Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.

Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. (1/72)

CONTEXT: Unintended pregnancy remains a major public health concern in the United States. Information on pregnancy rates among contraceptive users is needed to guide medical professionals' recommendations and individuals' choices of contraceptive methods. METHODS: Data were taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 1994-1995 Abortion Patient Survey (APS). Hazards models were used to estimate method-specific contraceptive failure rates during the first six months and during the first year of contraceptive use for all U.S. women. In addition, rates were corrected to take into account the underreporting of induced abortion in the NSFG. Corrected 12-month failure rates were also estimated for subgroups of women by age, union status, poverty level, race or ethnicity, and religion. RESULTS: When contraceptive methods are ranked by effectiveness over the first 12 months of use (corrected for abortion underreporting), the implant and injectables have the lowest failure rates (2-3%), followed by the pill (8%), the diaphragm and the cervical cap (12%), the male condom (14%), periodic abstinence (21%), withdrawal (24%) and spermicides (26%). In general, failure rates are highest among cohabiting and other unmarried women, among those with an annual family income below 200% of the federal poverty level, among black and Hispanic women, among adolescents and among women in their 20s. For example, adolescent women who are not married but are cohabiting experience a failure rate of about 31% in the first year of contraceptive use, while the 12-month failure rate among married women aged 30 and older is only 7%. Black women have a contraceptive failure rate of about 19%, and this rate does not vary by family income; in contrast, overall 12-month rates are lower among Hispanic women (15%) and white women (10%), but vary by income, with poorer women having substantially greater failure rates than more affluent women. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of contraceptive failure vary widely by method, as well as by personal and background characteristics. Income's strong influence on contraceptive failure suggests that access barriers and the general disadvantage associated with poverty seriously impede effective contraceptive practice in the United States.  (+info)

Contraceptive failure, method-related discontinuation and resumption of use: results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. (2/72)

CONTEXT: Half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Of these, half occur to women who were practicing contraception in the month they conceived, and others occur when couples stop use because they find their method difficult or inconvenient to use. METHODS: Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth were used to compute life-table probabilities of contraceptive failure for reversible methods of contraception, discontinuation of use for a method-related reason and resumption of contraceptive use. RESULTS: Within one year of starting to use a reversible method of contraception, 9% of women experience a contraceptive failure--7% of those using the pill, 9% of those relying on the male condom and 19% of those practicing withdrawal. During a lifetime of use of reversible methods, the typical woman will experience 1.8 contraceptive failures. Overall, 31% of women discontinue use of a reversible contraceptive for a method-related reason within six months of starting use, and 44% do so within 12 months; however, 68% resume use of a method within one month and 76% do so within three months. Multivariate analyses show that the risk of contraceptive failure is elevated among low-income women and Hispanic women. Low-income women are also less likely than other women to resume contraceptive use after discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of pregnancy during typical use of reversible methods of contraception are considerably higher than risks of failure during clinical trials, reflecting imperfect use of these methods rather than lack of inherent efficacy. High rates of method-related discontinuation probably reflect dissatisfaction with available methods.  (+info)

Obstetric and gynecology devices; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for glans sheath devices. Final rule. (3/72)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of product development protocol (PDP) for glans sheath medical devices. The agency has previously published its findings regarding the degree of risk of illness or injury designed to be eliminated or reduced by requiring the devices to meet the statute's approval requirements and the benefits to the public from the use of the devices.  (+info)

Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations: family planning Morocco. (4/72)

BACKGROUND: Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. METHODOLOGY: Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. RESULTS: The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.  (+info)

LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF STERILIZATION. (5/72)

Sexual sterilization is legal when it is an integral part of a procedure for the preservation of the life or health of a patient. Done for other reasons it may not be illegal, but this has not been tested in Canadian courts. It is, broadly speaking, a surgical procedure; it is commonly, but not always, successful; complications, while rare, do occur; the results tend to be irreversible. The same end, the prevention of pregnancy, may be attained by other methods which are safer, less liable to complications, less permanent and so should be used unless contraindicated. Patients' statements that they do not like contraceptives should not be accepted as a reason for sterilization. Sexual sterilization should be reserved for those occasions when it is necessary for the preservation of the health or life of the individual who is to be sterilized.  (+info)

Gender issues in contraceptive use among educated women in Edo state, Nigeria. (6/72)

BACKGROUND: While traditional contraception is widely used, in southern Nigerian modern contraception is a relatively recent phenomenon. Modern contraception is more wide spread among the educated and sexually active youth in Nigeria. Few studies have been done on contraception among educated women in Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out in December 2000 to determine factors that influence the choice of contraceptives among female undergraduates at the University of Benin and Edo State University Ekpoma. METHODS: Data was collected from a sample of 800 female undergraduates matched ethnic group, socio economic status, religion and rural urban residence. Subjects were selected by proportional representation and the instrument used was closed ended questionnaire. RESULTS: The responses obtained were analysed using Spearman Rank Correlation co-efficient and regression analysis. Findings revealed the highest correlation for availability (r =.96) vis a vis the use of various types of artificial contraceptive and cost (r =.96), next was safety (r =.95) and effectiveness (r =.95). Others were peer group influence (r =.80) and convenience (r =.77). CONCLUSION: An important step in improving women's reproductive health is the involvement of men. Health programmes should conduct campaigns to educate men about reproductive health and the role they can assume in family planning.  (+info)

Contraceptive use and consistency in U.S. teenagers' most recent sexual relationships. (7/72)

CONTEXT: Most U.S. teenage pregnancies are unintended, partly because of inconsistent or no use of contraceptives. Understanding the factors associated with contraceptive use in teenagers' most recent relationships can help identify strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy. METHODS: Data on 1,468 participants in Waves 1 and 2 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who had had two or more sexual relationships were analyzed to assess factors associated with contraceptive use patterns in teenagers' most recent sexual relationship. Odds ratios were generated through logistic regression. RESULTS: Many relationship and partner characteristics were significant for females but nonsignificant for males. For example, females' odds of ever, rather than never, having used contraception in their most recent relationship increased with the duration of the relationship (odds ratio, 1.1); their odds were reduced if they had not known their partner before dating him (0.2). The odds of consistent use (vs. inconsistent or no use) were higher for females in a "liked" relationship than for those in a romantic relationship (2.6), and for females using a hormonal method instead of condoms (4.5). Females' odds of consistent use decreased if the relationship involved physical violence (0.5). Among teenagers in romantic or "liked" relationships, the odds of ever-use and of consistent use were elevated among females who had discussed contraception with the partner before their first sex together (2.9 and 2.1, respectively), and the odds increased among males as the number of presexual couple-like activities increased (1.2 for each). CONCLUSIONS: Teenagers must use contraception consistently over time and across relationships despite pressure not to. Therefore, they must learn to negotiate sexual and contraceptive decisions in each relationship.  (+info)

Women with septic abortion: who, how and why? A prospective study from tertiary care hospital in India. (8/72)

A prospective descriptive interview based hospital study was carried on 47 women admitted with septic abortion to evaluate their psychosocial, demographic and clinical profile These women were predominantly parous (75%), hindus (60%), between 20-30 years of age (60%) and mostly married (91.4%) house wives (63.8%). More than 90% already had one or more male child. The contraceptive use was dismally low (23.4%). Their knowledge about legalisation, place and persons authorized to conduct abortions was very less, however large majority (87%) underwent abortions within 3 months of pregnancy. Large family, poverty and spacing were the main reasons cited for abortions. Abdominal pain, fever, genital bleeding, diarhoea and abdominal distension were presenting clinical features in order of frequency. Advanced sepsis and associated medical and surgical complications were present in more than half the patients and 6% succumbed to these problems. The current experience was an eye opener for most of them and changed their future attitude. Hence education, economic prosperity, easy access to reproductive health facilities and institutional management of sepsis is the key to make abortions safe.  (+info)

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Contraceptive devices for females refer to medical products designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize an egg. Some common examples of female contraceptive devices include:

1. Diaphragm: A shallow, flexible dome made of silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
2. Cervical Cap: Similar to a diaphragm but smaller in size, the cervical cap fits over the cervix and creates a barrier to sperm entry.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small, T-shaped device made of plastic or copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by changing the chemistry of the cervical mucus and uterine lining to inhibit sperm movement and implantation of a fertilized egg.
4. Contraceptive Sponge: A soft, round sponge made of polyurethane foam that contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse and covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
5. Female Condom: A thin, flexible pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The female condom creates a barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
6. Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring made of plastic that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to release hormones that prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the lining of the uterus.
7. Contraceptive Implant: A small, flexible rod made of plastic that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to prevent pregnancy for up to three years.

