Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Sexual activities of humans.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.

Contraceptive characteristics: the perceptions and priorities of men and women. (1/126)

CONTEXT: Despite the fact that choosing a contraceptive method is often a decision made by couples, little is known about how men and women differ in their perceptions of the characteristics of various method types, and in the importance that they attach to those characteristics when choosing a contraceptive method. METHODS: The data analyzed here are subsets from two companion surveys conducted in 1991--1,189 men aged 20-27 who were surveyed in the National Survey of Men and 740 women aged 20-27 who were surveyed in the National Survey of Women. Multivariate ordered logit analysis is used to examine how gender is related to both the importance that individuals assign to seven specific contraceptive characteristics when choosing a method, and to perceptions about the extent to which five common method types possess each of these characteristics. RESULTS: Women rank pregnancy prevention as the single most important contraceptive characteristic when choosing a method, with 90% citing it as "very important." The health risks associated with particular methods and protection from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are rated as the second most important characteristics by women (each mentioned as "very important" by 77%). In contrast, men consider STD prevention for themselves and their partner to be just as important as pregnancy protection (each mentioned as "very important" by 84-86%), and they rank STD prevention as more important than other health risks (by 72%). Women, but not men, rank both ease of use and the need to plan ahead as being more important characteristics than a method's interference with sexual pleasure. Both men and women have an accurate understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of particular methods, but differ enough in their perceptions to alter the relative attractiveness of each method. In particular, women have more favorable perceptions than men about the pill, being somewhat more likely than men to believe that the pill is "very good" at preventing pregnancy (75% vs. 67%) and to say that it is very good at not interfering with sexual pleasure (82% vs. 76%). In contrast, women have generally less favorable perceptions than men about other reversible methods, including the condom: Women were less likely than men to consider the condom very good at pregnancy prevention (29% vs. 46%) or at having no need for advance planning (22% vs. 38%). Gender differences in perceptions about the specific characteristics of contraceptive methods often vary by marital status. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women have somewhat different priorities when choosing a contraceptive method. Despite many similarities between women and men in their perceptions about the characteristics of each method type, numerous differences between them may have an important influence on how couples make their method choices.  (+info)

Correlation of behaviors with microbiological changes in vaginal flora. (2/126)

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by dramatic changes in the vaginal ecosystem. Women without evidence of vaginal infection may exhibit transient changes in their flora. We prospectively followed up women by using diaries and self-obtained vaginal smears to correlate behaviors with changes in flora. The majority of women (38/51, 78%) had significant, although transient, changes. Behaviors associated with unstable flora were a history of BV, a greater number of partners, and more frequent episodes of receptive oral sex. Only the latter remained significantly associated in the multivariate analysis. Variables that were associated with day-to-day variability in the flora included use of vaginal medication, menses, greater number of partners, spermicide use, more frequent vaginal intercourse, and less frequent use of condoms. Only a minority of women (11/51, 22%) maintained a "normal" lactobacillus-predominant flora. Factors associated with instability of the flora are similar to those epidemiologically associated with BV.  (+info)

Effects of contraceptive method on the vaginal microbial flora: a prospective evaluation. (3/126)

A prospective evaluation of 331 university women who were initiating use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), a cervical cap, diaphragm-spermicide, or other spermicidal methods was done to assess the effects of commonly used contraceptive methods on the vaginal flora. Vaginal introital cultures were performed at baseline and then weekly for 1 month. The prevalence of Escherichia coli vaginal colonization and of abnormal vaginal Gram stain scores (Nugent criteria) increased significantly among women using a cervical cap or diaphragm-spermicide but not among women using OCPs. Women with E. coli colonization were significantly more likely to have an abnormal Nugent score and an absence of lactobacilli. In a multivariate model, use of spermicidal contraception in the preceding week was associated with an abnormal Nugent score and with colonization with E. coli, Enterococcus species, and anaerobic gram-negative rods. Thus, spermicidal methods of contraception are associated with alterations of the vaginal microflora that consequently may predispose women to genitourinary infections.  (+info)

A prospective study of asymptomatic bacteriuria in sexually active young women. (4/126)

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in young women, but little is known about its pathogenesis, natural history, risk factors, and temporal association with symptomatic urinary tract infection. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 796 sexually active, nonpregnant women from 18 through 40 years of age over a period of six months for the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (defined as at least 10(5) colony-forming units of urinary tract pathogens per milliliter). The women were patients at either a university student health center or a health maintenance organization. Periodic urine cultures were taken, daily diaries were kept, and regularly scheduled interviews were performed. Escherichia coli strains were tested for hemolysin, the papG genotype, and the ribosomal RNA type. RESULTS: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (the proportion of urine cultures with bacteriuria in asymptomatic women) was 5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4 percent to 6 percent) among women in the university group and 6 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 5 percent to 8 percent) among women in the health-maintenance-organization group. Persistent asymptomatic bacteriuria with the same E. coli strain was rare. Symptomatic urinary tract infection developed within one week after 8 percent of occasions on which a culture showed asymptomatic bacteriuria, as compared with 1 percent of occasions when asymptomatic bacteriuria was not found (P<0.001). Asymptomatic bacteriuria was associated with the same risk factors as for symptomatic urinary tract infection, particularly the use of a diaphragm plus spermicide and sexual intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in young women is common but rarely persists. It is a strong predictor of subsequent symptomatic urinary tract infection.  (+info)

Efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of a novel contraceptive vaginal ring releasing etonogestrel and ethinyl oestradiol. (5/126)

A novel contraceptive vaginal ring releasing etonogestrel 120 microg and ethinyl oestradiol 15 microg daily over a period of 3 weeks was tested. Each ring was used for one cycle, comprising 3 weeks of ring use followed by a 1 week ring-free period. This 1 year, multicentre study assessed the contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, tolerability and acceptability of the contraceptive. Altogether, 1145 women were exposed to the vaginal ring for 12,109 cycles (928 woman-years). Six pregnancies occurred during treatment, giving a Pearl Index of 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.24--1.41). Cycle control was very good, since irregular bleeding was rare (2.6--6.4% of evaluable cycles) and withdrawal bleeding (mean duration 4.7--5.3 days) occurred in 97.9--99.4% of evaluable cycles. Compliance to the prescribed regimen was high with criteria being fulfilled in 90.8% of cycles. The ring was well tolerated. The majority of women considered this new contraceptive method easy to use, and it offers an effective, convenient, well-accepted and novel method for hormonal contraception.  (+info)

Current status of fertility control methods in India. (6/126)

Approximately 48.2% of couples of 15 to 49 years of age practice family planning methods in India. Female sterilization accounts for 34.2%, with male sterilization declining from 3.4% in 1992-93 to 1.9% in 1998-99. Use of the condom increased to 3.1% from 2.4%. There is an urgent need for research to develop new contraceptive modalities especially for men and also for women and to make existing methods more safe, affordable and acceptable. Current efforts in India to develop a male contraceptive are mainly directed towards (i) development of antispermatogenic agents to suppress sperm production, (ii) prevention of sperm maturation, (iii) prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens or rendering these sperm infertile and (iv) prevention of sperm deposition. Research work in the field of prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens has made significant advances. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) disturbed the electrical charge of spermatozoa leading to acrosome rupture and consequent loss in fertilizing ability of sperm. A multicentre phase-III clinical trial using SMA is continuing and it is hoped that the SMA approach would be available in the near future as an indigenously developed injectable intra-vasal male contraceptive. The safety and efficacy of available oral contraceptives were evaluated. An indigenously developed oral contraceptive 'Centchorman', which is a nonsteroidal, weakly estrogenic but potently antiestrogenic, was found to be safe and effective and is now being marketed in India since 1991 as a 'once a week' pill. Cyclofem and Mesigyna have been recommended as injectable contraceptives with proper counselling and service delivery by Indian studies. It has been recommended that these injectable contraceptives be added to the existing range of contraceptive methods available in the National Family Planning Programme. Based on the Indian studies CuT 200 was also recommended. Studies have indicated the advantage of intrauterine devices (IUD); they are long acting, relatively easily removed and fertility returns rapidly after their removal. Recent studies have recommended CuT 200 for use up to 5 years. The combination of some plant products i.e. Embelia ribes, Borax and Piper longum has been found to be safe and effective as a female contraceptive and the results of phase-I clinical trials are encouraging. Research work is going on in the country in various areas with special reference to hormonal contraceptive - a three monthly injectable contraceptive, immuno-contraceptives, antiprogestins, etc.  (+info)

The diaphragm with and without spermicide for contraception: a Cochrane review. (7/126)

BACKGROUND: The diaphragm is usually used with a spermicide. However, some practitioners have suggested that spermicides offer no additional contraceptive protection and have advocated alternative guidelines for the use of diaphragms. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of the diaphragm with and without spermicide. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and reference lists of relevant articles. In addition, we contacted experts in the field to identify unpublished studies. Randomized controlled trials comparing women of reproductive age using the diaphragm with and without spermicide as the sole contraceptive method that reported clinical outcomes were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted data on outcomes and trial characteristics and any discrepancies were resolved by consensus or by consultation with the third reviewer. The results of the one identified study are presented descriptively. We identified only one study. No significant difference was found in the pregnancy rates (with typical use or consistent use) or discontinuation rates between the diaphragm-with-spermicide and diaphragm-without-spermicide groups. There was a trend towards higher pregnancy rates in the diaphragm-without-spermicide group. However, this study failed to recruit the planned number of participants and was consequently underpowered. CONCLUSIONS: As only one underpowered study was identified, we cannot distinguish between the contraceptive effectiveness of the diaphragm with and without spermicide. We cannot draw any conclusion at this point; further research is needed.  (+info)

Ovarian function with a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring. (8/126)

