurrence of severe disabling rheumatoid arthritis.. ...
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Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations. The main division is between combined oral contraceptive pills, containing both estrogens and synthetic progestogens (progestins), and progestogen only pills (mini-pills). Combined oral contraceptive pills also come in varying types, including varying doses of estrogen, and whether the dose of estrogen or progestogen changes from week to week. "[S]exual health [is the] mental, social, and physical well-being in connection to an individuals sexuality" Combination pills usually work by preventing a womans ovaries from releasing eggs (ovulation). They also thicken the cervical mucus, which keeps sperm from penetrating into the uterus and joining with an egg. The hormones in combination and progestogen-only pills also thin the lining of the uterus. This could prevent pregnancy by interfering with implantation of a blastocyst. Main action in typical use is prevention of ovulation. All contain an estrogen, ethinylestradiol or mestranol, in ...
The study had several strengths. Firstly, we are likely to have identified all potential diagnosed cases of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in the study cohort, because information about outpatient and emergency department visits and hospital admissions in the UK is sent to general practitioners, and the practices contributing to the General Practice Research Database are trained to record the diagnoses associated with such visits and admissions in the patients record. Secondly, referral and diagnostic biases seem unlikely explanations for our results, as an elevated risk in users of the drospirenone oral contraceptive was also apparent in the analysis confined to cases of pulmonary embolism-cases in whom the severity of the condition makes any potential differential referral of users of the newer oral contraceptive much less likely. Thirdly, for both cases and controls, information about the medical history and prescription of oral contraceptives and other drugs came from medical records and ...
Study shows that continued taking of birth control pill before or after a pregnancy will not abort the fetus. Its also unlikely that taking the pill will have an effect on fetal development. Oral contraceptives dont cause miscarriages because they dont work in that way.. ...
This population-based study found that the use of high-dose formulations of oral contraceptives used before the mid 1970s was associated with increased risk of early-onset breast cancer. There was no evidence, however, that use of current low-dose oral contraceptive formulations was associated with increased risk of breast cancer either for carriers or noncarriers of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the use of current oral contraceptives formulations for at least 1 year was associated with a substantially reduced risk that was highly statistically significant, and this association did not seem to depend on duration of use, time since last use, or age at first use.. In a previous study, the association between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk was assessed by a comprehensive meta-analysis of an estimated 90% of the relevant data worldwide collected up to the early 1990s (1). Many of the studies combined in the meta-analysis included subjects who took the ...
The effects of the triphasic oral Contraceptive (Ethinylestradiol (EE) and Levonorgesterol (LNG)) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism was evaluated in ninety-seven black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited between June 1984 and May 1985 and they were followed up for twelve months. There was an increase in fastlng levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c). These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at nine months and twelve months (p, 0.05). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. This triphasic oral contraceptive was found to have minimal effect on the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism ...
Weight gain is a common concern for many women who are looking to start hormonal forms of birth control. Most studies oppose the theory that hormonal birth control causes weight gain. Still, some women do report gaining a few pounds in the weeks and months after they start taking the pill. This is often temporary and the result of water retention, not actual weight gain. Decades ago, hormonal contraception used hormones at levels much higher than we use today.. Changes in hormonal birth control and advances in combination forms of the pill have addressed this issue. Most, if not all, pills birth control pills that help acne and lose weight high enough estrogen levels to cause weight gain. The vast majority of these studies have found no reasonable evidence to support the claim. Any weight snd that may occur in the first weeks or months after beginning birth control is typically due to water retention.. Shortly after you begin taking birth control, you may notice other side effects in addition to ...
Weight gain is thought to be a side effect of birth control methods. Many women and healthcare providers believe that pills and patches cause weight gain. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of these effective birth control methods. Fear of weight gain keeps some women from starting the pill or patch. Women may stop using the pill because they think it caused weight gain. This review looked at trials of birth control pills or patches where the womans weight was measured.. In November 2013, we did a computer search for studies of pills or patches containing two types of hormones. For the initial review, we also wrote to researchers and manufacturers to find other trials. We included randomized trials in the English language if they had at least three treatment cycles. The studies also had to compare two types of birth control methods or one type with a dummy method.. We found 49 trials. These trials compared 52 different pairs of birth control methods, or a birth control method and a ...
Its clear that oral contraception is reliable only if you take it on time. But do you know what to do if you missed birth control pill? Find out now.
The effect of oral contraceptives on urinary and plasma vitamin B₆ as well as erythrocyte transaminase activities was investigated in women. Five women who were taking oral contraceptives and four who were not using these drugs served as subjects. They were apparently healthy and free from any known metabolic disorder. The subjects, who consumed normal diets, recorded their dietary intake for three days. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected on two consecutive days by the subjects. On the morning of the second day blood for the various biochemical measurements was drawn from fasting subjects. Following the blood drawing the women were given an oral dose of 3 g of L-methionine. Results of the methionine load test are reported elsewhere. The subjects consumed diets that supplied at least two-thirds or more of their National Academy of Science-National Research Council (1974) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for most nutrients except iron and vitamin B₆. The mean dietary intake of ...
