Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Sexual activities of humans.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.

Contraceptive characteristics: the perceptions and priorities of men and women. (1/126)

CONTEXT: Despite the fact that choosing a contraceptive method is often a decision made by couples, little is known about how men and women differ in their perceptions of the characteristics of various method types, and in the importance that they attach to those characteristics when choosing a contraceptive method. METHODS: The data analyzed here are subsets from two companion surveys conducted in 1991--1,189 men aged 20-27 who were surveyed in the National Survey of Men and 740 women aged 20-27 who were surveyed in the National Survey of Women. Multivariate ordered logit analysis is used to examine how gender is related to both the importance that individuals assign to seven specific contraceptive characteristics when choosing a method, and to perceptions about the extent to which five common method types possess each of these characteristics. RESULTS: Women rank pregnancy prevention as the single most important contraceptive characteristic when choosing a method, with 90% citing it as "very important." The health risks associated with particular methods and protection from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are rated as the second most important characteristics by women (each mentioned as "very important" by 77%). In contrast, men consider STD prevention for themselves and their partner to be just as important as pregnancy protection (each mentioned as "very important" by 84-86%), and they rank STD prevention as more important than other health risks (by 72%). Women, but not men, rank both ease of use and the need to plan ahead as being more important characteristics than a method's interference with sexual pleasure. Both men and women have an accurate understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of particular methods, but differ enough in their perceptions to alter the relative attractiveness of each method. In particular, women have more favorable perceptions than men about the pill, being somewhat more likely than men to believe that the pill is "very good" at preventing pregnancy (75% vs. 67%) and to say that it is very good at not interfering with sexual pleasure (82% vs. 76%). In contrast, women have generally less favorable perceptions than men about other reversible methods, including the condom: Women were less likely than men to consider the condom very good at pregnancy prevention (29% vs. 46%) or at having no need for advance planning (22% vs. 38%). Gender differences in perceptions about the specific characteristics of contraceptive methods often vary by marital status. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women have somewhat different priorities when choosing a contraceptive method. Despite many similarities between women and men in their perceptions about the characteristics of each method type, numerous differences between them may have an important influence on how couples make their method choices.  (+info)

Correlation of behaviors with microbiological changes in vaginal flora. (2/126)

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by dramatic changes in the vaginal ecosystem. Women without evidence of vaginal infection may exhibit transient changes in their flora. We prospectively followed up women by using diaries and self-obtained vaginal smears to correlate behaviors with changes in flora. The majority of women (38/51, 78%) had significant, although transient, changes. Behaviors associated with unstable flora were a history of BV, a greater number of partners, and more frequent episodes of receptive oral sex. Only the latter remained significantly associated in the multivariate analysis. Variables that were associated with day-to-day variability in the flora included use of vaginal medication, menses, greater number of partners, spermicide use, more frequent vaginal intercourse, and less frequent use of condoms. Only a minority of women (11/51, 22%) maintained a "normal" lactobacillus-predominant flora. Factors associated with instability of the flora are similar to those epidemiologically associated with BV.  (+info)

Effects of contraceptive method on the vaginal microbial flora: a prospective evaluation. (3/126)

A prospective evaluation of 331 university women who were initiating use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), a cervical cap, diaphragm-spermicide, or other spermicidal methods was done to assess the effects of commonly used contraceptive methods on the vaginal flora. Vaginal introital cultures were performed at baseline and then weekly for 1 month. The prevalence of Escherichia coli vaginal colonization and of abnormal vaginal Gram stain scores (Nugent criteria) increased significantly among women using a cervical cap or diaphragm-spermicide but not among women using OCPs. Women with E. coli colonization were significantly more likely to have an abnormal Nugent score and an absence of lactobacilli. In a multivariate model, use of spermicidal contraception in the preceding week was associated with an abnormal Nugent score and with colonization with E. coli, Enterococcus species, and anaerobic gram-negative rods. Thus, spermicidal methods of contraception are associated with alterations of the vaginal microflora that consequently may predispose women to genitourinary infections.  (+info)

A prospective study of asymptomatic bacteriuria in sexually active young women. (4/126)

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in young women, but little is known about its pathogenesis, natural history, risk factors, and temporal association with symptomatic urinary tract infection. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 796 sexually active, nonpregnant women from 18 through 40 years of age over a period of six months for the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (defined as at least 10(5) colony-forming units of urinary tract pathogens per milliliter). The women were patients at either a university student health center or a health maintenance organization. Periodic urine cultures were taken, daily diaries were kept, and regularly scheduled interviews were performed. Escherichia coli strains were tested for hemolysin, the papG genotype, and the ribosomal RNA type. RESULTS: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (the proportion of urine cultures with bacteriuria in asymptomatic women) was 5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4 percent to 6 percent) among women in the university group and 6 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 5 percent to 8 percent) among women in the health-maintenance-organization group. Persistent asymptomatic bacteriuria with the same E. coli strain was rare. Symptomatic urinary tract infection developed within one week after 8 percent of occasions on which a culture showed asymptomatic bacteriuria, as compared with 1 percent of occasions when asymptomatic bacteriuria was not found (P<0.001). Asymptomatic bacteriuria was associated with the same risk factors as for symptomatic urinary tract infection, particularly the use of a diaphragm plus spermicide and sexual intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in young women is common but rarely persists. It is a strong predictor of subsequent symptomatic urinary tract infection.  (+info)

Efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of a novel contraceptive vaginal ring releasing etonogestrel and ethinyl oestradiol. (5/126)

A novel contraceptive vaginal ring releasing etonogestrel 120 microg and ethinyl oestradiol 15 microg daily over a period of 3 weeks was tested. Each ring was used for one cycle, comprising 3 weeks of ring use followed by a 1 week ring-free period. This 1 year, multicentre study assessed the contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, tolerability and acceptability of the contraceptive. Altogether, 1145 women were exposed to the vaginal ring for 12,109 cycles (928 woman-years). Six pregnancies occurred during treatment, giving a Pearl Index of 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.24--1.41). Cycle control was very good, since irregular bleeding was rare (2.6--6.4% of evaluable cycles) and withdrawal bleeding (mean duration 4.7--5.3 days) occurred in 97.9--99.4% of evaluable cycles. Compliance to the prescribed regimen was high with criteria being fulfilled in 90.8% of cycles. The ring was well tolerated. The majority of women considered this new contraceptive method easy to use, and it offers an effective, convenient, well-accepted and novel method for hormonal contraception.  (+info)

Current status of fertility control methods in India. (6/126)

Approximately 48.2% of couples of 15 to 49 years of age practice family planning methods in India. Female sterilization accounts for 34.2%, with male sterilization declining from 3.4% in 1992-93 to 1.9% in 1998-99. Use of the condom increased to 3.1% from 2.4%. There is an urgent need for research to develop new contraceptive modalities especially for men and also for women and to make existing methods more safe, affordable and acceptable. Current efforts in India to develop a male contraceptive are mainly directed towards (i) development of antispermatogenic agents to suppress sperm production, (ii) prevention of sperm maturation, (iii) prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens or rendering these sperm infertile and (iv) prevention of sperm deposition. Research work in the field of prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens has made significant advances. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) disturbed the electrical charge of spermatozoa leading to acrosome rupture and consequent loss in fertilizing ability of sperm. A multicentre phase-III clinical trial using SMA is continuing and it is hoped that the SMA approach would be available in the near future as an indigenously developed injectable intra-vasal male contraceptive. The safety and efficacy of available oral contraceptives were evaluated. An indigenously developed oral contraceptive 'Centchorman', which is a nonsteroidal, weakly estrogenic but potently antiestrogenic, was found to be safe and effective and is now being marketed in India since 1991 as a 'once a week' pill. Cyclofem and Mesigyna have been recommended as injectable contraceptives with proper counselling and service delivery by Indian studies. It has been recommended that these injectable contraceptives be added to the existing range of contraceptive methods available in the National Family Planning Programme. Based on the Indian studies CuT 200 was also recommended. Studies have indicated the advantage of intrauterine devices (IUD); they are long acting, relatively easily removed and fertility returns rapidly after their removal. Recent studies have recommended CuT 200 for use up to 5 years. The combination of some plant products i.e. Embelia ribes, Borax and Piper longum has been found to be safe and effective as a female contraceptive and the results of phase-I clinical trials are encouraging. Research work is going on in the country in various areas with special reference to hormonal contraceptive - a three monthly injectable contraceptive, immuno-contraceptives, antiprogestins, etc.  (+info)

The diaphragm with and without spermicide for contraception: a Cochrane review. (7/126)

BACKGROUND: The diaphragm is usually used with a spermicide. However, some practitioners have suggested that spermicides offer no additional contraceptive protection and have advocated alternative guidelines for the use of diaphragms. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of the diaphragm with and without spermicide. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and reference lists of relevant articles. In addition, we contacted experts in the field to identify unpublished studies. Randomized controlled trials comparing women of reproductive age using the diaphragm with and without spermicide as the sole contraceptive method that reported clinical outcomes were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted data on outcomes and trial characteristics and any discrepancies were resolved by consensus or by consultation with the third reviewer. The results of the one identified study are presented descriptively. We identified only one study. No significant difference was found in the pregnancy rates (with typical use or consistent use) or discontinuation rates between the diaphragm-with-spermicide and diaphragm-without-spermicide groups. There was a trend towards higher pregnancy rates in the diaphragm-without-spermicide group. However, this study failed to recruit the planned number of participants and was consequently underpowered. CONCLUSIONS: As only one underpowered study was identified, we cannot distinguish between the contraceptive effectiveness of the diaphragm with and without spermicide. We cannot draw any conclusion at this point; further research is needed.  (+info)

Ovarian function with a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring. (8/126)

BACKGROUND: NuvaRing is a combined contraceptive vaginal ring designed for 3 weeks continuous use followed by a 1 week ring-free period. The present study evaluated ovarian function in women who were instructed to either adhere to, or deviate from, the recommended regimen of use. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized study, 45 women aged between 18 and 35 years used NuvaRing for one cycle in which the ring was used according to the recommended regimen. Women in group A (n = 15) then continued with a 'normal' 3 week period of ring use after which the restoration of ovarian function-i.e. the time to ovulation-for each woman was determined by daily vaginal ultrasound and serum hormone levels. For women in group B (n = 15), the second cycle consisted of only 3 consecutive days of ring use, after which each woman was monitored until ovulation. Women in group C (n = 15) were not permitted to start a second 'normal' cycle until a follicle with a diameter of 13 mm was observed by vaginal ultrasound; subsequently, the development of these follicles during the second cycle of ring use was monitored daily. RESULTS: Irrespective of the length of the second cycle, 3 weeks (group A) versus 3 days (group B), a new cohort of follicles needed to be recruited and the time to ovulation after ring removal was similar (19 versus 17 days). The median time needed to develop a follicle up to 13 mm in diameter (group C) was 11 days (range 8-21 days); none of the women ovulated after insertion of the second ring. CONCLUSION: NuvaRing is a highly effective, reversible method of hormonal contraception. Ovulation, at least until the stage of a 13 mm dominant follicle, is prevented and as little as 3 consecutive days of NuvaRing use interferes with follicle growth.  (+info)