BACKGROUND: NuvaRing is a combined contraceptive vaginal ring designed for 3 weeks continuous use followed by a 1 week ring-free period. The present study evaluated ovarian function in women who were instructed to either adhere to, or deviate from, the recommended regimen of use. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized study, 45 women aged between 18 and 35 years used NuvaRing for one cycle in which the ring was used according to the recommended regimen. Women in group A (n = 15) then continued with a 'normal' 3 week period of ring use after which the restoration of ovarian function-i.e. the time to ovulation-for each woman was determined by daily vaginal ultrasound and serum hormone levels. For women in group B (n = 15), the second cycle consisted of only 3 consecutive days of ring use, after which each woman was monitored until ovulation. Women in group C (n = 15) were not permitted to start a second 'normal' cycle until a follicle with a diameter of 13 mm was observed by vaginal ultrasound; subsequently, the development of these follicles during the second cycle of ring use was monitored daily. RESULTS: Irrespective of the length of the second cycle, 3 weeks (group A) versus 3 days (group B), a new cohort of follicles needed to be recruited and the time to ovulation after ring removal was similar (19 versus 17 days). The median time needed to develop a follicle up to 13 mm in diameter (group C) was 11 days (range 8-21 days); none of the women ovulated after insertion of the second ring. CONCLUSION: NuvaRing is a highly effective, reversible method of hormonal contraception. Ovulation, at least until the stage of a 13 mm dominant follicle, is prevented and as little as 3 consecutive days of NuvaRing use interferes with follicle growth.  (+info)

The symptoms of intrauterine device migration can vary depending on the location and size of the migrated IUD. Some common symptoms include:

* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful menstrual cramps
* Difficulty inserting or removing the IUD during routine check-ups
* Fever, chills, or other signs of infection

If intrauterine device migration is suspected, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as an ultrasound or X-ray, to confirm the location and size of the migrated IUD. Treatment options for intrauterine device migration depend on the severity of the complication and can include:

* Removal of the migrated IUD
* Insertion of a new IUD in a different location
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Surgical intervention to repair any damage caused by the migrated IUD.

It is important for women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) as a form of birth control to be aware of the risk of migration and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms that may indicate a problem with their IUD. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help detect any issues early on and prevent complications associated with intrauterine device migration.

There are different types of uterine perforation, including:

1. Cervical perforation: A tear in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
2. Uterine wall perforation: A tear or hole in the muscular wall of the uterus, which can be caused by instruments used during surgery or delivery.
3. Endometrial perforation: A tear in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is more common during invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or endometrial ablation.

Symptoms of uterine perforation may include:

* Severe abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal bleeding
* Fever
* Nausea and vomiting

If you suspect that you have a uterine perforation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the damage. Treatment options may include:

1. Observation: In mild cases, the body may be able to heal on its own without any intervention.
2. Surgery: Depending on the severity of the perforation, surgical repair or removal of the damaged tissue may be necessary.
3. Antibiotics: If there is an infection, antibiotics will be prescribed to treat it.
4. Blood transfusions: In cases where there is significant bleeding, blood transfusions may be required.

Prevention of uterine perforation is crucial, and it involves proper training and use of instruments during surgery or delivery, as well as careful monitoring of the patient's condition during these procedures.

Symptoms of PID may include:

* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Heavy vaginal discharge with a strong odor
* Pain during sex
* Painful urination

PID can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as pelvic exams, ultrasound, or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, and may also involve hospitalization for severe cases. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage caused by the infection.

Preventive measures for PID include:

* Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms and avoiding sexual intercourse during outbreaks of STIs
* Regular gynecological exams and screening for STIs
* Avoiding the use of douches or other products that can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina.

Symptoms of salpingitis may include:

* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Fever
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
* Abdominal tenderness
* Nausea and vomiting

Diagnosis of salpingitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as pelvic ultrasound, endometrial biopsy, and laparoscopy. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to clear up any underlying infections, as well as pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected fallopian tube or tubes.

Salpingitis can have serious complications if left untreated, such as chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy (when an embryo implants outside of the uterus). Therefore, it is important for women who experience any symptoms of salpingitis to seek medical attention promptly.

Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:

* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.

It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.

Actinomycosis is often difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are non-specific and can mimic other conditions, such as cancer or tuberculosis. A definitive diagnosis requires a combination of clinical findings, radiologic imaging, and microbiological cultures. Treatment usually involves long-term antibiotics, surgical drainage of abscesses, and management of complications.

Actinomycosis can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in adults and rarely seen in children. The infection can be acquired through direct inoculation of the bacteria into the skin or mucous membranes, or through hematogenous spread from a primary site of infection.

The risk factors for developing actinomycosis include poor oral hygiene, dental procedures, surgical trauma, and exposure to contaminated soil or water. The infection can also be associated with underlying conditions such as immunosuppression, diabetes, and chronic lung disease.

In conclusion, actinomycosis is a rare and chronic bacterial infection that can affect various parts of the body, causing inflammation and formation of abscesses. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and requires a comprehensive approach involving antibiotics, surgery, and management of complications.

Causes of Menorrhagia

There are several potential causes of menorrhagia, including:

1. Hormonal imbalance: Hormonal changes can lead to an imbalance in the uterus, causing excessive bleeding.
2. Uterine fibroids: These noncancerous growths in the uterus can cause heavy bleeding during menstruation.
3. Adenomyosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, leading to heavy bleeding.
4. Endometrial polyps: These are growths that can develop on the lining of the uterus and cause heavy bleeding.
5. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause menorrhagia.
6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause scarring and lead to heavy bleeding.
7. IUDs: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) can cause heavy bleeding, especially during the first few months after insertion.
8. Medications: Certain medications such as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs can increase the risk of menorrhagia.
9. Bleeding disorders: Women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease or platelet dysfunction, may experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
10. Cancer: In rare cases, menorrhagia can be a symptom of uterine cancer.

Symptoms of Menorrhagia

The primary symptom of menorrhagia is heavy menstrual bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeds that are heavier than usual. Other symptoms may include:

1. Soaking through sanitary products every hour or two
2. Using double sanitary products (e.g., a pad and a tampon) to control bleeding
3. Bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days
4. Menstrual blood clots larger than a quarter
5. Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
6. Passing large blood clots during bowel movements or urination
7. Fatigue, dizziness, or fainting due to anemia
8. Weakness or shortness of breath

Diagnosis and Treatment of Menorrhagia

If you experience any of the symptoms of menorrhagia, it is important to see a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. The healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order one or more of the following tests to determine the cause of heavy menstrual bleeding:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC) to check for anemia and other blood abnormalities
2. Blood smear examination to look for abnormal cells or blood clotting disorders
3. Ultrasound to evaluate the uterus and ovaries
4. Endometrial biopsy to examine the lining of the uterus
5. Hysteroscopy to visualize the inside of the uterus
6. Laparoscopy to evaluate the pelvic organs

Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications such as hormonal contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or iron supplements to control bleeding and anemia
2. Surgical procedures such as endometrial ablation or hysterectomy in severe cases that do not respond to other treatments
3. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, as well as taking regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to regulate hormonal imbalances
5. Platelet transfusions or blood transfusions in cases of severe bleeding

It's important to note that menorrhagia can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it's essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

1. Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding (more than 7 days)
2. Bleeding between periods or after sex
3. Painful periods or difficulty using tampons
4. Fever, chills, or vomiting during menstruation
5. Unusual vaginal discharge or odor
6. Abdominal pain or bloating

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications of menorrhagia, such as anemia, fatigue, and infertility.

Foreign-body migration refers to the movement or migration of a foreign object or material within the body over time. This can occur after a surgical procedure, injury, or other medical intervention where a foreign object is introduced into the body. The term "foreign body" includes any object or material that is not naturally present within the body, such as implants, sutures, staples, and other medical devices.

The migration of a foreign body can occur due to various factors, including:

1. Mechanical forces: Movement of the body, such as during exercise or daily activities, can cause the foreign object to shift position or migrate to another part of the body.
2. Biological forces: The body's natural healing processes and inflammatory responses can cause the foreign object to move or change shape over time.
3. Chemical forces: Corrosion or degradation of the foreign material can lead to its migration within the body.
4. Cellular forces: Cells in the body can surround and interact with the foreign object, leading to its movement or displacement.

The migration of a foreign body can have significant clinical implications, including:

1. Pain and discomfort: The movement of a foreign object within the body can cause pain, discomfort, and inflammation.
2. Infection: The migration of a foreign object can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the object is made of a material that is susceptible to bacterial growth.
3. Organ damage: If the migrated foreign object damages surrounding tissues or organs, it can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
4. Revision surgery: In some cases, the migration of a foreign body may require revision surgery to remove or reposition the object.

To prevent foreign-body migration, medical professionals use various techniques, such as:

1. Implant fixation: Implants can be fixed in place using bone screws, sutures, or other fixation devices to minimize their movement.
2. Biocompatible materials: Using biocompatible materials for implants and other medical devices can reduce the risk of foreign-body reaction and migration.
3. Proper surgical technique: Surgeons must use proper surgical techniques when inserting foreign objects into the body, such as using a sterile environment and appropriate insertion angles.
4. Postoperative care: Proper postoperative care, including antibiotics and pain management, can help prevent complications and promote healing.

Overall, preventing the migration of foreign bodies is essential to ensure successful medical outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.

Also known as: Menstrual Disorders, Menstrual Abnormalities, Dysmenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea.

