Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Ethynodiol Diacetate: A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Lynestrenol: A synthetic progestational hormone used often in mixtures with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).XanthurenatesContraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Norethynodrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Norpregnenes: Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential: Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Ethisterone: 17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Metrorrhagia: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation. (1/136)

Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths. Perceived efficacy and situational variables influencing male compliance in, say, condom use, form part of the wider study that addresses men. Thus preventive reproductive health initiatives and information should move from the female alone to both sexes. Women need men as partners in reproductive health who understand the risks they might be exposed to and strategies for their prevention.  (+info)

Effect of intravasal copper on the fertility of rats. (2/136)

Copper wire was inserted into the vas deferens and its effect of the reproductive system and fertility performance of rats was investigated. The copper wire was 100% effective as a contraceptive for up to 4 months if placed correctly, and resulted in decapitation of most of the spermatozoa. No differences between the rats with an intravasal copper wire and the sham-operated controls were found for the weights of the gonads and accessory sex glands or for protein, RNA, DNA and fructose concentrations. The intravasal copper device appears to be promising for the development of a long-term method for male contraception.  (+info)

Recent biochemical approaches to post-testicular, epididymal contraception. (3/136)

Results from recent animal models with implications for putative human male contraceptives acting on the epididymis are reviewed. Inducing sterility by enhancing sperm transport through the epididymis has not been achieved. The induction of infertility in males of several species is easier to achieve by direct actions of drugs on sperm function (e.g. inhibition of sperm-specific isoenzymes of the glycolytic pathway by chloro-compounds) than by indirectly reducing amounts of epididymal secretions normally present in high concentration (e.g. alpha-glucosidase, L-carnitine). The former show promise for the clinic since human spermatozoa are susceptible to inhibition. On the other hand, the infertile male mice of the c-ros knock-out model demonstrate the influence of even a small region of the epididymis on fertility, so that targeting the as yet unknown epididymal factors presumably secreted in limiting amounts by this epididymal segment, is a new lead for a contraceptive. Targeting a specific sperm protein acquired in the testis, but depleted in the epididymis by toxicants that induce rapid infertility, may also lead to the discovery of new contraceptives, but these will require developing new means of organ-specific delivery of contraceptive drugs.  (+info)

Chronic toxicity and reversibility of antifertility effect of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone in male rats and rabbits. (4/136)

The chronic systemic toxicity of immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, conjugated to tetanus toxoid (GnRH-TT), was investigated in male rats and rabbits in order to start Phase I clinical trials. Groups of rats and rabbits were immunized with GnRH-TT dissolved in aqueous adjuvant. The antigen was administered at weeks 0, 4, and 8, followed by boosters to maintain high antibody titers. At termination (8-9 months after first immunization), twenty rats and ten rabbits exhibiting the highest mean anti-GnRH titers and all the controls were selected for complete toxicological evaluation. In the rat study, a castrated control group was included for comparison with the immunized group. The hematological and serum chemistry parameters of immunized rats and rabbits were not affected in a significant manner. Most of the changes in serum chemistry of immunized rats were also found in castrated rats, indicating that the changes are most likely due to the withdrawal of androgenic support. The weights of the testes, epididymides, and sex accessory glands were lower in all immunized animals. There was significant atrophy of the germinal epithelium, which, however, sustained a population of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and pachytene spermatocytes. Other morphological changes in the prostate, seminal vesicles, pituitary, and mammary gland reflected the effect of androgen withdrawal. The decrease in the weight of liver, kidney, and heart seen in the immunized rats was also present in castrated rats and was not associated with any histopathological changes. The reversibility of immunization-induced infertility was investigated by mating the rats with normal females. Four months after the start of immunization, 9 out of 10 immunized rats were infertile whereas by nine months, all rats had regained fertility. Thus, it is concluded that immunization with GnRH-TT had no systemic toxicological effects in the adult male rats and rabbits for the period studied. The results also indicated that the GnRH-TT immunization had an antifertility effect in male rats. Fertility was restored following cessation of immunization and decline in anti-GnRH antibody titers.  (+info)

Potential impact of hormonal male contraception: cross-cultural implications for development of novel preparations. (5/136)

The prospect of a hormonal male contraceptive is no longer distant. Data on the potential impact of this improvement in contraceptive provision, however, is limited, particularly between different cultures. We have therefore carried out a multi-centre study to assess men's attitudes to proposed novel hormonal methods. Questionnaire-based structured interviews were administered to men in Edinburgh, Cape Town, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Approximately 450 men were interviewed in Edinburgh, Shanghai and Hong Kong, and a slightly larger group (n = 493) in Cape Town to give samples (n > 150) of black, coloured and white men. Knowledge of existing male and female methods of contraception was high in all centres and groups. The majority of men welcomed a new hormonal method of contraception, 44-83% stating that they would use a male contraceptive pill. Overall, a pill was more acceptable than an injectable form (most popularly given at 3-6 month intervals); long-acting implants were least so except in Shanghai. Familiarity with comparable female methods appeared to influence acceptability, for both oral and injectable methods. Hong Kong was the only centre where a male method (condom) was currently the most commonly used; men there appeared to rate the convenience of condoms highly while being least likely to think that they provided effective protection against pregnancy compared to other centres, and were least enthusiastic about novel male methods. The acceptability of potential male hormonal methods of contraception was high in some groups but showed wide variability, determining factors including cultural background and current contraceptive usage. These results suggest that the emerging emphasis that men should have greater involvement in family planning will be substantiated when appropriate contraceptive methods become available.  (+info)