Methods Miniature diaphragm-like cervical barriers were manufactured and provided by ReProtect, Inc. BufferGel, previously found ineffective in this model when used alone, was also provided by ReProtect, Inc. Twenty-four pigtailed macaques were randomly assigned to one of three study arms: cervical barrier device alone; cervical barrier with BufferGel; or no barrier device and no gel (control arm). Eight animals were enrolled in each arm. Each macaque underwent baseline exam, product administration if applicable, cervical challenge with C. trachomatis (E: 5×105 IFU), and weekly follow-up exams for 5 weeks. Chlamydia challenge occurred within 30 min of baseline exams. Cervical barrier devices were removed from all test macaques 18 h after insertion. Each exam included cervicovaginal colposcopy, vaginal pH and cervical swabs for chlamydia detection (culture and NAAT: GenProbe Aptima Combo2). Blood for serum antibody testing was collected at baseline and weeks 2 though five ...
[107 Pages Report] Check for Discount on China Contraceptive Vaginal Rings (CVRs) Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. The global Contraceptive Vaginal Rings (CVRs) market is valued at...
[114 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Contraceptive Vaginal Rings (CVRs) Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Contraceptive Vaginal Rings (CVRs) market...
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH. All vaginal rings were covered with biomass (mean optical density (OD) of 3.36; standard deviation (SD) 0.64). Lactobacilli were present on 93% of the rings, Gardnerella vaginalis on 57%, and Atopobium vaginae on 37%. The ring biomass density was associated with the concentration of A. vaginae (OD +0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.05 for one log increase; p = 0.002) and of G. vaginalis (OD +0.03; (95% CI 0
Research Published in Contraception Outlines a New Model for Measuring Acceptability of a Long-Acting Contraceptive Vaginal Ring. NEW YORK (16 December 2014) - The Population Council published new research in the November issue of the journal Contraception demonstrating that an investigational one-year contraceptive vaginal ring containing Nestorone® and ethinyl estradiol was found to be highly acceptable among women enrolled in a Phase 3 clinical trial. Because the perspectives of women are critical for defining acceptability, researchers developed a theoretical model based on womens actual experiences with this contraceptive vaginal ring, and assessed their overall satisfaction and adherence to instructions for ring use. In this trial, researchers also measured continuation of ring use for up to one year.. Understanding the factors that influence womens satisfaction with and acceptability of a contraceptive method helps researchers and product developers design and test products that ...
Download, Read and Study Our Caya Contraceptive Diaphragm Medical Research and Resources To Learn About The Background To The Caya (SILCS) Diaphragm
2001: Year in which NuvaRing received FDA approval. 950+: Number of NuvaRing lawsuits pending, as reported in Mercks 10-K earnings report, fiscal year 2011. 56%: Percent by which FDA study found NuvaRing raised risk of blood clots vs. older birth control pills.. 6: Types of serious NuvaRing adverse events alleged in lawsuits (blood clots, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, heart attack, stroke, sudden death). 6.5x: Times higher risk for NuvaRing blood clots compared to non-users of hormonal contraception, according to British Medical Journal study (5/10/12). 5,493: Total number of adverse events reported at the FDA AERS database for NuvaRing, 1Q04-2Q11*. 30: Average age of women who have had a NuvaRing adverse event reported to the FDA*. 1,953: Number of NuvaRing adverse events categorized under Pulmonary Vascular, 1Q04-2Q11*. 1,921: Number of NuvaRing adverse events categorized under Embolism & Thrombosis, 1Q04-2Q11*. 1,648: Number of NuvaRing pulmonary embolism adverse events ...
The combined hormonal contraceptive vaginal ring is self-administered once a month. Leaving the ring in for three weeks slowly releases hormones into the body, mainly vaginally administered estrogens and/or progestogens (a group of hormones including progesterone) - the same hormones used in birth control pills.[4] These hormones work mostly by stopping ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus, creating a barrier preventing sperm from fertilizing an egg.[4] They could theoretically affect implantation but no evidence shows that they do.[5] Worn continuously for three weeks followed by a week off, each vaginal ring provides anywhere from one month (NuvaRing) to one year (Annovera and Progering) of birth control. For continuous-use contraception, users can also choose to wear the vaginal ring for the full four week cycle. This manner of contraception will eliminate monthly periods.[6] Throughout the additional week, the serum hormone levels will remain in the contraceptive range.[7] When ...
Written instructions are also available from the manufacturer on how to use the CayaВ® diaphragm. It is good to practice inserting and
Progesterone vaginal ring, also known as progesterone-only vaginal ring, is a form of vaginal ring used for birth control when breastfeeding.[1] Use can begin at four weeks and continue for at least up to a year following childbirth.[4][3] Failure rates with usual use is about 1.5 per 100 women.[1] It is used within the vagina with one ring lasting three months.[4] The woman is able to place and remove the ring herself.[3] Side effects include vaginal discharge and pain with urination.[3] It does not appear to be associated with serious side effects.[3][5] With use menstrual periods often do not resume.[1] It was specifically made for use with breastfeeding as it does not affect milk production.[1] It works by gradually releasing the hormone progesterone.[1] Progesterone vaginal rings have been approved for medical use since 1998.[2] It is on the World Health Organizations List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] As of 2014 they are ...
Contraception Management is a chapter in the book, Gynecology, containing the following 12 pages: Contraception, Cervical Cap, Female Condom, Male Condom, Contraceptive Diaphragm, Contraceptive Diaphragm Cleaning, Vaginal Spermicide, Contraceptive Sponge, Natural Family Planning, Hormonal Contraception, Intrauterine Device, Vaginal Contraceptive Ring.
Oral contraception is a very popular means of contraception with a very high efficacy. However, it is necessary to be fully compliant with the regime to reap its full contraceptive benefits.
25mg dapivirine per ring.. The first vaginal ring will be removed on day 35 and the new vaginal ring will be reinserted after 3 days, on day 38, for another 21 days. A third vaginal ring will be inserted immediately following removal of second ring on Day 59 and will be worn for 24 hours. ...
25mg dapivirine per ring.. The first vaginal ring will be removed on day 35 and the new vaginal ring will be reinserted after 3 days, on day 38, for another 21 days. A third vaginal ring will be inserted immediately following removal of second ring on Day 59 and will be worn for 24 hours. ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
NuvaRing (vaginal ring) is an effective discreet contraceptive method, available to buy online in the UK after a free consultation with qualified doctors and free next day delivery
Antiretroviral medications used as prophlaxis can prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, in clinical trials among African women, HIV-1 incidence was not reduced because of low adherence to daily- or coitally-prescribed antiretroviral-containing pills and vaginal gels. Sustained drug-delivery products, including antiretroviral-containing vaginal rings, may improve adherence and provide protection against HIV-1 with lower systemic antiretroviral exposure.. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a monthly vaginal ring containing dapivirine, a non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor, among women aged 18-45 years in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Dapivirine concentrations in plasma were measured in quarterly-collected samples; levels ,95 pg/mL, a concentration nearly always achieved with ,8 hours of use, were used to define adherence. Thus, plasma dapivirine could exclude those who were non-adherent but ...
A monthly vaginal ring (Ring-004), containing 25 mg dapivirine, was evaluated for safety and efficacy against HIV-1 infection in two large Phase III clinical trials, IPM 027 and MTN-020. Higher than anticipated HIV-1 incidence was observed and final safety and efficacy analyses were performed for IPM 027 prior to the planned completion of this time-driven trial based on an independent DSMB recommendation. The final results of IPM 027 at the data cut-off point of 16 October 2015 are reported.. IPM 027 is a Phase III, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, conducted at six research centers in South Africa, and one center in Uganda to assess the safety and efficacy of dapivirine vaginal ring, inserted once every 4 weeks over 24 months, in healthy, sexually active HIV-negative women, 18 to 45 years of age. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of HIV-1 seroconversion and the primary safety endpoint was incidence of adverse events (AEs).. 1959 women (1762 in South ...
Vaginal rings for pre-exposure prophylaxis are a female-initiated HIV prevention method that does not require daily or coitally-dependent dosing. As part of a randomized placebo-controlled trial of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate intravaginal ring, we assessed product acceptability through in-depth interviews with 18 women during and after 14 days of continuous use. Women reported that the ring was comfortable with few side effects, regardless of experimental arm. However, interest in future use by this cohort was modest for several reasons including: low self-perceived HIV risk; concern that use implied promiscuity; potential for interference with relationship formation and trust; concern for interference with menstruation and cleanliness; and worries about partners acceptability and sexual pleasure ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the contraceptive efficacy of the ENG-E2 vaginal ring in women between 18 and 35 years of age based on the number of
Secondary analyses suggest using the ring does not alter vaginal microbiome in adolescent girls, women who are lactating or postmenopausal women, or lead to cervical cancer. MADRID, 23 October, 2018 - New findings reported by researchers from National Institutes of Health-funded Microbicide Trials Network (MTN) at the HIV Research for Prevention conference (HIVR4P 2018) shed additional light on the safety of the monthly dapivirine vaginal ring, an HIV prevention method designed specifically for women that is being considered for regulatory approval. Use of the ring was associated with minimal changes in vaginal microbiota among adolescents, lactating women and postmenopausal women, said researchers who conducted a secondary analysis based on three Phase I trials. Vaginal microbiota are the bacteria living inside the vagina that serve as a natural defense against infections. A disruption in the type and number of certain bacteria can lead to infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) or yeast ...
NuvaRing NuvaRing NuvaRing is a flexible plastic ring. Background B.C. type Hormonal First use 2001 Failure rates (first year) Perfect use 1% Typical use 1-2%
Court documents filed against Merck state that since the mid-1990s there have been more than 10 studies suggesting that third-generation progestins, including the one used in NuvaRing, are approximately twice as likely to cause blood clots as those used in other birth-control devices that have an earlier form of progestin. A blood clot that blocks a vein is known as a venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTEs can occur in any vein, but they most often appear in the legs. They can also break off and travel to the lungs. Thats what happened to Megan-and to Erika too. A 2012 study published in B.M.J. (British Medical Journal) found that vaginal rings carry a 90 percent greater risk of VTE than birth-control pills with earlier forms of progestin. (The report states that in any given year, out of 10,000 women who are not using a hormonal contraceptive, an average of 2.1 would suffer a VTE. For a woman using a vaginal ring, that risk increases 6.5 times.) A 2011 F.D.A. report found that rings could increase ...
Dear Cecil:. How is the effectiveness of contraception measured? Do they survey people? Could researchers randomize different birth control methods, even if they wanted to? As much as Id like to, I dont think I could have nearly as much sex as it would take to make a statistically significant sample.. - Christine. Cecil replies:. Given the stakes involved - higher than those associated with, say, nasal decongestant - youd certainly hope theres plenty of published research to confirm that birth control really does what its supposed to. And sure enough, there is. Though gauging contraceptives effectiveness isnt quite the grueling sexual slog you apparently imagine, youre right to guess that logistical and ethical concerns make this task somewhat trickier than figuring out how many noses got unstuffed.. Typically researchers test a birth control method about the same way theyd test any drug or medical device - via randomized controlled trial. Participants are assigned randomly to one of ...
Category: Bestsellers, Womans Health. (That was a test of the cause of bone loss but isnt a good strategy during Depo because it might prevent its contraceptive effectiveness). These symptoms are typically associated with perimenopause, the transition to menopause.. Tags: provera, together, clomid, take. More> ...
By Rebecca Bowers EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Researchers are evaluating a vaginal ring designed to protect women against both HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 in a Phase I study. The trial is being conducted by researchers from the National Institutes of Health-funded Microbicide Trials Network at three U.S. sites in Alabama, California, and Pennsylvania. Each flexible polymer ring contains 1.4 g of tenofovir, an anti-HIV drug. The ring is designed to release an approximate 10-mg daily dose. The trial will be analyzing the safety of . . .
The vaginal ring is a highly effective method of birth control when it is used exactly as directed. The ring failure rate is the same as that of birth control pills. Talk to your doctor about what day to start using the ring. Usually, a ring is started during one of the first 5 days of the menstrual cycle. See a...
A newly developed vaginal ring delivers a slow, continuous stream of antiretroviral drugs for at least 50 days, offering an effective HIV prevention tool ...
A majority of women were interested in and adhered to the use of a dapivirine vaginal ring to reduce their risk of contracting HIV.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE: TEVA) today announced the publication of results of the Phase III clinical trial of Milprosa&#8482; (progesterone) vaginal ring in Fertility and Sterility....TEVA
Easy to read patient leaflet for Estradiol Vaginal Ring. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
A new exploratory analysis of data from the ASPIRE study has found that using a drug-infused vaginal ring most or all of the time reduced the risk of HIV ...
Since they are barrier methods, they dont carry any big possible side effects. People who have had toxic shock syndrome (TSS) should not use them, nor should those who are sensitive or allergic to spermicides, polyurethane or sulfa drugs. Some people may find they cause them to experience more frequent bladder or urinary tract infections. You or your partner may be able to feel the device during use, and that may occur more frequently in younger people who are more nervous during sex, and thus less aroused, so the device may be closer to the vaginal opening than it would be otherwise. Contraceptive sponges also may not be used during menstruation, and are not as effective as many other methods of birth control, including other cervical barriers.. When Good Birth Control Does Bad Things: The most common reasons a sponge will fail is because it was not used at all for a given act of intercourse, or was not used properly -- such as by forgetting to wet it first, by using it for longer than 24 ...
These are only some of the women who have been harmed or died while using NuvaRing Also click here to check out Updates for interesting news and recent posts We know you are considering NuvaRing because it sounds so easy. Maybe you dont want to be hassled by taking a pill every single day. Maybe you…
NuvaRing is safe for most women, but all medicines have some side effects and risks. Your doctor will help you figure out if the ring is safe for you.
Tune into The Doctors show on Monday May 20, 2014 for a special segment highlighting the life threatening risks linked to the NuvaRing. Visit The Doctors website
Compare Nuvaring 120/15 mcg prices from verified online pharmacies or local U.S. pharmacies. Print free coupons for Nuvaring, shop safely and save money on your prescription medication costs today.
Question - Has been using nuvaring, can it be re-used effectively?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Nuvaring, Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Monitor for pseudomembranous colitis. Advise patients to not use contraceptive diaphragm or condom for at least 72hrs after treatment. Advise patients to not have vaginal intercourse or use tampons or douches during treatment with ovules. Pregnancy. Nursing mothers: monitor infant or consider alternatives.. ...
Concomitant use of contraceptive diaphragm, condoms, or tampons: not recommended. Confirm diagnosis by KOH smears and/or cultures. If ineffective, reevaluate before using another product. Discontinue if irritation develops. Pregnancy. Nursing mothers.. ...
The federal judge presiding over all NuvaRing lawsuits, which allege that the vaginal ring increases the risk of blood clots compared to other forms of bir
While the sponge and diaphragm, as well as other physical barrier female contraceptive devices such as the cervical cap, provide relatively reliable blockage of sperm to the cervical canal, and these devices may be used with spermicides, there is a need for a reliable, highly effective, low cost barrier contraceptive method that addresses the above mentioned disadvantages of the sponge and diaphragm while providing protection; against both pregnancy and STDs in one basic aspect, the present invention may be defined as a vaginal device providing physical and chemical barriers to contraception or protection against sexually transmitted diseases, or both. The device includes a towelette formed of absorbent sheet material Sized to fit within the vagina of a human female while permitting intercourse to take place, and a fiowable preventive formulation incorporated into the towelette by absorption. As used herein, the term preventive formulation designates the active chemical agents that may be used ...
The Global Campaign for Microbicides advocates worldwide for user-controlled HIV and STD prevention tools; microbicides, female condoms and cervical barriers. We work to promote their development, assure access and protect users needs and interests.
The United Nations reiterated today the need to provide women with access to both hormonal contraceptives and condoms to prevent unwanted pregnancies and HIV infection, after a renewed consultation with health experts on the issue. |
Im 19 years old and have been on the nuvaring for 2 years now. I always use it as directed but lately I have been feeling a little off. My boyfriend and I dont use condoms and sometimes he doesnt pu...
The follow-up and managing problems with long-acting reversible contraception path for the long-acting reversible contraception pathway.
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARCs) include IUDs and implants, and theyre extremely effective at reducing unintended pregnancy and abortion.
|div id=teaser class=fragment teaser ||div class=p|Everything NICE has said on long-acting reversible contraception in an interactive flowchart|/div||/div|
In the first study to look at the risk of VTEs for transdermal patches, the researchers found it was eight times the increased risk compared with those not taking contraception.. The researchers found women who used vaginal rings had 6.5 times the VTE risk of those who did not take contraception.. Experts warned the extremely concerning study results could undo years of work reducing teenage pregnancies, but the authors urged GPs to use oral levonorgestrel or norgestimate- based contraceptives to reduce the risk of VTEs.. The Danish researchers looked at a cohort of 1,626,000 women aged 15 to 49 years from national registries that were free from thrombotic risk at baseline.. After nine years, transdermal patches were associated with an adjusted relative risk of 2.3 and the vaginal ring was associated with a risk of 1.9, compared with users of oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel.. The incidence of confirmed VTEs was 4.52, 6.22, 7.75 and 9.71 events per 10,000 exposure years, for oral ...
