Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often in mixtures with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Xanthurenic acid and its salts, formed as byproducts during the metabolism of tryptophan, are collectively referred to as xanthurenates, which can accumulate in conditions like hyperphenylalaninemia and may contribute to oxidative stress and cellular damage.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual activities of humans.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation. (1/136)

Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths. Perceived efficacy and situational variables influencing male compliance in, say, condom use, form part of the wider study that addresses men. Thus preventive reproductive health initiatives and information should move from the female alone to both sexes. Women need men as partners in reproductive health who understand the risks they might be exposed to and strategies for their prevention.  (+info)

Effect of intravasal copper on the fertility of rats. (2/136)

Copper wire was inserted into the vas deferens and its effect of the reproductive system and fertility performance of rats was investigated. The copper wire was 100% effective as a contraceptive for up to 4 months if placed correctly, and resulted in decapitation of most of the spermatozoa. No differences between the rats with an intravasal copper wire and the sham-operated controls were found for the weights of the gonads and accessory sex glands or for protein, RNA, DNA and fructose concentrations. The intravasal copper device appears to be promising for the development of a long-term method for male contraception.  (+info)

Recent biochemical approaches to post-testicular, epididymal contraception. (3/136)

Results from recent animal models with implications for putative human male contraceptives acting on the epididymis are reviewed. Inducing sterility by enhancing sperm transport through the epididymis has not been achieved. The induction of infertility in males of several species is easier to achieve by direct actions of drugs on sperm function (e.g. inhibition of sperm-specific isoenzymes of the glycolytic pathway by chloro-compounds) than by indirectly reducing amounts of epididymal secretions normally present in high concentration (e.g. alpha-glucosidase, L-carnitine). The former show promise for the clinic since human spermatozoa are susceptible to inhibition. On the other hand, the infertile male mice of the c-ros knock-out model demonstrate the influence of even a small region of the epididymis on fertility, so that targeting the as yet unknown epididymal factors presumably secreted in limiting amounts by this epididymal segment, is a new lead for a contraceptive. Targeting a specific sperm protein acquired in the testis, but depleted in the epididymis by toxicants that induce rapid infertility, may also lead to the discovery of new contraceptives, but these will require developing new means of organ-specific delivery of contraceptive drugs.  (+info)

Chronic toxicity and reversibility of antifertility effect of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone in male rats and rabbits. (4/136)

The chronic systemic toxicity of immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, conjugated to tetanus toxoid (GnRH-TT), was investigated in male rats and rabbits in order to start Phase I clinical trials. Groups of rats and rabbits were immunized with GnRH-TT dissolved in aqueous adjuvant. The antigen was administered at weeks 0, 4, and 8, followed by boosters to maintain high antibody titers. At termination (8-9 months after first immunization), twenty rats and ten rabbits exhibiting the highest mean anti-GnRH titers and all the controls were selected for complete toxicological evaluation. In the rat study, a castrated control group was included for comparison with the immunized group. The hematological and serum chemistry parameters of immunized rats and rabbits were not affected in a significant manner. Most of the changes in serum chemistry of immunized rats were also found in castrated rats, indicating that the changes are most likely due to the withdrawal of androgenic support. The weights of the testes, epididymides, and sex accessory glands were lower in all immunized animals. There was significant atrophy of the germinal epithelium, which, however, sustained a population of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and pachytene spermatocytes. Other morphological changes in the prostate, seminal vesicles, pituitary, and mammary gland reflected the effect of androgen withdrawal. The decrease in the weight of liver, kidney, and heart seen in the immunized rats was also present in castrated rats and was not associated with any histopathological changes. The reversibility of immunization-induced infertility was investigated by mating the rats with normal females. Four months after the start of immunization, 9 out of 10 immunized rats were infertile whereas by nine months, all rats had regained fertility. Thus, it is concluded that immunization with GnRH-TT had no systemic toxicological effects in the adult male rats and rabbits for the period studied. The results also indicated that the GnRH-TT immunization had an antifertility effect in male rats. Fertility was restored following cessation of immunization and decline in anti-GnRH antibody titers.  (+info)

Potential impact of hormonal male contraception: cross-cultural implications for development of novel preparations. (5/136)