1988). "New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women". Fertil Steril. 49 (5): 768-773. doi ... If this happens a woman is not protected from pregnancy. Expulsion is more common in younger women, women who have not had ... "Popular contraceptive device Mirena target of lawsuits in Canada, U.S". CTV. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 26 ... Various thread collector devices or simple forceps may then be used to try to grasp the device through the cervix. In the rare ...
Malthusian belt: A contraceptive device worn by women. When Huxley was writing Brave New World, organizations such as the ... In the novel, the eponymous character devises the contraceptive techniques (Malthusian belt) that are practiced by women of the ... From one helicopter a young woman emerges who is implied to be Lenina. John, at the sight of a woman he both adores and loathes ... She is part of the 30% of the female population that are not freemartins (sterile women). Lenina is promiscuous and popular but ...
Contraceptive implants may cause irregular bleeding which some women find unacceptable as a side effect ("Irregular bleeding ... They include injections, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and subdermal contraceptive implants. They are the most effective ... They work in women of any age and number of births. Women may consider family planning advice beforehand. LARC methods include ... Nonhormonal intrauterine device with copper (US - ParaGard) Subdermal contraceptive implant (US - Nexplanon/Implanon/Implanon ...
"Denying Coverage of Contraceptives Harms Women". National Women's Law Center. November 2, 2011. Archived from the original on ... Highly effective contraceptives, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs), are underused in the United States. Increasing use of ... Cost to the user is one factor preventing many US women from using more effective contraceptives. Making contraceptives ... and no women. Some people[who?] see the matter as primarily one of women's health, such as the National Women's Law Center. ...
She enthusiastically promotes condoms as the best all-around contraceptive device. After discussing the merits of prophylactics ... She was then commissioned by the president of the Federation of Cuban Women, Vilma Espín, to review international literature ... Books such as "Man and Woman, Intimate by Dr. Siegfried Schabl, which dealt with the subject of homosexuality comprehensively ... Lois M. Smith, "Progress, Science and Myth: The Health Education of Cuban Women", Cuban Studies Vol. 19. University of ...
... comparing the effectiveness and safety of the device with other surgical contraceptive methods. Women and doctors were required ... Essure was a device for female sterilization. It is a metal coil which when placed into each fallopian tube induces fibrosis ... About 750,000 women have received the device worldwide. Initial trials found about 4% of people had tubal perforation, ... During that intervening three-month period, women are advised to use an alternate contraceptive method. Unlike tubal ligation, ...
... the use of contraceptive devices is permitted if the marital partners agree. All the Islamic schools of law from the tenth to ... Women Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries Women in Arab societies Women in Christianity Women in ... men and the women, the men and the women who give Sadaqat, the men and the women who fast, the men and the women who guard ... men and women, the believers: men and women, the Qanit: men and the women, the men and women who are truthful, the men and the ...
Contraceptive Devices Displayed on Channel 4 Vivacious Joan Rivers Brightens Own Show". The New York Times. GOOD television ... American women comedians, American women film directors, American women film producers, American women memoirists, American ... As a female comic, Rivers felt indebted to, but also very distinct from, other female standups and comedians including Phyllis ... Before her death, she filmed a part, along with other female comedians, for the documentary MAKERS: Women in Comedy, which ...
Tone, Andrea (2001). Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 9780809038169. ... AC with 0 elements, Birth control, Medical devices, Women's health). ... Women have created and patented vaginal syringes for use as birth control as early as the 1879 model developed by Ann Palmer. ... Women used different types of spermicides with the vaginal syringes including alum, chloride of zinc, baking soda, vinegar, ...
... prohibits health insurance providers from excluding contraceptive services, drugs or devices from benefits; establishes a ... Women in the United States House of Representatives Women in the United States Senate Hotakainen, Rob (October 20, 2010). " ... Female members of the United States House of Representatives, Female United States senators, Jewish members of the United ... 20th-century American women politicians, 20th-century American women writers, 21st-century American politicians, 21st-century ...
... intrauterine contraceptive device-associated infection; pelvic inflammatory disease, which may include pelvic cellulitis and ... with the female genital tract locations, P. acnes with a foreign body, and Peptostreptococcus spp. with all infection sources, ... Female genital tract infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are polymicrobial and include: soft-tissue perineal, vulvar and ... Long bones osteomyelitis is often caused by trauma, hematogenic spread, or the presence of a prosthetic device.[citation needed ...
Bailey, M. J. (1 February 2006). "More Power to the Pill: The Impact of Contraceptive Freedom on Women's Life Cycle Labor ... An equally large industry has emerged to provide contraceptive devices designed to prevent conception. Their effectiveness in ... This fertile window varies from woman to woman, just as the ovulation date often varies from cycle to cycle for the same woman ... This is considered the end of the fertile phase of a woman's life. The predicted effect of age on female fertility in women ...
Chinnatamby, S. (September 25, 1965). Intrauterine Contraceptive Device and Population. British Medical Journal, 2, 5464, 756. ... At the end of her life, she bequeathed her home in Colombo to the University of Colombo, for use as residence for women ... In 1964, she led trials of intrauterine devices at Colombo North Hospital, and in 1968, she began trials of Depo-Provera. In ... Siva Chinnatamby (c.1921/3 - 2000) was a Sri Lankan obstetrician who pioneered the use of modern contraceptives in the country ...
On appeal, her conviction was reversed because contraceptive devices could legally be promoted to cure and prevent disease. A ... 5,860 abortions for black women aged 15-19, 4,670 abortions for Hispanic women aged 15-19, and 760 abortions for women of all ... A few women withheld the names of the abortion providers. In the 1960s, a woman named Mason attending Ohio State visited a ... It found that while some women were upset by the protesters, none of the 300 women changed their minds as a result of ...
... on a study comparing the performance of the Woman's Condom and the FC2 Female Condom. Other contraceptive devices include Lea's ... CONRAD conducted studies leading to the regulatory approval of several contraceptive devices. CONRAD supported PATH Program for ... "Comparative crossover study of the PATH Woman's Condom and the FC Female Condom®". Contraception. 78 (6): 465-473. doi:10.1016/ ... "Lea's Shield: a study of the safety and efficacy of a new vaginal barrier contraceptive used with and without spermicide. - ...
This risk reduction continues for at least fifteen years after contraceptive use has been stopped. Obese women may need higher ... Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). Combined oral ... Instead, women, particularly menopausal women, should be aware of the symptoms and risk factors of endometrial cancer. A ... In the United States, white women have a higher survival rate than black women, who tend to develop more aggressive forms of ...
Unwanted pregnancy was a distinct possibility since there were no commonly available contraceptive drugs or devices. The ... telling the women they were safe because he did not believe the Whites would kill women. The chief and the women all lost their ... starved for female company, paid extravagant fees to associate with women or buy products that were made by women. There are ... Native American women, and rapidly arriving immigrant women from all over the world. At first, the numbers of immigrant women ...
... and patient acceptability of the intrauterine Copper T-380A contraceptive device". International Journal of Women's Health. 2: ... United States Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Being a nulliparous women (women who have never given birth) ... The device itself carries no increased risk of PID beyond the time of insertion. Cramping: Some women can feel cramping during ... This device was somewhat large, causing discomfort to a large proportion of women users, and had a hard plastic tail, causing ...
To protect his sexual partner from these animals, Minos used a goat's bladder as a female condom.: 18 Contraceptives fell out ... When U.S. customs confiscated the package as illegal contraceptive devices, Sanger helped file a lawsuit. In 1936, a federal ... There were still a few state laws against buying and selling contraceptives, and advertising condoms as birth control devices ... 108 Couples in colonial America relied on female-controlled methods of contraception if they used contraceptives at all. The ...
These methods include the use of implants or intrauterine devices (IUDs) as well as permanent methods like female or male ... Women with a higher proportion of sons are also more likely to use contraceptive methods explaining the decrease in fertility. ... Despite the increased prevalence of contraceptives, unplanned pregnancies are still a major concern with married women having ... Knowledge on emergency contraceptive pills among married women was found to be very low. Reportedly, only 14% ever heard of it ...
IUDs also tend to be one of the most cost-effective methods of contraception for women. Cons of intrauterine devices, similarly ... An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small contraceptive device, often 'T'-shaped, which is implanted into the uterus. They can be ... A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control. The implant may depend on the ... As with other contraceptives, a contraceptive implant is designed to prevent pregnancy, but it does not protect against ...
Non-hormonal contraceptive methods include the copper intrauterine device (ParaGard), male and female condoms, male and female ... They state that providing over the counter contraceptives could increase overall contraceptive accessibility for young women of ... The ACA coverage of female contraception has been noted to be beneficial for women. From 2012 to 2016, the percentage of women ... and Hispanic women (67%). Contraceptive use saves almost US$19 billion in direct medical costs each year. Contraceptive use has ...
Retailers were subjected to raids, with womb veils among the contraceptive devices confiscated. Although contraceptive ... Other terms for the contraceptive diaphragm were "female preventatives", "female protectors", "Victoria's protectors", and the ... Rotter also described how to make a homemade device from a rubber ball. The Comstock ban on advertising contraceptive devices, ... See Chesler, Woman of Valor, p. 70 online and Hoolihan, An Annotated Catalogue, pp. 335-337; also Tone, Devices and Desires, p ...
Emergency contraceptive pills To make an informed choice, women must know that ECPs-like the birth control pill, patch, ring, ... An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped ... According to the U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, published by the CDC, women and adolescents under the ... Grimes, D.A. (2007). Hatcher, R.A.; Nelson, T.J.; Guest, F.; Kowal, D. (eds.). "Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)". Contraceptive ...
Today, oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and male and female condoms are available for free at public health ... Although abortion is not permitted, other methods of contraceptives such as oral contraceptives, condoms, and tubal ligation ... This method suggests women should observe symptoms in her body that indicate whether she is fertile or infertile, and this will ... Women who can afford expensive but safe abortions at private practices and hospitals are the only ones who remain unaffected. ...