A settlement fund of $100 million dollars on behalf of women who were allegedly injured by the birth control product Nuvaring was announced today in New Jersey State Court and Federal Court. (In Re Nuvaring Litigation - Case 284, Bergen County, New Jersey). Attorney Jason T. Brown, the first attorney in the country to commence a battery of these cases against Nuvaring confirmed the settlement was unsealed today in open court. Jason T. Brown, a former FBI Agent, who presently handles class actions and mass torts nationwide indicated that the settlement was fair and just. This settlement allows an avenue of recovery for women who alleged in their complaints that they endured blood clots such as Deep-Vein Thrombosis, Pulmonary Embolisms, Strokes and Death. There are strict deadlines contained in the settlement and any woman who has counsel should consult with their counsel as soon as possible, Mr. Brown stated [READ MORE] ...
A new intravaginal ring enables the long-lasting vaginal delivery of tenofovir (TFV) shows to be effective in HIV prevention, say scientists.
A vaginal ring comprises a supporting ring 1 free of active agent. A layer 2, which contains an active agent such as a steroid, is applied on its outer rim, optionally in a continuous groove provided in the supporting ring. This layer, in turn, is coated with a layer 3 devoid of active ingredient. All components preferably comprise an LTV silicone elastomer. The ratio of the thickness of the layer 2, containing an active agent, to the layer 3, free of active agent, is about 5-50:1. As a result, a long-term and uniform release rate is achieved for the active agent.
Columbus, OH (PRWEB) November 13, 2013 -- A woman from Dayton, Ohio is being represented by Wright & Schulte LLC in a NuvaRing lawsuit, after she suffered
Health,San Diego CA (PRWEB) March 23 2013 Resource4thePeople announced today that its lawyers are still investigating claims from women alleging that they have suffered serious blood-clotti,NuvaRing,Blood-Clotting,Claims,Now,Being,Investigated,by,Resource4thePeople,Attorneys,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
St. Louis, MO (PRWEB) January 19, 2013 -- NuvaRing injury lawyerJohn J. Driscoll says consumers who believe they may have suffered harm from using the NuvaRing
NUVARING is a monthly contraceptive when used as directed, is as effective as the pill and convenient because you do not have to take everyday. In a given one month period, Nuvaring must be inserted vaginally, removed after 3 weeks, and a new one must be inserted no more than 7 days later. NEXPLANON is a small, thin, implantable hormonal contraceptive that is effective for up to three years. MIRENA is an estrogen-free intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) for women who are looking for a contraceptive option to help simplify their lives. PARAGARD is an intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) that is hormone free. Its great for women who prefer not to use hormones or cant for health reasons. DEPO-PROVERA is a contraceptive injection suited for women who want to postpone pregnancy for more than one year.. DIAPHRAGM is a barrier method of birth control. It is a round, dome-shaped device made of rubber that has a firm, flexible rim. It fits inside a womans vagina and covers the cervix. It should always be used ...
This close relationship resulted in feature rich applications that will suit most attorneys firms needs? Another thing that has drastically changed is the way we shop! Mineral oil may weaken latex or rubber products such as condoms or vaginal contraceptive diaphragms! Doctors prescribe courses of various therapies, but it can take several months, especially if the case is neglected, if the disease has developed into a slow, chronic stage and, moreover, such therapy is rather expensive. Следует phut provera cost соблюдать осторожность при назначении данной комбинации, особенно у пожилых пациентов! Or go slackly something I keep telling my doctors that This is not getting anywere and one of my doctors said they could not find out what was going on so he told me that I should just seek counseling that its somethimg im prolly going to have to life with ...
Government Contract Award: NICHD Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (Female Contraceptive Trials Topic Area). Access many more Professional, Administrative, Management, Special Studies Awards | Get your Free Government Bids Alert!
The Global Campaign for Microbicides advocates worldwide for user-controlled HIV and STD prevention tools; microbicides, female condoms and cervical barriers. We work to promote their development, assure access and protect users needs and interests.
This chapter addresses the effects of hormonal contraceptives on headache, in particular, migraine. The definition, incidence, and prevalence for migraine with and without aura are reviewed. The...
More than 10 years have elapsed since the female condom became widely available, and it remains the only female-initiated means of preventing both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The female condom was developed as an alternative to the male condom, and it was hailed as a method that would enable women to have greater control over their own
This article aims to throw light on the controversial topic of whether women have a heat period within their menstrual cycle. The majority of publications in this field report, in addition to a periovulatory peak, no changes at all or even rises in male- and female-initiated sexual activity, womans sexual desire, autosexual activity and sexual arousability, and interpersonal sexual activities during the mid-follicular and late luteal phases. The lack of a distinct pattern of womens sexual behaviour across the menstrual cycle may be explained by the interplay between cyclical endocrine fluctuations and many psychological, social, cultural and environmental factors, as well as the methodological shortcomings associated with menstrual cycle research. However, studies focused on cycling changes in womens olfactory and visual perception show that, in comparison with women at other phases of the menstrual cycle, women at mid-cycle exhibit increased sexual motivation that biases recognition ...
The first NuvaRing case that will be presented to a jury in the United States has been selected, with trial scheduled to begin on May 6 in New Jersey state
Estrogen-containing contraception comes in several options, including pills, patches, and vaginal rings. A key contraindication to these agents is the risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is conflicting evidence, but the pills, patches, and vaginal rings all probably increase the risk to similar levels from a baseline of 1-5 events per 10,000 in nonpregnant nonusers to 3-15 events per 10,000 woman years in users (4,8). Women taking these agents are also at an increased risk for myocardial infarction and stroke, and therefore, important relative contraindications to these agents in the setting of kidney disease include diabetes mellitus, SLE, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. Given the potential for increased BP and worsening proteinuria as well as a flare of lupus nephritis with these agents, these conditions should be monitored closely with initiation. Although there are no particular monitoring guidelines, we would typically recommend BP self-monitoring where ...
Vaginal rings (also known as intravaginal rings , or V-Rings ) are polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs for intravaginal administration over extended...
Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices. Chapter 12 & 13. Outline . Sexual Development Puberty Middle Age Hormones Abstinence Hormonal Contraceptive Methods Barrier Methods IUD Fertility Awareness Methods Emergency Contraception. Sterilization Pregnancy Fetal Development...
Visite a su médico o a su profesional de la salud para chequear su evolución periódicamente. Deberá hacerse exámenes de Papanicolaou y exámenes de las mamas y la pelvis en forma regular mientras toma este medicamento. También debe hablar con su profesional de la salud sobre la necesidad de hacerse mamografías periódicamente y seguir las recomendaciones que este profesional establezca para estas pruebas.. Este medicamento puede hacer que su cuerpo retenga líquido, lo que puede provocar que se le hinchen los dedos, manos o tobillos. Su presión sanguínea puede aumentar. Comuníquese con su médico o con su profesional de la salud si siente que está reteniendo líquido.. Si tiene algún motivo para pensar que está embarazada, deje de usar este medicamento de inmediato y comuníquese con su médico o con su profesional de la salud.. El hábito de fumar tabaco aumenta el riesgo de formación de coágulos o de sufrir un derrame cerebral mientras toma este medicamento, especialmente si ...
How should I use the EstroGel pump?. It is important that you read and follow these directions on how to use the EstroGel pump properly.. 1. Before using the pump for the first time, it must be primed. Remove the large pump cover and fully depress the pump twice. Discard the unused gel by thoroughly rinsing down the sink or placing it in the household trash in a manner that avoids accidental exposure or ingestion by household members or pets. After priming, the pump is ready to use, and one complete pump depression will dispense the same amount of EstroGel each time.. 2. Apply EstroGel at the same time each day. You should apply your daily dose of gel to clean, dry, unbroken skin. If you take a bath or shower or use a sauna, apply your EstroGel dose after your bath, shower, or sauna. If you go swimming, try to leave as much time as possible between applying your EstroGel dose and going swimming.. 3. Be sure your skin is completely dry before applying EstroGel.. 4. To apply the dose, collect the ...
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
A foals immune system is known to be weak and immature, but new cell-based research suggests that immunodeficiency might be too broad a term to define t
Even when used properly, prevention methods are not guaranteed to guard against kidney infections, especially in older pets. However, prevention methods are effective at decreasing your pets chances of contracting the condition. First, you should never deprive your pet of precious bathroom time. It is important to allow your pet to relieve himself when he expresses the need to, but you must also walk your pet at regular frequent intervals and do you best to make him go. Urine helps keep toxins and bacteria flowing out of the system and away from the kidneys. Next, always make sure your pet has plenty of fresh water at his disposal. Pure water flushes out the kidneys. Finally, hygiene is extremely important. Bathe your dog as often as you can, to help eliminate bacteria from dogs sensitive areas. ...
Im 27years old, diagnosed with RA. Im scared because this is incurable and can demobolize me at some point. It has only been a day since my diagnosis.
Scientists believe they are closer than ever to creating birth control pills for men, after years of attempts and failures trying to create a male pill that can rival the contraceptive options available to women since the 1960s.
Women use birth control contraceptives to avoid getting pregnant lessen premenstrual symptoms control acne regulate menstrual cycles
Women who use non-oral hormonal contraceptives, like patches and vaginal rings, may be at higher risk of blood clots than those who take oral forms birth control, according to a new Danish study published in the journal BMJ.
The WHO recommends that comprehensive contraceptive information and services be provided during antenatal and postpartum care. The WHO recommends that all women be counselled on birth spacing and family planning. Contraceptive options should be discussed, and contraceptive methods should be provided if requested.. To achieve this goal, the WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium integrates core WHO guidance for healthcare providers, healthcare program managers, and policy-makers to guide women though their family planning decision-making in the first year postpartum. All postpartum family planning guidance from the following documents is incorporated into the Compendium:. ...
World experts in food allergy and immunology are calling for an international framework for the consistent use of precautionary allergen labelling (PAL)
Can I Buy Ventolin Over The Counter Uk Best Price for High Quality and Guaranteed Effect! Delivery of the Order from 3 Days, are sold Without Prescriptions. Quickly and Conveniently. An affordable way to Can I Buy Ventolin Over The Counter Uk is a potent .
To do this fold, you twist the ring into a figure eight shape and then fold it in half. Then you keep it folded during insertion until youre high enough up in the vagina. When you let it go it springs open nicely, and its up high enough. (You can also watch lacigreens video for a good demonstration.) At this point its also important for me to make sure the ring is hooked around my cervix. Otherwise it slips down and fall out. I just sort of tilt the ring back and forth until I can give it a little tug and it stays. The exact position of the ring really isnt important though; it works as long as its touching the vaginal walls. Removing the ring is super easy; you just hook a finger around the ring and pull it out. If youve ever used an Instead Softcup, insertion and removal is nearly the same process ...
This document was created to support ministry of health and nongovernmental partners as they develop strategies to introduce and scale up Sayana Press (generic: DMPA-SC in Uniject) to increase contraceptive options and access. Available in English and French, the publication provides practical guidance based on results, evidence, and learning from the pilot introductions of Sayana Press in four countries in Africa. For more information, visit PATHs Reproductive Health Global Program website.. Publication date: January 2017. Region: Global ...
Malthusian belt: A contraceptive device worn by women. When Huxley was writing Brave New World, organizations such as the ... In the novel, the eponymous character devises the contraceptive techniques (Malthusian belt) that are practiced by women of the ... Young women take pride in being "pneumatic", and what passes for a religious ceremony consists of six men and six women meeting ... She is part of the 30% of the female population that are not freemartins (sterile women). Lenina is promiscuous and popular but ...
... comparing the effectiveness and safety of the device with other surgical contraceptive methods. Women and doctors were required ... Essure was a device for female sterilization. It is a metal coil which when placed into each fallopian tube induces fibrosis ... About 750,000 women have received the device. Initial trials found about 4% of people had tubal perforation, expulsion, or ... During that intervening three-month period, women are advised to use an alternate contraceptive method. Unlike tubal ligation, ...
Contraceptive Devices Displayed on Channel 4 Vivacious Joan Rivers Brightens Own Show". The New York Times. GOOD television ... As a female comic, Rivers felt indebted to, but also very distinct from, other female standups and comedians including Phyllis ... Before her death, she filmed a part, along with other female comedians, for the documentary MAKERS: Women in Comedy, which ... "quite possibly the most intuitively funny woman alive." So whom does America's most intuitively funny woman find funny? Gould, ...
... prohibits health insurance providers from excluding contraceptive services, drugs or devices from benefits; establishes a ... Women in the United States House of Representatives Women in the United States Senate Hotakainen, Rob (October 20, 2010). " ... Boxer and Feinstein were the first female pair of U.S. Senators representing any state at the same time. Boxer was the ranking ... In what was billed as the "Year of the Woman", Boxer beat fellow Rep. Mel Levine and Lieutenant Governor Leo McCarthy in the ...
... intrauterine contraceptive device-associated infection; pelvic inflammatory disease, which may include pelvic cellulitis and ... with the female genital tract locations, P. acnes with a foreign body, and Peptostreptococcus spp. with all infection sources, ... Female genital tract infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are polymicrobial and include: soft-tissue perineal, vulvar and ... Long bones osteomyelitis is often caused by trauma, hematogenic spread, or the presence of a prosthetic device. ...
1988). "New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women". Fertil Steril. 49: 768-773. PMID ... If this happens a woman is not protected from pregnancy.[39][40] Expulsion is more common in younger women, women who have not ... "Popular contraceptive device Mirena target of lawsuits in Canada, U.S". CTV. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 26 ... Intrauterine devices. Mechanisms of action. The common belief that the usual mechanism of action of IUDs in women is ...
Bailey, M. J. (2006-02-01). "More Power to the Pill: The Impact of Contraceptive Freedom on Women's Life Cycle Labor Supply". ... An equally large industry has emerged to provide contraceptive devices designed to prevent conception. Their effectiveness in ... This fertile window varies from woman to woman, just as the ovulation date often varies from cycle to cycle for the same woman. ... Female fertility[edit]. Further information: Female infertility. The average age of menarche in the United States is about 12.5 ...
Most surveys of contraceptive use are among married women, or women in informal unions. Japan has the highest rate of condom ... and the only well documented contraception methods were female-controlled devices. In Asia before the 15th century, some use of ... A study on female HIV prevention published in the Journal of Sex Health Research asserts that Latino women often lack the ... Some women in Africa believe that condoms are "for prostitutes" and that respectable women should not use them. A few clerics ...
"The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". American Journal of Obstetrics and ... Ovarian cysts: A small portion of women using implants and other contraceptive implants develop ovarian cysts.[19] Usually ... "Nexplanon (etonogestrel) contraceptive implants: Reports of device in vasculature and lung". Archived from the original on 2016 ... For some women, prolonged bleeding will decline after the first three months of use. However, other women may experience this ...
... and patient acceptability of the intrauterine Copper T-380A contraceptive device". International Journal of Women's Health. 2: ... United States Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Being a nulliparous women (women who have never given birth) ... The device itself carries no increased risk of PID beyond the time of insertion. Cramping: Some women can feel cramping during ... This device was somewhat large, causing discomfort to a large proportion of women users, and had a hard plastic tail, causing ...
This risk reduction continues for at least fifteen years after contraceptive use has been stopped. Obese women may need higher ... Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). Combined oral ... Instead, women, particularly menopausal women, should be aware of the symptoms and risk factors of endometrial cancer. A ... In the United States, white women have a higher survival rate than black women, who tend to develop more aggressive forms of ...
... on a study comparing the performance of the Woman's Condom and the FC2 Female Condom. Other contraceptive devices include Lea's ... CONRAD conducted studies leading to the regulatory approval of several contraceptive devices. CONRAD supported PATH Program for ... "Comparative crossover study of the PATH Woman's Condom and the FC Female Condom®". Contraception. 78 (6): 465-473. doi:10.1016/ ... "Lea's Shield: a study of the safety and efficacy of a new vaginal barrier contraceptive used with and without spermicide. - ...
To protect his sexual partner from these animals, Minos used a goat's bladder as a female condom. Contraceptives fell out of ... When U.S. customs confiscated the package as illegal contraceptive devices, Sanger helped file a lawsuit. In 1936, a federal ... Couples in colonial America relied on female-controlled methods of contraception, if they used contraceptives at all. The first ... There were still a few state laws against buying and selling contraceptives, and advertising condoms as birth control devices ...
Non-hormonal contraceptive methods include the copper intrauterine device (ParaGard), male and female condoms, male and female ... The two most popular women-controlled contraceptives (oral contraceptives and IUDs) will be discussed due to their popular ... The two most popular women-controlled contraceptives (oral contraceptives and IUDs) will be discussed due to their popular ... They state that providing over the counter contraceptives could increase overall contraceptive accessibility for young women of ...