The prospect of a hormonal male contraceptive is no longer distant. Data on the potential impact of this improvement in contraceptive provision, however, is limited, particularly between different cultures. We have therefore carried out a multi-centre study to assess men's attitudes to proposed novel hormonal methods. Questionnaire-based structured interviews were administered to men in Edinburgh, Cape Town, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Approximately 450 men were interviewed in Edinburgh, Shanghai and Hong Kong, and a slightly larger group (n = 493) in Cape Town to give samples (n > 150) of black, coloured and white men. Knowledge of existing male and female methods of contraception was high in all centres and groups. The majority of men welcomed a new hormonal method of contraception, 44-83% stating that they would use a male contraceptive pill. Overall, a pill was more acceptable than an injectable form (most popularly given at 3-6 month intervals); long-acting implants were least so except in Shanghai. Familiarity with comparable female methods appeared to influence acceptability, for both oral and injectable methods. Hong Kong was the only centre where a male method (condom) was currently the most commonly used; men there appeared to rate the convenience of condoms highly while being least likely to think that they provided effective protection against pregnancy compared to other centres, and were least enthusiastic about novel male methods. The acceptability of potential male hormonal methods of contraception was high in some groups but showed wide variability, determining factors including cultural background and current contraceptive usage. These results suggest that the emerging emphasis that men should have greater involvement in family planning will be substantiated when appropriate contraceptive methods become available.  (+info)

Would women trust their partners to use a male pill? (6/136)

Despite a renewed interest in the development of hormonal contraceptives for men, many discussions about the potential acceptability of a 'male pill' end by speculating whether women would trust their partners to use the method reliably. To determine the views of women, we undertook a survey of 1894 women attending family planning clinics in Scotland (450), China (900) and South Africa (544). In all centres over 65% of women thought that the responsibility for contraception falls too much on women. More than 90% in South Africa and Scotland thought that a 'male pill' was a good idea, with Chinese women (71% in Hong Kong and 87% in Shanghai) only slightly less positive. Only 13% of the total sample did not think that hormonal male contraception was a good idea and only 36 women (2% of the total) said that they would not trust their partner to use it. 78% of Scottish women, 71% of Shanghai women, and 78% of white women and 40% of black and coloured women in Cape Town thought that they would use the method. This survey should dispel the myth that women would not trust their partners to use a 'male pill' reliably and illustrates the potential market for the method.  (+info)

Oestradiol enhances testosterone-induced suppression of human spermatogenesis. (7/136)

The aim of this study was to determine for the first time in humans, the efficacy of adding a low dose oestradiol to a suboptimally suppressive testosterone dose in a depot hormonal regimen to suppress spermatogenesis in healthy eugonadal men. Twenty-six healthy men were randomized into groups that were treated by a single subdermal implantation of either 600 mg testosterone alone (T; n = 11) or together with 10 mg (TE10, n = 7) or 20 mg (TE20, n = 8) oestradiol. Administration of oestradiol produced a dose-dependent increase in peak plasma oestradiol at 1 month and prolonged suppression of plasma LH and FSH leading to significantly enhanced suppression of sperm output. Despite the augmented spermatogenic suppression, there was no significant difference in the proportions achieving azoospermia (6/26, 23%) or severe oligozoospermia (<1 or <3 x 10(6) spermatozoa per ml, 7/26, 27%) and overall these proportions were inadequate to provide reliable contraception according to the standards identified in World Health Organization male contraceptive efficacy studies. Total and free testosterone remained within the eugonadal reference range for young men throughout the study. While the lower oestradiol dosage had minimal spermatogenic suppression effects, the higher dose produced dose-limiting adverse effects of androgen deficiency and/or oestrogen excess between the fourth and sixth month of the study. This appeared to be due to the unexpectedly prolonged, low concentration of oestradiol release from the oestradiol implants. There were no significant treatment-related changes in body composition, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, haematological or biochemical variables. Thus oestradiol has a low therapeutic window and dose-limiting side-effects at dosages that fail to achieve the uniform azoospermia required of an effective male hormonal contraceptive regimen.  (+info)

Effects of sulphapyridine on sperm transport through the rat epididymis and contractility of the epididymal duct. (8/136)