The SILCS diaphragm, a "one size fits most" contraceptive device. The device differs from traditional latex diaphragms in that ... The Woman's Condom, a new female condom designed to be more acceptable to both partners than other female condoms, plus easier ... "Woman's Condom: Expanding Options for Dual Protection". Women Deliver website. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. ... In South Africa, PATH leads a five-year project to improve the health and development of 750,000 pregnant women and children by ...
Women who use oral contraceptives for a longer duration may have a slightly lower rate of pregnancy than do women using oral ... A contraceptive sponge set inside its open package. The current intrauterine devices (IUD) are small devices, often 'T'-shaped ... McCann CR (2010). "Women as Leaders in the Contraceptive Movement". In O'Connor K (ed.). Gender and Women's Leadership: A ... the United Nations launched the Every Woman Every Child movement to assess the progress toward meeting women's contraceptive ...
A History of Contraceptives in America, Hill and Wang, pp 127-128. *Tone, Andrea, "A Medical Fit for Contraceptives", in Women ... Devices and Desires: ... control advocates that manufactured high-quality contraceptives ...
"The contraceptive patch" (in French). "Male condom" (in French). "Spermicides" (in French). "Intrauterine device" (in French ... While it is the most used mean of contraception, it is important to note that, in France, fewer women are using the pill. This ... The contraceptive implant is a small stick put in place under the skin. The implant contains the same hormones as contraceptive ... The French government will provide access to birth control pills, intrauterine devices, contraceptive patches and injectable ...
Tone, Andrea (2002). Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 50. ISBN 0-8090- ... picking apart the dumbest notions that a young man or woman might be exposed to as they come of age, with topics ranging from ... Tone, Andrea (2002). Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 188. ISBN 0-8090- ... condom and other contraceptive availability, HIV and STD testing, student peer groups, sexual assault programs and resources, ...
Contraceptive measures that lead to male sterility, are not ever permitted for their interfering with a man's obligation, only ... In each case, either the woman or her child is at risk for serious complications, and this is the basis for many rabbinic ... or an intrauterine device) is preferred by most authorities. Fertility awareness methods (modern improvements over the rhythm ... The Midrash of Genesis speaks of the origins of oral contraceptives: "In the early time of creation, in the time of Lemech, a ...
Long-term use of oral contraceptives is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in women who have had HPV. Women who ... Medical devices used for biopsy of the cervix include punch forceps. Colposcopic impression, the estimate of disease severity ... In Australia, Aboriginal women are more than five times more likely to die from cervical cancer than non-Aboriginal women, ... Five year survival in the United States for White women is 69% and for Black women is 57%.[needs update] Regular screening has ...
... such as the contraceptive implant or intrauterine device (IUD), both of which can be inserted immediately after delivery while ... In the United States, 5% of women gave birth in hospitals in 1900. By 1930, 50% of all women and 75% of urban-dwelling women ... and female midwives were seen as a resource for women who could not afford better care. That completely removed women from ... Many women are known to experience what has been termed the "nesting instinct". Women report a spurt of energy shortly before ...
... not informing a partner after ceasing the use of female-controlled contraception or removing contraceptive devices, and not ... than older women (25.8%), and in less educated women (46.7%) than more educated women (33.3%). The American College of ... Even women with high sexually transmitted infection knowledge are more likely to use condoms inconsistently than women with low ... intrauterine devices (IUDs), and contraceptive patches), or throwing away (or simply lying about the consumption of) oral ...
United States v. Jones, 565 U.S. 400 (2012) Attaching a GPS device to a vehicle and then using the device to monitor the ... It is not vague or overbroad, and it does not impose an undue burden on a woman's right to choose to have an abortion. Burwell ... and advertisement of contraceptives to both adults and minors are unconstitutional. Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 ( ... Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan, 458 U.S. 718 (1982) The single-sex admissions policy of the Mississippi University ...
This belief leads to the rape myth - even when women resist sexual advances they are using it merely as a seductive device. On ... In 1992, the government of Japan justified its continued refusal to allow oral contraceptives to be distributed in Japan on the ... And a woman shall not stand in front of an animal to cohabit with it; this is depravity. (Lev. 18:23) And to a woman during the ... These women differed from the wives that their patrons probably had at home because, except for the geisha, women were ...
... millions of intrauterine contraceptive devices were exported to poor countries although they were known to cause infections and ... The family planning movement has corrected itself, and today it saves the lives of women in poor countries and is central to ... If we allow that past to tarnish today's efforts by family planning organizations, women in poor countries will be doubly hurt ...
... reducing the reliance of women on men for contraceptive practice, encouraging the delay of marriage, and increasing pre-marital ... Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices. They are subject to a variety of laws ... "Why the Oral Contraceptive Is Just Known as "The Pill"". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original ... The history of the development of oral contraceptives is thus closely tied to the birth control movement and the efforts of ...
... for female employees who are pregnant and banning employment discrimination in hiring or termination against female employees ... In November 2019, Baker signed into law a bill banning the use of handheld electronic devices while driving. The bill went into ... when the Trump administration issued new regulations allowing insurers and employers to opt out of contraceptive mandates, ... On June 22, 2018, Baker's son Andrew "AJ" Baker was accused of sexually assaulting a woman on a JetBlue flight. The next week, ...
... to aid women in giving birth: the woman is strapped onto a circular table, and the table is then rotated at high speed. ... Fetal Acoustic Stimulation Device, patent ES2546919B1, granted 29 September 2015 to Luis y Pallarés Aniorte and Maria Luisa ... Shafik, Ahmed (May 1992). "Contraceptive efficacy of polyester-induced azoospermia in normal men". Contraception. 45 (5): 439- ... "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Male and Female Genitals During Coitus and Female Sexual Arousal." Peace - Presented to The Royal ...
Anjie was a woman, on the brink of retirement, on whose behalf a raffle was being held in order to buy her a kidney machine. An ... As a final note, Zaphod explains that his great-grandfather is "the Fourth" due to an accident with a contraceptive and a time ... Having wasted most of the period of time failing to create a cloaking device, he hired a company to simply remove the mountain ... Played by Miriam Margolyes in Fit the Twenty-Fourth of the radio series, the smelly Old Woman in the Cave in the village of ...
... it remains a contraceptive option for women at low risk. Efforts are underway to develop safe and effective topical ... or other devices that release the active ingredient(s) over a longer period). Some of these agents are being developed for ... During the study, 38 of the women who used the tenofovir gel acquired HIV and 60 women who used a placebo gel became HIV- ... The study found a 39% lower HIV infection rate in women using 1% tenofovir gel compared with women using a placebo gel. In ...
Due to small amounts of toxins it contains, it must be used in small amounts, and should be avoided by pregnant women or women ... as an effective device against both black magic and the evil eye. It finds many household uses around the world as well. It is ... Abortifacients and Contraceptives in Ancient Greek Medicine and Their Recent Scientific Appraisal". Pharmacy in History. 51 (2 ... It should be strictly avoided by pregnant women, as it can be an abortifacient and teratogen. Exposure to common rue, or herbal ...
Turkish women have the right to freely exercise abortions in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy and the right to contraceptive ... It was conceived in 2012 as a device to generate public awareness concerning the rising number of deaths due to domestic ... "Women should enter the sea in a way that other women cannot see them. Even women should hide their bodies from other women.". ... Women in Turkey are women who live in or are from Turkey. Turkey gave full political rights to women, including the right to ...
Controversy around the app as a contraceptive device grew stronger after numerous women in Stockholm reported unplanned ... "Women Investing in Women's Health: The Rise of Femtech Companies and Investors in Celebration of Women's History Month , ... Joylux is a women's health technology company creating medical and feminine wellness devices under the vSculpt and vFit brands ... and female founders are reluctant to ask for money. Just 10% of global investment goes to female-led startups. Data Bridge, a ...
... earlier permitted termination of the pregnancy by only a married woman in the case of failure of contraceptive method or device ... single women (unmarried, divorced, or widowed) and other vulnerable women (women with disabilities) to 24 weeks. The amendments ... However, now all women can terminate pregnancy up to 20 weeks on the advice of one doctor and special categories of women ( ... The proposal for amendment includes making contraceptive failure applicable for all women and their partners as with other ...
... of lesbian females, and 22% of bisexual females reporting an open relationship. A 1974 study showed that male students who ... Neither barrier device use (such as condoms) nor more vigilant STI testing and vaccination can fully eliminate such risk, but ... ISBN 978-0-80183-935-1. Hatcher, Robert Anthony; M.D, Anita L. Nelson (2007). Contraceptive Technology. Ardent Media. pp. 297- ... Both men and women in these, especially in closed groups, are also more likely to be in managerial jobs. Most also are either ...
Redberg RF, Dhruva SS (June 2011). "Medical device recalls: get it right the first time: Comment on "Medical device recalls and ... Zuckerman, D (March 2013). "Hip implant failure for men and women: what and when we need to know. Comment on 'Sex and risk of ... Ronio Caryn Rabin (May 3, 2015). "Long-Term Data on Complications Adds to Criticism of Essure Contraceptive Implant". The New ... Based on FDA data, the authors determined that most of the devices that were high-risk recalls had never been studied in ...
Donors may also use a female condom to collect a semen sample. When used in this way, a female condom may be known as a 'baggy ... Contraceptive condoms are generally made of latex, and are designed for contraception and preventing spread of sexually ... A conception device is a medical device which is used to assist in the achievement of a pregnancy, often, but not always, by ... The device comprises a hollow, vertically supported column, having a closed lower end, and an open upper end. This device ...
... and that women risked developing lupus from oral contraceptives and post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy. They provided ... one medical device, and published over 400 papers, books, book chapters,etc. Henkel 2009. New York Times 1991. Liang et al. ... The Brigham and Women's Hospital Inc. New York Times, Gina Kolata (1991-07-11). "Pain Pills Found Effective in Arthritis". The ... Brigham and Women's Hospital 2014. Finland M, Castle WB (editors). The Harvard Medical Unit at Boston City Hospital, Harvard ...