Unlike the combined oral contraceptive pill etonogestrel contraceptive implant is not contraindicated in women with past ... "The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 181 (5 Pt 1): ... Ovarian cysts: A small portion of women using Implanon/Nexplanon and other contraceptive implants develop ovarian cysts.[13] ... For some women, prolonged bleeding will decline after the first three months of use. However, other women may experience this ...
Retailers were subjected to raids, with womb veils among the contraceptive devices confiscated. Although contraceptive ... Other terms for the contraceptive diaphragm were "female preventatives", "female protectors", "Victoria's protectors", and the ... Rotter also described how to make a homemade device from a rubber ball. The Comstock ban on advertising contraceptive devices, ... See Chesler, Woman of Valor, p. 70 online and Hoolihan, An Annotated Catalogue, pp. 335-337; also Tone, Devices and Desires, p ...
Today, oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and male and female condoms are available for free at public health ... Although abortion is not permitted, other methods of contraceptives such as oral contraceptives, condoms, and tubal ligation ... This method suggests women should observe symptoms in her body that indicate whether she is fertile or infertile, and this will ... Women who can afford expensive but safe abortions at private practices and hospitals are the only ones who remain unaffected. ...
A contraceptive sponge set inside its open package. The current intrauterine devices (IUD) are small devices, often 'T'-shaped ... McCann CR (2010). "Women as Leaders in the Contraceptive Movement". In O'Connor K (ed.). Gender and Women's Leadership: A ... women who used oral contraceptives for a longer duration may had a slightly lower rate of pregnancy than did women using oral ... the United Nations launched the Every Woman Every Child movement to assess the progress toward meeting women's contraceptive ...
The SILCS diaphragm, a "one size fits most" contraceptive device. The device differs from traditional latex diaphragms in that ... The Woman's Condom, a new female condom designed to be more acceptable to both partners than other female condoms, plus easier ... "Woman's Condom: Expanding Options for Dual Protection". Women Deliver website. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. ... In South Africa, PATH leads a five-year project to improve the health and development of 750,000 pregnant women and children by ...
Sivelle, Kristina (2005). "Chinese women and their contraceptive choices". China Daily. Kallgren, Joice K. (2007). "Review of ... Since the 1970's the intrauterine device (IUD) was one of the most widely promoted and practiced forms of contraception. It was ... 40% of women with a firstborn son seek an ultrasound for their second pregnancy, versus 70% of women with firstborn daughters. ... The effect of the one-child policy on female education is not known. Prior to the one-child policy, roughly 30% of women ...
For example, a woman bleeding and in pain due to a misplaced intrauterine contraceptive device was refused treatment. We think ... Catholic women were also among the first female professors of medicine, as with Trotula of Salerno the 11th century physician ... Women's religious institutes such as the Sisters of Charity, Sisters of Mercy and Sisters of St Francis opened and operated ... In 2016, a woman was refused treatment according to the "Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services" ...
A History of Contraceptives in America, Hill and Wang, pp 127-128. *Tone, Andrea, "A Medical Fit for Contraceptives", in Women ... Devices and Desires: ... control advocates that manufactured high-quality contraceptives ...
Pregnancy can be avoided with the use of contraceptives such as condoms and Intrauterine devices. Human reproduction naturally ... the interaction between the male and female reproductive systems results in fertilization of the woman's ovum by the man's ... The female reproductive system likewise contains two main divisions: the vagina and the Ovum. The ovum meets with sperm cell, a ... The ova, which are the female sex cells, are much larger than the spermatozoon and are normally formed within the ovaries of ...
Grimes, David (2007). "Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)". In Hatcher, Robert A.; et al. (eds.). Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ... "Early pregnancy factor as a monitor for fertilization in women wearing intrauterine devices". Fertility and Sterility. 37 (2): ... One study in healthy human women seeking pregnancy detected fourteen pregnancies with EPF. Of these, six were lost within ten ... Cheng SJ, Zheng ZQ (Feb 2004). "Early pregnancy factor in cervical mucus of pregnant women". American Journal of Reproductive ...
Tone, Andrea (2002). Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 50. ISBN 0-8090- ... picking apart the dumbest notions that a young man or woman might be exposed to as they come of age, with topics ranging from ... Tone, Andrea (2002). Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 188. ISBN 0-8090- ... condom and other contraceptive availability, HIV and STD testing, student peer groups, sexual assault programs and resources, ...
Non-infectious causes of cervicitis can include intrauterine devices, contraceptive diaphragms, and allergic reactions to ... Women at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (i.e., less than 25 years of age and a new sexual partner, a sexual ... Cervicitis in women has many features in common with urethritis in men and many cases are caused by sexually transmitted ... For lower risk women, deferring treatment until test results are available is an option. To reduce the risk of reinfection, ...
c) An adult resident of New York held that the current law hindered his ability to access nonprescription contraceptive devices ... c) Women are given the right to choose to get an abortion, and the Education Laws were a way of avoiding this practice by not ... sold and advertised contraceptives to New York primarily through mail-order retail sale of nonmedical contraceptive devices ... Another topic in the case was the prohibition of advertising suppressing commercial speech about any contraceptive device. The ...
"The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". American Journal of Obstetrics and ... An etonogestrel-releasing intrauterine device was under development for use as a form of birth control for women but ... "Nexplanon (etonogestrel) contraceptive implants: Reports of device in vasculature and lung". Archived from the original on 2016 ... Ovarian cysts: A small portion of women using implants and other contraceptive implants develop ovarian cysts. Usually these ...
"Use of oral contraceptives for management of acne vulgaris and hirsutism in women of reproductive and late reproductive age". ... Pahwa M, Pahwa P, Zaheer A (July 2012). ""Tram track effect" after treatment of acne scars using a microneedling device". ... "International Journal of Women's Dermatology. 3 (1): 44-52. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.018. PMC 5419026. PMID 28492054.. ... "International Journal of Women's Dermatology (Review). 4 (2): 56-71. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.10.006. PMC 5986265. PMID 29872679 ...
It also includes a contraceptive device but does not include a drug."[12] ... was a medical device because it calculates a fertility window for each woman using personal data. The manufacturer, Sympto- ... A medical device is any device intended to be used for medical purposes. Thus what differentiates a medical device from an ... Class II devices require the manufacturer's declaration of device safety and effectiveness, whereas Class III and IV devices ...
Further information: Female genital mutilation and Intersex human rights. Clitoridectomies are the most common form of female ... Follow up after surgery includes the stripping of the drainage device to prevent blockage. A typical hospital stay can be up to ... "New study shows female genital mutilation exposes women and babies to significant risk at childbirth" (Press release). World ... Intersex women exposed to such treatment have spoken of their loss of physical sensation, and loss of autonomy.[13][14] In ...
Designing Women, The Golden Girls, and Friends used this device with women in particular.[272] ... contraceptives, breast feeding, and miscarriages.[199] ... Female husbands. Gender masquerade as a dramatic device was ... 2016). Female Erasure: What You Need To Know About Gender Politics' War on Women, the Female Sex and Human Rights (1st ed.). ... of women had been aroused by another female, and 19% had a sexual contact with another female.[180][note 9] Of women who had ...
... of all women) used female sterilization as their contraception, making it the most common contraceptive method globally.[38] ... roughly equivalent to the effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptives such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive ... In the United States, female sterilization is used by 30% of married couples[5] and 22% of women who use any form of ... Sexual function appears unchanged or improved after female sterilization compared with non-sterilized women. [14] ...
A substance intended for use as a component of a medicine but not a device or a component, part or accessory of a device. ... The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by FDA in 1960. Oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation and so prevent ... In the 1960s and early 1970s, more and more physicians began to prescribe estrogen for their female patients. between 1991 and ... Physicians began to think of the Pill as an excellent means of birth control for young women.[27] ...
"Department of Neurology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine; Uchiyama S. Diakses tanggal 2011-08-21.. ... Ortega-Lopez Y, Llanos-Mendez A (2010). "[Mechanical thrombectomy with MERCI device. Ischaemic stroke]". Andalusian Agency for ... oral contraceptive use. 'sticky platelet syndrome" dan sejenisnya. *Meningitis. *Cortical vein thrombosis-dehydration. ... Women's Hospital, Division of Cardiology (G.C.F.), University of California, Stroke Service (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General ...
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is a contraceptive for women. It is often called birth control pill or simply "The ... intrauterine device.[4][11] ... Women who use combined oral contraceptives are less likely to ... The typical use pregnancy rate for women taking COCPs measures how many women get pregnant while taking COCPs. All women are ... the combined oral contraceptive pill was created.[1] The combined oral contraceptive pill has two female hormones: estrogen and ...
Intrauterine device (Hormonal IUD. *Copper IUD). *Contraceptive implant (Etonogestrel implant, Levonorgestrel implant) ... "Women's Health".. *^ Creinin, Mitchell D.; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell (2009). "Medical abortion in early pregnancy". In Paul ... Many studies excluded women with severe medical problems such as heart and liver disease or severe anemia.[16] Caution is ... Most women will have cramping and bleeding heavier than a menstrual period.[18] Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness ...
"Ruby Ribbon Asks 3,000 Women "What's Your BRAma?"". *^ a b Guerra, Julia. "Half Of Women Do This One Thing ... a girdle-like restraining device for the lower torso, and devices that suspended the breasts from the shoulder to the upper ... "Search for Male Contraceptive Makes Gains". Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2018.. ... Ten percent of women's breasts are asymmetrical, with the left breast being larger in 62 percent of cases.[110] One woman's ...
About 2 per 100,000 people are newly affected per year.[4] The condition most commonly affects women aged 20-50.[2] Women are ... which is seen on examination of the eye with a small device called an ophthalmoscope or in more detail with a fundus camera. If ... and hormonal contraceptives. ... The figures in females are in women between 20 and 45 years old ... People from all ethnicities may develop IIH.[5] In children, there is no difference in incidence between males and females.[7] ...
Cervical diaphragms are reusable, firm-rimmed plastic devices inserted by a woman prior to intercourse that cover the cervix. ... Women taking an oral contraceptive pill also have thick mucus from the effects of progesterone.[20] Thick mucus also prevents ... "The Global Library of Women's Medicine. doi:10.3843/GLOWM.10316.. *^ Levin, Roy J. (November 2011). "The human female orgasm: a ... In women who have not had a vaginal delivery, the external opening is small and circular, and in women who have had a vaginal ...
The added challenge for the most severely affected genetic females, and for genetic males who are being raised as females, is ... a medical device used to measure sensitivity thresholds. Values were recorded. The authors note that there are no control data ... Simple bladder exstrophy in a genetic female does not usually involve the vagina. Cloacal exstrophy in a genetic female usually ... who are reassigned and raised as females have not developed a female gender identity and have sought reassignment back to male. ...
Ammer, Christine (2009.). "oral contraceptive", The encyclopedia of women's health, 6. izdanje, str. str. 312.-315., New York: ... Grimes, D.A., MD (2007.). ""Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)" In:Hatcher, RA; Nelson, TJ; Guest, F; Kowal, D". Contraceptive ... Burrows, LJ, Basha, M; Goldstein, AT (rujan 2012.). "The effects of hormonal contraceptives on female sexuality: a review.". ... Rosemary Radford Ruether (2006.). "Women in North American Catholicism", Rosemary Skinner Keller Encyclopedia of women and ...
Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 9, 25-32 *^ a b c d e Boardman, HM; Hartley, L; Eisinga, A; Main, C; Roqué ... Less commonly sublingual, buccal, intranasal, and rectal administration, as well as intrauterine devices ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Epidemiological surveys of women between 40-69 years suggest that 75% of women remain sexually active after menopause.[4] With ...
A Book for Every Woman. o.O., (Kessinger Publishing) o.J. Reprint of Revised Edition Chicago, Alice B. Stockham & Co. 1891 ( ... IUD insertion: an intrauterine device that is T-shaped and is placed in the uterus through the cervix. It is a reversible ... contraceptive that can be done in a doctor's office.. *Nexplanon: is about a 4 cm implant that goes into the upper forearm. ... Women who do not take birth control produce small cysts every other month but they can disappear on their own. ...
en:Combined oral contraceptive pill (38) → 경구 피임약 *en:Complications of hypertension (2) ... en:Women's health (15) *en:Wound (76) → 창상 *en:Wuchereria bancrofti (28) → 사상충 ... en:Intrauterine device (32). *en:Involuntary treatment (4). *en:Jugular venous pressure (6) ...
Ultraviolet Light Disinfection in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices. Technical Information Paper # 31-006-0211 U ... Attack rates are similar for men and women.[9] The most important determinant of risk is the traveler's destination. High-risk ... Dehydration due to diarrhea can also alter the effectiveness of medicinal and contraceptive drugs. Adequate fluid intake (oral ... The effectiveness of UV devices is reduced when water is muddy or turbid; as UV is a type of light, any suspended particles ...
... contraceptive economy' of a relationship, in which women have maintained responsibility of the contraceptive task up until the ... Intra-vas device: The vasa deferentia can also be occluded by an intra-vas device (IVD). A small cut is made in the lower ... Vigoya has referred to a global "cultura anticonceptiva femenina"-a female contraceptive culture, where, despite the ... perhaps more so than a woman who has been on an oral contraceptive or similar for years prior.[72] ...
Women on hormonal contraceptives can experience breakthrough bleeding and/or withdrawal bleeding. Withdrawal bleeding occurs ... or by using an endometrium sampling device such as a pipelle which can practically be done directly after the ultrasonography.[ ... Premenopausal women[edit]. Most unusual bleeding or irregular bleeding (metrorrhagia) in premenopausal women is caused by ... Pregnant women[edit]. Vaginal bleeding occurs during 15-25% of first trimester pregnancies. Of these, half go on to miscarry ...
... and to treat moderate acne in women at least 14 years of age who choose an oral contraceptive for contraception. The FDA ... Diabetes Devices Division Covestro (Bayer MaterialScience) Bayer Crop Science[edit]. Bayer Crop Science has products in crop ... to treat symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in women who choose an oral contraceptive for contraception, ... We would kindly request that you send us another group of women to the same number and at the same price."[47] ...
Women with copper intrauterine device may be subject to greater risk of infection from bacterial infectious such as gonorrhea ... The use of a diaphragm or contraceptive sponge provides some women with better protection against certain sexually transmitted ... The copper intrauterine device and the hormonal intrauterine device provide an up to 99% protection against pregnancies but no ... Judith LaRosa, Helaine Bader, Susan Garfield (2009). New Dimensions In Women's Health. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 91. ISBN ...
22.1.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives. *22.1.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives. *22.1.3 Intrauterine devices ... For use in pregnant women and in second-line regimens in accordance with WHO treatment guidelines. ... For use in women actively breastfeeding at least 4 times per day ... Intrauterine devices[edit]. *IUD with copper. *IUD with ...
BV is the most common infection of the vagina in women of reproductive age.[5] The percentage of women affected at any given ... Douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, using an intrauterine device[5]. ... posttreatment partner and inconsistent condom use although estrogen-containing contraceptives decrease recurrence.[41] When ... BV is the most common vaginal infection in women of reproductive age.[5] The percentage of women affected at any given time ...
FDA OKs TMS Depression Device: Brain-Stimulating Device Cleared for Depression Treatment After 1 Drug Failure; October 8, 2008 ... Tilbury, F. There are orphans in Africa still looking for my hands': African women refugees and the sources of emotional ... Sarino LV, Dang KH, Dianat N. Drug interaction between oral contraceptives and St. John's Wort: appropriateness of advice ... Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. 2001. ...
Women have used a variety of garments and devices to cover, restrain, reveal, or modify the appearance of breasts. Bra- or ... "Search for Male Contraceptive Makes Gains". Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2018.. ... Women in Classical Greece[8] are often depicted loosely draped in diaphanous garments, or with one breast exposed. Women wore ... Designers have also incorporated numerous devices to produce varying shapes, cleavage, and to give women bras they could wear ...
Oral contraceptive pills can cause blood sugar imbalances in diabetic women. Dosage changes can help address that, at the risk ... "Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin". NIDDK. July 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016 ... Females[edit]. Studies find a significant prevalence of sexual problems in diabetic women,[73] including reduced sensation in ... Women with type 1 DM have a 40% higher risk of death as compared to men with type 1 DM.[69] The life expectancy of an ...
DeNoon, Daniel J. (8. oktober 2008). «FDA OKs TMS Depression Device: Brain-Stimulating Device Cleared for Depression Treatment ... Brown GW, Harris TO (2001) [1978]. Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. Routledge. ISBN 0- ... Sarino LV, Dang KH, Dianat N (2007). «Drug interaction between oral contraceptives and St. John's Wort: appropriateness of ... Device Approvals and Clearances. FDA. 12. august 2005. Besøkt 11. november 2009.. ...
The journal aims to disseminate research that will improve the care given to women in the face of current and emerging ... and clinical studies related to infectious diseases in womens health. Articles on the diagnosis and management of sexually ... Awareness and Interest in Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Use among HIV-Positive Women in Cape Town, South Africa. Catherine ... "A randomized trial of the intrauterine contraceptive device vs hormonal contraception in women who are infected with the human ...