It's important to note that while these contraceptive devices can be highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STIs. Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception is recommended to reduce the risk of both pregnancy and STIs.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) migration is a medical condition where the IUD, a long-acting reversible contraceptive device placed inside the uterus, moves from its original position. Normally, an IUD is designed to remain in the uterus, with the vertical strings attached to it trailing down through the cervix into the vagina, allowing for easy removal or checking of its position.

IUD migration refers to the unintended movement of the device, either partially or completely, outside the uterine cavity. This may occur due to various reasons such as a weakened uterus, infection, or anatomical abnormalities. The migration can lead to complications like perforation of the uterus, damage to nearby organs, and difficulty in removing or locating the IUD. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are essential to ensure that the IUD remains in its proper place and to address any potential issues early on.

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Uterine perforation is a medical condition that refers to the piercing or puncturing of the uterine wall. This can occur during various medical procedures such as dilatation and curettage (D&C), insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), or during childbirth. It can also be caused by trauma or infection. Uterine perforation can lead to serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. If left untreated, it can be life-threatening. Symptoms of uterine perforation may include severe abdominal pain, heavy vaginal bleeding, fever, and signs of shock. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) expulsion is a medical condition that refers to the unintentional and partial or complete removal of an IUD from the uterus after its initial insertion. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of manipulation, and it may happen soon after insertion or even several months or years later.

IUD expulsion is more common in women who have not previously given birth, and it can increase the risk of unintended pregnancy and other complications. Symptoms of IUD expulsion may include irregular menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or the absence of the IUD strings in the vagina. If a woman suspects that her IUD has been expelled, she should contact her healthcare provider for further evaluation and management.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the reproductive organs in women, specifically the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is often caused by an infection that ascends from the cervix or vagina into the upper genital tract. The infectious agents are usually sexually transmitted bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, but other organisms can also be responsible.

Symptoms of PID may include lower abdominal pain, irregular menstrual bleeding, vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, fever, painful sexual intercourse, or pain in the lower back. However, some women with PID may not experience any symptoms at all. If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Diagnosis of PID is typically based on a combination of clinical findings, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection and may also include pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more intensive treatment or if complications arise.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

Salpingitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the fallopian tubes, which are the pair of narrow tubes that transport the egg from the ovaries to the uterus during ovulation. This condition can occur due to various reasons, including bacterial infections (such as chlamydia or gonorrhea), pelvic inflammatory disease, or complications following surgical procedures.

Acute salpingitis is characterized by symptoms like lower abdominal pain, fever, vaginal discharge, and irregular menstrual bleeding. Chronic salpingitis may not present any noticeable symptoms, but it can lead to complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or fallopian tube damage if left untreated. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection and, in severe cases, surgery to remove or repair damaged tissues.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

"Plastics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, plastics can refer to a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that are used in various medical applications due to their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into different shapes. Some examples include:

1. Medical devices such as catheters, implants, and surgical instruments.
2. Packaging for medical supplies and pharmaceuticals.
3. Protective barriers like gloves and gowns used in medical settings.
4. Intraocular lenses and other ophthalmic applications.

It's important to note that the term "plastics" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general category of materials with diverse uses across different industries, including healthcare.

Actinomycosis is a type of infection caused by bacteria that are normally found in the mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. These bacteria can cause abscesses or chronic inflammation if they infect body tissues, often after trauma or surgery. The infection typically affects the face, neck, or chest, and can spread to other parts of the body over time. Symptoms may include swelling, redness, pain, and the formation of pus-filled abscesses that may discharge a characteristic yellowish granular material called "sulfur granules." Treatment typically involves long-term antibiotic therapy, often requiring high doses and intravenous administration. Surgical drainage or removal of infected tissue may also be necessary in some cases.

Menorrhagia is a medical term used to describe abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. It's often characterized by the loss of an excessive amount of menstrual blood (usually more than 80 ml) and can last longer than normal, typically over seven days. This condition can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, causing fatigue, distress, and restrictions in daily activities due to the need for frequent pad or tampon changes.

The causes of menorrhagia are varied and can include hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids or polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy complications, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as coagulopathies or thyroid disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain undetermined even after a thorough evaluation.

Treatment options for menorrhagia depend on the underlying cause and range from medication management with hormonal therapies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or tranexamic acid to procedural interventions like endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic resection of polyps or fibroids, or ultimately hysterectomy in severe cases. It is essential for individuals experiencing menorrhagia to consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action based on their specific situation and medical history.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

Actinomyces is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, colon, and urogenital tract. Under certain conditions, such as poor oral hygiene or tissue trauma, these bacteria can cause infections known as actinomycosis. These infections often involve the formation of abscesses or granulomas and can affect various tissues, including the lungs, mouth, and female reproductive organs. Actinomyces species are also known to form complex communities called biofilms, which can contribute to their ability to cause infection.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

Contraceptive devices for males are designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking, killing, or inhibiting the movement of sperm. These devices include:

1. Condoms: Thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or polyisoprene that fit over the penis during sexual intercourse to collect semen and prevent it from entering the partner's body. They also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
2. Diaphragms: Soft, dome-shaped rubber devices fitted to cover the cervix inside the vagina. When used with spermicides, they can help prevent pregnancy by blocking the entry of sperm into the uterus.
3. Cervical Cap: A smaller, thimble-like cup made of silicone or latex that fits over the cervix to block sperm from entering the uterus. It is often used with spermicides for added effectiveness.
4. Spermicides: Chemicals that kill or immobilize sperm. They come in various forms, such as foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories, and can be used alone or in combination with other barrier methods like condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps.
5. Vasectomy: A surgical procedure for male sterilization that involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland. This prevents sperm from mixing with semen during ejaculation. Although vasectomies are considered permanent, in some cases, they can be reversed through surgery or other medical procedures.

It is important to note that while these contraceptive devices can significantly reduce the risk of pregnancy, they may not provide complete protection against STIs. Using multiple methods, like condoms and spermicides together, can increase overall effectiveness in preventing both pregnancy and STIs. Always consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice on contraceptive options.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

**Norgestrel** is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone **progesterone**. It is a type of **progestin**, which is often used in various forms of hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel works by thickening cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Additionally, norgestrel can also prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) and thin the lining of the uterus, which makes it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Norgestrel is available in various forms, such as oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to discuss potential benefits, risks, and side effects.

Here are some medical definitions related to norgestrel:

1. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone, used in various forms of hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can have varying levels of androgenic, estrogenic, and anti-estrogenic activity. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
2. **Progesterone**: A naturally occurring steroid hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
3. **Hormonal birth control**: A method of preventing pregnancy that uses hormones to regulate ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, or thin the lining of the uterus. Hormonal birth control methods include oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
4. **Emergency contraception**: A form of hormonal birth control used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Emergency contraception is typically more effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, but it can still be effective up to 120 hours afterward. Norgestrel is one of the active ingredients in some emergency contraceptive pills.
5. **Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)**: A form of hormone replacement therapy used to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. MHT typically involves using estrogen and progestin or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Norgestrel is a type of progestin that can be used in MHT.
6. **Androgenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as testosterone and some progestins, that are associated with male characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. Norgestrel has weak androgenic activity.
7. **Estrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as estradiol and some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), that are associated with female characteristics, such as breast development and menstrual cycles. Norgestrel has weak estrogenic activity.
8. **Antiestrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that block or oppose the actions of estrogens. Norgestrel has antiestrogenic activity.
9. **Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)**: A type of drug that acts as an estrogen agonist in some tissues and an estrogen antagonist in others. SERMs can be used to treat or prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. Norgestrel is not a SERM but has antiestrogenic activity.
10. **Progestogen**: A synthetic or natural hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestogens can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestogen.
11. **Progesterone**: A natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and regulates the menstrual cycle. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
12. **Progestin**: A synthetic hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestins can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
13. **Progestational agent**: A drug or hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestational agents can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestational agent.
14. **Progestogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
15. **Progesterone receptor modulator (PRM)**: A type of drug that binds to and activates or inhibits the progesterone receptors in the body. PRMs can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a type of PRM.
16. **Progestogenic activity**: The ability of a drug or hormone to mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone in the body. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
17. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
18. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progestogens in the body. Progestogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
19. **Progesterone agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
20. **Progestogenic agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progestogens in the body. Progesterogenic agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
21. **Progesterone receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterone receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
22. **Progestogenic receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterogenic receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
23. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of progesterone that is used in hormonal contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can be either progesterone agonists or antagonists, depending on their chemical structure and activity at the progesterone receptor. Norgestrel is a progestin.
24. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
25. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibro

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraception, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are most effective when used within 24 hours of unprotected sex, but can still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after.