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of sulphapyridine on the transport of spermatozoa through different regions of the epididymis and on the contractility of the epididymal duct in the rat. Sperm transport was investigated by labelling testicular spermatozoa with [3H]thymidine and measuring intraluminal pressures of the epididymis by micropuncture, using a servo-nulling pressure transducer system. In control rats, the transit times of epididymal spermatozoa from the initial segment to the caput, from the caput to the proximal cauda, and from the proximal cauda to the distal cauda were 2, 6 and 3 days, respectively, giving a total transit time of 11 days. The total transit time was shortened to 8 days after treatment with sulphapyridine at a dosage of 450 mg kg-1 for 38-52 days. The rate of sperm transport was most affected in the caput epididymidis. Measurements of intraluminal pressures showed that sulphapyridine had no effect on spontaneous contractions in any regions of the epididymis. However, the frequency of contraction of the corpus and cauda epididymides in response to administration of 10 micrograms noradrenaline kg-1 in the sulphapyridine-treated rats was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than it was in the controls. Methacholine, at a dose of 20 micrograms kg-1, produced a smaller increase in basal pressure in the caput epididymidis of sulphapyridine-treated rats (P < 0.05) compared with controls. The results led to the conclusion that sulphapyridine increases the rate of sperm transport from the caput through the cauda epididymidis, in part, by changes in the responsiveness of the epididymis to the autonomic nervous system.  (+info)

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

Mestranol is a synthetic form of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and altering the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg or for an already established pregnancy to be implanted.

Mestranol is typically combined with a progestin in birth control pills, such as those known as the "combined oral contraceptives." It's important to note that mestranol has largely been replaced by ethinyl estradiol, which is a more commonly used form of synthetic estrogen in hormonal medications.

As with any medication, there are potential risks and side effects associated with the use of mestranol, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting or changing any hormonal medication.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

**Norgestrel** is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone **progesterone**. It is a type of **progestin**, which is often used in various forms of hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel works by thickening cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Additionally, norgestrel can also prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) and thin the lining of the uterus, which makes it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Norgestrel is available in various forms, such as oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to discuss potential benefits, risks, and side effects.

Here are some medical definitions related to norgestrel:

1. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone, used in various forms of hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can have varying levels of androgenic, estrogenic, and anti-estrogenic activity. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
2. **Progesterone**: A naturally occurring steroid hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
3. **Hormonal birth control**: A method of preventing pregnancy that uses hormones to regulate ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, or thin the lining of the uterus. Hormonal birth control methods include oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
4. **Emergency contraception**: A form of hormonal birth control used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Emergency contraception is typically more effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, but it can still be effective up to 120 hours afterward. Norgestrel is one of the active ingredients in some emergency contraceptive pills.
5. **Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)**: A form of hormone replacement therapy used to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. MHT typically involves using estrogen and progestin or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Norgestrel is a type of progestin that can be used in MHT.
6. **Androgenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as testosterone and some progestins, that are associated with male characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. Norgestrel has weak androgenic activity.
7. **Estrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as estradiol and some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), that are associated with female characteristics, such as breast development and menstrual cycles. Norgestrel has weak estrogenic activity.
8. **Antiestrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that block or oppose the actions of estrogens. Norgestrel has antiestrogenic activity.
9. **Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)**: A type of drug that acts as an estrogen agonist in some tissues and an estrogen antagonist in others. SERMs can be used to treat or prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. Norgestrel is not a SERM but has antiestrogenic activity.
10. **Progestogen**: A synthetic or natural hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestogens can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestogen.
11. **Progesterone**: A natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and regulates the menstrual cycle. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
12. **Progestin**: A synthetic hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestins can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
13. **Progestational agent**: A drug or hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestational agents can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestational agent.
14. **Progestogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
15. **Progesterone receptor modulator (PRM)**: A type of drug that binds to and activates or inhibits the progesterone receptors in the body. PRMs can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a type of PRM.
16. **Progestogenic activity**: The ability of a drug or hormone to mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone in the body. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
17. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
18. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progestogens in the body. Progestogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
19. **Progesterone agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
20. **Progestogenic agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progestogens in the body. Progesterogenic agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
21. **Progesterone receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterone receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
22. **Progestogenic receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterogenic receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
23. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of progesterone that is used in hormonal contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can be either progesterone agonists or antagonists, depending on their chemical structure and activity at the progesterone receptor. Norgestrel is a progestin.
24. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
25. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibro

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Ethynodiol diacetate is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various pharmaceutical products, such as birth control pills, to prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg.