The journal aims to disseminate research that will improve the care given to women in the face of current and emerging ... and clinical studies related to infectious diseases in womens health. Articles on the diagnosis and management of sexually ... long-acting reversible contraceptive methods for HIV-positive women [4, 15].. The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a ... Table 3: Correlates of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) awareness and interest in IUCD use among HIV-positive women in ...
... effective and acceptable to women and men. It has several advantages over the currently available barrier contraceptive devices ... The device is removed by hand up to 48 hours after insertion, but no sooner than eight hours after intercourse. Women chosen ... The Fem Cap is easy to insert and remove; an applicator facilitates insertion for some women. Instruction for use of the device ... Each woman was fitted with a cap of suitable size and instructed in its use. She was then asked to note any side effects and ...
Read reviews on Marvelon Contraceptive Pill provided by real people or share your own experience. ... Home > Health > Family Planning > Female Contraception > Marvelon Female Contraception > Marvelon Contraceptive Pill ... Product Information : Marvelon Contraceptive Pill Manufacturers product description. Female Contraception - Contraceptive ... The female oral contraceptive pill (known simply as the pill) has been around since the 1960s and has been well known for its ...
Contraceptive: The Intrauterine Device. 05th October 2006. (A small device that a doctor inserts into a womans uterus) The ... It is a small, T-shaped device that is placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It has one or two th... Read ,. Author: ... There are various causes for a woman not being able to conceive and one of the most common is uterus infertility where there is ... It is as well applied in the medication of skin ailments, infertility in women, as a parasiticide, as an antipyretic, and as a ...
What Are Hormonal Contraceptive Devices?. This article discusses what hormonal IUDs are and how they have many more uses ... The use of a hormonal contraceptive device in India is considerably lesser understood than the cheaper and more popular Copper ... Breast are considered as one of the aesthetic asset for women. Many women around the around the world are quite happy when the ... Menstrual periods are a crucial part of women health. Menstrual cramps and mood swings have a great impact on a womens life. ...
Results of search for su:{Contraceptive devices, Female.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Le Cycle menstruel et sa relation avec les méthodes contraceptives : une référence pour les formateurs en santé de la ... The Menstrual cycle and its relation to contraceptive methods : a reference for reproductive health trainers / Grace Mtawali ... The menstrual cycle and its relation to contraceptive methods : a reference for reproductive health trainers..Availability: ...
Intrauterine Contraceptive Device offered by Altus Lifecare Private Limited, Pune, Maharashtra. ... Export Oriented Unit of Women Health Care Medicine - ... Looking for Women Health Care Medicine ?. Thank you. Your ... Women Health Care Medicine. We are a leading 100% Export Oriented Unit of intrauterine contraceptive device from Pune, India. ... successfully meeting the requirements of our clients by offering the best quality range of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device. ...
... private institutions and government organizations are actively participating to spread awareness on the use of contraceptives. ... Contraceptives devices for female are expected to lead the contraceptives devices market during the forecast period. ... Contraceptives Market Size, Share and Global Trend By Product Type (Contraceptive Drugs & Contraceptive Devices), Gender (Male ... Lack of Proper Family Planning Will Fuel Demand for Contraceptive Devices "The demand for contraceptive devices and drugs is ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Trace Elements. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. ... Contraceptive Methods Comparison Drug: YASMIN® (Drospirenone/Ethinyl Estradiol) Device: The Copper-T is an intrauterine device ... Device: The Copper-T is an intrauterine device (IUD) intrauterine device for contraception ... Device: The Copper-T is an intrauterine device (IUD) intrauterine device for contraception ...
... this is because that the mucosal lining of female genital tract is highly sensitive to touch and pain. However; most of small ... Evaluation of a Novel Technique for Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices Insertion. The safety and scientific validity of this ... The intrauterine devices are a safe, reliable, long-acting and reversible contraceptive method. It is also sound safe and cheap ... Successful intrauterine device insertion [ Time Frame: 5 minutes ]. defined by a distance from the intrauterine device to the ...
Intrauterine device. During 2006--2008, the most frequent contraceptive methods used among women aged 15--44 years were oral ... Women were asked to report up to four contraceptive methods they used during the month of interview. If a woman reported using ... the most frequent contraceptive methods used among women aged 15-44 years were oral contraception (28%) and female ... Alternate Text: The figure above shows primary contraceptive method used among women aged 15-44 years in the United States from ...
Over half of women had parity of one, and nearly one-quarter had no formal schooling. Nearly all women (99.6%) reported that ... Women who receive PPIUCD show a high level of satisfaction with this choice of contraception, and the rates of expulsion were ... The satisfaction of women who received IUCD during the postpartum period and problems and complications following insertion ... We studied 2,733 married women, aged 15-49 years, who received PPIUCD in sixteen health facilities, located in eight states and ...
This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ... Contraceptive Agents / administration & dosage* * Contraceptive Devices * Equipment Failure * Female * Humans * Male * ... Contraceptive failure in the United States Contraception. 2011 May;83(5):397-404. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.01.021. ... This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ...
HIV infection For women with HIV infection who are not clinically well or not receiving ARV therapy, this condition is ... Summary of classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices*. Condition. Cu-IUD. LNG-IUD. Implants. ... Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human ... CDC Contraceptive Guidance for Health Care Providers * US Medical Eligiblity Criteria (US MEC) for Contraceptive Use ...
An IUD is a small device that must be placed in the uterus by a doctor or nurse. An IUD is safe, it is reversible, it is not ... Get contraceptives!. Because many women still do not have access to contraceptives, Women on Web can also offer them. You will ... Because many women still do not have access to contraceptives, Women on Web can also offer them. You will be asked to make a ... Get oral contraceptives!. Fill out the questionnaire by clicking start button. Make sure that the contraceptive method is ...
An IUD is a small device that must be placed in the uterus by a doctor or nurse. An IUD is safe, it is reversible, it is not ... Get contraceptives!. Because many women still do not have access to contraceptives, Women on Web can also offer them. You will ... Because many women still do not have access to contraceptives, Women on Web can also offer them. You will be asked to make a ... About Women on Web. Women on Web is a digital community of women who have had abortions, medical doctors, researchers, and ...
An IUD is a small device that must be placed in the uterus by a doctor or nurse. An IUD is safe, it is reversible, it is not ... Get contraceptives!. Because many women still do not have access to contraceptives, Women on Web can also offer them. You will ... Because many women still do not have access to contraceptives, Women on Web can also offer them. You will be asked to make a ... Acerca de Women on Web. Women on Web es una comunidad digital de mujeres que abortaron y de individuos y organizaciones que ...
Contraception methods can be temporary or permanent and are available for both men and women. Permanent methods include ... Contraceptive Devices Market Worldwide to 2019 - Types of Contraceptive Methods and Product Type Analyzed. ... The report covers the Americas, APAC, and EMEA; it also covers the landscape of the global contraceptive devices market and its ... The report, Global Contraceptive Devices Market 2015-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs ...
This chapter addresses the effects of hormonal contraceptives on headache, in particular, migraine. The definition, incidence, ... Readable on all devices. *Own it forever. *Local sales tax included if applicable ... Transnational Research Group on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women. Thromboembolic stroke in young women. A ... Stroke and use of low-dose oral contraceptives in young women: a pooled analysis of two US studies. Stroke. 1998; 29:2277-84. ...
... male condoms and female contraceptives include, female condoms, diaphragms, sponges, vaginal rings, subdermal implants, and ... Global Contraceptives Market: Restraints. Decreasing birth rate is expected to limit use of contraceptive drugs and devices, ... Male contraceptives include, male condoms and female contraceptives include, female condoms, diaphragms, sponges, vaginal rings ... Devices held dominant position in the global contraceptives market in 2019, accounting for 57.2% share in terms of value, ...
A female is temporarily sterilized by blocking the entrance to the uterus at the oviduct exit by means of a plug comprising (a ... mechanical contraceptive devices for temporarily sterilizing a female may consist of intra-uterine contraceptive devices, which ... The adverse influence on the body of the female, that frequently occurs with intra-uterine contraceptive devices which contact ... Intrauterine contraceptive device. US3407806 *. Aug 24, 1966. Oct 29, 1968. Butler Automatic Machine Inc. Contraceptive intra- ...
Category: Humans, Female, Keywords: Contraceptive Devices, Female Board Subjects: Immunoglobulins Citation: A. Abdel Hamid ,M. ... Immunoglobulin levels in serum and uterine fluids in women using intrauterine contraceptive device Abdel Hamid A.; Radwan, M.; ... Immunoglobulin levels were estimated in the serum and uterine fluid of 100 women using CuT intrauterine contraceptive device [ ... Immunoglobulin levels in serum and uterine fluids in women using intrauterine contraceptive device ...
Assigned to use a copper intrauterine device. Device: Copper T Intrauterine contraception device IUCD inserted upon ... Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. Antineoplastic Agents. ... Impact of Different Contraceptives on the Immune System of HIV Infected Women in Zambia (MSRC). The safety and scientific ... Mucosal and Systemic Responses to Contraceptives in HIV-Infected Women in Zambia. ...
The risk to the embryo and to the mother when pregnancy results with an intrauterine device (IUD) in the uterus is well ... Female. Humans. Intrauterine Devices*. Pregnancy*. Ultrasonography*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... The risk to the embryo and to the mother when pregnancy results with an intrauterine device (IUD) in the uterus is well ... 9561869 - How relationships of u.s. men affect contraceptive use and efforts to prevent sexually .... 12535449 - Immediate post ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Contraceptives ... Postplacental or Delayed Insertion of the Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine Device (IUD) After Vaginal Delivery (POPI). The ... Proportion of Women Who Are Able to Have the LNG-IUD Placed Postplacentally and Are Not Excluded From Placement [ Time Frame: 6 ... The primary hypothesis of this study is that use of the LNG-IUD at 6 months after vaginal delivery will be higher in women who ...
Food and Drug Administration for any female of child-bearing potential. Thursd ... The Plan B emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel) has been approved by the U.S. ... Home › News › Consumer News › Plan B Contraceptive Approved for All Females of Childbearing Age › Comments ... Plan B Contraceptive Approved for All Females of Childbearing Age. Print this page ...
... and preclinical studies relating to understanding the biological mechanisms and practical development of new contraceptive ... Female pelvic actinomycosis and intrauterine contraceptive devices Faustino R Pérez-López, José J Tobajas, Peter Chedraui ... Current use of contraceptive method among women in a middle-income developing country Paul A Bourne, Christopher AD Charles, ... Factors associated with contraceptive use and initiation of coital activity after childbirth John E Ekabua, Kufre J Ekabua, ...
Female condoms (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Intrauterine devices (IUD) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish ... Types include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.. *Keeping the womans ovaries from releasing eggs ... Sterilization, which permanently prevents a woman from getting pregnant or a man from being able to get a woman pregnant ... Female Condom (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) * How To Use A Dental Dam As A Barrier For Oral Sex (Centers ...
  • Hormonal contraception and the risk of HIV acquisition among women in South Africa," AIDS , vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 497-504, 2012. (
  • C. S. Morrison, C. Sekadde-Kigondu, S. K. Sinei, D. H. Weiner, C. Kwok, and D. Kokonya, "Is the intrauterine device appropriate contraception for HIV-1-infected women? (
  • A randomized trial of the intrauterine contraceptive device vs hormonal contraception in women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 197, no. 2, pp. 144.e1-144.e8, 2007. (
  • These findings, coupled with high unmet need for contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa, have spurred calls for safe, long-acting reversible contraceptive methods for HIV-positive women [ 4 , 15 ]. (
  • This contraceptive pill was the first method of contraception I was formally ever put on so was naturally a bit nervous as to what the side effects were of taking a contraceptive pill! (
  • The fear and the pain associated with intrauterine devices insertion consider barriers to using this contraception method, this is because that the mucosal lining of female genital tract is highly sensitive to touch and pain. (
  • This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. (
  • Health-care providers can use the summary table as a quick reference guide to the classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine contraception to compare classifications across these methods ( Box K1 ) ( Table K1 ). (
  • Women who receive PPIUCD show a high level of satisfaction with this choice of contraception, and the rates of expulsion were low enough such that the benefits of contraceptive protection outweigh the potential inconvenience of needing to return for care for that subset of women. (
  • Contraception methods can be temporary or permanent and are available for both men and women. (
  • To calculate the market size, we considered revenue generated from sales of various contraception devices. (
  • The discussion explores the stroke risk associated with both hormonal contraception and migraine and also includes the special contraceptive concerns regarding estrogen withdrawal headache, menstrual migraine, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. (
  • For instance, in May 2020, Evofem Biosciences, Inc. received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for Phexxi (lactic acid, citric acid and potassium bitartrate) vaginal gel used to prevent pregnancy in females of reproductive potential for use as an on-demand method of contraception. (
  • In this study, 66 HIV-infected women who desire contraception will be randomly assigned to use either an IUD or Depo Provera, and will be followed for six months. (
  • In this randomized controlled trial, 66 HIV-infected women who desire contraception will be assigned to one of two treatment groups: IUD or Depo Provera. (
  • The study builds on findings from a previous study which examined the safety and acceptability of hormonal contraception and IUD among HIV-infected women. (
  • Enrolled women will be asked to use the assigned contraception method for a period of six months, and various indicators of disease progression will be collected at four follow-up visits after randomization. (
  • Given the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States, particularly in postpartum women, there is a need for reliable, effective, long-term contraception such as the IUD in postpartum women. (
  • One hundred sixty-eight women receiving prenatal care at Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, who are interested in using the LNG-IUD for contraception will be enrolled during their pregnancy. (
  • Specially designed for women, female condoms are a barrier method of contraception that is worn inside the vagina. (
  • We analyzed women using known progestin-only forms of contraception (i.e. (
  • Because of low prevalence, women using the least effective contraceptive methods were combined with women using no contraception. (
  • [ 25 ] thus, while there may have been some women in the referent group who were using a hormonal form of contraception, the number is unlikely to have been appreciable. (
  • List the important health benefits of While the best time to advise a woman on contraception. (
  • Advise a postpartum patient on antenatal and postdelivery periods provide an the most appropriate method of excellent opportunity to provide contraceptive contraception. (
  • You must decide whether the patient's choiceA high perinatal or infant mortality rate in a of a contraceptive method is suitable, takingcommunity is likely to result in a rejection of into consideration:contraception. (
  • However, over past few years the awareness on contraception has contributed to both decline in unplanned pregnancies and also growth in the usage of the contraceptives market. (
  • ACOG Committee Opinion No. 735: Adolescents and Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: Implants and Intrauterine Devices. (
  • Among these, contraceptive drugs held the largest market share in 2014, as these are the easiest means of contraception. (
  • The industry is further classified into female condoms, sub-dermal contraceptive implants, intrauterine devices, contraceptive vaginal rings, contraceptive diaphragm, nonsurgical permanent contraception device, and contraceptive sponges. (
  • A birth control patch, invented by Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical under the brand name "Ortho Evra", is the latest and a widely preferred choice of contraception among women. (
  • Throughout the world, the most common form of reversible contraception is the intrauterine device (IUD), used by 85 million to 100 million women. (
  • O'Brien PA, Kulier R, Helmerhorst FM et al (2008) Copper-containing, framed intrauterine devices for contraception: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. (
  • Women who want to start intrauterine contraception (IUC) during the postpartum period might benefit from IUC insertion immediately after delivery. (
  • Without the option of immediate insertion, many women may never return for services or may adopt less effective contraception. (
  • Although knowledge on contraception is universal and most women attend maternal and child health services, contraceptive use remains low among women after delivery. (
  • Overall, 50.2% of the women were using contraception, 30.7% modern and 19.5% traditional methods. (
  • Effective counselling on family planning during antenatal and child welfare clinics, and encouraging spousal communication on contraception are likely to increase contraceptive use after delivery. (
  • In women with bicornuate uterus and in need of contraception, two IUDs are generally applied (one in each horn) due to lack of evidence of efficacy with only one IUD. (
  • Resumption of sex puts woman at the risk of conception and therefore, creates the need for postpartum contraception. (
  • These methods include the Intra Uterine Device (IUD), the progestin-only oral contraception (POC) among others. (
  • A larger qualitative study using in-depth, open-ended interviews, conducted in New South Wales between 2012 and 2013 with 94 women aged 16-49 years who had used contraception, included 10 interviews containing accounts of implant use. (
  • 13 The analysis specific to this article was a subset of a data analysis (n = 10) from a larger qualitative study into Australian women's contraceptive understandings and experiences (CUE study, ). (
  • A sterilisation is a permanent method of female contraception. (
  • There are non-permanent methods of female contraception. (