There are two main types of postcoital contraceptives:

1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs): These are high-dose hormonal pills that contain levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. Levonorgestrel ECPs are available over-the-counter in many countries, while ulipristal acetate ECPs require a prescription.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small T-shaped device made of copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The copper IUD can be used as emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected sex, and it also provides ongoing contraception for up to 10 years.

It's important to note that postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of contraception. They should only be used in emergency situations where other methods of contraception have failed or were not used. It is also recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any form of emergency contraception.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Mestranol is a synthetic form of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and altering the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg or for an already established pregnancy to be implanted.

Mestranol is typically combined with a progestin in birth control pills, such as those known as the "combined oral contraceptives." It's important to note that mestranol has largely been replaced by ethinyl estradiol, which is a more commonly used form of synthetic estrogen in hormonal medications.

As with any medication, there are potential risks and side effects associated with the use of mestranol, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting or changing any hormonal medication.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

A contraceptive vaccine is a type of immunocontraception that uses the immune system to prevent pregnancy. It is a relatively new field of research and development, and there are currently no licensed contraceptive vaccines available on the market. However, several experimental vaccines are in various stages of preclinical and clinical testing.

Contraceptive vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that play a critical role in reproduction. By neutralizing these targets, the vaccine can prevent fertilization or inhibit the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For example, one approach is to develop vaccines that target the zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein layer surrounding mammalian eggs. Antibodies generated against ZP proteins can prevent sperm from binding and fertilizing the egg. Another strategy is to create vaccines that generate antibodies against hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By blocking hCG, the vaccine can prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and induce a miscarriage.

While contraceptive vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies, several challenges remain before they can be widely adopted. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, duration of protection, and public acceptance. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for accidental cross-reactivity with other proteins or hormones, leading to unintended side effects.

Overall, contraceptive vaccines represent a promising area of research that could provide long-acting, reversible, and user-friendly contraception options in the future. However, further studies are needed to address the remaining challenges and ensure their safe and effective use.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

"Device approval" is a term used to describe the process by which a medical device is determined to be safe and effective for use in patients by regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The approval process typically involves a rigorous evaluation of the device's design, performance, and safety data, as well as a review of the manufacturer's quality systems and labeling.

The FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) is responsible for regulating medical devices in the United States. The CDRH uses a risk-based classification system to determine the level of regulatory control needed for each device. Class I devices are considered low risk, Class II devices are moderate risk, and Class III devices are high risk.

For Class III devices, which include life-sustaining or life-supporting devices, as well as those that present a potential unreasonable risk of illness or injury, the approval process typically involves a premarket approval (PMA) application. This requires the submission of comprehensive scientific evidence to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the device.

For Class II devices, which include moderate-risk devices such as infusion pumps and powered wheelchairs, the approval process may involve a premarket notification (510(k)) submission. This requires the manufacturer to demonstrate that their device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device that is already legally marketed in the United States.

Once a medical device has been approved for marketing, the FDA continues to monitor its safety and effectiveness through post-market surveillance programs. Manufacturers are required to report any adverse events or product problems to the FDA, and the agency may take regulatory action if necessary to protect public health.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Norethynodrel is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is not commonly used in modern medicine. In the past, it was used in some oral contraceptives to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and altering the cervical mucus and endometrium. Norethynodrel is no longer widely used due to the development of newer and more effective progestins.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Ethynodiol diacetate is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various pharmaceutical products, such as birth control pills, to prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg.

Ethynodiol diacetate works by mimicking the effects of natural progesterone in the body, which helps regulate the menstrual cycle and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. When used as a contraceptive, ethynodiol diacetate is often combined with estrogen to create a hormonal balance that prevents ovulation and fertilization.

It's important to note that while ethynodiol diacetate is generally considered safe and effective when taken as directed, it can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or have certain medical conditions should consult with their healthcare provider before taking any medication containing this ingredient.

Immunologic contraception refers to the use of the immune system to prevent pregnancy. This is achieved by stimulating the production of antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that are essential for fertilization and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. The most well-known example of immunologic contraception is the development of a vaccine that would induce an immune response against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By neutralizing hCG, the immune system could prevent the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. However, this approach is still in the experimental stage and has not yet been approved for use in humans.

Norpregnenes are a class of steroids that are produced by the metabolism of progesterone and other pregnanes. They are characterized by the absence of a double bond between carbons 4 and 5, and the presence of a ketone group at carbon 3. Some examples of norpregnenes include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and pregnenolone. These steroids are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of various hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, and estrogens. They play a role in various physiological processes such as sexual development, immune function, and stress response.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is a formulation that contains a synthetic version of the female sex hormones, estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestin (norgestrel), which are used in various forms of hormonal contraception.

This combination works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is commonly used in oral contraceptives (birth control pills), as well as in some forms of hormonal patches and rings. It is important to note that while this combination is highly effective at preventing pregnancy, it can also increase the risk of certain health problems, such as blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer, especially in women who smoke or have other risk factors.

Therefore, it is essential for individuals using hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination to discuss their medical history and any potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting this form of birth control.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Oral contraceptives, sequential, are a type of birth control medication that involves taking two different hormonal preparations in a specific sequence to mimic the natural menstrual cycle. The first hormone preparation contains estrogen and is taken for 16-21 days, followed by a second hormone preparation containing both estrogen and progestin for 7 days. This regimen causes the lining of the uterus to thin, making it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and also thickens cervical mucus, which can prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Sequential oral contraceptives are not commonly used in the United States due to their higher risk of side effects compared to other forms of oral contraceptives.

Postcoital hormonal contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These contraceptives contain hormones and are intended for use in emergency situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or unprotected sex.

The most common type of postcoital hormonal contraceptive is the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), which contains a high dose of synthetic progestin or a combination of progestin and estrogen. The ECP works by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The ECP is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex, ideally within 72 hours, but may still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after intercourse. However, the effectiveness of the ECP decreases over time, and it is not as effective as regular methods of contraception.

It's important to note that postcoital hormonal contraceptives are not intended for routine use as a primary method of contraception and should only be used in emergency situations. They do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should not be used as a substitute for regular condom use or other forms of protection.

If you have any concerns about postcoital hormonal contraceptives or need advice on the best method of contraception for you, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Equipment safety in a medical context refers to the measures taken to ensure that medical equipment is free from potential harm or risks to patients, healthcare providers, and others who may come into contact with the equipment. This includes:

1. Designing and manufacturing the equipment to meet safety standards and regulations.
2. Properly maintaining and inspecting the equipment to ensure it remains safe over time.
3. Providing proper training for healthcare providers on how to use the equipment safely.
4. Implementing safeguards, such as alarms and warnings, to alert users of potential hazards.
5. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and address any potential safety concerns.
6. Reporting and investigating any incidents or accidents involving the equipment to determine their cause and prevent future occurrences.

Androstenes are a group of steroidal compounds that are produced and released by the human body. They are classified as steroids because they contain a characteristic carbon skeleton, called the sterane ring, which consists of four fused rings arranged in a specific structure. Androstenes are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the gonads (testes and ovaries), adrenal glands, and other tissues.

The term "androstene" refers specifically to compounds that contain a double bond between the 5th and 6th carbon atoms in the sterane ring. This double bond gives these compounds their characteristic chemical properties and distinguishes them from other steroidal compounds.

Androstenes are important in human physiology because they serve as precursors to the synthesis of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. They also have been found to play a role in the regulation of various bodily functions, including sexual behavior, mood, and cognition.

Some examples of androstenes include androstenedione, which is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen; androstenediol, which can be converted into either testosterone or estrogen; and androsterone, which is a weak androgen that is produced in the body as a metabolite of testosterone.

It's worth noting that androstenes are sometimes referred to as "pheromones" because they have been found to play a role in chemical communication between individuals of the same species. However, this use of the term "pheromone" is controversial and not universally accepted, as it has been difficult to demonstrate conclusively that humans communicate using chemical signals in the same way that many other animals do.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

'Equipment and Supplies' is a term used in the medical field to refer to the physical items and materials needed for medical care, treatment, and procedures. These can include a wide range of items, such as:

* Medical equipment: This includes devices and machines used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes, such as stethoscopes, blood pressure monitors, EKG machines, ventilators, and infusion pumps.
* Medical supplies: These are consumable items that are used once and then discarded, such as syringes, needles, bandages, gowns, gloves, and face masks.
* Furniture and fixtures: This includes items such as hospital beds, examination tables, chairs, and cabinets that are used to create a functional medical space.