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Ten years ago, Dr. Chris Kahlenborn, authored the book Breast Cancer: Its Link to Abortion and the Birth Control Pill, which established the connection between the birth control pill and breast cancer.. Now, a federal study confirms that data.. The study shows a strong connection between the use of oral contraceptives and a particularly aggressive form of breast cancer with a high mortality rate, known as "triple-negative" breast cancer (TNBC). The study also found that the connection was highest among women who began using oral contraceptives while they were teenagers.. The 2009 Jessica Dolle study of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center appeared in the April 2009 issue of the cancer epidemiology journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention.. The research showed that women who start using oral contraceptives before the age of 18 multiply their risk of TNBC by 3.7 times. Recent users of oral contraceptives within the last one to five years multiply their risk by 4.2 ...
Our survey findings provide a benchmark for public sentiment on issues that are continually dividing lawmakers, businesspeople and healthcare professionals, said Raymond Fabius, chief medical officer at the healthcare business of Thomson Reuters.. The poll, which addresses public attitudes toward birth control pills, was developed by Thomson Reuters and NPR as part of a new monthly series designed to gauge attitudes and opinions on a wide range of healthcare issues. Poll results are reported by NPRs Scott Hensley on the health blog Shots and on air.. The poll found that 77% of respondents believed private insurance should cover most or all cost of oral contraceptives, and 74% believed government-subsidized insurance plans should cover birth control pills.. Additionally, 78% favored federal government subsidies of birth control and other family planning services, excluding abortion, at government-funded clinics for low-income women.. Complete survey results are available here.. To date, Thomson ...
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Women with any of these conditions should be checked often by their healthcare professional if they choose to use oral contraceptives.. Also, be sure to inform your healthcare professional if you smoke or are on any medications.. RISKS OF TAKING ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES 1. Risk of Developing Blood Clots Blood clots and blockage of blood vessels are one of the most serious side effects of taking oral contraceptives and can cause death or serious disability. In particular, a clot in the legs can cause thrombophlebitis and a clot that travels to the lungs can cause a sudden blocking of the vessel carrying blood to the lungs. Rarely, clots occur in the blood vessels of the eye and may cause blindness, double vision, or impaired vision.. If you take oral contraceptives and need elective surgery, need to stay in bed for a prolonged illness or injury or have recently delivered a baby, you may be at risk of developing blood clots. You should consult your healthcare professional about stopping oral ...
I have been on my period for over 45 days on and off. I went to my GP and she felt it was stress related hormone imbalance and gave me birth control pills to stop the bleeding. I have taken 14 pills...
Certain antibiotics, like penicillin, can compromise the effectiveness of birth control. Unfortunately, its not possible to really give you an exact percentage of "risk" caused by the reduced effectiveness. Its unpredictable how each persons body will exactly react. So we generally recommend that you consider any cycle where antibiotics are used to be significantly compromised.. In this situation, the best answer is to make sure that you are backing up your birth control pills for the entire cycle that is effected by the penicillin. So youll want to wait until the next cycle after you stop taking the antibiotics before relying on your pill to protect you. Until then, its easy as pie to backup with condoms and condom-safe lube (or you could look into getting another method like a diaphram or Leas Shield). If youre not comfortable with the level of protection provided by doing that, you might just want to consider abstaining until you can count on your pill again.. Its probably best to ...
Certain antibiotics, like penicillin, can compromise the effectiveness of birth control. Unfortunately, its not possible to really give you an exact percentage of "risk" caused by the reduced effectiveness. Its unpredictable how each persons body will exactly react. So we generally recommend that you consider any cycle where antibiotics are used to be significantly compromised.. In this situation, the best answer is to make sure that you are backing up your birth control pills for the entire cycle that is effected by the penicillin. So youll want to wait until the next cycle after you stop taking the antibiotics before relying on your pill to protect you. Until then, its easy as pie to backup with condoms and condom-safe lube (or you could look into getting another method like a diaphram or Leas Shield). If youre not comfortable with the level of protection provided by doing that, you might just want to consider abstaining until you can count on your pill again.. Its probably best to ...
Discussing issues like abstinence, STDs, and birth control can help lower teens risk of unintended pregnancy or getting an STD. The birth control pill (also called the Pill) is a daily pill that is taken to prevent pregnancy.
Discussing issues like abstinence, STDs, and birth control can help lower teens risk of unintended pregnancy or getting an STD. The birth control pill (also called the Pill) is a daily pill that is taken to prevent pregnancy.
So, I need to know what will happen to me if I happened to get pregnant while taking birth control. Long story short, I missed a lot of birth control pills (4 before/ 1 after) my week off the pills...
Unless youre trying for a baby, getting your period regularly is both a blessing and a curse. Birth control measures adopted by many women due to its high efficacy and low failure rate. But too can sometimes cause a lot of concern in women. Many women miss their periods while on birth control pills. The common concern
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Birth control pills are up to 99 percent effective at preventing pregnancy, but only when the pills are used consistently and correctly every day.
Health Canada is announcing a recall of Freya-28 birth control pills after a pharmacy reported a placebo pill was found in place of an active one in a faulty package.