  • As a mechanical barrier method of contraception worn by women it's inserted easily into the vagina before sex and prevents direct vaginal contact with semen, infectious genital discharges, and genital lesions It is shaped like a long tube or sheath, with one closed end and one open end, and at each end, there's a flexible ring, helping to keep the female condom in place once it's inserted. (
  • More information can be found at the Emergency Contraception website This website will also inform on the what type of EC and birth control pills are available in your country and how to use them as emergency contraceptives. (
  • As for emergency contraception that is often promoted as a panacea for the sexually-active woman, she says caution is key. (
  • So we don't want a woman to use the emergency contraception for more than a couple of times in her life. (
  • The intra-uterine copper device has been the most popular means of female contraception in India, especially in the public sector, thanks to government support. (
  • We have also started conducting classes for adolescent girls in schools, talking to them about female physiology, contraception and hygiene, as part of the activities of the activities of the Obstetric and Gynaecological Society of Southern India. (
  • Third edition 2016 World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use - 3rd ed. 1.Contraception - methods. (
  • The Pill is still one of the most popular forms of contraception in the UK, taken by 3.5 million women (about one in four women of child-bearing age). (
  • All us health professionals would like to see more women on long acting form of contraception because they are more reliable in the long term and cost less for the NHS. (
  • As with every one of the 15 contraception options available , some women aren't convinced, while others rave about the benefits. (
  • In the Telegraph Wonder Women survey, Mirena users were the least likely to say they were unhappy with their contraception. (
  • For many women the Mirena is an extremely good form of contraception. (
  • A study of women who experienced mental ill-health from a hormonal contraception indicates they value their mental well-being higher than a satisfactory sex life. (
  • We aimed to compare DMPA-IM, a copper intrauterine device (IUD), and a levonorgestrel (LNG) implant among African women seeking effective contraception and living in areas of high HIV incidence. (
  • We included HIV-seronegative women aged 16-35 years who were seeking effective contraception, had no medical contraindications to the trial contraceptive methods, agreed to use the assigned method for 18 months, and reported not using injectable, intrauterine, or implantable contraception for the previous 6 months. (
  • The company added that FDA evidence reviews have determined Essure to be "a safe and effective medical device that benefits women by providing them with a valuable contraception option. (
  • Assigning a woman a certain method of contraception, gynecologists often provide her with the opportunity to independently select the appropriate means from a number of similar ones. (
  • Mirena is a hormone-containing contraceptive coil that provides contraception for five years. (
  • It's suitable for most women and can be a good option if you don't want to remember to take a pill every day or use contraception each time you have sex. (
  • Contraceptive devices for female are available in different types, among which the report emphasizes on the rising uptake of intrauterine contraceptive devices. (
  • Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCD) are increasingly included in many national postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs, but satisfaction of women who have adopted PPIUCD and complication rates need further characterization. (
  • Ultrasound-guided intrauterine removal of intrauterine contraceptive devices in pregnancy. (
  • We also present a series of case studies on several topics, including migratory intrauterine contraceptive devices, the use of guide wires, and horseshoe kidney malignancies, among others. (
  • Ammala M, Nyman T, Strengell L, Rutanen EM (1995) Effect of intrauterine contraceptive devices on cytokine messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the human endometrium. (
  • Alvarez F, Brache V, Fernandez E et al (1988) New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women. (
  • Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D (1999) The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices. (
  • IUDs, devices which are implanted into the uterus. (
  • As noted above, information on hormonal IUDs was not included, but the number of women using these devices was probably negligible. (
  • The high costs of the IUD devices have been a barrier for many of the women's as IUDs are very expensive primarily because of the procedures involved which is known as implanting. (
  • Risk factors include previous fallopian tube infections such as salpingitis, smoking, a history of infertility , use of contraceptive intrauterine devices (IUDs) and medications, and advanced age. (
  • Many theories have been proposed to explain the contraceptive action of IUDs. (
  • Systemic hormonal contraceptives and male condoms are among the most popular contraceptive methods in Sub-Saharan Africa, the global region with the greatest proportion of HIV-infected women [ 5 - 7 ]. (
  • Some of these include diaphragms & sponges, vaginal rings, sub-dermal implants, and female condoms. (
  • Use of female condoms can provide protection from transmission of STDs, although data are limited. (
  • Women too can use condoms on the vulva for safer oral sex. (
  • There are such things as "female condoms" but they are not the same thing as male condoms. (
  • The male contraceptive devices (male condoms) market held majority of the market share in 2011 at over 45% owing to its high usage rates induced by its easy-to-use features, cheap prices and high effectiveness. (
  • Barrier methods of birth control such as diaphragms, cervical caps, or condoms, appeal to women who don't want extra hormones in their systems. (
  • Randomised controlled trials provide evidence that female condoms confer as much protection from STIs as male condoms. (
  • 3 Though male condoms are known to be highly effective in preventing sexually transmitted HIV and many STIs, gender power imbalances in sexual partnerships require prevention methods that can be used by women without requiring partner negotiation during sexual intercourse. (
  • This study is a randomized controlled trial comparing 6 month usage rates of the levonorgestrel- releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) when inserted postplacentally after vaginal delivery or delayed placement at 6-8 weeks postpartum. (
  • The primary hypothesis of this study is that use of the LNG-IUD at 6 months after vaginal delivery will be higher in women who have immediate postplacental insertion as compared to delayed insertion 6-8 weeks following delivery. (
  • A Qualitative Systematic Review of Women's Experiences Using Contraceptive Vaginal Rings: Implications for New Technologies. (
  • Women 's Experiences Using Contraceptive Vaginal Rings: Implications for New Technologies. (
  • Hygiene, Blood Flow, and Vaginal Overload: Why Women Removed an HIV Prevention Vaginal Ring During Menstruation in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the contraceptive efficacy of the ENG-E2 vaginal ring in women between 18 and 35 years of age based on the number of in-treatment pregnancies as expr. (
  • The investigators propose to explore the hypothesis-supported by limited data-that a contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) that is commonly used in the United States, the NuvaRing, will enh. (
  • We describe a woman who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. (
  • If a woman does not know that she is pregnant, she may confuse vaginal bleeding for menstrual blood. (
  • NuvaRing is the only vaginal hormonal contraceptive that's approved by the Food and Drug Administration and available in the United States. (
  • It is known, for example, that in the Middle Ages women wore iron caps on the cervix, lubricated it with a solution of mercury and lead, and inserted into it vaginal pessary made of steel wire and caused infection and bedsores of the reproductive organs. (
  • At different times and in different countries, contraceptives were banned by the authorities or by the church, therefore devices such as a vaginal syringe or vaginal douche, which were used to cleanse the internal female organs, periodically appeared on sale. (
  • Contraceptive use to prevent unplanned pregnancy is the most cost-effective means of preventing maternal-to-child transmission of HIV [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • The female oral contraceptive pill (known simply as 'the pill') has been around since the 1960s and has been well known for its convenience of being a fully reversible and easy-to-administer method of preventing pregnancy. (
  • These hormones act on the female genital tract and certain areas in the brain to prevent the release of an ovum (egg) from the ovaries, hence preventing pregnancy. (
  • It is a small, T-shaped device that is placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. (
  • High female infertility can result in no pregnancy at all. (
  • The risk to the embryo and to the mother when pregnancy results with an intrauterine device (IUD) in the uterus is well documented. (
  • Plan B is meant to reduce the chances of pregnancy if taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex or suspected contraceptive failure. (
  • The product will not end the pregnancy of a female who is already pregnant, and there is no evidence that it will harm a developing fetus, the FDA said in a news release. (
  • For women at risk of pregnancy, the most commonly used methods are easily reversed methods such as the oral contraceptive pill (30%) and condom (23%), medium-term methods such as the intrauterine device and implantation (5%) and permanent methods (7% tubal ligation and 9% vasectomy of partner). (
  • The female condom is the only available woman-initiated method that provides dual protection from unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. (
  • Postpartum women are particularly susceptible, with an unintended pregnancy rate of 10%-44% in the first year postpartum. (
  • They will be contacted by phone at 3 and 6 months to assess quality of life, contraceptive usage, and unintended pregnancy rates. (
  • And, it isn't just women who use contraceptive devices to prevent pregnancy. (
  • Oral contraceptive or birth control pills contain hormones that prevent pregnancy. (
  • An intrauterine device is a long-acting birth control coil inserted into a women's uterus to prevent pregnancy. (
  • Why aren't contraceptives guaranted to avoid pregnancy and diseases? (
  • Active Use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and Personal Health Records (PHRs) for Epidemiologic Research: Sample Representativeness and Nonresponse Bias in a Study of Women During Pregnancy. (
  • An ectopic pregnancy happens when a woman becomes pregnant, but the egg settles outside of its normal location in the inner lining of the womb. (
  • A woman will have a positive pregnancy test. (
  • Pregnancy is a state in which a woman carries a fertilized egg inside her body. (
  • Due to technological advances, pregnancy is increasingly occurring among older women in the United States. (
  • The first sign of pregnancy is usually a missed menstrual period, although some women bleed in the beginning. (
  • The ring is a stainless steel intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) which was placed after an uneventful delivery of her pregnancy in China. (
  • Birth control is the use of various devices, drugs, agents, sexual practices, or surgical procedures to prevent conception or pregnancy. (
  • A range of devices and treatments are available for both men and women that can help prevent pregnancy. (
  • Women are well-looked after during pregnancy, for information about check-ups and the costs involved with having a baby in France, see the section on Pregnancy in France. (
  • ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES protect against pregnancy by the combined actions of the hormones estrogens and progestin. (
  • Contraceptives, available in the form of drugs and devices, prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintentional pregnancy. (
  • Asia Pacific is projected to be the fastest-growing market for contraceptives owing to the growing use of contraceptive pills for pregnancy prevention. (
  • A survey of 1,000 women aged 16 to 45 by Telegraph Wonder Women and the British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) found that five per cent had an IUS (intrauterine system) fitted. (
  • HIV incidence was high in this population of women seeking pregnancy prevention, emphasising the need for integration of HIV prevention within contraceptive services for African women. (
  • Fertility typically increases posttransplant, and female transplant recipients should avoid pregnancy for one year after surgery. (
  • Current contraceptives promote the principle of safety and ensured protection against unwanted pregnancy. (
  • It has long been proven that the prolonged absence of pregnancy is impairing the health of a woman, triggering a hormonal failure, as well as mental and organ diseases associated with it. (
  • At the same time, unwanted pregnancy and abortion can cause a woman no less harm than the prolonged absence of pregnancy. (
  • While over a quarter of a million women die due to pregnancy and child birth. (
  • It's estimated that for every woman who dies as a result of pregnancy and childbirth, 10 to 30 times as many suffer serious complications. (
  • I've tried a long succession of contraceptive pills over the past few years, with a wide variety of annoying side effects. (
  • These include injectable contraceptives, hormonal oral pills, and topical contraceptives. (
  • Study reflects the beneficial or side effects of estrogen+progestagen pills and only progestogen inside device. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether teens and young women would prefer the Nuvaring to oral contraceptive pills after having tried both methods. (
  • Contraceptive pills have invited much criticism for tinkering with a woman's hormone production. (
  • Interesting information about the use of birth control pills, a debate about the birth control responsibility of men and women and development of hypothetical male contraceptive pill. (
  • These include pills, shots, and an IUD (intrauterine device). (
  • Dinger J, Minh TD, Buttmann N, Bardenheuer K. Effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills in a large U.S. cohort comparing progestogen and regimen. (
  • There have been a lot of technological developments in contraceptive drugs, such as the advent of emergency contraceptive pills. (
  • expect to pay between 10 and 15 euros a month for contraceptive pills. (
  • Oral contraceptive pills are the most popular form of temporary birth control and it held majority of the market share in 2011. (
  • The global topical contraceptives market is the second fastest growing market after contraceptive pills. (
  • UK guidance from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) includes oral contraceptive pills or the Mirena® intrauterine system as treatment options for oligomenorrhoeic women with PCOS. (
  • RCOG guidance does not specifically mention progestogen-only pills (POP) or other contraceptives. (
  • But, by and large, she adds, oral contraceptive pills have been proved largely free of sideeffects and with a very low failure rate. (
  • The pills have changed the scene for women, she adds. (
  • Factors such as the high occurrence of unplanned pregnancies, favorable reimbursement policies, and the rising use of contraceptive pills are responsible for the dominance of the North America contraceptives market. (
  • The analysts divide the drugs segment into oral contraceptive pills, topical contraceptives, and contraceptive injectable. (
  • Increased use of hormonal intrauterine devices and contraceptive pills are the cause. (
  • Women who use contraceptive sponges have an increased risk of yeast infection and urinary tract infection. (
  • Other leading methods were the male condom (16%) and male sterilization (10%), with a smaller number of women using the IUD and the 3-month injectable. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and women using these methods should be counseled that consistent and correct use of the male latex condom reduces the risk for transmission of HIV and other STDs. (
  • Through a user-centered process, PATH and our partners developed the Woman's Condom , a next-generation female condom designed to be easy to use and comfortable for both partners. (
  • To elucidate the effects of the intravaginal ring, oral contraceptive pill (OCP), and spermicide plus condom on women's sexual experiences through an in-depth understanding of the physical characteris. (
  • However, despite a large number of contraceptive devices floating in the markets, a condom is the only thing that will help protect you from sexually transmitted infections. (
  • Animation on how to use Female condom and its advantages. (
  • Find out how to use them on our female condom page . (
  • Some 18 women in every 100 may conceive if their partner uses a condom. (
  • The female condom, or femidom, is made of polyurethane. (
  • only the sponge and female condom have been developed and approved for use since this time. (
  • male or female condom with or without spermicide cap, diaphragm, or sponge with spermicide. (
  • The male latex condom is the only contraceptive method considered highly effective in reducing the risk of STDs. (
  • FEMALE CONDOM is made of soft rubber and can be used only once. (
  • The female condom is not so popular in the country, certainly in domestic settings, doctors say. (
  • While Indian women may have issues with the necessity to insert this condom every time, it is undoubtedly the best when it comes to prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. (
  • It is the woman's own device of protection when a male partner refuses to use a condom. (
  • The most famous barrier contraceptive is a condom (both male and female). (
  • The investigators goal is to measure the impact of timing of postpartum contraceptive implant insertion on breastfeeding success and duration and to explore women's experiences with and at. (
  • WASHINGTON - A medical implant that slowly dissolves into the body could be the answer to long-standing safety concerns with devices used to treat clogged arteries. (
  • Recently, two French women filed a lawsuit against Bayer, alleging that they sustained damages as a result of using the company's Essure contraceptive implant device. (
  • Still, this could result from the manufacturer's failure to provide appropriate instructions on how to implant the device, or it could be the result of malpractice on the physicians' part. (
  • In November 2016, the FDA issued a new labeling requirement for Essure and other permanent birth control implant devices. (
  • The FDA has also mandated a new study to investigate the apparent problems associated with permanent birth control implant devices. (
  • We answer all your frequently asked questions in our contraceptive implant article , as well as discussing its effectiveness and side effects. (
  • Additionally, the global contraceptive drugs and devices market has been experiencing steady growth due to the advent of cheap contraceptives, such as AG200-15 Contraceptive Patch, Sino-Implant (II), and Pill-Plus. (
  • More than a dozen women who received a metallic birth control implant are urging health regulators to pull the device from the market, citing problems including severe pain, irregular bleeding and weight gain. (
  • An implant device is includes an expandable balloon configured to expand in response to internal pressure applied thereto. (
  • The subdermal contraceptive implants is one of the fastest growing segments in the global contraceptive devices market due to the rising popularity of cheap implants such as Sino-implant (II) and the price reduction of Bayer's Jadelle. (
  • The number of prescriptions for contraceptive implants has steadily increased in Australia, but implant use is still low. (
  • The objectives of the study were to describe women's nuanced responses, and characterise their multidimensional and complex reasons for (dis)continuing use of the contraceptive implant. (
  • Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), including the subdermal implant (etonogestrel, sold in Australia under the brand name Implanon), are highly effective and safe, and are thus recommended by health professionals as suitable for women of all ages. (
  • Approximately half of the women who commenced using the implant in Australia 4,5 and the UK 6 discontinued it within two years. (
  • 9,10 A qualitative study 11 of young women aged 16-22 years in the UK acknowledged the complexities involved in the decision to discontinue the implant. (