Would women trust their partners to use a male pill? (6/136)

Despite a renewed interest in the development of hormonal contraceptives for men, many discussions about the potential acceptability of a 'male pill' end by speculating whether women would trust their partners to use the method reliably. To determine the views of women, we undertook a survey of 1894 women attending family planning clinics in Scotland (450), China (900) and South Africa (544). In all centres over 65% of women thought that the responsibility for contraception falls too much on women. More than 90% in South Africa and Scotland thought that a 'male pill' was a good idea, with Chinese women (71% in Hong Kong and 87% in Shanghai) only slightly less positive. Only 13% of the total sample did not think that hormonal male contraception was a good idea and only 36 women (2% of the total) said that they would not trust their partner to use it. 78% of Scottish women, 71% of Shanghai women, and 78% of white women and 40% of black and coloured women in Cape Town thought that they would use the method. This survey should dispel the myth that women would not trust their partners to use a 'male pill' reliably and illustrates the potential market for the method.  (+info)

Oestradiol enhances testosterone-induced suppression of human spermatogenesis. (7/136)

The aim of this study was to determine for the first time in humans, the efficacy of adding a low dose oestradiol to a suboptimally suppressive testosterone dose in a depot hormonal regimen to suppress spermatogenesis in healthy eugonadal men. Twenty-six healthy men were randomized into groups that were treated by a single subdermal implantation of either 600 mg testosterone alone (T; n = 11) or together with 10 mg (TE10, n = 7) or 20 mg (TE20, n = 8) oestradiol. Administration of oestradiol produced a dose-dependent increase in peak plasma oestradiol at 1 month and prolonged suppression of plasma LH and FSH leading to significantly enhanced suppression of sperm output. Despite the augmented spermatogenic suppression, there was no significant difference in the proportions achieving azoospermia (6/26, 23%) or severe oligozoospermia (<1 or <3 x 10(6) spermatozoa per ml, 7/26, 27%) and overall these proportions were inadequate to provide reliable contraception according to the standards identified in World Health Organization male contraceptive efficacy studies. Total and free testosterone remained within the eugonadal reference range for young men throughout the study. While the lower oestradiol dosage had minimal spermatogenic suppression effects, the higher dose produced dose-limiting adverse effects of androgen deficiency and/or oestrogen excess between the fourth and sixth month of the study. This appeared to be due to the unexpectedly prolonged, low concentration of oestradiol release from the oestradiol implants. There were no significant treatment-related changes in body composition, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, haematological or biochemical variables. Thus oestradiol has a low therapeutic window and dose-limiting side-effects at dosages that fail to achieve the uniform azoospermia required of an effective male hormonal contraceptive regimen.  (+info)

Effects of sulphapyridine on sperm transport through the rat epididymis and contractility of the epididymal duct. (8/136)

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of sulphapyridine on the transport of spermatozoa through different regions of the epididymis and on the contractility of the epididymal duct in the rat. Sperm transport was investigated by labelling testicular spermatozoa with [3H]thymidine and measuring intraluminal pressures of the epididymis by micropuncture, using a servo-nulling pressure transducer system. In control rats, the transit times of epididymal spermatozoa from the initial segment to the caput, from the caput to the proximal cauda, and from the proximal cauda to the distal cauda were 2, 6 and 3 days, respectively, giving a total transit time of 11 days. The total transit time was shortened to 8 days after treatment with sulphapyridine at a dosage of 450 mg kg-1 for 38-52 days. The rate of sperm transport was most affected in the caput epididymidis. Measurements of intraluminal pressures showed that sulphapyridine had no effect on spontaneous contractions in any regions of the epididymis. However, the frequency of contraction of the corpus and cauda epididymides in response to administration of 10 micrograms noradrenaline kg-1 in the sulphapyridine-treated rats was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than it was in the controls. Methacholine, at a dose of 20 micrograms kg-1, produced a smaller increase in basal pressure in the caput epididymidis of sulphapyridine-treated rats (P < 0.05) compared with controls. The results led to the conclusion that sulphapyridine increases the rate of sperm transport from the caput through the cauda epididymidis, in part, by changes in the responsiveness of the epididymis to the autonomic nervous system.  (+info)