... contraceptive efficacy was reduced in women weighing 75 kg [165 pounds] or more, and levonorgestrel was not effective in women ... "Contraceptive devices: subcutaneous delivery systems". Expert Review of Medical Devices. 5 (5): 623-637. doi:10.1586/17434440.5 ... in women with BMI under 25, 0.61% (7/1140) in women with BMI between 25 and 30, and 2.03% (6/295) in women with BMI over 30. ... Emergency contraceptive pills To make an informed choice, women must know that ECPs-like the birth control pill, patch, ring, ...
... of all women) used female sterilization as their contraception, making it the most common contraceptive method globally. The ... These rates are roughly equivalent to the effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptives such as intrauterine devices ... Examples of this include intrauterine devices. However, patients who desire pregnancy after having undergone a female ... In the United States, female sterilization is used by 30% of married couples and 22% of women who use any form of contraception ...
Women of a higher socioeconomic class are more likely to seek care from a GP than their counterparts. Historically, women have ... The contraceptive use rate in the country is about 66.9% a little high compared to other countries. Mexico contains a variety ... IUDs (Intrauterine Devices) are the most popular forms of contraception, these will be inserted during these visits. ... In some cases, the spouse will hold the birthing woman as she pushes . Pain relief is variable amongst women, with rates of ...
A 2020 long term-study among US women found that about 99% of women felt that they made the right decision five years after ... The most common surgical technique involves dilating the cervix and using a suction device. Birth control, such as the pill or ... The unsafe abortion rate in developing countries is partly attributable to lack of access to modern contraceptives; according ... The abortion rate worldwide was 28 per 1000 women per year, though it was 24 per 1000 women per year for developed countries ...
For women with PID of mild to moderate severity, parenteral and oral therapies appear to be effective. It does not matter to ... A type of intrauterine device (IUD) known as the Dalkon shield led to increased rates of PID in the 1970s. Current IUDs are not ... Using hormonal combined contraceptive pills also helps in reducing the chances of PID by thickening the cervical mucosal plug ... Treating a woman's sexual partners should also occur. In those with mild or moderate symptoms, a single injection of the ...
By 1938, over 400 contraceptive manufacturers were in business, over 600 brands of female contraceptives were available, and ... It contributed to a sharp increase in college attendance and graduation rates for women. New forms of intrauterine devices were ... "Women as Leaders in the Contraceptive Movement", in Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook, Karen O'Connor (Ed), ... female contraceptives accounted for 85 percent of annual contraceptive sales. The 1936 One Package court battle brought ...
A day later the company announced it would sell its Paragard contraceptive brand to Cooper Cos for $1.1 billion, with the funds ... "Teva finishes women's health sale with deals worth $1.38B". Retrieved February 21, 2019. Barber, Joe ( ... On 28 January 2020, the company announced that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had approved an autoinjector device for ... "Teva to sell contraceptive brand Paragard in $1.1 billion deal". Reuters. September 11, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2019. " ...
... while a gynaecologist fitted the women with contraceptive devices, and Lia Laszky, the woman Reich fell in love with at medical ... One woman said she was assaulted by one of Reich's associates when she was five years old. Children were asked to stand naked ... One of Reich's first patients was Lore Kahn, a 19-year-old woman with whom he had an affair. Freud had warned analysts not to ... Pink was Reich's fourth female patient, a medical student three months shy of her 19th birthday. He had an affair with her too ...
Data from the contraceptive CHOICE project, a prospective cohort study of over 9,000 women who were offered the contraceptive ... 2018, 18,691 service women in the study population received an intrauterine device (IUD) and 17,723 received an implant. Among ... In general, among service women who began using LARC (an IUD or a contraceptive implant), incidence rates of STIs did not ... Most of the women who received an IUD were aged 20-24 years (32.8%) or 25-29 years (26.2%). Half of the women who received an ...
The BBC reported that the judge decided that an implanted contraceptive device would be in the best interests of the woman, who ... "On this basis, the judge concluded that an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) would be in the womans best interests," he ... UK court order requiring contraceptive device for disabled woman is deeply problematic, says bioethicist. ... A British judges order requiring a contraceptive device be implanted in a woman with learning disabilities against her will is ...
Contraceptive Devices, Female -- statistics & numerical data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Contraceptive Devices, Female -- ...
HIV infection For women with HIV infection who are not clinically well or not receiving ARV therapy, this condition is ... Summary of classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices*. Condition. Cu-IUD. LNG-IUD. Implants. ... Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human ... CDC Contraceptive Guidance for Health Care Providers * US Medical Eligiblity Criteria (US MEC) for Contraceptive Use ...
Effect of age on pelvic inflammatory disease in nulliparous women using a copper 7 intrauterine contraceptive device. ... Effect of age on pelvic inflammatory disease in nulliparous women using a copper 7 intrauterine contraceptive device. ... Female, Humans, Intrauterine Devices, Copper, Middle Aged, Parity, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ... Acceptor Characteristics, Age Factors, Contraception, Contraceptive Methods, Correlation Studies, Demographic Factors, Diseases ...
Immediate postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device utilization and associated factors among women who gave birth in public ... The evidence on utilization of immediate postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (IPPIUCDs) and its associated factors ... All women who gave birth in selected government health facilities and within 48 h of postpartum were included in the study. ... Hence, this study intended to assess IPPIUCD utilization and related factors among women who gave birth in Adama town public ...
Results of search for su:{Contraceptive devices, Female.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Le Cycle menstruel et sa relation avec les méthodes contraceptives : une référence pour les formateurs en santé de la ... The Menstrual cycle and its relation to contraceptive methods : a reference for reproductive health trainers / Grace Mtawali ... The menstrual cycle and its relation to contraceptive methods : a reference for reproductive health trainers..Availability: ... *. Female condom. (n.d.). ... The intrauterine device (IUD). The intrauterine device (IUD), or coil, is a small, flexible T-shaped device that is placed in ... A range of devices and treatments are available for both men and women that can help prevent pregnancy. ... Female condom. The female condom, or femidom, is made of polyurethane. It has a flexible ring at each end. One fixes behind the ...
Male and Female Contraceptive Development (R43/R44 Clinical Trial Optional) RFA-HD-19-004. NICHD ... New and improved delivery devices for contraception.. * Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products with adequate ... contraceptive acceptable to women and men. All proposals for Phase II programs focused on contraceptive product development ... Applications that include contraceptive target identification or validation.. * Applications for the development of female ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female / therapeutic use* * Cost-Benefit Analysis * Female * Humans * Intrauterine Devices, Medicated* ... Setting: Women who presented in primary care. Participants: A total of 571 women with HMB. A purposeful sample of 27 women who ... Women had high expectations of a prompt effect from medical treatments. Conclusions: The LNG-IUS, compared with usual medical ... 2 Birmingham Womens Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.. *3 Birmingham Clinical Trials Unit, University ...
In women who are breastfeeding, insertion of the device should be after 4 weeks postpartum. A meta-analysis found that uterine ... The copper IUD is considered to be the most effective emergency contraceptive when inserted up to 5 days after unprotected ... A more recent prospective study found a slight increase in the risk of expulsion of intrauterine devices with breastfeeding,[2 ... and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends that women be counseled that immediate postpartum insertion ...
Using contraceptives is one way to do that. Here are your options. ... Women should be in control of their bodies. ... Intrauterine device (IUD). This t-shape device is typically ... Contraception Options Every Woman Should Know. Career & Education • By Jo Gleason • March 29, 2021 • 4 minutes of reading ... Oral contraceptive pill. Condoms are not foolproof. If you are extra cautious, taking an oral contraceptive pill daily should ...
Topics include adolescent sexual health, reproductive health, contraception, female sexual dysfunction, and sexually ... This page covers many topics in womens sexual health, from adolescence to postmenopause. ... Radiological Case: Removal of Subdermal Contraceptive Device. Applied Radiology August 4, 2023 ...
This comprehensive communication campaign focuses on raising awareness of contraceptive options as well as drawing attention to ... developed this digital toolkit to help you communicate with beneficiaries about contraceptive care with TRICARE. ... Walk-In Contraceptive Services Toolkit , Womens Health , Contraceptive Care , Contraceptive Care Toolkit , Reproductive Health ... Could state abortion laws affect the use of IUDs (Intrauterine Devices)? A: DOD will continue providing IUDs and other ...
Learn about Birth control options for women or find a doctor at Mount Sinai Health System. ... Contraceptives are devices, drugs, or methods for preventing pregnancy either by preventing the fertilization of the female egg ... Contraceptive Options. Contraceptive options include:. *Hormonal contraceptives (such as oral contraceptives, skin patch, ... The intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus. An IUDs contraceptive ...
The study might point the way toward a reversible male contraceptive. ... Most-such as birth control pills, vaginal rings, female condoms, and intrauterine devices-rely on the woman. Women also can opt ... Experimental male contraceptive blocks sperm movement. At a Glance. *Researchers developed a compound that temporarily ... References: Inhibition of sperm motility in male macaques with EP055, a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive. ORand MG, ...
Current contraceptive methods serve well for many women but not well for others, especially women with special health ... As their risk factors increase, these women have contraindications to most hormonal contraceptive methods, yet they face even ... Recent data indicate that one-third of reproductive-age women have obesity, putting them at increased risk of venous ... a new intrauterine device (IUD) for nulliparous women. ... Current contraceptive methods serve well for many women but not ...
Current Contraceptive Status Among Women Aged 15-49: United States, 2015-2017 - Featured Topics from the National Center for ... long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices; and male condom. ... The most common contraceptive methods currently used were female sterilization (18.6%), oral contraceptive pill (12.6%), long- ... patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: female sterilization; oral contraceptive ...
Female condoms (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Intrauterine devices (IUD) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish ... Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). Intrauterine device (IUD). A small, T-shaped device that a provider inserts into ... Female condoms can also help prevent STDs.. Contraceptive sponge. A small sponge that you put into the vagina to cover the ... Contraceptive patch. A patch that a woman puts on her skin each week. The patch releases hormones into the bloodstream.. ...