Drugmaker Glenmark Generics is recalling seven lots of birth control pills because in some packages, the pills were in the wrong order. Video
This process is known as implantation. Hello, Im 27 yrs outdated and ttc. First trimester pregnancy marks the start of your week by week fetus development. Similar story right here - an excessive amount of to ship it back for a return so now Im stuck with it. In fact, our basic premise applies right here: that the simple, safe, and less expensive therapies should be explored first. Higher oestrogen levels within the body may cause complications for some pregnant girls. You will be asked to take note of your body temperature throughout the day. Gaining extreme weight only adds to the compressive forces on your again and will contribute to lower back pain. Add within the pregnancy clumsiness and the lesson turns into: Use a mirror or name the waxer. was acog guideline management of recurrent early pregnancy loss she was gaining alot of weight and becoming birth control pill pregnancy in placebo week regularly. For instance, if your mother experienced menopause at age 60, youll most likely ...
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Unfortunately, the birth control pill Yaz continues to be linked to serious health complications in women. If you are one of these people and you live in - April 12, 2012
If your doctor prescribes medications for a condition or illness you are having, be sure to check with him or her as to whether the medication will interfere with your birth control pills.
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Birth control pills work great if women remember to take them every day but missing doses can mean a surprise pregnancy. Now scientists have figured out how to pack a months supply into one capsule.
The Food and Drug Administration announced earlier this month that they had placed a nationwide recall on Mibelas 24 Fe, a popular birth control pill after a packaging error was discovered.
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WASHINGTON - No prescription or doctors exam needed: The nations largest group of obstetricians and gynecologists says birth control pills should be sold over the counter, like condoms.
No prescription or doctors exam needed: The nations largest group of obstetricians and gynecologists says birth control pills should be sold over the counter, like condoms
Last week, the FDA approved a new birth control pill that contains folate, a B vitamin that is best well-known for preventing neural tube birth defects. If youre wondering why a pill-user-someone who is expressly trying NOT to get pregnant&mda
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When it comes to birth control pills, it's really important to take the right ones at the right time to prevent pregnancy. So Pfizer is recalling two
According to two new studies released this week, obesity and birth control pills may play a part in the development of multiple sclerosis, but dont throw out
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A personal injury attorneys blog posting that is commenting on the new federal warning regarding the birth control pills Yaz and Yasmin.
Using referred controls-persons who were initially suspected of having the same disease as the case patients-in a case-control study is not always a mistake; it can be a good strategy for ruling out diagnostic suspicion or referral bias, as exemplified by the association between oral contraceptive use and VT. Suppose that oral contraceptives would not cause VT, contrary to physicians beliefs. If a young woman presented with signs and symptoms of VT, knowing that she used oral contraceptives would sway her physician to refer her for diagnostic work-up, whereas the physician might not have referred her otherwise because thrombosis is unlikely in young women (2). Case-control studies enroll patients according to the diagnosis they receive and would thereby show a spurious association between oral contraceptives and VT because more case patients than controls would be using oral contraceptives. This hypothetical situation exemplifies the influence of diagnostic suspicion bias in case-control ...
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This could make it easier to breathe-yet your pee breaks will turn into ever extra frequent. Please try once more later. Begin progressively. The amniotic fluid can be at its highest now, and the child may begin taking alternate breaths, thereby getting himself prepared to breathe air. I have the power to speak with childs emotions from inside and out of doors the womb. Its also south beach diet and pregnancy can birth control pills throw off a pregnancy test name the free and confidential NHS Being pregnant smoking helpline on 0800 169 9169. This hormone allows contractions of the womb throughout pregnancy and labor. Fruits generally is a substitute for a sugary dessert, and they can be eaten can birth control pills throw off a pregnancy test, canned, signs early chemical pregnancy, and dried. There he was concerned in analysis in radiation biology and acquired the Huisking Scholarship. Most specialists feel that a month is a suitable time interval, but that will vary due to the availability ...
Yaz Manufactured by Bayer Pharmaceuticals was one of the most popular birth control pills. Unfortunately due to the ingredients has been shown to cause blood clots, pulmonary embolism, blood clots, stroke, deep vein thrombosis and in some cases fatal complications.. The Yaz Birth Control Pills Helpline is launching a nationwide campaign to locate women who suffered a blood clot after taking the birth control pill Yaz. There are state statute of limitations in effect and time may be limited to file your Yaz lawsuit.. I you, a daughter, wife, sister or friend has suffered a blood clot, Deep Vein Thrombosis, stroke or Pulmonary Embolism after taking Yaz or Yasmin contact the Yaz Birth Control Pills Helpline to be connected with a Yaz lawyer to see if you have a Yaz lawsuit. The first payouts for Yaz blood clots have begun, The Yaz Birth Control Pills Helpline does not want any woman injured by Yaz to be left pour or find out it is too late.. On October 25, 2011, the British Medical Journal ...
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The injectable progestin contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may raise the risk for HIV infection by 40% in women, according to a research review.. DMPA is the major form of hormonal contraceptive used in sub-Saharan Africa, which also has the highest worldwide HIV prevalence, particularly in young women, Healio reports the researchers noted in the review. Other forms of contraception, including combined oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel or the injectable contraceptive norethisterone enanthate, were not associated with increased HIV infection risk, they wrote.. "Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) used as a highly effective three-monthly injectable contraceptive, Depo-Provera, acts differently to other progestins widely used in contraceptives," Dr Janet P Hapgood, of the department of molecular and cell biology and the Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, is quoted in the report as saying. "Available ...