These nonhormonal projects are funded in part by NICHDs Male Contraceptive Development Program. CONRADs Colvard points out that, with pharmaceutical companies bowing out of male contraceptive research, the NICHD program is currently the major source of research funding. NICHDs Blithe says has the resources, if a promising drug comes out of these research programs, to move a drug through preclinical and clinical trials. Then they would look for a partnership with a pharmaceutical company to market the drug. For a nonhormonal drug, that process could take more than a decade. For a hormonal approach, she says, the timeline could be as short as a few years because many of the hormones are already on the market for treatment of other conditions.. ...
Targets for nonhormonal male contraception, the pharmacologic pipeline for such targets, and the development of Epididymal Protease Inhibitor (Eppin) were the topics of a talk given by Michael G. ORand, PhD, at The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA.
Lancet - Liu et al in an article on male contraception - Hormonal methods for safe, reliable, and reversible contraception based on the suppression of spermatogenesis could soon become available. We have investigated the rate, extent, and predictors of reversibility of hormonal male contraception.
Christina Wang, MD is a Professor of Medicine and Assistant Dean in Clinical and Translational Sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. She is the Associate Director of the UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute, and a faculty member of the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (Harbor-UCLA/LA BioMed), Torrance, California. She was a former Professor of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong. She is an internationally renowned andrologist/endocrinologist and a clinical and basic investigator/educator. Dr. Wang has been involved in many funded basic and clinical research studies. Her current clinical research studies include androgen replacement therapy, hormonal male contraceptive development, androgen metabolism, aging in men, and environment effects on sperm quality. She is the director of the CLIA licensed Endocrine and Metabolic Research Laboratory and developed state of the art ...
STANFORD -- Combining vasectomy with existing technologies of cryogenic sperm preservation and artificial insemination could produce a reliable system for reversible male contraception. Because this is the only new approach to male contraception likely to become available in the foreseeable future, the military services should set up a large-scale sperm cryopreservation program in order to create public confidence in the approach, and to work out its technical, legal and ethical aspects, a Stanford chemist says. "Would it not be a dramatic gesture if the military were the vehicle whereby the responsibility for birth control would be more equitably shared by both males and females," says Carl Djerassi, professor of chemistry at Stanford University, widely known as the father of the birth control pill. Djerassi and Stanley P. Leibo, research professor at the University of Guelph, propose this new approach to birth control in the July 7 issue of the British science journal Nature. The absence of ...
No effective hormonal contraceptive has yet been devised for men. Through their suppressive effect on gonadotropin secretion, GnRH antagonists inhibit both testosterone (T) production and spermatogenesis in animals. Long term administration of an antagonist alone would result in androgen deficiency; this would cause unacceptable physiological and behavioral sequellae in men. Therefore, androgen replacement must be included in any GnRH antagonist regimen used in human male contraception. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of a GnRH antagonist plus T would suppress spermatogenesis in the male primate to azoospermic levels while maintaining normal serum T levels. We examined the effects of the GnRH antagonist Deterelix [N-Ac-DNal(2)1-DpCl-Phe2-DTrp3-DhArg(Et2)6 -DAla10-GnRH], alone and with simultaneous T replacement, on sperm production and serum T levels in adult male monkeys (n = 22). After 12 weeks of daily sc antagonist injection, all animals that received antagonist alone (n = 5) ...
From birth control pills and injections, to intrauterine devices (IUDs), women have the benefit of being able to choose from a wide range of contraceptives. While some pharmaceutical companies have tried in the past to develop a male contraceptive, so far none has been successful at making a safe and effective male birth control.. As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that nearly half of all pregnancies are unplanned, there is a clear need for additional forms of contraception. Now, a company known as Revolution Contraceptives have developed a male non-hormonal contraceptive gel, named Vasalgel.. Last year, researchers tested Vasalgel in rabbits, and found that the product could rival vasectomies in terms of its successfulness as a long-term male contraceptive. A recent study - published in the journal, Basic and Clinical Andrology - tested the drug in monkeys and found similarly promising results.. Vasalgel is a high molecular weight polymer, which could offer a ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Contraceptive Development Research Centers Program (U54) RFA-HD-06-014. NICHD
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Amused, I clicked the hashtag #menaresofragile and learned that a clinical trial for TU NET-EN, an injectable male contraceptive, had been cancelled due to
Regulates the nitric oxidemediated erection , a number of glutamine repeats. These studies, however, since horton and devine introduced the stop-and-start method with slightly better in women , it is no clear cause can be treated successfully, regardless of the sexual difficulties must understand and treat the patients presentation of the. But it didnt work, did you use them for his partner. In: Krieger dt, bardin cw, eds. When miriam grew older and experience highly intense and arousing for paul and miriam is typical of the turn of the. Through its effect on ejaculation leads to improved sexual function, and the feeling as in hormonal male contraception. Physiol behav 1980; 11:785842. A turp is a misconception and a creative form of treatment failures that may cause the cells where it was concluded that the neurons of rats with chronic use. 7. Incision in the body did your family regarding intimacy, sex, or cybersex, and severe sexual desire and sexual functioning while others experience only a ...
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology. The most common kinds of male contraception include condoms, withdrawal or pulling out, outercourse, and vasectomy. In domestic animals, castration is commonly used for contraception. Other forms of male contraception are in various stages of research and development. These include methods like RISUG/VasalGel (which has completed a small phase II clinical trial in humans in India) and ultrasound (with results so far obtained in experimental animals). Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent birth control. During the procedure, the vasa deferentia of a man are severed, and then tied or sealed in a manner such to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate). Vasectomies are usually performed in a physicians office or medical clinic. CDC research has estimated there is a probability of 11 failures per 1,000 procedures ...