Ethynodiol diacetate works by mimicking the effects of natural progesterone in the body, which helps regulate the menstrual cycle and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. When used as a contraceptive, ethynodiol diacetate is often combined with estrogen to create a hormonal balance that prevents ovulation and fertilization.

It's important to note that while ethynodiol diacetate is generally considered safe and effective when taken as directed, it can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or have certain medical conditions should consult with their healthcare provider before taking any medication containing this ingredient.

Spermatogenesis-blocking agents are a class of medications or substances that inhibit or block the process of spermatogenesis, which is the production of sperm in the testicles. These agents can work at various stages of spermatogenesis, including reducing the number of spermatozoa (sperm cells) or preventing the formation of mature sperm.

Examples of spermatogenesis-blocking agents include:

1. Hormonal agents: Certain hormones or hormone-like substances can interfere with the production of sperm. For example, analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and antiandrogens can suppress the release of testosterone and other hormones necessary for spermatogenesis.
2. Alkylating agents: These are chemotherapy drugs that can damage DNA and prevent the division and multiplication of cells, including sperm cells. Examples include cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
3. Other chemicals: Certain industrial chemicals, such as ethylene glycol ethers and dibromochloropropane (DBCP), have been shown to have spermatogenesis-blocking properties.
4. Radiation therapy: High doses of radiation can also damage the testicles and inhibit sperm production.

It's important to note that spermatogenesis-blocking agents are often used for medical purposes, such as treating cancer or preventing pregnancy, but they can have significant side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Lynestrenol is a synthetic form of progestogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various medications for different purposes, such as treating abnormal menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, and preventing premature labor. Lynestrenol works by mimicking the effects of natural progesterone in the body, helping to regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce inflammation associated with endometriosis. It is important to note that lynestrenol should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and interact with other medications.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is a formulation that contains a synthetic version of the female sex hormones, estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestin (norgestrel), which are used in various forms of hormonal contraception.

This combination works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is commonly used in oral contraceptives (birth control pills), as well as in some forms of hormonal patches and rings. It is important to note that while this combination is highly effective at preventing pregnancy, it can also increase the risk of certain health problems, such as blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer, especially in women who smoke or have other risk factors.

Therefore, it is essential for individuals using hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination to discuss their medical history and any potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting this form of birth control.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "xanthurenates" is not a recognized term in medicine or physiology. It seems that you might be referring to "xanthurenic acid," which is a metabolic byproduct produced during the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan. An accumulation of xanthurenic acid can occur due to certain genetic disorders, such as Hartnup disease or defects in the coenzyme Q10 synthesis pathway. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a precise definition related to your specific question. If you could provide additional information, I would be happy to help further!

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Pyridoxine is the chemical name for Vitamin B6. According to the medical definition, Pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin that is part of the B-vitamin complex and is essential for the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It plays a vital role in the regulation of homocysteine levels in the body, the formation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, and the synthesis of hemoglobin.

Pyridoxine can be found naturally in various foods, including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, seeds, meat, poultry, and fish. It is also available as a dietary supplement and may be prescribed by healthcare providers to treat or prevent certain medical conditions, such as vitamin B6 deficiency, anemia, seizures, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Like other water-soluble vitamins, Pyridoxine cannot be stored in the body and must be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation. Excessive intake of Pyridoxine can lead to toxicity symptoms such as nerve damage, skin lesions, and light sensitivity.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Contraceptive devices for females refer to medical products designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize an egg. Some common examples of female contraceptive devices include:

1. Diaphragm: A shallow, flexible dome made of silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
2. Cervical Cap: Similar to a diaphragm but smaller in size, the cervical cap fits over the cervix and creates a barrier to sperm entry.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small, T-shaped device made of plastic or copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by changing the chemistry of the cervical mucus and uterine lining to inhibit sperm movement and implantation of a fertilized egg.
4. Contraceptive Sponge: A soft, round sponge made of polyurethane foam that contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse and covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
5. Female Condom: A thin, flexible pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The female condom creates a barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
6. Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring made of plastic that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to release hormones that prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the lining of the uterus.
7. Contraceptive Implant: A small, flexible rod made of plastic that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to prevent pregnancy for up to three years.