Background & aim: The rate of unintended pregnancy has decreased from 24% to 16% in the last four to five years in Pakistan. However, this rate stills varies among the women living in the rural and urban areas of Pakistan. The females residing in the rural areas are less likely to have many contraceptive choices and receive no/low-quality family planning services; as a result, they end up with birth control failure and unintended pregnancy. Regarding this, more studies are needed to investigate the association between the unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use, particularly in the rural areas of Pakistan.Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy among the women at reproductive age living in Thatta district, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods:This nested case-control study was conducted on the women living in Thatta district during June 2011-July 2012. The pregnant women who did not want more children were considered as cases,
Product Name: Drospirenone & Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets. Common Name: Birth Control Pills. Strength: 3 mg & 0.03 mg. Description:. Drospirenone is an ingredient in some birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy. In combination with ethinyl estradiol it is used as contraception, and it is also used to treat moderate acne and premenstrual dysphoric disorder all of which are combination products of drospirenone with an estrogen such as ethinylestradiol or estradiol. This medication is a combination of 2 hormones: an estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and a progestin (drospirenone).. Indications and Usage:. Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol tablets are indicated for use by women to prevent pregnancy.. Drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol is also indicated for the treatment of symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in women who choose to use an oral contraceptive as their method of contraception. The effectiveness of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol for PMDD when used for more than three ...
Etonogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol is a Hormonal Contraceptive (birth control) medication. Etonogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol are analogues of the female hormones Progesterone and Estrogen, respectively. This combination is marketed as NuvaRing.. Hormonal contraceptives are not frequently used as a primary treatment for acne, but many women report substantial changes in their acne symptoms after starting use of Hormonal Contraceptives.. There are many different typesof Hormonal Contraceptives. All Hormonal Contraceptives include versions of the female sex hormones estrogen and/or progesterone. The specific composition of these hormones varies between different types of Hormonal Contraceptives.. Hormones have a major impact on acne symptoms. Female sex hormones (eg. Estrogen, Progesterone) and male sex hormones (eg. Testosterone) control many important functions within the body. Use of Hormonal Contraceptives has been shown to improve acne in some women and worsen it in others, with comparable ...
Ethinylestradiol/Desogestrel 0.02 mg/0.15 mg and 0.03 mg/0.15 mg Teva, tablets. Because the drug substance is dissolved before the manufacture of.. Das Östrogen ist meistens Ethinylestradiol in. Norgestimat und Desogestrel sind lediglich. Die Dosis des Ethinylestradiols in der „ Pille" liegt.Will metronidazole gel affect birth control metformin for birth control desogestrel ethinyl estradiol mercilon. birth control pills containing ethinyl estradiol.ethinylestradiol 30mcg desogestrel 150 mcg Can you take levothyroxine with birth control levaquin effects birth control chances of multiple births clomid does abilify.Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel? Hier rezeptfrei bestellen! Auf der Suche nach einer Pille mit Desogestrel?. 0,030 mg Ethinylestradiol.Desogestrel und Ethinylestradiol (EE) im Verhältnis 2,5: 1 bis zum 10 6 fachen der Humandosis waren nicht letal und führten zu keinerlei toxischen Effekten ...
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22.1 Contraceptives *22.1.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives. *22.1.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives ... Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and availability. ... In acute diarrhoea zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts ... cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration due to better bioavailability. ...
Vinyl chloride, combined oral contraceptive pill, anabolic steroid, arsenic, thorotrast. Diagnosis[edit]. ... a) Bland: Oral contraceptive pills, anabolic steroid, androgens. (b) Inflammatory: Allopurinol, co-amoxiclav, carbamazepine. (c ... Hepatic vein thrombosis: Oral contraceptives. Neoplasm[edit]. Neoplasms have been described with prolonged exposure to some ... Oral use of ketoconazole has been associated with hepatic toxicity, including some fatalities;[8] however, such effects appear ...
The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by FDA in 1960. Oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation and so prevent ... As early as 1960, oral contraceptives were available in several different strengths by every manufacturer. In the 1980s and ... a new delivery system for the oral contraceptive via a transdermal patch. In 1982, a new version of the Pill was introduced, ... There are many variations in the routes of administration, including intravenous (into the blood through a vein) and oral ...
"FDA's Approval of the First Oral Contraceptive, Enovid".. *^ Cafe, Rebecca (4 December 2011). "BBC News - How the contraceptive ... Oral ContraceptivesEdit. Prior to the second world war, birth control was prohibited in many countries, and in the United ... "Why the Oral Contraceptive Is Just Known as "The Pill"". www.smithsonianmag.com.. ... The history of the development of oral contraceptives is thus closely tied to the birth control movement and the efforts of ...
... higher for women taking drospirenone oral contraceptives for 7-12 months, compared to women taking other types of oral ... It is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect an oral contraceptive as well as to provide a daily dose of ... It is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect an oral contraceptive. Safyral contains 3 mg drospirenone ... The compound is part of certain newer oral contraceptive formulations: Yasmin/Jamine/Yarina contains 3 mg drospirenone and 30 ...
Archer JS, Archer DF (2002). "Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. ... permanent dead link] DeRossi SS, Hersh EV (2002). "Antibiotics and oral contraceptives". Dent. Clin. North Am. 46 (4): 653-64. ... Recent research has shown no significant loss of effectiveness in oral contraceptives while using most tetracycline antibiotics ... 2006). "Tear fluid levels of MMP-8 are elevated in ocular rosacea-treatment effect of oral doxycycline". Graefes Arch. Clin. ...