... or ring and is not altered in adolescents and young women. (Funded by the Susan Thompson Buffet Foundation.). ... The effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception is superior to that of contraceptive pills, patch, ... Contraceptive Devices, Female Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Most women use less-effective contraceptive methods. Niemczyk NA. Niemczyk NA. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2012 Nov-Dec;57(6): ...
Categories: Contraceptive Devices, Female Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Contraceptive sponge (only for nulliparous partners). --Male or female condom (cannot be used together). Non-barrier methods: ... Intrauterine device. --Hormonal contraception: pill (estrogen/progestin or progestin-only), skin patch, vaginal ring, rod ... For females of reproductive potential: use of highly effective contraception - as detailed in the Centers for Disease Control ... Hemoglobin (Hb) ,= 10.5 gm/dL (male) or ,= 9.5 gm/dL (female); --Platelets ,= 50,000 /mm3; --Serum alanine transaminase (ALT ...
Active pelvic infection or current use of intrauterine contraceptive device. *Current use of GnRH agonists or antagonists, or ... Genital Diseases, Female. Female Urogenital Diseases. Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications. Urogenital ... Premenopausal women at least 25 years of age. *No evidence of High Grade SIL by pap smears or HPV testing within institutional ... Women with adenomyosis proven with MRI will be considered for the intervention with bromocriptine. They will be reassessed at 1 ...
... combined oral contraceptive pills, injectables and implants, and intrauterine contraceptive devices. The provision and ... In contrast, womens employment did not have a significant role in womens current use of contraception (P = 0.94). Womens ... The total sample size selected equaled 372 women. The number of women selected was proportional to the number of women in each ... Among the 397 women who knew about contraceptive methods, three quarter (n=307; 76.8%) reported an ever use of these methods ...
Female condoms (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Intrauterine devices (IUD) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish ... Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). Intrauterine device (IUD). A small, T-shaped device that a provider inserts into ... Female condoms can also help prevent STDs.. Contraceptive sponge. A small sponge that you put into the vagina to cover the ... Contraceptive patch. A patch that a woman puts on her skin each week. The patch releases hormones into the bloodstream.. ...
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential. ISTODAX can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in ... Therefore, alternative methods of non-estrogen containing contraception (e.g., condoms, intrauterine devices) should be used in ... ISTODAX may reduce the effectiveness of estrogen-containing contraceptives. ... Females Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with ISTODAX and for 1 month ...
However, a woman would need to see a doctor to obtain it and for instructions on how to fit it. This device must not remain in ... Contraceptive Devices: An Overview. By condomman69 Contraceptive Devices: An Overview. With numerous contraceptives available ... Other devices with similar action are the contraceptive foam and the contraceptive suppositories. Though convenient to use, ... Some women complain of the foam as being messy to put on and have an unsavory taste. These inserted devices also need to be ...
SMART polymer fibers for tampon-like nonsteroidal contraceptive devices. More Information. NICHD Contacts: Daniel S. Johnston ... The PCDP is a research program formed to expand research leading to the development of male and female contraceptive methods. ... Task Force on Research Specific to Pregnant Women and Lactating Women (PRGLAC) ...
O Barrier type devices (e.g., female condom, diaphragm, contraceptive sponge) only in combination with a spermicide. ... O Intrauterine devices. O Oral, transdermal, injectable or implantable contraceptives only in combination with a barrier method ... Males or females ,=12 years of age (except for countries where this age limit is contrary to specific regulatory requirements). ... Women not of childbearing potential are defined as postmenopausal (i.e., amenorrhea for at least 1 year), or documented ...
Intrauterine Device (IUD): An IUD is a small device that is put into a womens uterus (womb) by a specially trained health ... Contraceptive injection for women: There are two types: Nur-Isterate, which is given every two months (eight weeks), and DMPA ( ... Sterilisation: This is a short and simple operation, but is a permanent contraceptive method for both males and females. Any ... It is reported that the proportion of married women aged between 15 to 49 using any contraceptive method has risen slightly ...
  • It would therefore seem that by postponing oral contraceptive use until 1 week after abortion, no decrease in the effectiveness of contraception occurs and the possible risks of hypercoagulabilty during the postabortal period can be avoided. (
  • She said the woman, who is in her 20s and pregnant, lacked the mental capacity to make decisions about contraception. (
  • Second, that the woman was likely to become pregnant again in the absence of contraception. (
  • Third, that the woman lacked the capacity to make decisions about contraception and, fourth, that she might not comply with the requirement for regular injections. (
  • He added: "It is odd that there is no consideration of whether the woman is mentally capable of consenting to sex, even though the judge accepted evidence that the woman does not have capacity to make decisions about contraception. (
  • Health-care providers can use the summary table as a quick reference guide to the classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine contraception to compare classifications across these methods ( Box K1 ) ( Table K1 ). (
  • New and improved delivery devices for contraception. (
  • To increase contraceptive choices, TRICARE is waiving copayments and cost-shares on medical contraception such as long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent contraception. (
  • Every woman should have access to contraception . (
  • The percents becoming pregnant in columns (2) and (3) are based on data from populations where contraception is not used and from women who cease using contraception in order to become pregnant. (
  • This estimate was lowered slightly (to 85%) to represent the percentage who would become pregnant within one year among women now relying on reversible methods of contraception if they abandoned contraception altogether. (
  • For some patients, an intrauterine device may be a good choice for emergency contraception. (
  • For females of reproductive potential: use of highly effective contraception - as detailed in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (US SPR) - for at least 1 month prior to Baseline visit and agreement to use such a method during study participation and for an additional 4 weeks after the end of UB-421 administration. (
  • Conclusion: Implanon is a highly unattractive method of contraception for women residing in the Ugu North Sub District. (
  • In 2012, the South African Department of Health launched the tion, whilst 14.0% of women opted for a long-acting intrauterine revised Contraception and Fertility Policy. (
  • Asia and North America long-term methods such as implants ceptive use in SA in the past, towards the alternative long- and IUCD and permanent contraception are most used by acting and reversible contraceptive sub-dermal implant.7 women. (
  • In 2015-2017, 64.9% of the 72.2 million women aged 15-49 in the United States were currently using contraception. (
  • Data were collected on 10 working married women who are not using an ap- days (08.00 to 14.00), 1 day per week over propriate method of contraception even a 10-week period in 2001. (
  • Any woman can decide if she wants to use contraception. (
  • To prevent pregnancy, females of reproductive potential must use two reliable forms of contraception during treatment and for one month after stopping bosentan ( 4.1 , 5.2 , 8.1 ). (
  • Similarly, USA Today reported on May 5 that experts believe the decades-long decline in abortions has largely been driven by better access to birth control , especially long-term, reversible contraception such as IUDs and contraceptive implants. (
  • The cost-sharing changes alone are saving individual women hundreds of dollars each year on their choice of contraception. (
  • Maryland Governor Larry Hogan has signed into law the Contraceptive Equity Act, which puts the state at the forefront of efforts to reduce insurance-plan barriers to accessing multiple forms of contraception. (
  • We assessed the risk of venous thromboembolism in current users of different types of hormonal contraception, focusing on duration of use, regimen (combined oral contraceptives versus progestogen only pills), and the effect of oestrogen dose, type of progestogen, and route of administration. (
  • There is no universal method of contraception so that a woman can prevent pregnancy, because of which she has to have abortion or use abortion pills. (
  • When choosing a contraception, the woman needs to take into account her age and individual characteristics, as well as carefully examine possible side effects. (
  • Emergency contraception is a method to avoid pregnancy during the first days after sexual intercourse, when contraceptive measures were unsuccessful or not applied at all. (
  • In Greece, Lia Motska, manager of sexual and reproductive health at the NGO Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF), told me that common forms of contraception available in the country are not suitable for refugee women. (
  • As a perhaps less familiar form of contraception, some women may also have reservations about using them. (
  • They are, for example, the leading form of contraception for women in Afghanistan, Eritrea and Somalia. (
  • a copper intrauterine device - its the most effective form of emergency contraception and can act as emergency contraception if they are fitted within 120 hours (up to 5 Days) of unprotected sex. (
  • Most women want to use a method of contraception that is safe, reliable, and does not require too much thinking about. (
  • Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, including subdermal hormonal implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs), has been increasing for almost 2 decades, from 1.5-2.5% of U.S. women of childbearing age in the early 2000s 1,2 to 10.3-14.3% between 2009 and 2015. (
  • 3-6 IUDs initially fell out of favor when a design flaw in an early brand resulted in the deaths of 6 women and infections in thousands more, 7 but newer types have been found to be long-lasting, efficacious, and safe. (
  • Phase 1: Copayments and cost-shares for long-acting reversible contraceptives services such as placing and removal of IUDs, contraceptive shots, and subdermal contraceptive rods will be waived beginning Nov. 1, 2022. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend intrauterine devices (IUDs) and contraceptive implants (Nexplanon) as first-line contraceptive options for sexually active teens based on the effectiveness of these contraceptives and high rates of patient satisfaction. (
  • These include birth control methods such as IUDs (intrauterine devices), implants and tubal ligations 'that are highly effective but would have prohibitively high upfront costs if they weren't covered by insurance,' Norris said. (
  • LARCs come mainly in two types - intrauterine devices known as IUDs and implantable hormone-release systems commonly referred to as implants. (
  • There are four methods that fit this description: contraceptive implants, IUDs (intrauterine devices), IUSs (intrauterine systems), and contraceptive injections. (
  • Public school district officials from Seattle to New York City are increasingly offering IUDs to female students. (
  • Seattle middle school children as young as 12 may be given IUDs, without parental knowledge and paid for by tax dollars , even though doctors say IUDs should not be implanted in women under 25 who have never been pregnant because of serious health concerns about IUD expulsion and pelvic inflammatory disease. (