Having the right equipment and supplies is essential for providing safe and effective medical care. The specific items needed will depend on the type of medical practice or facility, as well as the needs of individual patients.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Megestrol is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female hormone. It is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer, in postmenopausal women. Megestrol works by blocking the effects of estrogen, a female hormone that can promote the growth of some breast and endometrial cancers.

Megestrol is also used to treat anorexia (loss of appetite) and cachexia (wasting syndrome) in people with AIDS or cancer. It works by increasing appetite and promoting weight gain.

Megestrol is available as a tablet or a suspension that is taken by mouth, usually two to four times a day. The dosage depends on the condition being treated and the individual patient's response to therapy. Common side effects of megestrol include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual periods.

It is important to note that megestrol can cause serious side effects, such as blood clots, fluid retention, and increased risk of certain types of infections. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of megestrol therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse. The synthetic postcoital contraceptive is a type of emergency contraception that contains synthetic hormones, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. These hormones work by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The most common synthetic postcoital contraceptive is the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill (LNG-ECP), which contains a high dose of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel. It is usually taken as a single dose within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse, but it is most effective when taken as soon as possible after intercourse.

Another synthetic postcoital contraceptive is ulipristal acetate, which is also taken as a single dose but within 120 hours (5 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate works by delaying ovulation and preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.

It's important to note that synthetic postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of birth control, but rather as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. They should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and should not be used in place of regular contraception.

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

Spermatogenesis-blocking agents are a class of medications or substances that inhibit or block the process of spermatogenesis, which is the production of sperm in the testicles. These agents can work at various stages of spermatogenesis, including reducing the number of spermatozoa (sperm cells) or preventing the formation of mature sperm.

Examples of spermatogenesis-blocking agents include:

1. Hormonal agents: Certain hormones or hormone-like substances can interfere with the production of sperm. For example, analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and antiandrogens can suppress the release of testosterone and other hormones necessary for spermatogenesis.
2. Alkylating agents: These are chemotherapy drugs that can damage DNA and prevent the division and multiplication of cells, including sperm cells. Examples include cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
3. Other chemicals: Certain industrial chemicals, such as ethylene glycol ethers and dibromochloropropane (DBCP), have been shown to have spermatogenesis-blocking properties.
4. Radiation therapy: High doses of radiation can also damage the testicles and inhibit sperm production.

It's important to note that spermatogenesis-blocking agents are often used for medical purposes, such as treating cancer or preventing pregnancy, but they can have significant side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Ovulation inhibition is a term used in reproductive medicine to describe the prevention or delay of ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This can be achieved through various means, such as hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings), injectable hormones, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.

Hormonal contraceptives typically contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progestin, which work together to inhibit the natural hormonal signals that trigger ovulation. By suppressing the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these methods prevent the development and release of a mature egg from the ovaries.

In addition to preventing ovulation, hormonal contraceptives can also thicken cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus, reducing the likelihood of implantation in case fertilization does occur. It is important to note that while ovulation inhibition is a reliable method of birth control, it may not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Medroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is a female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle and by the placenta during pregnancy. As a medication, medroxyprogesterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

* Abnormal menstrual bleeding
* Endometrial hyperplasia (overgrowth of the lining of the uterus)
* Contraception (birth control)
* Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women
* Prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women
* Treatment of certain types of cancer, such as endometrial and renal cancers

Medroxyprogesterone works by binding to progesterone receptors in the body, which helps to regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and prevent the growth of some types of cancer. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injectable solutions, and depot suspensions for intramuscular injection.