73-. ISBN 978-0-300-16791-7. Population Reports: Oral contraceptives. Department of Medical and Public Affairs, George ... "Further experience with quingestanol acetate as a postcoital oral contraceptive". Contraception. 9 (3): 221-5. doi:10.1016/0010 ... Donde UM, Virkar KD (June 1975). "Biochemical studies with once-a-month contraceptive pill containing quinestrol-quingestanol ... Lara Marks (2010). Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. Yale University Press. pp. ...
Archer JS, Archer DF (June 2002). "Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked". Journal of the ... Recent research has shown no significant loss of effectiveness in oral contraceptives while using most tetracyclines. Despite ... DeRossi SS, Hersh EV (October 2002). "Antibiotics and oral contraceptives". Dental clinics of North America. 46 (4): 653-64. ... For example, it was used to check uptake of oral rabies vaccine baits by raccoons in the USA. However, this is an invasive ...
The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 100,000 woman years in current use of combined oral contraceptives is ... Compared with combined oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel (LNG), and with the same dose of estrogen and duration of ... the rate ratio of deep venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with norethisterone is 0.98, with norgestimate 1.19, ... Cancers, most particularly pancreatic, but not cancers of the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx[7] ...
"Pincus, Djerassi and Oral Contraceptives", Chemistry in Israel, Bulletin of the Israel Chemical Society. August 2005, pp. 47-50 ... He is best known for his contribution to the development of oral contraceptive pills, nicknamed the father of the pill. Carl ... His preparation was first administered as an oral contraceptive to animals by Gregory Goodwin Pincus and Min Chueh Chang and to ... This became part of one of the first successful combined oral contraceptive pills, known colloquially as the birth-control pill ...
Oral contraceptives have been known to increase the levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the body. In turn, high ... One medication that many do not realize can lower sexual desire in women is the oral contraceptive. Not every woman experiences ... Samuels, N. (2010). "The Irony of Oral Contraceptives". The Womens Health Activist. 35 (4): 8-9. Geoffrey Miller; Joshua M. ...
These would be losing weight, increasing exercise and the cessation of oral contraceptives. Moving during periods of travel is ... The risk of developing blood clots can be modified by life style modifications, the discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and ... "Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis". doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010813.pub2. Swystun, L. L.; Liaw, P. C. (27 June 2016 ... The discontinuation of contraceptives also prevents blood clots. The therapeutic effects of warfarin may be decreased by ...
The most common method in the developed world is condoms and oral contraceptives, while in Africa it is oral contraceptives and ... There are two types of oral birth control pills, the combined oral contraceptive pills (which contain both estrogen and a ... Combined oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer and do not change the risk of breast ... Ammer, Christine (2009). "oral contraceptive". The encyclopedia of women's health (6th ed.). New York: Facts On File. pp. 312- ...
Estrogen-based oral contraceptive. discontinuation reduces risk. [8][11][14] Hormone replacement therapy. discontinuation ... Heneghan C, Ward A, Perera R (2012). "Self-monitoring of oral anti-coagulation: systematic review and meta-analysis of ... "Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants in patients with cancer-associated acute venous ...
887-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Wassef SA, Sami G, Hamid EA (1970). "Effect of switching with oral contraceptives". Egypt Popul ... Combined with ethinylestradiol as Vestalin, it is (or has been) used as a hormonal contraceptive. Norgesterone is virtually ...
Oral contraceptives significantly decrease the elimination of desmethyldiazepam, a major metabolite of diazepam. Rifampin, ... Back DJ, Orme ML (June 1990). "Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with oral contraceptives". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 18 (6): ... The oral LD50 (lethal dose in 50% of the population) of diazepam is 720 mg/kg in mice and 1240 mg/kg in rats. D. J. Greenblatt ... The oral forms should be stored in air-tight containers and protected from light. Diazepam can absorb into plastics, so liquid ...
Although oral contraceptives can causes menses to return, oral contraceptives should not be the initial treatment as they can ... New contraceptive pills, like continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) which do not have the normal 7 days of placebo pills ... Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen like the oral contraceptive Micronor, and especially higher-dose ... Patients who use and then cease using contraceptives like the combined oral contraceptive pill may experience secondary ...
Grimes, DA; Jones, LB; Lopez, LM; Schulz, KF (29 April 2014). "Oral contraceptives for functional ovarian cysts". The Cochrane ...
Oral contraceptive pills, reduce the clearance of nitrazepam which may lead to increased plasma levels of nitrazepam and ... Back DJ, Orme ML (June 1990). "Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with oral contraceptives". Clin Pharmacokinet. 18 (6): 472-84 ... The time for nitrazepam to reach peak plasma concentrations following oral administration is about 2 hours (0.5 to 5 hours). ...
Combined oral contraceptive pills reduce the clearance of alprazolam, which may lead to increased plasma levels of alprazolam ... Alprazolam oral solutions are available as 0.5 mg/5 mL and as 1 mg/1 mL oral solutions. Inactive ingredients in alprazolam ... "Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions with Oral Contraceptives". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 18 (6): 472-484. doi:10.2165/00003088- ... "Alprazolam - Oral (Xanax) Side Effects, Medical Uses, and Drug Interactions". Medicinenet.com. MedicineNet. July 2005. Archived ...