It's important to note that while these contraceptive devices can be highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STIs. Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception is recommended to reduce the risk of both pregnancy and STIs.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in energy production and cellular function, growth, and development. It is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and it helps to maintain healthy skin, hair, and nails. Riboflavin is involved in the production of energy by acting as a coenzyme in various redox reactions. It also contributes to the maintenance of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract and promotes iron absorption.

Riboflavin can be found in a variety of foods, including milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, yeast, mushrooms, and almonds. It is sensitive to light and heat, so exposure to these elements can lead to its degradation and loss of vitamin activity.

Deficiency in riboflavin is rare but can occur in individuals with poor dietary intake or malabsorption disorders. Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include inflammation of the mouth and tongue, anemia, skin disorders, and neurological symptoms such as confusion and mood changes. Riboflavin supplements are available for those who have difficulty meeting their daily requirements through diet alone.

Nutrition disorders refer to conditions that result from eating, drinking, or absorbing nutrients in a way that is not consistent with human physiological needs. These disorders can manifest as both undernutrition and overnutrition. Undernutrition includes disorders such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and mineral deficiencies, while overnutrition includes conditions such as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Malnutrition is the broad term used to describe a state in which a person's nutrient intake is insufficient or excessive, leading to negative consequences for their health. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, lack of education, cultural practices, and chronic diseases.

In addition to under- and overnutrition, disordered eating patterns such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders can also be considered nutrition disorders. These conditions are characterized by abnormal eating habits that can lead to serious health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, and mental health problems.

Overall, nutrition disorders are complex conditions that can have significant impacts on a person's physical and mental health. They require careful assessment, diagnosis, and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition and dietetics.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraception, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are most effective when used within 24 hours of unprotected sex, but can still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after.

There are two main types of postcoital contraceptives:

1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs): These are high-dose hormonal pills that contain levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. Levonorgestrel ECPs are available over-the-counter in many countries, while ulipristal acetate ECPs require a prescription.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small T-shaped device made of copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The copper IUD can be used as emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected sex, and it also provides ongoing contraception for up to 10 years.

It's important to note that postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of contraception. They should only be used in emergency situations where other methods of contraception have failed or were not used. It is also recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any form of emergency contraception.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

A contraceptive vaccine is a type of immunocontraception that uses the immune system to prevent pregnancy. It is a relatively new field of research and development, and there are currently no licensed contraceptive vaccines available on the market. However, several experimental vaccines are in various stages of preclinical and clinical testing.

Contraceptive vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that play a critical role in reproduction. By neutralizing these targets, the vaccine can prevent fertilization or inhibit the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For example, one approach is to develop vaccines that target the zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein layer surrounding mammalian eggs. Antibodies generated against ZP proteins can prevent sperm from binding and fertilizing the egg. Another strategy is to create vaccines that generate antibodies against hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By blocking hCG, the vaccine can prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and induce a miscarriage.

While contraceptive vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies, several challenges remain before they can be widely adopted. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, duration of protection, and public acceptance. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for accidental cross-reactivity with other proteins or hormones, leading to unintended side effects.

Overall, contraceptive vaccines represent a promising area of research that could provide long-acting, reversible, and user-friendly contraception options in the future. However, further studies are needed to address the remaining challenges and ensure their safe and effective use.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

Norethynodrel is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is not commonly used in modern medicine. In the past, it was used in some oral contraceptives to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and altering the cervical mucus and endometrium. Norethynodrel is no longer widely used due to the development of newer and more effective progestins.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Immunologic contraception refers to the use of the immune system to prevent pregnancy. This is achieved by stimulating the production of antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that are essential for fertilization and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. The most well-known example of immunologic contraception is the development of a vaccine that would induce an immune response against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By neutralizing hCG, the immune system could prevent the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. However, this approach is still in the experimental stage and has not yet been approved for use in humans.