It's important to note that medroxyprogesterone can have significant side effects, and its use should be monitored by a healthcare provider. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take medroxyprogesterone, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting medroxyprogesterone.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Tone A (2001). Devices & Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-3817-6. ... to physicians as a contraceptive. Although the FDA approved the first oral contraceptive in 1960, contraceptives were not ... Non-hormonal contraceptive methods, such as the Copper IUD or condoms, should be the first-line contraceptive choice for these ... Oral contraceptives should not be used as an initial treatment for female athlete triad. While combined oral contraceptives are ...
"Popular contraceptive device Mirena target of lawsuits in Canada, U.S". CTV. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 26 ... Various thread collector devices or simple forceps may then be used to try to grasp the device through the cervix. In the rare ... WHO (2010). "Intrauterine devices (IUDs)". Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (4th ed.). Geneva: Reproductive ... 1988). "New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women". Fertil Steril. 49 (5): 768-773. doi ...
An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped ... Grimes, D.A. (2007). Hatcher, R.A.; Nelson, T.J.; Guest, F.; Kowal, D. (eds.). "Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)". Contraceptive ... Copper devices have a failure rate of about 0.8% while hormonal (levonorgestrel) devices fail about 0.2% of the time within the ... Unlike modern intrauterine devices, early interuterine (from Latin inter- meaning "between" as opposed to intra-) devices ...
... and expulsion of the device. The one-year combined hormonal contraceptive ring is also known as Annovera. It is a silicone ... When compared to other forms of contraception (combined oral contraceptives, contraceptive patch), the contraceptive vaginal ... Meyer S (August 2009). "Contraceptive patch and vaginal ring vs. combined oral contraceptives". American Family Physician. 80 ( ... A contraceptive vaginal ring is a type of hormonal insert that is placed in the vagina for the purpose of birth control. The ...
They include injections, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and subdermal contraceptive implants. They are the most effective ... Nonhormonal intrauterine device with copper (US - ParaGard) Subdermal contraceptive implant (US - Nexplanon/Implanon/Implanon ... Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive Combined injectable contraceptive The effectiveness of LARC methods has been shown to ... found that the risk of contraceptive failure for those using oral contraceptive pills, the birth control patch, or the vaginal ...
"The contraceptive patch" (in French). "Male condom" (in French). "Spermicides" (in French). "Intrauterine device" (in French ... The contraceptive implant is a small stick put in place under the skin. The implant contains the same hormones as contraceptive ... The French government will provide access to birth control pills, intrauterine devices, contraceptive patches and injectable ... There are many types of contraceptive methods available in France. All contraceptives are obtained by medical prescription ...
A contraceptive sponge set inside its open package. The current intrauterine devices (IUD) are small devices, often 'T'-shaped ... Emergency contraceptive methods are medications (sometimes misleadingly referred to as "morning-after pills") or devices used ... Grimes DA (2007). "Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)". In Hatcher RA, Nelson TJ, Guest F, Kowal D (eds.). Contraceptive Technology ( ... These include barrier methods, hormonal methods, implanted devices, emergency contraceptives, and sterilization procedures. In ...
"The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 181 (5 Pt 1): ... The only contraceptive measures that does so are latex or polyurethane condoms. The contraceptive vaginal ring has a failure ... The combined hormonal contraceptive vaginal ring is self-administered once a month. Leaving the ring in for three weeks slowly ... Rings can be removed prior to intercourse, but, in the case of the contraceptive NuvaRing, only for one to three hours to ...
"The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". American Journal of Obstetrics and ... The Ortho Evra contraceptive patch and the Evra contraceptive patch are both intended to gradually release into the systemic ... Trussell J (2007). "Contraceptive Efficacy". In Hatcher RA, et al. (eds.). Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ed.). New York: ... Contraceptive effectiveness of the patch or any other hormonal contraceptive may be reduced significantly if administered ...
"Contraceptive devices: subcutaneous delivery systems". Expert Review of Medical Devices. 5 (5): 623-637. doi:10.1586/17434440.5 ... These formulations are used as emergency contraceptives, normal contraceptives, or in menopausal hormone therapy for the ... Levonorgestrel is currently the most androgenic progestin that is used in contraceptives, and contraceptives containing ... Committee on the Relationship Between Oral Contraceptives and BreastCancer (1 January 1991). Oral Contraceptives and Breast ...
Grimes, David (2007). "Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)". In Hatcher, Robert A.; et al. (eds.). Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ... the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP). The group Pharmacists for Life has called for a large-scale clinical trial to ... to the effectiveness of these devices. However, more recent evidence, such as tubal flushing studies indicates that IUDs work ... "Early pregnancy factor as a monitor for fertilization in women wearing intrauterine devices". Fertility and Sterility. 37 (2): ...
... he also sold contraceptive devices. The book, cheaply produced, had reached a 14th edition by 1876; in all there were 35 ...
Chinnatamby, S. (September 25, 1965). Intrauterine Contraceptive Device and Population. British Medical Journal, 2, 5464, 756. ... In 1964, she led trials of intrauterine devices at Colombo North Hospital, and in 1968, she began trials of Depo-Provera. In ... Siva Chinnatamby (c.1921/3 - 2000) was a Sri Lankan obstetrician who pioneered the use of modern contraceptives in the country ... Chinnatamby, S. (November 01, 1971). A Comparison of the Long-Acting Contraceptive Agents Norethisterone Oenanthate and ...
Any device or drug that acts after implantation is conventionally regarded as an abortifacient rather than a contraceptive. ... Grimes, David (2007). "Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)". In Hatcher, Robert A.; et al. (eds.). Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ... "Mechanisms of the Contraceptive Action of Hormonal Methods and Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)". Family Health International. 2006 ... Hormonal contraceptives have a possible effect of preventing implantation of a blastocyst, as discussed previously. Use of ...
... intrauterine contraceptive device-associated infection; pelvic inflammatory disease, which may include pelvic cellulitis and ... Long bones osteomyelitis is often caused by trauma, hematogenic spread, or the presence of a prosthetic device.[citation needed ... and Eubacterium nodatum are often recovered in infections associated with intrauterine devices. Mobiluncus spp. can be ...
A condom is a contraceptive device. Condom may also refer to: Jean Condom (born 1960), French international rugby union player ...
Shortly thereafter Jaime Zipper, in Chile, introduced the idea of adding copper to the devices to improve their contraceptive ... Most copper devices consist of a plastic core that is wrapped in a copper wire. Many of the devices have a T-shape similar to ... Some barrier contraceptives protect against STIs. Hormonal contraceptives reduce the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory ... It is the only copper-containing intrauterine device approved for use in the U.S. (three hormonal uterine devices, Mirena, ...
Stein R (21 September 2015). "FDA Revisits Safety Of Essure Contraceptive Device". NPR. Retrieved 21 September 2015. Mao J, ... comparing the effectiveness and safety of the device with other surgical contraceptive methods. Women and doctors were required ... In 2023, the device was the subject of a class action lawsuit in Australia. Over 1000 women joined the suit claiming that the ... Essure was a device for female sterilization. It is a metal coil which when placed into each fallopian tube induces fibrosis ...
The Comstock Laws thus basically criminalized contraceptive devices and instruments used in abortion procedures. The ... The drug was approved as a female oral contraceptive, the first in the U.S., in May 1960. G.D. Searle and company profited ... A supplemental application was submitted to the FDA in 1959 to expand its usage as a contraceptive. I was approved in 1960 and ... "Enovid Oral Contraceptive , National Museum of American History". Americanhistory.si.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-06. Junod, S. W. ( ...
Highly effective contraceptives, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs), are underused in the United States. Increasing use of ... oral contraceptives (the pill), with estrogen and progestin, oral contraceptives with progestin only, oral contraceptives, ... Cost to the user is one factor preventing many US women from using more effective contraceptives. Making contraceptives ... 2011 interim final rule on health insurance coverage with no cost sharing for FDA-approved contraceptives and contraceptive ...
He is best known for his contribution to the development of oral contraceptive pills, nicknamed the "father of the pill". Carl ... ISBN 978-0-300-08943-1. Tone, Andrea (2001). Devices and Desires. New York: Hill and Wang, A Division of Farrar, Straus and ... His preparation was first administered as an oral contraceptive to animals by Gregory Goodwin Pincus and Min Chueh Chang and to ... This became part of one of the first successful combined oral contraceptive pills, known colloquially as the birth-control pill ...
Malthusian belt: A contraceptive device worn by women. When Huxley was writing Brave New World, organizations such as the ... In the novel, the eponymous character devises the contraceptive techniques (Malthusian belt) that are practiced by women of the ...
The intra-vas device (IVD) is a rod-shaped device intended to be inserted into the vasal lumen via a small incision. The outer ... Research is ongoing to generate novel male contraceptive products based on drugs and medical devices. Products in development ... "Contraceptive Use by Method 2019" (PDF). Guttmacher Institute (7 April 2021). "Contraceptive Use in the United States by Method ... 7-Alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) has been formulated as a contraceptive implant. Some hormonal contraceptives for men ...
He patented an Intra uterine contraceptive device named Copper Omega. Also, he developed two more medical devices: the Emmett ...
Owning and using contraceptive devices and pills was not prohibited. However, from 1935, it was illegal to sell or to import ... laden with contraceptive devices, into a statement on the illogicality of the law. This provoked criticism from the Roman ... During this time a loophole was used, where a device such as a condom could not be "offered for sale", but a citizen could be " ... For those who are not covered by the scheme, a contraceptive consultation costs €60 (or €45 if you are a student). The 8th ...
The SILCS diaphragm, a "one size fits most" contraceptive device. The device differs from traditional latex diaphragms in that ... Alejandro Zaffaroni Health Award for its work on the Uniject device, a sterile pre-filled, single-use syringe. Since 2005, PATH ... Founded in 1977 as the Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology with a focus on family planning ... PATH focuses on six platforms: vaccines, drugs, diagnostics, devices, system, and service innovations. ...