  • An in-depth qualitative approach to understanding the experiences of Australian women who have used the implant is lacking in research to date. (
  • This article describes the lived experiences of 10 Australian women who have used the implant, some multiple times. (
  • I decided to cut out the pain of oral contraceptives, since my choices were limited anyway, and get the Nexplanon implant. (
  • No evidence was identified which examined the use of the contraceptive implant (Nexplanon) in women with PCOS. (
  • Between Dec 14, 2015, and Sept 12, 2017, 7830 women were enrolled and 7829 were randomly assigned to the DMPA-IM group (n=2609), the copper IUD group (n=2607), or the LNG implant group (n=2613). (
  • 7715 (99%) participants were included in the modified intention-to-treat population (2556 in the DMPA-IM group, 2571 in the copper IUD group, and 2588 in the LNG implant group), and women used their assigned method for 9567 (92%) of 10 409 woman-years of follow-up time. (
  • 3·31 per 100 woman-years [2·74-3·98]) in the LNG implant group. (
  • 12 women died during the study: six in the DMPA-IM group, five in the copper IUD group, and one in the LNG implant group. (
  • MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- To help curb complications tied to the permanent contraceptive implant Essure, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Monday slapped new restrictions on the sale of the device. (
  • Compared to previous use, more women were using and would prefer the more effective contraceptive methods in future. (
  • This FOA supports the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in its mission to develop novel, safe and effective contraceptive methods for men and women. (
  • A small European case-control trial suggests the levonorgestrel IUCD is also safe for HIV-positive women [ 24 ]. (
  • Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device(LNG_IUS) has only progestagen. (
  • FRIDAY, June 21 -- The Plan B "emergency" contraceptive (levonorgestrel) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for any female of child-bearing potential. (
  • Several trials examined the number of copper IUD expulsions, but none evaluated the partial and complete expulsion rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing device (LNG-IUD). (
  • Intrauterine device (IUD) with progestogen , sold under the brand name Mirena among others, is a intrauterine device that releases the hormone levonorgestrel . (
  • IMPLANTS (such as Norplant or implanon) are made up of small rubber rods, which are surgically implanted under the skin of the upper arm, where they release the contraceptive steroid levonorgestrel. (
  • Once in the womb it steadily releases levonorgestrel, which is a synthetic form of the female sex hormone, progesterone. (
  • In some women the levonorgestrel may also prevent ovulation, but this isn't the case for all women who use Mirena. (
  • PATH and our partners are working to bring a one-size fits-most diaphragm to more women around the world. (
  • PATH developed the SILCS diaphragm , a single-size silicone contraceptive barrier designed to expand women's options for nonhormonal protection. (
  • Marketed as the Caya® contoured diaphragm , this diaphragm recently launched in the US and is in more than 25 countries, expanding contraceptive choices for women. (
  • a contraceptive diaphragm. (
  • Find out how you use this contraceptive and how effective the diaphragm is here . (
  • Products involve contraceptive drugs, male contraceptive devices, and female contraceptive devices. (
  • The devices segment is sub-segmented into male contraceptive devices and female contraceptive devices. (
  • These include oral contraceptives, patches, and implants. (
  • The global contraceptives market is estimated to account for US$ 25,969.2 Mn in terms of value in 2020 and is expected to reach US$ 37,889.0 Mn by the end of 2027 . (
  • R&D in emergency contraceptives is expected to offer lucrative growth opportunities for players in the global contraceptives market. (
  • Decreasing birth rate is expected to limit use of contraceptive drugs and devices, thereby hindering growth of the global contraceptives market. (
  • The global contraceptives market was valued at US$ 24,605.4 Mn in 2019 and is forecast to reach a value of US$ 37,889.0 Mn by 2027 at a CAGR of 5.5% between 2020 and 2027. (
  • Major factor driving the growth of global contraceptives market during the forecast period include increasing population, and increasing focus on family planning. (
  • Devices held dominant position in the global contraceptives market in 2019, accounting for 57.2% share in terms of value, followed by drugs, respectively. (
  • The presence of a strong contraceptives product pipeline and the presence of large unmet contraceptive needs in emerging Asian and African economies will serve the global contraceptives market with future growth opportunities. (
  • In the global contraceptives market by product types (drugs and devices), the contraceptive devices market held majority of the market share in 2011. (
  • This report holds the market estimation of the global contraceptives market in terms of value (USD million) for the period 2012 - 2018, considering the base year 2011 as. (
  • In addition, current market trends and recent developments are taken into consideration while determining the growth rate of the global contraceptives market. (
  • Factors such as the implementation of Affordable Care Act and the Patient Protection Act, the rising rate of unintended pregnancies, and the rising awareness programs by NGOs to promote the use of contraceptives are expected to propel the global contraceptives market . (
  • The global contraceptives market is segmented on the basis of geography and product type. (
  • By geography, the global contraceptives market is divided into Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, and Rest of the World. (
  • By product type, the global contraceptives market is classified into drugs and devices. (
  • Going forward, factors such as the presence of many contraceptive pipeline products and the entry of new companies can be held responsible for the growth of the global contraceptives market. (
  • There are various causes for a woman not being able to conceive and one of the most common is uterus infertility where there is abnormal formation of the uterus or some anomalous growths.Uterus infertility counts for a large percentage of infertility in w. (
  • A small device that a doctor inserts into a woman's uterus) The Intrauterine Device (IUD) is one of the most effective methods of birth control. (
  • An IUD is a small device that must be placed in the uterus by a doctor or nurse. (
  • A female is temporarily sterilized by blocking the entrance to the uterus at the oviduct exit by means of a plug comprising (a) a blocking plate, which blocks the uterus entrance, (b) a plug positioning plate, which is passed through the wall of the uterus and (C) a stem which joins the blocking and. (
  • SHEET 2 [IF 2 DEVICE FOR AND METHOD OF TEMPORARY STERILIZING A FEMALE This invention relates to temporary sterilization of females, and more particularly to a device and method of emplacement thereof for blocking the entrance into the uterus from an oviduct. (
  • Conventionally, mechanical contraceptive devices for temporarily sterilizing a female may consist of intra-uterine contraceptive devices, which are located within, but are not secured against falling out of, the uterus. (
  • In addition, such devices damage the walls of the uterus and interfere with the menstrual cycle. (
  • It is desirable therefore, to provide a mechanical means for temporarily sterilizing a female, which means will not accidentally fall out or shift or cause damage to the uterus or permanent sterilization. (
  • A device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg. (
  • A flexible implantable contraceptive disc device is disclosed which can be inserted inside the female body, such as inside the uterus, is disclosed. (
  • The invention relates to an intrauterine device, which comprises an elastically deformable element (2) for holding the intrauterine device (1) in the uterus. (
  • Disclosed are two-handed IUD insertion devices for positioning an intrauterine device (IUD) in the uterus which includes a plunger, a sheath, a grip and a handle where the axial movement of the plunger is controlled via features along th. (
  • [1] The device is placed in the uterus and lasts three to five years. (
  • IUD is a T-shaped device inserted into the uterus by a health-care professional. (
  • The plastic T-shaped device is inserted by a healthcare professional into a woman's uterus through the vagina. (
  • The lawsuit alleges that the Mirena® IUD caused substantial injuries in the Florida woman, that the Mirena® IUD birth control device migrated from its intended position and perforated the uterus, and that the device caused the woman physical and emotional damages. (
  • confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.20) and not switching contraceptive methods in the last year (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.03-5.83). (
  • It is also sound safe and cheap contraceptive methods available and is nearly maintenance free for up to 10 years. (
  • Previous studies have reported different lines to decrease pain during intrauterine device insertion starting by simple methods such as pre-insertion ibuprofen use, intracervical or intrauterine lidocaine and misoprostol up to paracervical blocks. (
  • Women were asked to report up to four contraceptive methods they used during the month of interview. (
  • If a woman reported using multiple contraceptive methods during the month of interview, the most effective method was considered her primary method. (
  • Permanent methods include sterilization for women (tubal occlusion or hysteroscopy) and sterilization for men (vasectomy). (
  • Logistic regression models are used to investigate the use of four popular contraceptive methods by parity, age and fertility intentions controlling for socio-demographic factors. (
  • Female-initiated contraceptive methods help give women more control over their sexual and reproductive lives, their own fertility, and decisions about whether, when, and with whom they'll have children. (
  • To study the psychic self-representations and experiences of menstrual blood in women and their impact on the choice of a contraceptive method, with or without amenorrhea Methods. (
  • Birth Control Methods For Men And Women - Which One Is Right For You? (
  • People have used birth control methods for a long time now, and with the increasing research that is going into it (thanks to the massive world population), today you can easily find many safe and reliable birth control methods for men and women. (
  • It mostly includes the use of devices, drugs, surgical procedures and other methods to prevent impregnation. (
  • Although contraceptive and birth control measures have been used since time immemorial, it was only by the 20th century that effective and safe methods were devised. (
  • Though women have a number of options that they can choose from, birth control methods do extend to men as well. (
  • In response to the women's lawsuit, the French Health ministry stated that the problems that the women experienced may have been a result of the methods that the physicians used to insert the device rather than an issue with the device itself. (
  • A new study has shown that contraceptive methods can have a significant impact on women's sexual pleasure and satisfaction. (
  • Whether you're looking for hormonal types of protection or barrier methods, there are plenty of contraceptives for women to choose from. (
  • If you don't want to use hormonal forms of contraceptive, natural methods could be for you. (
  • If you are asking for a list of all contraceptive methods for either men or women, here is a list of some of the most common. (
  • side effects of the various contraceptive methods. (
  • The contraceptive sponge combines barrier and spermicidal methods to prevent conception. (
  • One report compared the economic value of 15 different contraceptive methods. (
  • Contraceptive drugs and devices are temporary birth control methods and function majorly by altering the mechanism of ovulation and acting as physical barriers between the sperm and ovary. (
  • To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods in preventing STI/HIV transmission, to examine recent reviews on microbicide development, and to highlight promising research directions. (
  • Increased investment in the development and identification of female controlled barrier methods offers promise that additional products will be available in the years ahead. (
  • The need for female controlled barrier methods that provide women with the opportunity to take an active role in reducing their STI/HIV risk are urgently needed and constitute an essential tool to prevent continued spread of these infections. (
  • With a persistent epidemic of heterosexually acquired HIV and an effective vaccine still years away, the need for female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, remains paramount. (
  • The kit uses 3-D models enclosed behind Plexiglas to present a wide variety of contraceptive methods. (
  • Similarly, no evidence was identified which examined the use of different contraceptive methods for treatment of PCOS in women of different ages. (
  • mean of two values measured during screening * For post-pubertal female patients of childbearing potential: agreement to remain abstinent (refrain from heterosexual intercourse) or to use acceptable contraceptive methods during the study and for 90 days after the final dose of Mircera A female patient is considered to be of childbearing potential if she is postmenarcheal. (
  • As per the findings of the research, side effects of contraceptives encourage people to try natural contraceptive methods. (
  • Many of these women will have been offered the IUS after difficult experiences with other hormonal methods, such as the Pill. (
  • Observational and laboratory studies suggest that some hormonal contraceptive methods, particularly intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), might increase women's susceptibility to HIV acquisition. (
  • These results support continued and increased access to these three contraceptive methods. (
  • There is a critical need for fertility regulation methods that fit the needs of women and men throughout their reproductive lives. (
  • It is difficult to say how barbaric modern contraceptive methods our descendants will find, because the most progressive and safe contraceptives used two centuries ago today considered as an instrument of torture. (
  • Sayana Press is a family planning method that combines a lower dose of the three-month Depo-Provera® contraceptive and needle together in the PATH-developed Uniject™ injection system. (
  • DEPO-PROVERA is a hormonal contraceptive injected into a muscle on the arm or buttock every three months. (
  • Analyses for IUCD interest excluded women with prior surgical sterilization. (
  • Hence, temporary sterilization might be lost without the female being aware of it. (
  • Family planning involves the use of hormonal barriers as a technique for birth control, sterilization, and application of intra-uterine devices. (
  • The invention realates to a method, device and apparatus for reversible contraceptive sterilization. (
  • The contraceptive device may be delivered non-operatively and provide complete sterilization within a period of days. (
  • The satisfaction of women who received IUCD during the postpartum period and problems and complications following insertion were assessed using standardized questionnaires. (
  • Seven recent trials (884 women) were added in this updated version comparing different IUD postpartum insertion times. (
  • We then applied both descriptive analyses comprising Pearson's chi-square test and later a binary logistic regression model to analyze the relative contribution of the various predictors of uptake of modern contraceptives during the postpartum period. (
  • More than a quarter (28%) of the women used modern family planning during the postpartum period in Uganda. (
  • Increasing reproductive health education and information among postpartum women especially those who are disadvantaged, those with no education and the poor would significantly improve PPFP in Uganda. (
  • Postpartum months are a challenging time for women because of breastfeeding, childcare, menstrual resumption, and resumption of sexual relations. (
  • The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a highly effective, long-acting contraceptive method and is not widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa [ 16 ]. (
  • In North America, over 90% of the female population uses the modern contraceptive techniques. (
  • PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is affecting millions of women in India, but many don't even realise that what's damaging their health. (
  • Contraceptive use and method preference among women in Soweto, South Africa: the influence of expanding access to HIV care and treatment services," PLoS ONE , vol. 5, no. 11, Article ID e13868, 2010. (
  • HIV disease progression by hormonal contraceptive method: secondary analysis of a randomized trial," AIDS , vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1377-1382, 2009. (
  • Despite low levels of method awareness, HIV-positive women in this setting are frequently interested in IUCD use, indicating need for programming to expand method access. (
  • Some studies have suggested that systemic hormonal contraceptive method use by HIV-positive women may increase HIV transmission to male partners and progression of HIV disease among users, particularly for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), though findings are mixed [ 8 - 14 ]. (
  • Two studies among reproductive aged women in South Africa indicate low (26-41%) awareness of the IUCD as a contraceptive method, despite its inclusion in contraceptive method mix and availability at no cost through the public sector [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • Both studies found that a majority (69-74%) of women were interested in IUCD use after receipt of basic information about the method [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • However, these studies did not differentiate women by HIV status, although other studies indicate that HIV infection often impacts contraceptive method choice, potentially resulting in differences in IUCD receptivity [ 5 , 19 ]. (
  • The intrauterine devices are a safe, reliable, long-acting and reversible contraceptive method. (
  • If she used only one contraceptive method, that was considered her primary method. (
  • The figure above shows primary contraceptive method used among women aged 15-44 years in the United States from 2006 to 2008. (
  • 1 = A condition for which there is no restriction for the use of the contraceptive method. (
  • 4 = A condition that represents an unacceptable health risk if the contraceptive method is used. (
  • Make sure that the contraceptive method is right for you. (
  • The Copper T 380A intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a highly effective, non-hormonal method that can be safely used by all women regardless of breastfeeding status during this interval. (
  • A 2010 Cochrane review concluded that PPIUCDs were a safe and effective contraceptive method. (
  • A case-based approach is used to allow practitioners an understanding of how to implement best practice recommendations, especially the selection of appropriate candidates for initiation of hormone-containing contraceptives, and decision-making about method continuation among women complaining of headache while taking hormonal contraceptives. (
  • Willingness to be randomized to a contraceptive method and continue that method for at least 6 months. (
  • This paper examines contraceptive method use at different stages of the reproductive life course. (
  • These unintended pregnancies occur despite the recommendation that a contraceptive method be selected prior to hospital discharge. (
  • I suppose that you could say that both the male and female are using the same method when they employ the rhythm method or coitus interruptus. (
  • In this method, the couple only has sex on days when the woman is not fertile. (
  • other members of her family or friends.A good way to motivate a patient to accept Step 2: The patient's choice of a contraceptivecontraception is to discuss with her, or methodpreferably with both her and her partner, thehealth and socio-economic effects further The patient should always be asked whichchildren could have on her and the rest of the contraceptive method she would prefer as thisfamily. (
  • 1. The effectiveness of each contraceptive method.8-4 How should you give contraceptive 2. (
  • contraceptive method.There are five important steps which should be 3. (