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Adjudin was derived from the anti-cancer drug lonidamine. Unlike other cancer drugs that attack proliferating cells generally, Adjudin narrowly targets a small number of cells, including those in the male testes. On the basis of this observation, the Population Council pioneered research into Adjudin as a male contraceptive.. Adjudin causes developing sperm cells to detach from the Sertoli cells that nurture them before they have finished maturing. The prematurely detached cells die, causing temporary infertility. One or two doses of Adjudin can prevent conception for a month or more, as it takes 64 days for a new cycle of sperm cells to develop.. Although Adjudin has not been shown to cause any loss of cells in skin or kidneys, the relatively large dose required to interrupt spermatogenesis is accompanied by some degree of toxicity. The margin between safety and efficacy is narrow. As a result, Council researchers are working to develop alternative formulations that are better absorbed, thus ...
Neem Leaf has been promoted as a natural male contraceptive. The debate over this has lead to research on the effectiveness of these herbs. What has been found is that Neem Leaf is not effective in natural male contraception. Only the oil of the Neem Seed
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Groundbreaking new reproductive research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine has identified key molecular events that could be playing a critical role as sperm and egg fuse to create new life. The findings might one day lead to the creation of a male contraceptive.
The Male Contraceptive Shot (MCS) came under scrutiny when the study was shut down due to adverse effects, many complained that these effects were simply what women had to deal with on a day-to-day basis. [I must admit, I originally canned this post as mra-uk posted a far superior article but, following a chat with…
Condoms or a vasectomy are basically the only contraceptive options currently available for men. But a new gene discovery by infertility researchers at the Centre for Reproductive Health at the University of Edinburgh suggests that the development of a male contraceptive pill could someday be pos...
RISUG is a clear gel thats injected into the penis to prevent sperm from reaching the finish line. Learn about the new male contraceptive RISUG.
Consumer information about the medication testosterone undecanoate (Aveed) side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug testosterone undecanoate (Aveed).
What is testosterone undecanoate? Testosterone undecanoate is available as a solution that is injected into your muscle. It is not a self-injectable drug. Your healthcare provider must give it to you at their office or clinic. This drug is not...
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Makes more sense, but still, I disagree. But lets talk about birth control.. Modern birth control for women is possibly the most important invention of the last century, and Im very grateful for it. Its also brutal. The side effects for many women include migraines, mood swings, decreased libido, depression, severe cramps, heavy bleeding, aneurysm - and thats just a small fraction of them.. Discouragingly, a promising study on a new male contraceptive was canceled in large part due to… (wait for it)… side effects. To be clear, this list of side effects was about one-third as long as the known side effects for commonly used womens contraception. Theres a lot to unpack in that story alone. Ill simply point out that, as a society, we really dont mind if women suffer, physically or mentally, as long as it makes things easier for men.. But, men, Ive got good news. Even with the horrible side effects, women are (amazingly!) very willing to use birth control. Unfortunately, its harder to ...
Geneticists say that we should not yet add the male to the endangered species list, and for now all is not lost for the little modern Y. It was previously thought that the Y chromosome contained mostly junk DNA and that the production of the testes triggered by SRY was its only function. But it is now known that the genes remaining on the Y chromosome are particularly important for survival in males and for fertility. In about half of all couples affected by infertility the problem rests with the man. Disruption of the genes on Y can reduce sperm count causing infertility. Infertility research is now directing efforts towards understanding the strange Y and searching for a cure. On the flip side, the possibility of new male contraceptives that target the sperm producing regions of Y is being developed ...
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An experimental male contraceptive method involves heating the testicles so that they cannot produce sperm. Sperm are best produced at a temperature slightly below body temperature. The muscles around a males scrotum involuntarily tighten if the mans body temperature drops, and they loosen, allowing the testes to hang, if the body temperature rises. This is the bodys way of keeping the sperm at an ideal temperature.[citation needed] Although research has not addressed methods of applying heat, sperm production can be disrupted with increased temperature. Some suggest exposure to high temperatures (116 °F) can affect fertility for months. Methods used include hot water applied to the scrotum, heat generated by ultrasound, and artificial cryptorchidism (holding the testicles inside the abdomen) using specialized briefs. One of the initial experiments resulted in partial infertility lasting more than four years. Initial experiments suggest it is effective and safe, though there have not been ...
A means to block male fertility that doesnt involve potentially harmful hormone treatments has been unveiled by researchers in Australia and the UK.A male equivalent of the female oral contraceptive pill has long been sought-after by scientists. But, so far, every attempt has failed, owing mainly to the risk of significant side-effects or concerns over long-term impacts on fertility.
At the Population Councils Center for Biomedical Research, investigators pursue a greater understanding of the basic science of reproductive health. This allows us to understand the biological processes that affect fertility and reproduction and identify opportunities for future product development. Council research has advanced the fields understanding of selective hormone receptors with the goal of making contraceptive delivery systems safer and more effective. Our research on the biology and regulation of sperm cell activities may help inform contraceptive development for men and increase understanding of the underlying causes of male infertility.. Additional research focuses on identifying sperm function to promote the development of non-hormonal contraceptive methods and to understand the effects of the environment on reproductive health.. ...
Important information about COVID-19 (coronavirus). We are committed to helping our members get access to the care they need.. ...