  • According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the number of women who get IUDs and other contraceptive implants has doubled since 2010. (
  • IUDs are also promoted by government officials for female prisoners . (
  • Between 1 Jan. 2015 and 31 Dec. 2018, 18,691 service women in the study population received an intrauterine device (IUD) and 17,723 received an implant. (
  • Strategies to raise pregnant mothers ' awareness of IPPIUCD through mass media , and integrating standard counseling on immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IPPIUD) during antenatal care , and the immediate postpartum period are required to improve IPPIUD utilization. (
  • ParaGard ® T 380A Intrauterine Copper Contraceptive (ParaGard ® ) is a T-shaped intrauterine device (IUD), measuring 32 mm horizontally and 36 mm vertically, with a 3 mm diameter bulb at the tip of the vertical stem. (
  • 8. [Comparative changes of exocervical exfoliative cytology in intrauterine device users]. (
  • For example, you can insert a hormonal intrauterine device, which greatly reduces bleeding, or use a contraceptive pill. (
  • Effective July 28, 2022, copayment and cost-shares were waived for long-acting reversible contraceptives. (
  • Most researchers credit the growing acceptance of long-acting reversible contraceptives, or LARCs, for the decline. (
  • Use of female condoms can provide protection from transmission of STDs, although data are limited. (
  • Most-such as birth control pills, vaginal rings, female condoms, and intrauterine devices-rely on the woman. (
  • The downside of this birth control device is the need to use fresh condoms for every sexual act. (
  • Though decidedly more expensive and harder to find in stores, female condoms are quite effective in preventing pregnancy and most STDs when inserted and used appropriately. (
  • Though these inserted contraceptives do afford women control over their sexual lives, it is still best to ask your partners to do their part and use some forms of contraceptives themselves, like the use of condoms. (
  • Female condoms can also help prevent STDs. (
  • If a women or her partner has multiple sex partners, the IUD should not be the method of first choice unless condoms are also used to protect against STIs. (
  • Available free of charge at clinics (female condoms are available at designated clinics). (
  • Other alternatives are devices that do not contain hormones and create a physical barrier, such as condoms (male and female), or cervix caps. (
  • Greek women primarily use condoms, pills and intrauterine devices (IUD). (
  • But Motska explains that religious norms and everyday chauvinism can make condoms an unrealistic option and pills can be impracticable for women whose routines and environments are in a continual state of flux. (
  • However, LARCs may have an additional appeal to female service members because of the ability of some LARCs to suppress menstruation, 7,8,11 which may be advantageous in military operational environments. (
  • In a Colorado study comparing oral contraceptives to LARCs, the only woman in the LARC arm of the study to get pregnant intentionally had her contraceptive removed. (
  • Birth control is the use of various devices, drugs, agents, sexual practices, or surgical procedures to prevent conception or pregnancy. (
  • A range of devices and treatments are available for both men and women that can help prevent pregnancy. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives help prevent unwanted pregnancy. (
  • Hormonal contraceptive refers to a type of birth control method that targets the endocrine system to prevent pregnancy. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives help prevent pregnancy by blocking the release of eggs from the ovaries. (
  • According to official U.S. government statistics, for the 2012-2015 period, women aged 15 to 44 reported that 20 percent of births in the last five years were mistimed (the woman wanted a pregnancy, but it occurred sooner than she wanted it) and 13 percent were unwanted (the mother never wanted a baby, or a baby of that birth order-second, third, fourth, etc. (
  • Access to comprehensive contraceptive counseling is critical to address the timing and choice regarding family planning and prevention of pregnancy. (
  • The pregnancy rate in clinical studies has been less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women each year. (
  • It is important to know that pregnancy also increases the risk for blood clots, and much more significantly than any hormonal contraceptive. (
  • Contraceptives are devices, drugs, or methods for preventing pregnancy either by preventing the fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm or by preventing implantation of the fertilized egg. (
  • Women also can opt for a surgical procedure that permanently prevents pregnancy. (
  • As their risk factors increase, these women have contraindications to most hormonal contraceptive methods, yet they face even higher risks from pregnancy. (
  • Options are limited for those women wishing to avoid pregnancy. (
  • It im- lected randomly through a multistage proves health through adequate spacing of sampling technique (8 women were ex- birth and avoiding pregnancy at high-risk cluded from the original 538 selected be- maternal ages and high parities. (
  • A 2014 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, Burwell v. Hobby Lobby , held that Hobby Lobby and other closely held corporations do not have to provide coverage for FDA-approved contraceptives that Hobby Lobby deemed abortifacients, or able to terminate pregnancy. (
  • Any of the options of pregnancy termination is often a difficult choice for a woman and may cause fear before the abortion and a sense of guilt after it. (
  • There are effective abortion pills and many methods of surgical abortion, but doctors recommend women to prevent unwanted pregnancy than to take difficult decisions afterwards. (
  • Many women prefer to avoid using abortion pills or other methods of pregnancy termination, so they buy a combined contraceptive containing such hormones as estrogens and progestogens. (
  • If the woman has had unprotected sex, then there is no need to wait days or weeks to find out whether an unwanted pregnancy will occur or not, for elimination of which abortion pills are used. (
  • Every woman decides by herself how to choose a suitable method to prevent pregnancy. (
  • According to the CDC, unintended pregnancy correlates most strongly with unmarried cohabitation, lower levels of age, income and education, and African American women because they are overrepresented in those categories. (
  • If you are extra cautious, taking an oral contraceptive pill daily should be included in your routine. (
  • Women of all ages can now get the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill Plan B One-Step and its generic versions without a prescription. (
  • Female sterilization declined and use of the pill increased with higher education. (
  • Other popular methods include the contraceptive pill and the progestogen-only pill. (
  • Among active component service women who received an IUD or implant and maintained the same marital status during the study period, there was no notable increase in incidence of STIs in the 12 months after LARC insertion when compared to the 12 months before insertion. (
  • In general, among service women who began using LARC (an IUD or a contraceptive implant), incidence rates of STIs did not increase from the year before to the year after insertion. (
  • Just like a contraceptive implant, IUD is reversible. (
  • Background: The contraceptive implant (Implanon) has been recognised as one of the most effective family planning methods and is a healthier choice for women in Africa due to its efficacy and convenience. (
  • 4 In South Africa (SA), the most common con- implant is a long-term hormonal contraceptive method and is traceptive method was the injectable (28.4%) with the oral a healthier choice for women in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and women using these methods should be counseled that consistent and correct use of the male latex condom reduces the risk for transmission of HIV and other STDs. (
  • Some 18 women in every 100 may conceive if their partner uses a condom. (
  • The female condom, or femidom, is made of polyurethane. (
  • The female condom is 79 percent effective . (
  • Now, if you want to be in control, you may use a female condom instead. (
  • Its counterpart, the female condom, is made of polyurethane. (
  • The global hormonal contraceptive market size was valued at USD 16.8 billion in 2022, driven by the high rates of efficacy and reliability of hormonal contraceptives and the innovations in the market. (
  • The high rates of efficacy and reliability of hormonal contraceptives and the innovations in the market are the key drivers for the hormonal contraceptive industry growth globally. (
  • Depending on which type of IUD you choose, the device can last between three and ten years, with an efficacy rate of up to 99.8 percent. (
  • Mechanism(s) by which copper enhances contraceptive efficacy include interference with sperm transport and fertilization of an egg, and possibly prevention of implantation. (
  • Source: Trussel J, Contraceptive efficacy. (
  • A contraceptive efficacy trial of the NES/E2 CVR has completed follow-up. (
  • These inserted devices also need to be reapplied before each and every sexual act in order to achieve efficacy in birth control. (
  • It leaks no drug into the body, and it's efficacy is similar to drug based contraceptives. (
  • Rather, it means that at least one version of every type of contraceptive is covered at no additional cost to the patient. (
  • Data about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle-related behaviors, routine hygienic practices, menstrual care and history and type of contraceptive intake were collected using a structured questionnaire. (
  • When the law takes effect in 2018, insurance plans regulated by Maryland that provide contraceptive coverage will no longer be allowed to charge co-payments for FDA-approved contraceptive drugs, procedures, and devices. (
  • A contraceptive sponge is inserted into the vagina. (
  • Another barrier birth control device is the sponge, made of polyurethane and is placed on the cervix before the sex act. (
  • The women said in the complaint that they have been severely injured by Bayer AG's lucrative and popular Mirena IUD. (
  • However, the 1,300 women argued that the Mirena IUD injured them internally after insertion, and that Bayer does not inform women of that possibility. (
  • The women's case rested on key expert testimony showing how the Mirena IUD can cut into women's uteruses after the contraceptive device is inserted. (
  • Bayer's legal team argued that a perforation during insertion might not be detected until later, so women getting the Mirena IUD implanted might think the surgery was successful but were in fact already injured. (
  • More than 10,000 women have joined Facebook groups such as "IUD Side Effects" and "Mirena IUD Support Group. (
  • Hormonal contraceptives: Bosentan use decreases contraceptive exposure and reduces effectiveness ( 7.2 ). (
  • Conclusion The risk of venous thrombosis in current users of combined oral contraceptives decreases with duration of use and decreasing oestrogen dose. (
  • According to the BBC, the woman agreed to having a contraceptive injection every three months, but did not want to be fitted with a contraceptive device. (
  • An injection of a hormone that a woman gets once every three months. (
  • Geographically, North America is a significant region contributing to the growth of the hormonal contraceptive industry globally. (
  • The use of modern contraceptives globally has increased slightly among disadvantaged young women living in rural areas. (
  • Globally, millions of refugee women must grapple with issues of reproductive control outside their home environments. (
  • Injectable contraceptives have become a mainstay for women across the developing world . (
  • The contraceptive effectiveness of ParaGard ® is enhanced by copper continuously released into the uterine cavity. (
  • The Contraceptive Development Program (CDP) is developing methods designed to address unmet needs for safety, acceptability, and effectiveness. (
  • In partnership with the Population Council, CDP has developed a novel ring that delivers progestin to effectively block follicular development and deliver 17-ßestradiol to support bone health, but with low potential for increasing VTE risk, even for women who have obesity. (