In another one of his most cited articles, Walsh discussed whether oral contraceptives affected or complicated the parts of a ... WALSH, F. B.; CLARK, D. B.; THOMPSON, R. S.; NICHOLSON, D. H. (1965-11-01). "Oral Contraceptives and Neuro-Ophthalmologic ...
Half-used blister pack of a combined oral contraceptive. The white pills are placebos, mainly for the purpose of reminding the ... Several combined hormonal contraceptives-the pill, NuvaRing, and the contraceptive patch-are usually used in a way that causes ... for their contraceptive effectiveness.[107] Intermediate dose progestogen-only contraceptives-the progestogen-only pill ... Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ed.). New York: Ardent Media. ISBN 0-9664902-0-7.. ...
Contraceptive Techology (Twentieth Revised ed.). New York NY: Ardent Media. see Combined oral contraceptive pill § Role of ... Oral contraceptives require some action every day. Other hormonal methods require less frequent action - weekly for the patch, ... Nityanand S (1990). "Clinical evaluation of Centchroman: a new oral contraceptive". In Puri CP, Van Look PF. Hormone ... Trussell J (2007). "Contraceptive Efficacy". In Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL. Contraceptive Technology (19th ed.). New ...
Oral contraceptives can be taken by diabetics. Sometimes, contraceptive pills can cause a blood sugar imbalance, but this ... two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test. Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose at ...
... produced by oral contraceptives containing gestodene is slightly less than that produced by oral contraceptives containing ... no difference in acne incidence has been observed with oral contraceptives containing gestodene and oral contraceptives ... Third-generation oral contraceptives are also suitable for use in patients with diabetes or lipid disorders because they have ... Women who take oral contraceptives containing gestodene are 5.6 times as likely to develop venous thromboembolism than women ...
In practice, these and all other combined oral contraceptives are mixtures of 1 to 2% EE or mestranol and an oral progestin. It ... to be used in an oral contraceptive.[12] In 1964, additional contraceptive preparations containing norethisterone in ... Progestogen-only oral contraceptive NET or NETA only. High (e.g., 5 mg, 10 mg). Aygestin, Lupaneta Pack (combination pack with ... Combined oral contraceptive NET with mestranol. Low (e.g., 1 mg, 2 mg). Norethin, Noriday, Norinyl, Norquen, Ortho-Novum, ...
Inconsistent use was reported by 49% of those using condoms and 76% of those using the combined oral contraceptive pill; 42% of ... Jones, Rachel K., Darroch, Jacqueline E., Henshaw, Stanley K. (2002). Contraceptive Use Among U.S. Women Having Abortions in ...
Elevated levels of total cortisol can also be due to estrogen found in oral contraceptive pills that contain a mixture of ... C. W. Burke (1969). "The effect of oral contraceptives on cortisol metabolism". J Clin Pathol. 3: 11-18. doi:10.1136/jcp.s1-3.1 ...
To prespectively determine the changes of the sexual behaviour of hyperandrogenic women using an oral contraceptive containing ... Quality of sexual life in hyperandrogenic women treated with an oral contraceptive containing chlormadinone acetate. ... Quality of sexual life in hyperandrogenic women treated with an oral contraceptive containing chlormadinone acetate ...
... including oral contraceptives and emergency contraception. If these medications are prescribed by one of our SHS clinicians, ... including oral contraceptives and emergency contraception. If these medications are prescribed by one of our SHS clinicians, ...
Oral Contraceptives - varies according to brand. Please visit the pharmacy for oral contraceptive availability and prices. ...
... oral contraceptives, iodides, bromides, androgens, danazol. 3. faktor pencetus/memperberat a. stress fisik/emosional b. obat- ... Un medicamento llamado danazol (Danocrine) oral. Danazol, colchicina han proporcionado un éxito limitado en pacientes con PTI, ... oral Inyecciones con dosis altas de gammaglobulina (un factor inmunitario) Fármacos que inhiben el sistema inmunitario. ... http://immoklink.com/site/purchase-cephalexin-500/ meadow manfaat obat.Un medicamento llamado danazol (Danocrine) oral; ...
HealthBoards Women Womens Health Oral Contraceptives Breast Growth have been on the ortho-evra patch, and my breast have I am ... Contraceptive patch: Ortho-Evra Contraceptive implants Vaginal ring: Hormonal Methods of Birth Control - Ortho-Evra. Breast ... Ethinyl estradiol increased hair growth.What is a contraceptive patch? The Ortho Evra transdemal contraceptive patch is a small ... Ortho Evra (contraceptive patch) tell your doctor if you have or have ever had breast lumps or cancer; hair growth in unusual ...
... prescription pain medications and oral contraceptives.. In keeping with our dedication to developing pharmaceutical agents to ...
Accurate histories of oral contraceptive use were facilitated by a book containing photographs of all oral contraceptives ever ... There was no evidence that long-term oral contraceptive use of more than 10 years or oral contraceptive use that began 16 or ... longer a woman had used oral contraceptives, the lower her risk of developing ovarian cancer. The protective effect of oral ... longer a woman had used oral contraceptives, the lower her risk of developing ovarian cancer. The protective effect of oral ...
... contraceptives.html?id=T5dsAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareOral contraceptives. ... norethindrone acetate norethisterone norethynodrel normal Number observed Obstet obtained occur Oracon oral contraceptives ... pregnanediol pregnanediol excretion Proc produce progestational progesterone progestins rabbit receiving oral contraceptives ... 1 Reviewhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Oral_contraceptives.html?id=T5dsAAAAMAAJ ...