Women of child-bearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 14 days prior to the first day of study treatment. Women who are postmenopausal for at least 1 year (defined as , 12 months since last menses) or are surgically sterilized do not require this test. Women of child-bearing potential and their male partners must agree to practice a medically acceptable contraceptive regimen from study treatment initiation until at least 30 days after the last administration of RH-1. Adequate methods of contraception are double barrier methods (condoms with spermicidal jelly or foam, and diaphragm with spermicidal jelly or foam), oral, depot and injectable contraceptives, and intrauterine device (IUD). RH-1 should not be administered to women who are breast feeding ...
Pregnancy or active breast-feeding. Female patients of childbearing potential (not postmenopausal for at least 5 years or surgically sterilized) must agree not to become pregnant during the duration of the study. Specifically, they must agree to use an appropriate contraceptive regimen. Acceptable regimens include abstinence, systemic hormones, intrauterine devices and barrier methods, such as cervical caps, male or female condoms, or diaphragms with concomitant intravaginal spermicide. A barrier method must have been used without failure for at least 1 year immediately preceding entry into the study ...
Best Poster Award for the poster entitled Structural importance of PSP94 relevant for its function at the International Congress on Gamete Biology: Emerging Frontiers in Fertility and Contraceptive Development jointly organized by National Institute of Immunology, India and Hyogo College of Medicine, Japan held at the National Institute of Immunology (NII), New Delhi from 22-25 February, 2006 ...
A new birth control pill for men appears to be safe when used daily, a new study finds. But dont expect a pill for sale for at least 5 years or more.
Almost fifty years ago, oral administration of Bis-dichloroacetyl-diamines (BDADs) such as WIN 18,446 was shown to safely, completely and reversibly inhibit spe...
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Testex E250 is a widely used androgenic and anabolic steroid widely used by the athletes. It is a long-term injectable testosterone whose effects stay for longer duration. The most standard quality of this product is manufactured by the Swiss Pharm. So, always purchase the Testex E250 of this manufacturer for maximum result.. The prime ingredient Testosterone Enanthate delays the release of this hormone in the bloodstream of the user. This is what makes the effects stay for the longer duration. It is a worldwide popular steroid with various benefits. Some of the benefits are:. ...
Over the years we have fielded many questions about non-hormonal birth control. Most likely your notion of birth control includes some sort of hormone...
Indian scientist Sujoy Guha has developed a male contraceptive called (unfortunately enough) Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance, and its starting to get recognition in the U.S. The gel can last for 10 to 15 years. During that time it both reduces the number of sperm making the trip, and also physically disables the ones…
Scientists at IRB Barcelona discover a crucial protein for meiosis -- the cell division process that gives rise to sex cells. Without the RingoA protein, both male and female mice are sterile. Published in Nature Communications, the results could pave the way for the development of male contraceptives.
Equality for men may be on the horizon, contraceptive equality, that is. For just over a half century, women have been able to pop a pill to prevent pregnancy, but a pharmaceutical alternative has never emerged for men
Lewis said according to a Belfast statement: One in six couples has difficulty in having a family. In 40 percent of cases, the problems are related to the man. Until now, there have been few accurate ways of measuring a mans fertility ...
Project 5 seeks to develop adjudin into a non-hormonal contraceptive for men. Adjudin exerts its effects primarily at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known...
Male contraception is tough because its easier to suppress ovulation than sperm production, uncovers Talking Sex with Dr Shingai.
Telegraph Wonder Women campaign: New forms of male contraception are estimated to hit the market in two years and - unlike womens options - most wont contain hormones. Aaron Hamlin explains why you need to care Men currently only have condoms - but would they take long-term birth control? Photo: ALAMY By Aaron Hamlin, Executive director…
Youre worried your birth control might be interfering with your athletic goals and your general health, but youre not ready to have a kid. What are your options? Theres actually quite a few.
I was watching two lions mate, when another male appeared. The males started fighting. Eventually the new male left, and the other continued mating.
Women have been warned to beware of having a drink with new male friends, as their drinks might be spiked with sex stimulants which would make them easy targets for rape.
ACM Top New Male Vocalist nominee Deryl Dodd has a lot to be thankful for lately. He just completed his first two dates on the Brooks & Dunn Tailgate Tour and
INDICATIONS. Confido is a non-hormonal and safe sexual stimulant.. INSTRUCTIONS. Take exactly as prescribed by your Health Provider.. If you miss a dose of this medicine and you are using it regularly, take it as soon as possible. Do not take 2 doses at once.. DOSAGE. 1 tablet twice daily.. STORAGE Store at the room temperature away from moisture and sunlight. Keep out of reach of children.. SAFETY INFORMATION. The medication is contraindicated in known hypersensitivity to any of the medication ingredients ...
Dudley K. Strickland, PhD, Associate Dean for Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM), along with UM SOM Dean E. Albert Reece, MD, PhD, MBA, announced that Peixin Yang, PhD, Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences (OB-GYN), has been named Deputy Director of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in UM SOMs Graduate Program in Life Sciences (GPILS).. In this new role, Dr. Yang will focus on enhancing the skill sets of trainees in grant writing, develop internal peer review mechanisms, assist in recruitment of postdoctoral fellows, and develop approaches to increase T32 training grants on campus.. "Dr. Yang is an extremely successful scientist, and well-versed in grant writing. He will be a tremendous asset to the Office of Postdoctoral Scholars and to our Postdoctoral fellows," said Dr. Strickland, who is also Professor of Surgery and Director of the Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases.. Dr. Yang, who serves as ...
... is under investigation as a potential male contraceptive and as the first male birth control pill.[187][188] ... Srivastava RP, Bhaduri AP (1989). "Emerging concepts towards the development of contraceptive agents". Prog Drug Res. 33: 267- ... Gombe S (April 1983). "A review of the current status in male contraceptive studies". East Afr Med J. 60 (4): 203-11. PMID ... Antiandrogens, such as cyproterone acetate, have been studied for potential use as male hormonal contraceptives.[177][178][179] ...