Norpregnenes are a class of steroids that are produced by the metabolism of progesterone and other pregnanes. They are characterized by the absence of a double bond between carbons 4 and 5, and the presence of a ketone group at carbon 3. Some examples of norpregnenes include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and pregnenolone. These steroids are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of various hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, and estrogens. They play a role in various physiological processes such as sexual development, immune function, and stress response.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Oral contraceptives, sequential, are a type of birth control medication that involves taking two different hormonal preparations in a specific sequence to mimic the natural menstrual cycle. The first hormone preparation contains estrogen and is taken for 16-21 days, followed by a second hormone preparation containing both estrogen and progestin for 7 days. This regimen causes the lining of the uterus to thin, making it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and also thickens cervical mucus, which can prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Sequential oral contraceptives are not commonly used in the United States due to their higher risk of side effects compared to other forms of oral contraceptives.

Postcoital hormonal contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These contraceptives contain hormones and are intended for use in emergency situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or unprotected sex.

The most common type of postcoital hormonal contraceptive is the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), which contains a high dose of synthetic progestin or a combination of progestin and estrogen. The ECP works by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The ECP is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex, ideally within 72 hours, but may still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after intercourse. However, the effectiveness of the ECP decreases over time, and it is not as effective as regular methods of contraception.

It's important to note that postcoital hormonal contraceptives are not intended for routine use as a primary method of contraception and should only be used in emergency situations. They do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should not be used as a substitute for regular condom use or other forms of protection.

If you have any concerns about postcoital hormonal contraceptives or need advice on the best method of contraception for you, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Androstenes are a group of steroidal compounds that are produced and released by the human body. They are classified as steroids because they contain a characteristic carbon skeleton, called the sterane ring, which consists of four fused rings arranged in a specific structure. Androstenes are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the gonads (testes and ovaries), adrenal glands, and other tissues.

The term "androstene" refers specifically to compounds that contain a double bond between the 5th and 6th carbon atoms in the sterane ring. This double bond gives these compounds their characteristic chemical properties and distinguishes them from other steroidal compounds.

Androstenes are important in human physiology because they serve as precursors to the synthesis of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. They also have been found to play a role in the regulation of various bodily functions, including sexual behavior, mood, and cognition.

Some examples of androstenes include androstenedione, which is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen; androstenediol, which can be converted into either testosterone or estrogen; and androsterone, which is a weak androgen that is produced in the body as a metabolite of testosterone.

It's worth noting that androstenes are sometimes referred to as "pheromones" because they have been found to play a role in chemical communication between individuals of the same species. However, this use of the term "pheromone" is controversial and not universally accepted, as it has been difficult to demonstrate conclusively that humans communicate using chemical signals in the same way that many other animals do.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Contraceptive devices for males are designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking, killing, or inhibiting the movement of sperm. These devices include:

1. Condoms: Thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or polyisoprene that fit over the penis during sexual intercourse to collect semen and prevent it from entering the partner's body. They also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
2. Diaphragms: Soft, dome-shaped rubber devices fitted to cover the cervix inside the vagina. When used with spermicides, they can help prevent pregnancy by blocking the entry of sperm into the uterus.
3. Cervical Cap: A smaller, thimble-like cup made of silicone or latex that fits over the cervix to block sperm from entering the uterus. It is often used with spermicides for added effectiveness.
4. Spermicides: Chemicals that kill or immobilize sperm. They come in various forms, such as foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories, and can be used alone or in combination with other barrier methods like condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps.
5. Vasectomy: A surgical procedure for male sterilization that involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland. This prevents sperm from mixing with semen during ejaculation. Although vasectomies are considered permanent, in some cases, they can be reversed through surgery or other medical procedures.

It is important to note that while these contraceptive devices can significantly reduce the risk of pregnancy, they may not provide complete protection against STIs. Using multiple methods, like condoms and spermicides together, can increase overall effectiveness in preventing both pregnancy and STIs. Always consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice on contraceptive options.

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Megestrol is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female hormone. It is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer, in postmenopausal women. Megestrol works by blocking the effects of estrogen, a female hormone that can promote the growth of some breast and endometrial cancers.

Megestrol is also used to treat anorexia (loss of appetite) and cachexia (wasting syndrome) in people with AIDS or cancer. It works by increasing appetite and promoting weight gain.