Oral contraceptives and thromboembolism.. Br Med J 1969; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5671.654-a (Published 13 ...
Oral contraceptives and cholesterol.. [No authors listed]. Abstract. PIP: Women with high cholesterol, who are successfully ... may be able to safely use oral contraceptives (OCs). OCs change the lipid profile but keep it within the normal range. They do ... form of high cholesterol or severely high cholesterol that does not respond to medication may need to use another contraceptive ...
EDITOR,-The Committee on Safety of Medicines recent advice that oral contraceptives containing gestodene or desogestrel should ... 2 These conclusions were highlighted in the Dutch media and caused a drop in the use of oral contraceptives from 34% to 27%, … ... Third generation oral contraceptives. BMJ 1996; 312 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7030.576 (Published 02 March 1996) ... of General Practitioners concluded that women aged over 35 and heavy smokers aged over 30 should not use oral contraceptives ...
However, oral contraceptives can be highly effective when used properly.. Oral contraceptives do not protect against AIDS or ... Oral contraceptives come in a wide range of estrogen-progestin combinations.The pills in use today contain much lower doses of ... Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. Also known as birth control pills, they contain ... Oral contraceptives have several effects that help prevent pregnancy. For pregnancy to occur, an egg must ripen inside a ...
Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Progestin-only oral contraceptives come as tablets to take by mouth. They are taken once a day, every day at the same time. ... Take progestin-only oral contraceptives exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than ... Progestin-only oral contraceptives may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go ...
... ) and What are disadvantages of progestin-only oral contraceptives ... Risk of nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using a contraceptive transdermal patch and oral contraceptives containing ... Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 27. 346 (26):2025-32. [Medline]. ... Poindexter A. The emerging use of the 20-microg oral contraceptive. Fertil Steril. 2001 Mar. 75(3):457-65. [Medline]. ...
Oral Contraceptives): learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Oral contraceptives will work only as long as they are taken regularly. Continue to take oral contraceptives every day even if ... Some brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat acne in certain patients. Oral contraceptives treat acne by ... To avoid nausea, take oral contraceptives with food or milk. Take your oral contraceptive at the same time every day. Follow ...
Oral contraceptives increase the risk of ischemic stroke, but this risk is very small among women who do not have other stroke ... Oral contraceptives increase the risk of ischemic stroke, but this risk is very small among women who do not have other stroke ... However, in women with other stroke risk factors, the risk seems higher and, in most cases, oral contraceptive use should be ... For healthy young women without any stroke risk factors, the stroke risk associated with oral contraceptives is very small. ...
Read more about the prescription drug ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. ... ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES. Warning , Medication Uses , How To Use , ... Consumer information about the medication ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES , includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, ...
Oral contraceptives may create certain nutrient deficiencies and excesses as well as increase the nutritional needs of the user ... Though taking oral contraceptives regularly is 99 percent effective in birth control, there are many possible side effects. ... Many women have difficulty with oral contraceptives, though many others seem to tolerate them well. The use of birth control ... He and other authors also suggest that the increased blood levels of copper generated by oral contraceptive use may contribute ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives- ... Drug interactions with oral contraceptives: compilation and analysis of an adverse experience report database. Fertil Steril ... Inhibition of oral contraceptive effectiveness by concurrent antibiotic administration. A review. J Periodontol 1985 Jan;56(1): ... A study of interaction of a low-dose combination oral contraceptive with anti-tubercular drugs. Contraception 1980 Jun; 21(6): ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral and hormonal-contraceptives- ... even if you take your normal dose that day.If you are using a non-oral hormonal contraceptive (e.g. injection, patch, ring), ... and nutraceuticals.If you are taking an oral hormonal contraceptive product, on the day you receive sugammadex you should ... Sugammadex/Hormonal Contraceptives Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. ...
Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. [CMAJ. 2002]. *Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. [N Engl J ... Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer.. Marchbanks PA1, McDonald JA, Wilson HG, Folger SG, Mandel MG, Daling JR, ... Use of oral contraceptives by women with a family history of breast cancer was not associated with an increased risk of breast ... It is uncertain whether the use of an oral contraceptive increases the risk of breast cancer later in life, when the incidence ...
New research from the November issue of Chest shows that women with asthma who are on oral contraceptives may have better ... New research shows that during natural menstrual cycles, women with asthma who were not taking oral contraceptives (OC) had ... Results showed that individuals not using oral contraceptives (OC) had higher mean eNO levels than women using OC. Furthermore ... Oral contraceptives may benefit women with asthma. American College of Chest Physicians ...
Maternal use of combined estrogen/progestin oral contraception near or during pregnancy was significantly associated with an ... No increased risk was seen with oral contraceptive use 6 to 12 months before the start of pregnancy or if oral contraceptive ... "These associations seemed to be driven by oral combination contraceptives, the most commonly used hormonal contraceptives today ... Cite this: Oral Contraceptive Use Link to Childhood Leukemia - Medscape - Sep 13, 2018. ...
Progesterone is the naturally occurring female sex hormone acting as natures contraceptive by preventing women from conceiving ... Since it is not orally active, progesterone cannot practically be used as an oral contraceptive. It required the efforts of ... History of Oral Contraceptives. Carl Djerassi, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA ... The lead compound, norethindrone, was synthesised in 1951 and all but one of the subsequent steroid oral contraceptives are ...