  • According to the United States Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Population Affairs, each year, for every 100 women who use this method, 20 may become pregnant. (
  • Systematic review of articles that examined the disease prevention effectiveness of at least one female controlled barrier method. (
  • Furthermore, a recent Australian study identified that 40% of women changed contraceptive method for non-contraceptive reasons. (
  • Which contraceptive method provides suitable endometrial protection for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and does the method differ by age? (
  • IUD's have one of the lowest failure rates of contraceptive method. (
  • The primary safety endpoint was any serious adverse event or any adverse event resulting in method discontinuation, until the trial exit visit at 18 months and was assessed in all enrolled and randomly assigned women. (
  • Apart from the necessity to perform this relatively serious surgical intervention in anesthesia, this method is dis¬ advantageous mainly for its irreversibility as the woman is not able to conceive and be a true mother for ever. (
  • The device and delivery method obviates the need for follow-up visits to confirm closure of the fallopian tubes. (
  • It is as well applied in the medication of skin ailments, infertility in women, as a parasiticide, as an antipyretic, and as a purgati. (
  • Endometriosis is a type of disease that may cause infertility in women. (
  • In this disease, abnormal hormones are produced and due which infertility in women occurs. (
  • Female infertility is caused by hormonal problems or physical stress. (
  • Extra stress, due to the society or the complexity of the environment can also lead to female infertility. (
  • There are also other factors such as religious and cultural opposition in certain emerging nations and the fear of certain issues such as infertility resulting from the use of contraceptives have been major setbacks from the market point of view which have been restraining the growth of this market. (
  • Recent studies conclude that the intrauterine device poses no increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility when used by appropriately selected patients. (
  • You may have infertility if you do not conceive after one year of regular intercourse without the use of contraceptives. (
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 5-10% of women and is characterised by obesity, hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and insulin resistance, which results in hirsutism, irregular menses, and infertility. (
  • Moreover, the rising occurrence of infertility amongst women is restricting the use of contraceptives. (
  • Rosenberg MJ, Waugh MS, Long S. Unintended pregnancies and use, misuse and discontinuation of oral contraceptives. (
  • Not using of the contraceptives or the incorrect use of the contraceptives may result in unintended pregnancies and the number of unintended pregnancies percentage is higher in the teens younger than 18 years, followed by the age group of 20-24 years. (
  • And in 2014, these contraceptives have helped women to avoid 2 million unintended pregnancies, which would likely have resulted in 900,000 unplanned births and nearly 700,000 abortions. (
  • This small plastic square skin patch has two female hormones, "progesterone" in the form of "norelgestromin" and "estrogen" in the form of "ethinyl estradiol" that help avoid unwanted pregnancies. (
  • This is principally due to the fact that governments of countries experiencing a rise in the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies are rigorously promoting the use of contraceptives to curb unnecessary healthcare expenditures associated with abortions. (
  • The growing number of unintended pregnancies, especially in rural areas, has propelled the demand for various contraceptives. (
  • Pune, July 08, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Several private institutions and government organizations are actively participating to spread awareness on the use of contraceptives. (
  • The analysts forecast global contraceptive devices market to grow at a CAGR of 4.88% over the period 2014-2019. (
  • The report includes the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global contraceptive devices market for the period 2015-2019. (
  • The report, Global Contraceptive Devices Market 2015-2019 , has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (
  • Part of the oral contraceptives group, the mini pill is a progestogen-only pill which stops you getting pregnant. (
  • Administered as an injection, this contraceptive releases the hormone progestogen into your blood. (
  • Again the guidance states that there is insufficient evidence on the use of progestogen containing intrauterine devices (LNG-IUS) in women with PCOS. (
  • However, the guidance states that progestogen-only contraceptives or progestogen containing intrauterine devices (LNG-IUS) provide an alternative for endometrial protection but cautions that abnormal bleeding patterns are experienced by 50-80% of users. (
  • It releases progestogen, a synthetic version of the female hormone progesterone, and can stay in place for three to five years, before being removed by a health professional. (
  • A Qualitative Study of the Contraceptive Effect on Women's Sexual Experiences: Beyond Hormonal Effects. (
  • According to the Society for Women's Health Research in the US, issues specific to the human female anatomy are defined as women's health. (
  • Still, one expert in women's health said the FDA move can only be helpful to women. (
  • In a deeply divisive case pitting advocates of religious liberty against women's right's groups, the Supreme Court said today that two for profit corporations with sincerely held religious beliefs do not have to provide a full range of contraceptives at no cost to their employees pursuant to the Affordable Care Act. (
  • Although the Government argued the mandate was essential to providing a full range of benefits for women's health, Alito said, "the Government has failed to show that the contraceptive mandate is the least restrictive means of furthering that interest," according to the majority opinion. (
  • For instance, in March 2020, researchers from Monash University and The Alfred Hospital, Australia, reported assessing the impact of oral contraceptive androgenicity on visuospatial and social-emotional cognition in reproductive-aged women. (
  • Previous research on contraceptive practice in developed countries typically applies age as a proxy for reproductive history. (
  • While age is an essential and useful life course measure for understanding contraceptive use, investigations of contraceptive practice should also consider parity and fertility intentions, as they may be more accurate measures of reproductive life course stage. (
  • Analysis is based on data collected in the 2005 Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a nationally representative sample of women of reproductive age (18-44). (
  • We talk to women around the world to learn what reproductive health and contraceptive options they need to live healthy and full lives. (
  • As secretariat of the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition , PATH also helps to develop efficient supply chains to ensure women are able to access the contraceptive and reproductive health supplies they need. (
  • Data was collected on their socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive experiences and future contraceptive intentions. (
  • We used 3298 women of reproductive ages 15-49 from the 2011 UDHS dataset, who had a birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. (
  • It occurs on a regular basis in reproductive-age females of certain mammal species. (
  • It's suitable for women who can't have the hormone oestrogen, find out more about the side effects related to the pill and its effectiveness in our mini pill article . (
  • Other sources cite poorer effectiveness rates for women who have given birth: 74% during correct and consistent use, and 68% during typical use. (
  • Now when it comes to the contraceptive pill I consider myself to be quite an expert, well more so than my boyfriend anyway who is constantly telling me things he's heard about it on the TV or Tricia which really do not qualify him as a doctor. (
  • Marvelon is a low dose contraceptive pill. (
  • Now, scientists have identified a protein target that clears the path for a contraceptive pill that will not disrupt the natural hormonal cycles. (
  • Randomized trial of the effect of tailored versus standard use of the combined oral contraceptive pill on continuation rates at 1 year. (
  • Oral contraceptive pill. (
  • The use of the pill as effective birth control has been in vogue for a long while, but according to gynaecologists, is gaining popularity among women. (
  • Telegraph Wonder Women campaign: Women and their doctors have been encouraged to think the IUS hormonal coil is the answer to womankind's problem with the Pill. (
  • It can cause some women as many problems as the Pill, just in different ways. (
  • With the NHS seemingly pushing the IUS as a strong alternative to the Pill, why aren't even more women choosing it? (
  • Rosenberg MJ, Waugh MS. Oral contraceptive discontinuation: a prospective evaluation of frequency and reasons. (
  • 4 However, women report a wider range of reasons for discontinuation that are not always captured by side-effect data in clinical studies. (
  • The overall contraceptives market is categorized on the basis of products into two major categories namely contraceptive drugs and contraceptive devices. (
  • Recommendations on the risk of ischaemic stroke associated with use of combined oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy in women with migraine. (
  • Scientists To Introduce Contraceptive Sans The Hormone! (
  • Since this hormone is a type of progesterone, there may be negative mood changes in those women vulnerable to depression. (
  • Furthermore, intra-uterine devices do not block the oviducts and their contraceptive action is not known yet. (
  • This further makes hospital pharmacies one of the leading source for birth control devices. (
  • Since birth control is a concern for both males and females, there are certain options, albeit fewer, that men can resort to as well. (
  • If you or a loved one has suffered injuries as a result of a permanent birth control device, you may be entitled to compensation. (
  • Contraceptive Use in Wave 4 Women who had had a sex partner in the past year were asked whether they used any form of birth control or disease prevention. (
  • Contraceptive drugs and devices are used in birth control and fertility related issues. (
  • Traditional birth control does not involve any type of device or medication. (
  • The intrauterine device, a common form of birth control in the early 1970s, is now avoided by American physicians and women because of concern about complications. (
  • More recent intrauterine devices have an improved design, and reevaluation has shown them to be a safe, efficacious and cost-effective form of birth control. (
  • NuvaRing is a hormonal birth control (contraceptive) device for women. (
  • The hormonal IUD is a long-acting reversible contraceptive , and is considered one of the most effective forms of birth control. (
  • Essure is the only permanently implanted birth control device for women that does not require a surgical incision. (
  • Starting on Valentine's Day this year Bayer pharmaceuticals, the company behind the Mirena and Jaydess IUS devices (the two most popular brands), began a Europe-wide promotional campaign called #YourPerfectMatch. (
  • Mirena is sometimes called an IUD (intrauterine device) or an IUS ( intrauterine system) . (
  • The presence of Mirena in the womb may also add to the contraceptive effect. (
  • Most women can use the Mirena coil, including women who can't take oestrogen-containing contraceptives and mothers who are breastfeeding. (
  • National law firm, Parker Waichman LLP , just filed a lawsuit on behalf of a woman who was implanted with a Mirena® IUD . (
  • According to the complaint, the woman received the Mirena® IUD in 2008. (
  • This forced the woman to have to undergo laparoscopic surgery in December 2010 to remove the Mirena® IUD. (
  • This entry was posted in Defective Medical Devices , Mirena IUD . (
  • A qalitative assessment of decisions affecting contraceptive utilization and fertility intentions among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa," AIDS and Behavior , vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. (
  • This is further expected to increase the requirement of fertility control devices over the upcoming years. (
  • Scientists found that female mice engineered to lack ZP3 do not have this coating, making them infertile, while women with abnormal ZP3 may also suffer fertility problems. (
  • For example fertility in demography is the actual production of live births by a female, while in clinical medicine it refers to the potential for a woman to become pregnant. (
  • General fertility rate (GFR) - the number of births in a year divided by the number of women aged 15-44, times 1000. (
  • Total fertility rate (TFR) - the total number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she were to experience the prevailing age-specific fertility rates of women. (
  • In general, the most critical factor in determining a couple's fertility is female age. (
  • This includes vasectomies for men and tubal ligations for women. (
  • 8 This finding would position the IUD as a potentially more effective contraceptive than tubal ligation. (
  • The global Contraceptive Drugs and Devices Market is anticipated to grow rapidly over the forecast period (from 2012 to 2020). (
  • In a new report, titled ' Contraceptives Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 - 2020 ,' Transparency Market Research projects the market to expand at a steady 3.10% CAGR from 2014 to 2020. (
  • The Global Contraceptive Drugs and Devices Market was projected to grow at a CAGR of 7.5% during the forecast period (2018-2023). (
  • These regions are rapidly expanding markets for contraceptive drugs and devices. (
  • Major players in the worldwide Contraceptive Drugs And Devices Market are Pfizer Inc. (
  • They object specifically to four of the drugs and devices at issue because they say they have the potential to destroy an embryo. (
  • Previous studies, in literature, have found that the most painful steps during intrauterine devices insertion were uterine sounding then intrauterine device insertion itself, followed by tenaculum placement. (
  • A. Abdel Hamid ,M. Radwan ,S. Fahmy , Immunoglobulin levels in serum and uterine fluids in women using intrauterine contraceptive device, El-Minia Med. (
  • Immunoglobulin levels were estimated in the serum and uterine fluid of 100 women using CuT intrauterine contraceptive device [IUD] for varying periods and 25 control subjects. (
  • However, women showing evidence of cervical infection had lower levels of IgA in the uterine fluid. (
  • Anteby E, Revel A, Ben-Chetrit A et al (1993) Intrauterine device failure: relation to its location within the uterine cavity. (
  • Sagiroglu N (1971) Phagocytosis of spermatozoa in the uterine cavity of woman using intrauterine device. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The contraceptive efficacy of intrauterine devices (IUD) is thought to relate to the position of the IUD in the uterine cavity. (
  • Women who don't survive a rare and aggressive uterine cancer called uterine serous carcinoma, have high expression of a group of 73 genes, a score scientists say can help identify these women and improve their outcome. (
  • Menstrual periods are a crucial part of women health. (
  • Impact of menstrual blood representations on contraceptive choice of women. (
  • These complaints describe a wide variety of side effects, including breakages of the device, severe pain, and menstrual irregularities. (
  • The woman will miss a menstrual cycle and may experience nausea. (
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidance on PCOS states that combination oral contraceptives (COCs) are the most frequently used primary treatment of menstrual disorders in women with PCOS. (
  • We studied 2,733 married women, aged 15-49 years, who received PPIUCD in sixteen health facilities, located in eight states and the national capital territory of India, at the time of IUCD insertion and six weeks later. (
  • Nearly all women (99.6%) reported that they were satisfied with IUCD at the time of insertion and 92% reported satisfaction at the six-week follow-up visit. (
  • The IUD will be inserted within 10 minutes after delivery of the placenta in women randomized to immediate insertion. (
  • It is estimated over 50 million Chinese women underwent the ring IUCD insertion. (
  • This updated review aimed to compare immediate (within 10 minutes of placenta delivery) intrauterine device (IUD) insertion with later placement. (
  • No significant differences regarding type of delivery, type of device or insertion technique. (
  • Among regions, North America is expected to remain dominant in the global contraceptive devices market throughout the forecast period. (
  • Following North America, Europe is the second largest market globally and the preference of the contraceptives generally varies by region. (
  • Europe and North America are the dominant regional markets due to factors, like highly developed healthcare infrastructure, availability of contraceptive devices & drugs, and technically advanced systems. (
  • Among HIV-positive women, the safety of the copper IUCD has been established in terms of both disease progression and pelvic inflammatory disease incidence [ 20 - 23 ]. (
  • 60 lng-ius users, 60 Copper iud users and 60 combined oral contraceptive users will compared with activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time, international normalized ratio(INR), D-dimer,factor VIII, fibrinogen, platelet counts values with each other at 3-6-12 months follow up. (
  • Among the options available, the multi-year cost of the Copper T380A IUD makes it one of the most cost-effective contraceptive options available. (
  • November, 2017: Teva Pharmaceuticals has signed an agreement with CooperSurgical which will acquire PARAGARD (intrauterine copper contraceptive). (
  • Tetrault AM, Richman SM, Fei X, Taylor HS (2009) Decreased endometrial HOXA10 expression associated with use of the copper intrauterine device. (
  • Patai K, Szilagyi G, Noszal B, Szentmariay I (2003) Local tissue effects of copper-containing intrauterine devices. (
  • All other forms of contraceptive are paid for entirely by the patient. (
  • These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use. (
  • These contraceptives include both estrogen and progestin. (
  • Progestin-only contraceptives. (
  • These drugs are a combination of one or more artificial female sex hormones, such as estrogen & progestin or just progestin. (
  • NuvaRing is a contraceptive device that contains the hormones estrogen and progestin. (
  • In the TV series Downton Abbey, Anna Bates, lady's maid to Lady Mary Crawley, buys a 1920s contraceptive sponge for her mistress. (
  • Anderson FD, Gibbons W, Portman D. Safety and efficacy of an extended-regimen oral contraceptive utilizing continuous low-dose ethinyl estradiol. (
  • WHO Scientific Group on the Mechanism of Action Safety and Efficacy of Intrauterine Devices & World Health Organization (1987) Mechanism of action, safety and efficacy of intrauterine devices. (
  • CONCLUSION: Expulsions are less likely to occur with the LNG-IUD, which might contribute to its contraceptive efficacy. (
  • As per Fortune Business Insights, the female contraceptive devices segment held nearly 54.8% of the overall market in the year 2017 and is expected to remain dominant over the forecast years. (
  • The report further calculated the value of the contraceptives devices market as US$ 7013.8 Mn in the year 2018 and expected the market to reach US$ 11166.4 Mn by 2025. (
  • All the above factors are anticipated to witness promising growth in the contraceptive devices market between 2018 and 2025. (
  • Oral combined contraceptives(OC) have both progesterone and estrogen inside. (
  • This permanent contraceptive device was welcomed as a breakthrough - why are so many women speaking out against it? (
  • The IUS is a LARC (long-acting reversible contraceptive). (
  • This study aimed to determine factors influencing current use and future contraceptive intentions of women who were attending child welfare clinics within 2 years of delivery in Sunyani Municipality, Ghana. (
  • Factors associated with current use and future contraceptive intentions were determined using Poisson regression with a robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). (
  • In addition to examining other factors, an assessment of FP uptake and future contraceptive intentions during child welfare clinics (CWCs) allows a concomitant evaluation of the effects of exposure to FP messages during the three critical periods of antenatal, postnatal and child health care. (