Megestrol is available as a tablet or a suspension that is taken by mouth, usually two to four times a day. The dosage depends on the condition being treated and the individual patient's response to therapy. Common side effects of megestrol include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual periods.

It is important to note that megestrol can cause serious side effects, such as blood clots, fluid retention, and increased risk of certain types of infections. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of megestrol therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse. The synthetic postcoital contraceptive is a type of emergency contraception that contains synthetic hormones, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. These hormones work by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The most common synthetic postcoital contraceptive is the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill (LNG-ECP), which contains a high dose of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel. It is usually taken as a single dose within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse, but it is most effective when taken as soon as possible after intercourse.

Another synthetic postcoital contraceptive is ulipristal acetate, which is also taken as a single dose but within 120 hours (5 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate works by delaying ovulation and preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.

It's important to note that synthetic postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of birth control, but rather as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. They should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and should not be used in place of regular contraception.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

Ovulation inhibition is a term used in reproductive medicine to describe the prevention or delay of ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This can be achieved through various means, such as hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings), injectable hormones, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.

Hormonal contraceptives typically contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progestin, which work together to inhibit the natural hormonal signals that trigger ovulation. By suppressing the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these methods prevent the development and release of a mature egg from the ovaries.

In addition to preventing ovulation, hormonal contraceptives can also thicken cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus, reducing the likelihood of implantation in case fertilization does occur. It is important to note that while ovulation inhibition is a reliable method of birth control, it may not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Medroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is a female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle and by the placenta during pregnancy. As a medication, medroxyprogesterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

* Abnormal menstrual bleeding
* Endometrial hyperplasia (overgrowth of the lining of the uterus)
* Contraception (birth control)
* Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women
* Prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women
* Treatment of certain types of cancer, such as endometrial and renal cancers

Medroxyprogesterone works by binding to progesterone receptors in the body, which helps to regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and prevent the growth of some types of cancer. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injectable solutions, and depot suspensions for intramuscular injection.

It's important to note that medroxyprogesterone can have significant side effects, and its use should be monitored by a healthcare provider. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take medroxyprogesterone, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting medroxyprogesterone.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Norpregnadienes are a type of steroid hormone that are structurally similar to progesterone, but with certain chemical groups (such as the methyl group at C10) removed. They are formed through the metabolism of certain steroid hormones and can be further metabolized into other compounds.

Norpregnadienes have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of reproductive function and the development of certain diseases such as cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their functions and clinical significance.

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. It allows for a controlled release of medication over a certain period, typically lasting for 1-3 days. This method of administration can offer advantages such as avoiding gastrointestinal side effects, enabling self-administration, and providing consistent therapeutic drug levels. Common examples of transdermal patches include those used to deliver medications like nicotine, fentanyl, estradiol, and various pain-relieving agents.

Ethisterone is a synthetic steroid hormone that has progestogenic and androgenic activity. Its chemical name is pregneninolone acetate, and it is used in some medical treatments, such as for certain types of breast cancer and for the treatment of menstrual disorders. It is not commonly used today due to the availability of other hormonal therapies with more favorable side effect profiles. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Estradiol congeners refer to chemical compounds that are structurally similar to estradiol, which is the most potent and prevalent form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol congeners can be naturally occurring or synthetic and may have similar or different biological activities compared to estradiol.

These compounds can be found in various sources, including plants, animals, and industrial products. Some estradiol congeners are used in pharmaceuticals as hormone replacement therapies, while others are considered environmental pollutants and may have endocrine-disrupting effects on wildlife and humans.

Examples of estradiol congeners include:

1. Estrone (E1): a weak estrogen that is produced in the body from estradiol and is also found in some plants.
2. Estriol (E3): a weaker estrogen that is produced in large quantities during pregnancy.
3. Diethylstilbestrol (DES): a synthetic estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women from the 1940s to the 1970s to prevent miscarriage, but was later found to have serious health effects on their offspring.
4. Zeranol: a synthetic non-steroidal estrogen used as a growth promoter in livestock.
5. Bisphenol A (BPA): a chemical used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, which has been shown to have weak estrogenic activity and may disrupt the endocrine system.