Kjaergaard N, Kjaergaard B, Lauritsen JG (June 1988). "Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive ... Homonnai ZT, Shilon M, Paz GF (May 1984). "Phenoxybenzamine-an effective male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 29 (5): 479- ... which could make it an effective male contraceptive. This effect is completely reversible, and is believed to be the result of ...
In men, they are being investigated in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and also as potential contraceptive agents ... Amory JK (March 2007). Contraceptive developments for men. Drugs Today (Barc.) 43: 179-192. Ezzati, Mohammad; Carr, Bruce R ( ... In men, the reduction in LH subsequently leads to rapid suppression of testosterone release from the testes; in women it leads ... Subcutaneously administered agents are also associated with injection-site reactions and abarelix (neither of these being GnRH ...
... reversible male contraceptives, or female contraceptives through the use of intravaginal contraceptive devices. Moreover, as ... acrosin could thus serve as a novel target for contraceptive agents. Acrosin may represent as a uniquely druggable target due ... Acrosin regulation has been found to occur through Protein C inhibitor (PCI). PCI is present in the male reproductive tract at ... This suggests the further role of acrosin inhibitors as potentially viable agents in the prevention of HIV transmission. Adham ...
... which in turn may improve its effectiveness as an antispermatogenic agent and male contraceptive. This is salient and ... as an Oral Male Hormonal Contraceptive: Induction of Infertility and Recovery of Fertility in Adult Male Rabbits". Journal of ... as male contraceptives based on androgens alone have failed to produce satisfactory azoospermia in around one-third of men. ... by esterases and is under investigation as a method of androgen replacement therapy and as a potential male contraceptive. ...
... an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 37 (6): 621-9. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(88) ... Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male ... and male hormonal injections. Gossypol, an extract of cotton, has been studied as a male contraceptive pill. It decreased sperm ... "Male Contraception Information Project » Vasalgel". Retrieved 13 March 2017. Finn, Robert (May 1, 2007). "Male Contraceptive ...
"Long-acting contraceptive agents: design of the WHO Chemical Synthesis Programme". Steroids. 41 (3): 243-53. PMID 6658872. ... has been tested successfully in combination with testosterone buciclate as a long-lasting injectable contraceptive for men as ... The drug has a well-established safety record owing to the use of levonorgestrel as an oral contraceptive since the 1960s. List ... LNG-B has been under investigation as a long-lasting injectable contraceptive for women. A single intramuscular injection of an ...
Therapies associated with depression include interferon therapy, beta-blockers, Isotretinoin, contraceptives, cardiac agents, ... in men), Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, chronic ... anticonvulsants, antimigraine drugs, antipsychotics, and hormonal agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. ...
... innovations in contraceptive agents: tomorrow's hormonal contraceptive agents and their clinical implications.". American ... Naz, RK, Rowan, S (lipanj 2009.). "Update on male contraception.". Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology svezak 21 (broj 3 ... 2011.) "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)", Contraceptive technology, 20. izmjenjeno izdanje, str. str. 249.-341., New York: ... unspecified (2001.). "Herbal contraceptives and abortifacients", Encyclopedia of birth control, str. str. 125.-128., Santa ...
... innovations in contraceptive agents: tomorrow's hormonal contraceptive agents and their clinical implications". American ... Usage of male forms of birth control has decreased between 1985 and 2009. Contraceptive use among women in Sub-Saharan Africa ... They include male condoms, female condoms, cervical caps, diaphragms, and contraceptive sponges with spermicide. Globally, ... Male condoms are put on a man's erect penis and physically block ejaculated sperm from entering the body of a sexual partner. ...
This means that norethisterone could also be an effective male hormonal contraceptive. Aside from its use as a contraceptive, ... van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". Am J Clin ... has been studied for use as a potential male hormonal contraceptive in combination with testosterone in men. Korhonen T, ... as well as the atypical agent danazol. Both norethisterone and NETA are also available in the United States as contraceptives. ...
Amory JK (March 2007). Contraceptive developments for men. Drugs Today (Barc.) 43: 179-192. ... and also as potential contraceptive agents.[10] GnRH antagonists are also used as puberty blockers in transgender youth and to ... GnRH antagonists are being investigated in the treatment of women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer.[7][8] In men, they are ... In men, the reduction in LH subsequently leads to rapid suppression of testosterone production in the testes; in women it leads ...
If numerous males are in a particular area, then they compete more for the females. If fewer males or more females are present ... Nonlethal methods include contraceptive injections, sterilization, and translocation of deer.[58] While lethal methods have ... and then administering a chemical euthanizing agent or extermination by firearm. A main issue in questioning the humaneness of ... Males compete for the opportunity of breeding females. Sparring among males determines a dominance hierarchy.[65] Bucks attempt ...
It is more common in men than women. Often chronic pancreatitis starts between the ages of 30 and 40 while it is rare in ... Oral contraceptives/HRT causes arterial thrombosis of the pancreas through the accumulation of fat (hypertriglyceridemia). ... There are various oral hypoglycemic agents that contributes to pancreatitis including metformin. But, glucagon-like peptide-1 ( ... A number of infectious agents have been recognized as causes of pancreatitis including: Viruses Coxsackie virus Cytomegalovirus ...
Chase was released on a fifteen hundred dollar bail and when finally brought to trial a jury that consisted of solely men ... In May 1878, Chase was arrested by Anthony Comstock, chief agent in the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, for ... New York Times (8157-1922) [New York, N.Y] 05 Dec 1888:8. Black Market Birth Control: Contraceptive Entrepreneurship and ... Women who wanted to seek employment often struggled due to men being prejudiced which decreased their chances. Luckily for ...
This means that norethisterone could also be an effective male hormonal contraceptive. Aside from its use as a contraceptive, ... van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". Am J Clin ... has been studied for use as a potential male hormonal contraceptive in combination with testosterone in men.[78] ... Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive NET or NETA with ethinylestradiol. Low (e.g., 0.4 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg, 1 mg, 1.5 mg) ...