Many U.S. states have had bans on the sale of sex toys, regulating them as obscene devices. Some states have seen their sex toy ... Literature (non-fiction) communicating contraceptive information was prohibited by several states. The last such prohibition, ... That ruling leaves only Mississippi, Alabama, and Virginia with current bans on the sale of obscene devices. ...
She enthusiastically promotes condoms as the best all-around contraceptive device. After discussing the merits of prophylactics ... Krause has not been daunted by Cuban male's abhorrence of contraceptive responsibility. ...
Thiery 1997, p. 9. Thiery 1997, p. 4. Margulies, Lazar (17 August 1965). "Coil Spring Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device and ... He is best known for developing a type of safe Intrauterine device (IUD) made of plastic. Margulies was born in Galicia, which ... Coil Spring Intra-Uterine Device and Method of Using (patent) (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... Thiery, M. (March 1997). "Pioneers of the Intrauterine Device" (PDF). The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive ...
"The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 181 (5 Pt 1): ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... Combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are a form of hormonal birth control for women. They consist of monthly injections of ... vaginal hormonal contraceptive use, „Contraception" 2011, t. 84, p. e2-3 R. L. Birtch, O. A. Olatunbosum, R. A. Pierson, ...
Summary of classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices*. Condition. Cu-IUD. LNG-IUD. Implants. ... Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human ... CDC Contraceptive Guidance for Health Care Providers * US Medical Eligiblity Criteria (US MEC) for Contraceptive Use ... 1 = A condition for which there is no restriction for the use of the contraceptive method.. 2 = A condition for which the ...
intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) for three years. After the gynecological examination and pelvic ultrasound she. was ... "The Case of Asymptomatic Primary Actinomycosis of the Greater Omentum in the Patient with Intrauterine Contraceptive Device." ... "The Case of Asymptomatic Primary Actinomycosis of the Greater Omentum in the Patient with Intrauterine Contraceptive Device." ... The Case of Asymptomatic Primary Actinomycosis of the Greater Omentum in the Patient with Intrauterine Contraceptive Device. ...
... - Intrauterine Contraceptive ... 4.4: APAC Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Market *4.4.1: APAC Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Market by Type: Hormonal and ... 4.5: ROW Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Market *4.5.1: ROW Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Market by Type: Hormonal and ... Intrauterine Contraceptive Device by Segment. The study includes a forecast for the global intrauterine contraceptive device by ...
The contraceptive potential of early versus delayed insertion of the intrauterine device Robert G. Potter; Robert G. Potter ... Robert G. Potter, G. Stephan Masnick; The contraceptive potential of early versus delayed insertion of the intrauterine device ... However early insertion increases the extent of overlap between retention of the device and anovulation when the woman is ...
This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ... Contraceptive failure in the United States Contraception. 2011 May;83(5):397-404. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.01.021. ... This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ... These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use. ...
... contraceptive care plays a key role in your overall health, wellness, and quality of life. It also supports your individual and ... Contraceptive Care Contraceptive Care FAQ. Feb 27, 2024 Contraceptive Care Covered Services. TRICARE covers a full range of ... Intrauterine devices (IUDs). *Subdural progesterone implant *Progesterone intermuscular shot. *Permanent contraception. Keep in ... Contraceptive Care Contraceptive Care Topic. Feb 8, 2024 Womens Health. The Military Health System provides comprehensive ...
intrauterine contraceptive device answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available ... "Intrauterine Contraceptive Device." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, nursing. ... Intrauterine contraceptive device. (2021). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers Medical Dictionary (24th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. https ... Intrauterine Contraceptive Device [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [ ...
Intrauterine contraceptive device. IUCDs (IUDs) may cause bladder or uterine perforation. The sooner a patient has a uterine ... Use of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone in an extended regimen. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2003 Sep. 8(3 ... 5] The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), both of which are effective in ... Wong CL, Farquhar C, Roberts H, Proctor M. Oral contraceptive pill as treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database ...
... will now also be forced to fund various forms of contraceptives including IUDs and abortifacient Plan B pills. ... back-up contraceptive method when the pill or other devices failed, as all of them eventually will do," Fonseca explained. ... 150 per year for contraceptive injections, and about $30 per dose of emergency contraceptives such as "Plan B," a drug designed ... "Women should be free to choose the contraceptives they need without cost getting in the way," Trudeau posted on X, celebrating ...
Contraceptive Sponge. The contraceptive sponge, also known as the birth control sponge, is a soft saucer-shaped device made ... Birth Control Pills, Patches & Devices. Birth Control Pills. Birth control pills also called oral contraceptives use synthetic ...
Intrauterine device (IUD; ParaGard®). Inserted into uterus by health care provider. *Can be used up to 10 years ... Health Matters Fact Sheets - Which Contraceptive is Right for You?. Birth control methods (contraceptives) are used to prevent ... Contraceptives listed below with an asterisk (*) use hormones to prevent pregnancy. The contraceptive methods are in order so ... Birth control methods (contraceptives) are used to prevent pregnancy. Some of them can be found at your pharmacy and some ...
Every chemical contraceptive preparation including pills, injections, implants and intrauterine devices have this backup ... Fact Sheet - Contraceptive Pills Abortifacient One of the clearly stated mechanisms inherent in the overall mode of action of ... suggest that this mechanism does actually contribute to the contraceptive efficacy of oral contraceptives.(4) ... Contraceptive Technology 16th ed. Irvington Publishers, New York, 1994, pp637-687.. 17) Pardthaisong, T., Grey. R., In utero ...
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). Intrauterine device (IUD). A small, T-shaped device that a provider inserts into ... Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish * Other Contraception and Birth Control FAQs ( ... FastStats: Contraceptive Use (National Center for Health Statistics) * Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth ... Contraceptive sponge. A small sponge that you put into the vagina to cover the cervix (the opening of the uterus). The sponge ...
Local production of contraceptives. by United Nations Population Fund.. Series: Evaluation report (United Nations Population ... The costs of contraceptive social marketing programs implemented through the SOMARC Project : special study no. 1, June 1992 / ... Barrier contraceptives and spermicides : their role in family planning care. by World Health Organization. ... Pharmacological models in contraceptive development : animal toxicity and side-effects in man, proceedings of a meeting ...
... the most trusted birth control device for family planning ... Copper Y Cu 380 contraceptive device manufacturers in India - ... Copper Y Cu 380 is a reliable, safe contraceptive device that assures peace of mind for couples looking for long term method of ...
The coil or intrauterine device is a long-lasting and reliable form of contraception. It is a small tool that sits inside the ... The coil or intrauterine device is a long-lasting small tool that sits inside the uterus and prevents pregnancy. Credit: Design ... A woman from Swansea who screamed in agony as her coil contraceptive was fitted has reached out to others about the experience. ... For Nicole Chartier, who also lives in Swansea, it was the removal of the device that was "unbearable." ...
Tone A (2001). Devices & Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-3817-6. ... to physicians as a contraceptive. Although the FDA approved the first oral contraceptive in 1960, contraceptives were not ... Non-hormonal contraceptive methods, such as the Copper IUD or condoms, should be the first-line contraceptive choice for these ... Oral contraceptives should not be used as an initial treatment for female athlete triad. While combined oral contraceptives are ...
Intra Uterine Device (IUD). This is a small contraceptive device that is placed in your uterus. There are two kinds of IUD:. * ... Long acting reversible contraception, such as intra uterine devices (IUDs), contraceptive implants and contraceptive injections ... For some, the contraceptive pill is an option. This fact sheet discusses the two main types of contraceptive pills. ... Contraceptive skin implant. This is a small plastic rod, which is inserted underneath the skin on the inside of the upper arm. ...
The implant and the intrauterine device are the most effective reversible contraceptive methods available.1 (Click "IUD" link ... Contraceptive failure rates describe the risk of becoming pregnant among users of each contraceptive method; they are used to ... Contraceptive failure rates are defined as the proportion of women who will become pregnant within the first 12 months after ... The effectiveness of contraceptive methods varies according to many different factors, including how difficult the methods are ...
The most popular method, Higgins said, is the intrauterine device, or IUD. Once inserted by a health care professional, some ... Military Health System Offers a Variety of Contraceptive Care Services. The Military Health System offers ample contraceptive ... Womens Health , Contraceptive Care , Reproductive Health , Contraceptive Care At the OB-GYN clinic at Naval Hospital ... Womens Health Contraceptive Care Access to Reproductive Health Reproductive Health Walk-In Contraceptive Services ...
Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) The IUCD, also known as an IUD or Copper coil, is a T-shaped device that is fitted ... Combined hormonal contraceptives Of note, there are also combined hormonal contraceptives (including the combined oral ... Contraceptive implant This is a matchstick-sized rod which is inserted into the upper arm of your non-dominant hand. It ... Contraceptive injection (depot) The injection contains progestogen which prevents your ovaries from releasing eggs and thickens ...
Between 2002 and 2017, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) tripled among women ages 15 to 44. ... The oral contraceptive contains a compound that prevents proteins from binding to vitamin A. Without that interaction, ... How Soon Could a Male Contraceptive Pill Be Available?. Last Modified Date: February 01, 2024 ...
copper intrauterine device (Paragard). *diaphragm. *spermicide. *contraceptive sponge. For more information about taking ... levonorgestrel intrauterine device (IUD) (Kyleena, Liletta, Mirena, Skyla). *birth control pills (Camila, Elinest, Ortho ...
... intrauterine contraceptive device; and emergency contraception [68]. ... Impact of male partners awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria. ... Barriers to modern contraceptive methods uptake among young women in Kenya: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1): ... Prata N, Bell S, Fraser A, Carvalho A, Neves I, Nieto-Andrade B. Partner support for family planning and modern contraceptive ...
Dezeen rounds up eight other unusual contraceptive designs. ... a concept for a contraceptive intrauterine contraceptive device ... a male contraceptive device that uses ultrasound waves to halt sperm regeneration temporarily. ... Contraceptive effectiveness starts two weeks after the first application and the effect is reversible, with fertility expected ... In normal copper IUDs like the coil, metal ions dissolving from the device act as spermicide, so the Bearina provides a holder ...