Use of oral contraceptives is associated with incident systemic lupus erythematosus, a case-control study showed. ... Oral Contraceptives Linked to Higher Lupus Risk. LITTLE FALLS, N.J. -- Use of oral contraceptives is associated with incident ... Current users of first- or second-generation oral contraceptives, RR 1.65 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.26) *Current users of pills ... They noted that even though oral contraceptives have been associated with an increased risk of lupus, "some have argued that ...
  • Conventional oral contraceptives also stop periods if they are taken continuously, and a clinician may suggest this approach to enable a woman to skip her period at an inconvenient time, such as during her honeymoon. (harvard.edu)
  • TALLAHASSEE, Fla., Feb. 12 -- Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals has agreed to submit television ads for its oral contraceptive drospirenone ethinyl estradiol (Yaz) to the FDA for approval before airing in the U.S., according to Florida attorney general Bill McCollum. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Background Recent concerns have been raised about the risk of gallbladder disease associated with the use of drospirenone, a fourth-generation progestin used in oral contraceptives. (cmaj.ca)
  • On May 31, 2011, the FDA issued a Drug Safety Communication ( http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm257164.htm ) announcing that it would be reviewing the safety of Yaz, Yasmin and similar drospirenone contraceptives. (prweb.com)
  • For that reason, Parker Waichman Alonso LLP continues to call on Bayer Corporation, as well as the makers of other drospirenone contraceptives, to remove these products from the market immediately. (prweb.com)
  • Parker Waichman Alonso LLP continues to offer free legal evaluations to victims of drospirenone contraceptives, including Yaz and Yasmin. (prweb.com)
  • Treatment arm # 1 consists of the continuous administration of Yasmin oral contraceptive (a combination of 30 µg of ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone) for 15 weeks starting on day 2 to 5 of the first menstrual cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists have produced new guidelines for premenstrual syndrome, advising that combined oral contraceptives containing drospirenone should be considered as a first-line treatment. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • A few weeks ago, I wrote the first part of a post on the cardiovascular side effects of oral contraceptives (OC), where I discussed the incidence of these events among OC users, as well as the subgroups at elevated risk of experiencing them. (ajmc.com)
  • What can you do if you're concerned about the side effects of oral contraceptives? (naturalnews.com)
  • It required the efforts of organic chemists to synthesise steroids that mimic the biological activity of the natural hormone and that are effective by oral administration. (els.net)
  • The natural female sex hormone progesterone - nature's contraceptive - is not orally active. (els.net)
  • Increased levels of C-reactive protein after oral hormone replacement therapy may not be related to an increased inflammatory response," Circulation , vol. 107, no. 25, pp. 3165-3169, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • As one of the most advanced contraceptives on the market, Yaz uses a dosing regimen of 24 days of active hormone tablets followed by only four days of hormone-free tablets, said a statement from Bayer. (tradearabia.com)
  • The 24/4 dosing regimen reduces hormone fluctuations which often occur during monthly menstruation, thus enhancing its effectiveness as a contraceptive. (tradearabia.com)
  • The relationship between oral contraceptives (OC) and breast-cancer risk was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted between June 1991 and February 1994 in 6 Italian centres on 1,991 patients below age 65 with histologically confirmed incident breast cancer and 1,899 controls admitted to hospital for a wide range of acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Reluctance to prescribe oral contraceptives and other hormones for women with lupus arose in part from the fact that lupus is far more common in women (women with the disease outnumber men 10 to 1), and that it typically begins during the childbearing years (after the onset and before the cessation of menstruation) when female hormone levels are at their peak. (rxpgnews.com)
  • But for most women with moderate lupus that is inactive or stable, taking estrogen whether as part of an oral contraceptive or hormone replacement therapy appears to have no detrimental effect on disease activity, say co-authors Jill Buyon, M.D., of New York s Hospital for Joint Diseases, and Michelle Petri, M.D., M.P.H., of the Johns Hopkins University, who jointly led the study. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The natural oestrogenic hormone oestradiol as a new component of combined oral contraceptives. (springer.com)
  • This article discusses potential risks of oral contraceptive use in this age group, as well as recommendations about when and how to change from contraceptive therapy to postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. (aafp.org)
  • Oral contraceptives containing a combination of estrogen and progestin increase sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and thereby reduce the free testosterone level. (medscape.com)
  • Blood samples were taken from all the participants to check for antibodies (ACPA) to rheumatoid arthritis, and the women were quizzed in depth about their contraceptive and reproductive histories, their lifestyle, whether they had breastfed their kids and their educational attainment. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Researchers found that women who had used an oral contraceptive at any time had a lower risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis than those who had never done so. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Women with a rare genetic form of high cholesterol or severely high cholesterol that does not respond to medication may need to use another contraceptive method than OCs. (nih.gov)
  • However, the use of OC among women with conditions that place high-risk for OC use, and hence, for whom another contraceptive method is preferred, is certainly concerning, as I previously discussed in part 1 of this post. (ajmc.com)
  • EDITOR,-The Committee on Safety of Medicines' recent advice that oral contraceptives containing gestodene or desogestrel should not be prescribed 1 has caused confusion and concern among family planning specialists and has major public health implications. (bmj.com)