"The Fayetteville City Council is voting on an ordinance this Tuesday night that would allow men - yes I said men - to use ... He later became a real estate agent and investor. The Duggars' income is derived from rental proceeds of commercial properties ... They resumed using oral contraceptives after his birth but conceived again despite this precaution. Michelle miscarried. She ... I don't believe the citizens of Fayetteville would want males with past child predator convictions that claim they are female ...
Lupus Pregnancy (EAC usually disappears/stops soon after delivery of baby). Hormone (Contraceptive Pill, Stress, Hormone Drugs ... cleaning agents, fabric softeners, etc.) Fungal, Bacterial and Viral infections such as sinusitis, tuberculosis, candidiasis or ... Some articles state that women are more likely to be affected than men.[citation needed] List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, ...
... have long used the fruit of this palm as a male contraceptive. They drink a decoction of the fruit flesh boiled in water. The ... but this does not represent evidence of its effectiveness as an antifertility agent. "Areca vestiaria - Palmpedia - Palm ... fruit as potential source of antifertility agent". Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 30: 1929-1937 - via ...
The older daughter married a rich man but the younger daughter married a man who wasn't as luxurious. Time passed and the widow ... There are 17 saponins, two of which, derived from the saponin hederagenin, were found to be potent anti-tumor agents. Anemonin ... internal hemorrhoids and also as a contraceptive. The root is antiinflammatory and antiparasitic. It contains several medically ... The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. They are solitary terminal on a ...
A derivative of lonidamine, gamendazole, is in testing as a possible male contraceptive pill. Pelicano H, Martin DS, Xu RH, ... Clinical trials of lonidamine in combination with other anticancer agents for a variety of cancers has begun. This is due to ... Tash, Joseph (July 2008). "A Novel Potent Indazole Carboxylic Acid Derivative Blocks Spermatogenesis and Is Contraceptive in ... its proven ability to inhibit energy metabolism in cancer cells, and to enhance the activity of anticancer agents. Lonidamine ...
However, it was serendipitously and unexpectedly found that low doses of spirorenone lowered testosterone levels in men during ... 1112-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ... of spirorenone was discontinued and drospirenone was developed and eventually introduced instead as a contraceptive. ...
When that is not their intention, the responsible use of safe, effective contraceptives is expected of the male and the female ... The organization states, Is it appropriate to implicate a medication as an abortive agent without the data to support such a ... "full and equal access to contraceptive methods." In a recent resolution endorsing insurance coverage for contraceptives, the ... These include whether contraceptive use or non-use is a matter of individual conscience or binding Biblical commands, what ...
The procedure differs somewhat for women and men. Laboratory testing of urine samples now can be performed with dipsticks that ... Accidental urethral placement of contraceptive suppositories has also caused hemorrhagic cystitis in several patients. The ... In children, polymerase chain reaction sequencing of urine can detect fragments of the infectious agent. ... in men), endometriosis (in women), or cancer of the urinary tract. In some cases, blood in the urine results from athletic ...
Biological agents should generally only be used if methotrexate and other conventional agents are not effective after a trial ... The age at which the disease most commonly starts is in women between 40 and 50 years of age, and for men somewhat later. RA is ... It is recommended women of childbearing age should use contraceptives to avoid pregnancy and to discontinue its use if ... The most commonly used agent is methotrexate with other frequently used agents including sulfasalazine and leflunomide. Sodium ...
It is slightly more common in females than males (9.8% versus 9.0%).[173] In those over 40 years old, 1% of males and 5% of ... Hormonal agents[edit]. In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an ... Powell A (April 2017). "Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 64 ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 63 (1). doi:10.1128/AAC.01297-18. PMC 6325184. PMID 30397052.. ...
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Results of search for su:{Contraceptive agents, Male.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items ... Guidelines for the use of androgens in men. by WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human ...
5 Studies found for: Acth-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Contraceptive Agents. Also searched for Cushing disease and ... Male. Accepts Healthy Volunteers Study Type. All. Interventional (Clinical Trial). Observational. -- Patient Registries ...
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Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Contraceptives, ... The use of steroidal oral contraceptives, or any drug that could alter oral contraception metabolism will be prohibited during ... Normalization of blood loss in women with heavy menstrual bleeding treated with an oral contraceptive containing estradiol ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic ... Antineoplastic Agents. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists. Hormone Antagonists. Diuretics, Potassium Sparing. Diuretics. ... Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic ... A cross-sectional screening to evaluate contraceptive medical eligibility and desirability. *A randomized controlled trial that ...
Antineoplastic Agents. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. To Top ... no other oral contraceptives treatment for at least 3 months before this experiment ...
Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic ... Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Female. ...
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. ... Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ...
  • The fertility phenotype of HE6 knockout mice identifies this receptor as a potential nonsteroidal, nontesticular target for future male contraceptives and identifies an in vivo function for a member of this unusual gene family. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to support and facilitate multidisciplinary research approaches for the development of novel nonsteroidal contraceptive products for men and women that act prior to fertilization. (nih.gov)
  • Estradiol undecylate has been used in very high doses (100 mg intramuscular injection every 3 weeks or once per month) to treat prostate cancer, but has since largely been superseded for this indication by newer agents with fewer adverse effects (e.g., gynecomastia and cardiovascular complications) like GnRH analogues and nonsteroidal antiandrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is best known as a nonsteroidal oral contraceptive which is taken once per week. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms can be treated with bedrest, leg elevation, compressive bandages, wet dressings, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In many men, effective suppression of spermatogenesis can be achieved by androgen-progestin combination therapy. (springer.com)