contraceptive device. contraceptive device. means any instrument, apparatus, contrivance or substance other than a drug, that ... device. (6) For greater certainty, the definitions food. , drug. , cosmetic. and device. in section 2 are subject to subsection ... 3) Except as authorized by regulation, no person shall advertise to the general public any contraceptive device or any drug ... device. device. means an instrument, apparatus, contrivance or other similar article, or an in vitro reagent, including a ...
... of respondents utilized intra-uterine contraceptive device. The study established low knowledge levels on intra-uterine device ... UPTAKE OF INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE AMONG HIV POSITIVE WOMEN AT SELECTED HEALTH FACILITIES IN NAIROBI CITY COUNTY, ... UPTAKE OF INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE AMONG HIV POSITIVE WOMEN AT SELECTED HEALTH FACILITIES IN NAIROBI CITY COUNTY, ... UPTAKE OF INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE AMONG HIV POSITIVE WOMEN AT SELECTED HEALTH FACILITIES IN NAIROBI CITY COUNTY, ...
Increasing Access to Intrauterine Devices and Contraceptive Implants: ACOG Committee Statement No. 5: Correction.. Obstet ...
EFFECT OF AGE ON PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE IN NULLIPAROUS WOMEN USING A COPPER-7 INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE ... EFFECT OF AGE ON PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE IN NULLIPAROUS WOMEN USING A COPPER-7 INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE ...
  • The patient was a 40 year old woman who had a copper intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) for three years. (srce.hr)
  • The future of the global intrauterine contraceptive device market looks promising with opportunities in the hospital, clinic, and community health care centre markets. (giiresearch.com)
  • The global intrauterine contraceptive device market is expected to reach an estimated $7.4 billion by 2030 with a CAGR of 10.2% from 2024 to 2030. (giiresearch.com)
  • The major drivers for this market are increasing prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, rising awareness of and acceptance of intrauterine contraceptive devices, and government initiatives to promote family planning. (giiresearch.com)
  • The study includes a forecast for the global intrauterine contraceptive device by type, product type, end use, and region. (giiresearch.com)
  • With these strategies intrauterine contraceptive device companies cater increasing demand, ensure competitive effectiveness, develop innovative products & technologies, reduce production costs, and expand their customer base. (giiresearch.com)
  • Market Size Estimates: Intrauterine contraceptive device market size estimation in terms of value ($B). (giiresearch.com)
  • Segmentation Analysis: Intrauterine contraceptive device market size by type, product type, end use, and region in terms of value ($B). (giiresearch.com)
  • Regional Analysis: Intrauterine contraceptive device market breakdown by North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World. (giiresearch.com)
  • Growth Opportunities: Analysis of growth opportunities in different types, product types, end uses, and regions for the intrauterine contraceptive device market. (giiresearch.com)
  • Strategic Analysis: This includes M&A, new product development, and competitive landscape of the intrauterine contraceptive device market. (giiresearch.com)
  • What is the intrauterine contraceptive device market size? (giiresearch.com)
  • What is the growth forecast for intrauterine contraceptive device market? (giiresearch.com)
  • What are the major drivers influencing the growth of the intrauterine contraceptive device market? (giiresearch.com)
  • Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/750067/all/intrauterine_contraceptive_device. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Bearina is a concept for a contraceptive intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) that works using a one-cent coin. (dezeen.com)
  • Canadians, who already pay for government-funded abortions through all nine months of pregnancy, will now also be forced to fund various forms of contraceptives including IUDs and abortifacient 'Plan B' pills. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Our plan to make common contraceptives free - like birth control pills and IUDs, and even emergency contraception - will mean that, for nine million Canadian women, freedom of choice will be truly 'free,'" the pro-abortion political asserted. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Implants and IUDs are often referred to as long-acting reversible contraceptives, or LARCs. (guttmacher.org)
  • The long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) such as IUDs and implants are used more widely by women in the Navy and Marine Corps, according to military health data in a 2021 report . (health.mil)
  • Between 2002 and 2017, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) tripled among women ages 15 to 44. (wisegeek.com)
  • In normal copper IUDs like the coil, metal ions dissolving from the device act as spermicide, so the Bearina provides a holder for a coin with a nylon thread. (dezeen.com)
  • Health-care providers can use the summary table as a quick reference guide to the classifications for hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine contraception to compare classifications across these methods ( Box K1 ) ( Table K1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Copper Y Cu 380 is a reliable, safe contraceptive device that assures peace of mind for couples looking for long term method of contraception. (pregna.com)
  • The coil or intrauterine device is a long-lasting and reliable form of contraception. (itv.com)
  • Castro, along with Family Medicine and OB/GYN physicians, nurse practitioners and nurse midwives provide screening and information on available forms of contraceptives for determining safe forms of contraception for all eligible patients. (health.mil)
  • Highly effective, reversible contraceptive methods or long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) include intrauterine devices and implants. (cdc.gov)
  • Hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and women using these methods should be counseled that consistent and correct use of the male latex condom reduces the risk for transmission of HIV and other STDs. (cdc.gov)
  • TRICARE covers a full range of contraceptive methods, regardless of which health plan you have. (health.mil)
  • Birth control methods (contraceptives) are used to prevent pregnancy. (arhp.org)
  • The contraceptive methods are in order so that the most effective ones are listed first. (arhp.org)
  • The effectiveness of contraceptive methods varies according to many different factors, including how difficult the methods are to use consistently and correctly. (guttmacher.org)
  • Male and female sterilization are considered permanent contraceptive methods. (guttmacher.org)
  • The implant and the intrauterine device are the most effective reversible contraceptive methods available. (guttmacher.org)
  • 1 Male and internal condoms are the only contraceptive methods available that simultaneously prevent pregnancy and protect against STIs, including HIV. (guttmacher.org)
  • You can get pregnant from day 21 following delivery, but many of the different contraceptive methods are safe and available to start immediately following delivery. (royalfree.nhs.uk)
  • We will aim to provide them either during delivery or on the postnatal ward, to ensure that you have access to the desired contraceptive methods prior to leaving the hospital. (royalfree.nhs.uk)
  • Its efficacy is unknown, and it can be less effective compared to other contraceptive methods. (royalfree.nhs.uk)
  • In Kenya the uptake of intra-uterine device in the general population is 3.4% compared to other modern methods. (iajournals.org)
  • All per- continuation of contraceptive methods is sonnel involved in family planning projects one of the main indicators of quality of us- are aware that to attract new users, they age. (who.int)
  • Zahedan has a population of ap- tinuation of contraceptive methods. (who.int)
  • About 60% of in Egypt revealed that the continuation rate the people use contraceptive methods. (who.int)
  • of contraceptive methods was 88% for the Family planning indices in this province are first 6-months, 75% for 12-months and lower than for the country as a whole. (who.int)
  • CARD 3 lists contraceptive methods that some people use to prevent pregnancy or to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Birth control pills also called oral contraceptives use synthetic hormones to prevent pregnancy. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Contraceptives listed below with an asterisk (*) use hormones to prevent pregnancy. (arhp.org)
  • That ovulation and fertilization do indeed occur bringing new human embryos into existence during use of contraceptive drugs is evidenced by the rate, albeit sometimes low, of unexpected breakthrough pregnancy. (quiverfull.com)
  • The coil or intrauterine device is a long-lasting small tool that sits inside the uterus and prevents pregnancy. (itv.com)
  • However, use of emergency contraceptive pills or placement of a copper IUD after unprotected intercourse substantially reduces the risk of pregnancy. (guttmacher.org)
  • The lactational amenorrhea method is a highly effective, temporary contraceptive method that relies on the body's natural response to exclusive breast-feeding, but to maintain effective protection against pregnancy, another contraceptive method must be used as soon as menstruation resumes, the frequency or duration of breast-feeding is reduced, bottle feeds are introduced or the baby reaches six months of age. (guttmacher.org)
  • The oral contraceptive contains a compound that prevents proteins from binding to vitamin A. Without that interaction, pregnancy is thought to be impossible. (wisegeek.com)
  • There was confusion amongst women about the harms and benefits of using ImplanonNXT® and it became apparent contraceptive counselling during pregnancy greatly affects the choices they make. (safpj.co.za)
  • I'd like to welcome you to today's COCA call, Updated Interim Zika Clinical Guidance for Pregnant Women in Data on Contraceptive Use to Decrease Zika-Affected Pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • In keeping with the goal of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop uniform contraceptive labeling, focus groups were conducted to determine a presentation format most useful to the consumer for contraceptive pregnancy rates. (cdc.gov)
  • up to $300 per hormonal implant, which includes up to $300 per unit, up to $300 per hormonal vaginal ring, up to $150 per year for contraceptive injections, and about $30 per dose of emergency contraceptives such as "Plan B," a drug designed to kill a newly conceived baby. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Vaginal contraceptive ring (for example: NuvaRing®) 12. (cdc.gov)
  • 4) Every chemical contraceptive preparation including pills, injections, implants and intrauterine devices have this backup mechanism as an intrinsic part of their overall mode of action should conception occur. (quiverfull.com)
  • The effect of oral contraceptive pills on markers of endometrical receptivity. (quiverfull.com)
  • Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), which are hormonal pills which the woman takes as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Even though we use the expression 'the Pill', there are actually two main types of oral contraceptive pills. (thewomens.org.au)
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills were developed to prevent ovulation by suppressing the release of gonadotropins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,3) Indeed, clinical researchers suggest that this mechanism does actually contribute to the contraceptive efficacy of oral contraceptives. (quiverfull.com)
  • The Family Planning Association approved list of contraceptives : based on available data on efficacy and acceptability. (who.int)