  • All drug based contraceptives, whether they are a combo oestrogen/progestin or progestin only, can cause many adverse side affects. (
  • Many progestin only contraceptives are derived from testosterone, and have androgenic properties. (
  • Compared with oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel and with the same dose of oestrogen and length of use, the rate ratio for oral contraceptives with norethisterone was 0.98 (0.71 to 1.37), with norgestimate 1.19 (0.96 to 1.47), with desogestrel 1.82 (1.49 to 2.22), with gestodene 1.86 (1.59 to 2.18), with drospirenone 1.64 (1.27 to 2.10), and with cyproterone 1.88 (1.47 to 2.42). (
  • Compared with non-users of oral contraceptives, the rate ratio for venous thromboembolism in users of progestogen only oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel or norethisterone was 0.59 (0.33 to 1.03) or with 75 μg desogestrel was 1.12 (0.36 to 3.49), and for hormone releasing intrauterine devices was 0.90 (0.64 to 1.26). (
  • For the same dose of oestrogen and the same length of use, oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or drospirenone were associated with a significantly higher risk of venous thrombosis than oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. (
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 These studies have generally found a higher risk during the first year of use and with oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene rather than levonorgestrel. (
  • Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), which are hormonal pills which the woman takes as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse. (
  • This list include vasectomies and emergency-contraceptive pills. (
  • Emergency contraceptive pills usually contain higher doses of hormones than conventional oral contraceptives do. (
  • Effect of age on pelvic inflammatory disease in nulliparous women using a copper 7 intrauterine contraceptive device. (
  • This t-shape device is typically made of plastic and copper. (
  • ParaGard ® T 380A Intrauterine Copper Contraceptive should be placed and removed only by healthcare professionals who are experienced with these procedures. (
  • Copper IUD, which is a small, T-shaped device that a provider inserts into the within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. (
  • The only safe contraceptive is the copper T IUD. (
  • 14. [Proliferative mucosal changes of the corpus and cervix uteri in women using intrauterine contraceptives]. (
  • It is a device made of latex and, after coating with spermicide, is inserted into the vagina and up into the cervix. (
  • Barrier devices prevent the sperm from meeting the egg. (
  • In the female reproductive tract, sperm use their tails to swim toward the egg. (
  • Inhibition of sperm motility in male macaques with EP055, a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive. (
  • It is an effective birth control device in such as way that it blocks the sperm from getting into the womb. (
  • Permanent methods of birth control are tubal ligation for women, and vasectomy for men. (
  • The policy addresses contraceptive device (IUCD). (
  • Reducing the proportion of unintended pregnancies will be facilitated by increasing the diversity of acceptable choices available to both men and women. (
  • To tell how well a method works, look at the number of pregnancies in 100 women using that method over a period of 1 year. (
  • Family planning allows spacing of pregnancies and can delay pregnancies in young women at risk of health problems and death from early childbearing. (
  • Family planning reduces the risk of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, resulting in fewer infected babies and orphans. (
  • The Western Cape Government's Department of Health provides a service that offers counselling on a range of safe, effective and acceptable contraceptive methods from which women, men and teenagers can freely choose to prevent unwanted pregnancies. (
  • It remains remarkable, in this age of effective and easily obtained contraceptives, that almost a third of pregnancies are unplanned. (
  • Given these realities, what should lawmakers do - especially Democratic legislators, who tend to express the most distress for the plight of women coping with unintended pregnancies? (
  • As a result, children with · Heavy or extended menstrual bleeding type 3 VWD are usually diagnosed during in women. (
  • Are your female colleagues usually off sick from work with menstrual pain or heavy bleeding? (
  • Any proposed product must have characteristics consistent with the ultimate development of a safe, and effective contraceptive acceptable to women and men. (
  • By either continuous or cyclical use of the ring, a woman may produce predictable and acceptable bleeding which, depending on her response, could be amenorrhea, occasional bleeding over a 90-day period, or a cyclical interval of bleeding resulting from removal of the ring for a 2-, 3-, or 4-day period. (
  • An IUD is a small device that is put into a women's uterus (womb) by a specially trained health worker. (
  • Under the ACA, nongrandfathered health plans are required to cover a wide range of women's preventive services, including contraceptive methods approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (
  • Applications for the development of female contraceptive methods that require the administration of exogenous steroidal hormones. (
  • The woman inserts the ring into the vagina, where it continually releases hormones for three weeks. (
  • Modern contraceptives contain low doses of hormones and are mostly considered safe for women. (
  • Or you can "merge the packages" of regular contraceptive pills, i.e., skip over the break between the packages, which also means that there will be no bleeding. (
  • Research showed that women with high HIV-transmission risk had a lower incidence of HIV acquisition if they consistently used a vaginal ring delivering dapivirine. (
  • ABSTRACT In this descriptive study, the main objective was to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning among women of child-bearing age (15-49 years) in Dar Assalam. (
  • Ombada is subdivided into 3 tion, the unmet need group included: all fe- localities, Alamir, Abugaa and Dar Assalam, cund women who were married or living in which was randomly selected for this union, sexually active, not using any meth- stage. (
  • However, because people make mistakes, as many as 9 out of 100 women each year will become pregnant while using it. (
  • According to the United States Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Population Affairs, each year, for every 100 women who use this method, 20 may become pregnant. (
  • Around 21 women will become pregnant each year with this method. (
  • A surgery that prevents a woman from getting pregnant. (
  • Texas has instituted a de facto ban on abortions as soon as six weeks after conception, before many women even know they are pregnant. (
  • As a result, pregnant women are seeking out-of-state abortions in record numbers. (
  • In response, there are now 80 funds assisting pregnant women in accessing abortion care. (
  • United Nations estimates suggest that half a million displaced Syrian women , like Marwa, will become pregnant this year. (
  • Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and trichomonal vaginitis (TV) among non-pregnant reproductive-aged women. (
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted among 347 non-pregnant reproductive-aged women seeking primary healthcare in Sana'a city, Yemen. (
  • More than a third of non-pregnant reproductive-aged women seeking PHC in Sana'a have single or mixed infections with BV, VVC or TV. (
  • Male and female contraceptives based on nonsteroidal action. (
  • While the result is preliminary, with further testing and improvements the compound could potentially be developed into a reversible male contraceptive. (
  • Male biology has so far confounded efforts for a reversible long-acting contraceptive for men. (
  • However, findings did show that rates of STIs increased from the LARC pre-insertion period to the post-insertion period among women in the youngest age category, suggesting that risk-reduction counseling and educational efforts should be focused on the youngest service members who receive LARC. (
  • However, rates of STIs did increase after LARC insertion among women who were less than 20 years of age at the time of insertion. (
  • Because STIs can negatively affect service members readiness and cause serious medical sequelae, the results of the study suggest that providers should emphasize to younger service women that LARC methods do not protect against STIs. (
  • 1,8 Rates of use vary by subgroup, with women in their 20s and 30s 1,3-5 and those with a higher parity 1,2 more likely to use a LARC method than their respective counterparts. (
  • Among active component service women, a prior MSMR analysis indicated that LARC use increased from 17.2% to 21.7% between 2012 and 2016, mirroring the increasing trend observed in the general population. (
  • 9 LARC use among active component service women was most common among those aged 25-29 years, 9,10 although an increase was seen across all age groups. (
  • We ran segmented, interrupted time series ordinary least squares regression models using Newey-West standard errors to assess both the change in numbers of women initiating any LARC method and the average payment amount per LARC method. (
  • Women who bleed a lot during menstruation are a heterogeneous group, where there can be many causes behind the bleeding. (
  • A monofilament polyethylene thread is tied through the tip, resulting in two white threads, each at least 10.5 cm in length, to aid in detection and removal of the device. (
  • Preliminary results indicate that the method is highly effective and that women may control bleeding patterns by using the ring continuously or by removal of the ring for a brief time (2-4 days) to induce a regular short bleeding interval. (
  • contraceptive prevalence was the Western Cape (60,0%) with (g) the procedure is reversible, and fertility is returned after the province of Gauteng producing the lowest contraceptive removal of Implanon. (
  • All proposals for Phase II programs focused on contraceptive product development must include in vivo product testing. (
  • Applications that include contraceptive target identification or validation. (
  • 1 = A condition for which there is no restriction for the use of the contraceptive method. (
  • 4 = A condition that represents an unacceptable health risk if the contraceptive method is used. (
  • For the sake of discussion, some contraceptives are classified under the barrier birth control method. (
  • Once a contraceptive method has been chosen, you will be monitored for possible side effects in follow-up visits to the clinic. (
  • It is reported that the proportion of married women aged between 15 to 49 using any contraceptive method has risen slightly between 1990 and 2007, from 17% to 28% in Africa. (
  • However, it might take a little while to get used to and some men might get turned off by this barrier birth control device. (
  • The market growth in the region can be attributed to the increased awareness among people regarding hormonal contraceptives and their benefits. (
  • This comprehensive communication campaign focuses on raising awareness of contraceptive options as well as drawing attention to recent copayment waivers. (
  • We need increased awareness that many women are adversely affected by their period. (
  • Bayer does not dispute that its product injured the more than 1,300 women, but fought the suit based upon doubts about whether the injuries occurred at the time of insertion, or afterwards. (
  • In March, Judge Seibel barred expert testimony showing that Mirena causes uterine perforations after insertion," Clowes told LifeSiteNews, "and then (the same judge) waits four months to throw out the lawsuits because a jury would have no basis to find in favor of the women who were injured by Mirena. (
  • To these wounded women, it makes little difference whether the IUD lacerated their wombs during insertion or after," he continued. (
  • Changes in coagulation and anticoagulation in women taking low-dose triphasic oral contraceptives: a controlled comparative 12-month clinical trial. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Contraceptive devices, Female. (