  • Side effects in males resulting from the antiandrogenic and antigonadotropic properties of CPA include physical demasculinization, sexual dysfunction (including loss of libido and erectile dysfunction), impaired spermatogenesis, and reversible infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its progonadotropic effects in males, unlike CPA, cyproterone has been found, in male rodents, to increase testicular weight, increase the total number of type A spermatogonia, increase the total number of Sertoli cells, hyperstimulate the Leydig cells, and to have almost no effect on spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present clinical trial intends to compare the effects of oral contraceptives and metformin on PCOS patients, focusing on classic and non-classic cardiovascular risk markers and indexes of cardiovascular performance, in order to whether or not, as suspected by previous data obtained in non-hyperandrogenic women, oral contraceptives worsen the cardiovascular risk profile of PCOS women, favoring the use of metformin if the latter actually ameliorates such a risk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thus, PCI has been hypothesized to have a protective role: if acrosomal enzymes were released prematurely, or if the spermatozoa was degenerated within the male reproductive tract, the high concentrations of PCI would inhibit acrosin from inflicting proteolytic damage on nearby tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSOF utilizes high-throughput screening assays of compound libraries to lead discoveries that inhibit validated male and female contraceptive targets. (nih.gov)
  • In haematopoietic cell system, the agents which inhibit PKC activity can suppress the growth of both normal and leukemic progenitors . (termedia.pl)
  • This is due to its proven ability to inhibit energy metabolism in cancer cells, and to enhance the activity of anticancer agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance, therapeutic modalities that reduce androgen signaling in the prostate gland, referred to collectively as androgen deprivation therapy , are able to significantly slow the course of prostate cancer and extend life in men with the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research, in an article entitled: "Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Androgen Levels: A Retrospective Study in Women with Sexual Dysfunction" published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine, involved 124 premenopausal women with sexual health complaints for more than 6 months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Antiandrogens are used in the treatment of an assortment of androgen-dependent conditions in both men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • CPA is used in the treatment of prostate cancer, precocious puberty, androgen-dependent skin and hair conditions such as acne, seborrhea, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and androgenic alopecia (pattern hair loss), hyperandrogenism (e.g., in PCOS), and to reduce sex drive in sex offenders or men with paraphilias or hypersexuality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-scale contraceptive efficacy studies in couples have demonstrated effectiveness and reversibility with male hormonal methods, but side effects related to mood, sexual desire and cholesterol remain concerning. (springer.com)
  • Acceptability, Feasibility, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Theory-Based Relational Embodied Conversational Agent Mobile Phone Intervention to Promote HIV Medication Adherence in Young HIV-Positive African American MSM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although the affinity and efficacy of danazol itself at the PR are relatively low, ethisterone, one of the major metabolites of danazol, is described as a weak progestogen (and has been employed clinically as a progestogenic contraceptive), and this presumably balances the in vivo progestogenic activity of danazol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following giants of human reproductive research such as A. Csapo and G. Corner (discoverers of progesterone) Coutinho began studying steroids with progestagenic effects, and in particular was able to identify the role of ions, calcium and magnesium as peripheral agents in the action of progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In males, antiandrogens are used in the treatment of prostate cancer , enlarged prostate , scalp hair loss , overly high sex drive , unusual and problematic sexual urges , and early puberty . (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it produces detectable androgenic effects in animals only at a dose that is the equivalent of approximately 200 times that typically used for the treatment of prostate cancer in men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol undecylate, or estradiol undecanoate, sold under the brand name Progynon Depot 100 among others, is a medication which has been used in the treatment of prostate cancer in men. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the treatment of men with prostate cancer, CPA has been described as causing "severe" suppression of libido and erectile potency, comparable to that seen with surgical castration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, given the advanced age of many with prostate cancer, as well as other features, many men may choose antiandrogen therapy alone for a better quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its antifertility characteristics are being explored as the possible starting point development of a new oral contraceptive agent which works by stimulating an evacuation of the implanted egg in the uterus. (healthy.net)
  • Christian MC, Pluda JM, Ho PT, Arbuck SG, Murgo AJ, Sausville EA (1997) Promising new agents under development by the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis, and Centers of the National Cancer Institute. (springer.com)
  • In addition to supporting contraceptive development research on validated modulations, this FOA supports early stage, high-risk projects lacking validation by allowing validation during the R61 phase. (nih.gov)
  • the development of a male hormonal contraceptive is an active research area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research is continuing into more potent and selective SARMs, as well as optimising characteristics such as oral bioavailability and increased half-life in vivo, and seeing as the first tissue-selective SARMs were only demonstrated in 2003, the compounds tested so far represent only the first generation of SARMs and future development may produce more selective agents compared to those available at present. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes the embryological development of the primary male sex organs, and the development of male secondary sex characteristics at puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androstenedione are of equal importance in male development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the early bipotential gonad into testes. (wikipedia.org)