  • The estrogen and progestogen in COCPs have other effects on the reproductive system, but these have not been shown to contribute to their contraceptive efficacy: Slowing tubal motility and ova transport, which may interfere with fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus group study obtained consumer reactions to several model contraceptive efficacy tables and graphs. (cdc.gov)
  • To utilize focus groups to garner reactions (perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes) and preferences from women about the format and content of the two different model contraceptive efficacy tables. (cdc.gov)
  • 5) Van der Vange, N. Ovarian activity during low dose oral contraceptives. (quiverfull.com)
  • Ovulation and follicular development associated with three low dose oral contraceptives: A randomised controlled trial. (quiverfull.com)
  • R., Ellis, R. and Fotherby, K. Suppression of ovulation in women using a triphasic oral contraceptive. (quiverfull.com)
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined oral contraceptives are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In individuals using oral contraceptives, progestogen negative feedback decreases the pulse frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release by the hypothalamus, which decreases the secretion of FSH and greatly decreases the secretion of LH by the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen was originally included in oral contraceptives for better cycle control (to stabilize the endometrium and thereby reduce the incidence of breakthrough bleeding), but was also found to inhibit follicular development and help prevent ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations, some containing both estrogen and progestins, and some only containing progestin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such hormones are also produced artificially for use in oral contraceptives or to treat menopausal and menstrual disorders. (health.mil)
  • By Kaplan-Meier technique continuation rates were 92% for low dose com- bined hormonal oral contraceptives (OC), 86% for a levonorgestrel-releasing implant, 82% for intrauterine devices (IUD) and 53% for medroxyprogesterone acetate at the first year. (who.int)
  • TRICARE covers a complete range of contraceptive services. (health.mil)
  • Combined hormonal contraceptives, including COCPs, inhibit follicular development and prevent ovulation as a primary mechanism of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing Access to Intrauterine Devices and Contraceptive Implants: ACOG Committee Statement No. 5: Correction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Kaplan-Meier, s'élevait à 92 % pour la pilule contraceptive orale combinée à faible dosage hormonal, à 86 % pour les implants libérant du lévonorgestrel, à 82 % pour les dispositifs intra-utérins (DIU) et à 53 % pour l'acétate de médroxyprogestérone durant la première année. (who.int)
  • The study specifically focuses on knowledge and barriers associated with intra-uterine device uptake in Nairobi City County. (iajournals.org)
  • The study established low knowledge levels on intra-uterine device among women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi City County. (iajournals.org)
  • Spermicides should be used with condoms and other barrier contraceptives that do not already contain them. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Latex condoms are the only contraceptive method that helps protect against all common sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In Benin and Eastern Africa, the continua- strategies is to enhance the quality of ser- tion rate of contraceptive injections was vices in family planning programmes. (who.int)
  • His top priority is apparently promoting loveless, responsibility-free, sexual trysts among Canadians, and killing children with taxpayer-funded abortifacient contraceptives like the morning-after pill. (lifesitenews.com)
  • The only way it could be stated with certainty that contraceptive drugs are not abortifacient is if they completely abolish ovulation in every woman during every cycle. (quiverfull.com)
  • Given the dignity and preciousness of all human life at all stages of existence, the abortifacient nature of contraceptive drug poses serious ethical and moral problems for all doctors and pharmacists involved in their promotion. (quiverfull.com)
  • Naval Hospital Bremerton has offered a Walk-In Contraceptive Clinic since March, 2021. (health.mil)
  • The NSFG is an approximately 75-minute, interviewer-administered survey that collects detailed information on respondent event histories, such as cohabitation and marriages, contraceptive use, and periods of sexual activity. (cdc.gov)
  • The contraceptive sponge, also known as the birth control sponge, is a soft saucer-shaped device made from polyurethane foam. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Contraceptive effectiveness starts two weeks after the first application and the effect is reversible, with fertility expected to return no later than six months after the last application. (dezeen.com)
  • Another primary mechanism of action of all progestogen-containing contraceptives is inhibition of sperm penetration through the cervix into the upper genital tract (uterus and fallopian tubes) by decreasing the water content and increasing the viscosity of the cervical mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • After she was diagnosed with a cervical cancer precursor that meant she is unable to take the female birth control pill, German design graduate Rebecca Weiss developed Coso - a male contraceptive device that uses ultrasound waves to halt sperm regeneration temporarily. (dezeen.com)
  • Barrier contraceptives prevent sperm from entering a woman's uterus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1 = A condition for which there is no restriction for the use of the contraceptive method. (cdc.gov)
  • 4 = A condition that represents an unacceptable health risk if the contraceptive method is used. (cdc.gov)
  • As the rate of adoption of contraceptives rose, so did the rate of abortion because the latter became a 'back-up contraceptive method' when the pill or other devices failed, as all of them eventually will do," Fonseca explained. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Contraceptive failure rates are defined as the proportion of women who will become pregnant within the first 12 months after initiating method use. (guttmacher.org)
  • Respondents answering "other" were given the opportunity to write in a response, which was evaluated and re- classified into existing contraceptive method options as appropriate. (cdc.gov)
  • After screening and within 6 months after the last dose of the test drug, Female patients who were reluctant to continue to use the contraceptive method approved by the investigator. (who.int)
  • Does TRICARE cover emergency contraceptives? (health.mil)
  • Contraceptive failure in the United States: estimates from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health , 2017, 49(1):7-16, doi:10.1363/psrh.12017, https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/psrh/2017/02/contraceptive-failure-… . (guttmacher.org)
  • Using data from the 2015-2017 National Survey of Family Growth, a new NCHS report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status, in the month of interview, among women aged 15-49 in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The study therefore aims at improving Intra-uterine contraceptive device uptake among women living with HIV/AIDS in selected health facilities in Nairobi City County, Kenya. (iajournals.org)
  • A number of factors were identified as possible barrier which hindered intra-uterine contraceptive device uptake which included facility reception (p=0.026), provision of information (p=0.002), culture/religion (p=0.004) and spouse allows use (p=0.002). (iajournals.org)
  • The findings of this study would help relevant stakeholders in structuring programs and strategize on interventions to improve intra-uterine contraceptive uptake among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Nairobi City County and the country at large. (iajournals.org)
  • Initially the new device was well received but later uptake tapered off. (safpj.co.za)
  • Copper IUD, which is a small, T-shaped device that a provider inserts into the within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The wearable tech device measures penis girth, thrust counts and duration of intercourse as well as detecting signs of sexually transmitted infections - and users are even able to share their data publicly online, if they wish. (dezeen.com)
  • These contraceptives should be used by the woman or her partner each time they have sexual intercourse. (msdmanuals.com)
  • women of childbearing age who did not consider effective contraceptive measures (eg. (who.int)
  • TORONTO ( LifeSiteNews ) - Canadian taxpayers are slated to foot the bill for women's contraceptives as part of the Trudeau government's new healthcare plan. (lifesitenews.com)
  • The fear of possible side effects should be a focus for counselling and education, as it predominantly contributes to women's confusion and fear of the device. (safpj.co.za)
  • At a March 30 press conference at a pharmacy in Toronto, Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland announced that the Trudeau Liberal government will provide Canadian women with free contraceptives under their new healthcare plan. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Women should be free to choose the contraceptives they need without cost getting in the way," Trudeau posted on X, celebrating his government's new plan. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Women should be free to choose the contraceptives they need without cost getting in the way. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Further research is needed to address this as well as evaluate if interventions such as better counselling and a dedicated team approach can change the attitudes and beliefs of post-partum women towards the ImplanonNXT® device in the South African district health system. (safpj.co.za)
  • Barrier contraceptives physically block the sperm's access to a woman's uterus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A small, T-shaped device that a provider inserts into the uterus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is a small contraceptive device that is placed in your uterus. (thewomens.org.au)
  • Which types of contraceptive services no longer require cost-shares or copayments? (health.mil)
  • Poor communication and reluctance from clinic staff to discuss ImplanonNXT® during antenatal visits contributed to poor knowledge about the implantable device and its side effects. (safpj.co.za)
  • Knowledge levels were significantly associated with utilization intra-uterine contraceptive device (p=0.047). (iajournals.org)
  • By Cox regression model, continuation rate and contraceptive type were significantly related to health centre. (who.int)
  • These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use. (nih.gov)
  • Whether you're a service member or a TRICARE-eligible family member, contraceptive care plays a key role in your overall health, wellness, and quality of life. (health.mil)
  • Because contraceptive health care supports stability and flexibility, we looked at how to make contraceptive services both more affordable and accessible for all TRICARE beneficiaries," said Regina Julian, deputy assistant director for Health Care Operations, Defense Health Agency. (health.mil)
  • Health Matters Fact Sheets - Which Contraceptive is Right for You? (arhp.org)
  • Here, we round up eight other contraceptive designs with the potential to challenge ideas about sexual health . (dezeen.com)
  • Using findings from the study, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health developed for further testing two prototype, composite tables with the characteristics the focus group participants favored for uniform contraceptive labeling. (cdc.gov)
  • And recent changes to TRICARE policies help make sure you'll have easy, convenient, and timely access to contraceptive services. (health.mil)
  • The study concludes that there were low utilization rates and low knowledge levels on intra-uterine contraceptive device. (iajournals.org)