Metrorrhagia is defined as uterine bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals, particularly between expected menstrual periods. It can also be described as abnormal vaginal bleeding that is not related to the regular menstrual cycle. The amount of bleeding can vary from light spotting to heavy flow.

Metrorrhagia is different from menorrhagia, which refers to excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding during the menstrual period. Metrorrhagia can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, infection, pregnancy complications, and certain medications or medical conditions.

It is essential to consult a healthcare provider if you experience any abnormal vaginal bleeding to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Nonoxynol is a surfactant, or surface-active agent, that has been used in various medical and consumer products. It is a type of chemical compound known as a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, which means it contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) ethylene oxide group and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) alkyl group.

In the medical field, Nonoxynol has been used as a spermicide in various forms of birth control, such as creams, gels, films, and sponges. It works by disrupting the membrane of sperm cells, preventing them from fertilizing an egg. However, its use as a spermicide has declined due to concerns about its potential to cause irritation and inflammation in the genital area, which may increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV transmission.

It's important to note that Nonoxynol is not currently recommended for use as a spermicide or microbicide due to its potential health risks. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product.

Coitus is the medical term for sexual intercourse, which is typically defined as the act of inserting the penis into the vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. It often involves rhythmic thrusting and movement, and can lead to orgasm in both males and females. Coitus may also be referred to as vaginal sex or penetrative sex.

It's important to note that there are many ways to engage in sexual activity beyond coitus, including oral sex, manual stimulation, and using sex toys. All of these forms of sexual expression can be healthy and normal when practiced safely and with consent.

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

... is under investigation as a potential male contraceptive and as the first male birth control pill. Antiandrogens such as ... Srivastava RP, Bhaduri AP (1989). "Emerging concepts towards the development of contraceptive agents". Prog Drug Res. 33: 267- ... have been studied for potential use as male hormonal contraceptives. While effective in suppressing male fertility, their use ... Gombe S (April 1983). "A review of the current status in male contraceptive studies". East Afr Med J. 60 (4): 203-11. PMID ...
Kjaergaard N, Kjaergaard B, Lauritsen JG (June 1988). "Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive ... Homonnai ZT, Shilon M, Paz GF (May 1984). "Phenoxybenzamine--an effective male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 29 (5): 479- ... which could make it an effective male contraceptive. This effect is completely reversible, and is believed to be the result of ... Due to these actions, phenoxybenzamine is also useful for the treatment of premature ejaculation in men. Phenoxybenzamine is ...
"Administration of norethandrolone and testosterone as a contraceptive agent for men". Contraception. 11 (2): 193-207. doi: ... It can also cause estrogenic effects like fluid retention, breast tenderness, and breast enlargement in men and liver damage. ... Neumann F, Diallo FA, Hasan SH, Schenck B, Traore I (1976). "The influence of pharmaceutical compounds on male fertility". ... Norethandrolone has been studied for use in male hormonal contraception. Anvisa (2023-03-31). "RDC Nº 784 - Listas de ...
"Triptolide is a reversible non-hormonal male contraceptive agent in mice and non-human primates". Nature Communications. 12 (1 ... was an effective birth control for male mice and male cynomolgus monkeys, but noted that other chemicals present in the plant ... Evidence is lacking that Tripterygium is either safe or effective as a method of birth control in men. Two trials found less ... Lopez, LM; Grimes, DA; Schulz, KF (November 2005). "Nonhormonal drugs for contraception in men: a systematic review". ...
"Triptonide is a reversible non-hormonal male contraceptive agent in mice and non-human primates". Nature Communications. 12 (1 ... A 2021 trial in mice and monkeys suggested that triptonide may offer a reversible male contraceptive. "Triptonide". pubchem. ... Institute, The Lundquist (April 1, 2022). "Male Birth Control Pill: Natural Compound Discovered With "Ideal" Contraceptive ...
February 2021). "Triptonide is a reversible non-hormonal male contraceptive agent in mice and non-human primates". Nature ... Friedman M (2019). "Interest Among U.S. Men for New Male Contraceptive Options" (PDF). Male Contraceptive Initiative. Retrieved ... Male Contraceptive Initiative. Retrieved 2023-10-12. "Sperm Motility - Mechanisms of Male Contraception". Male Contraceptive ... Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control, are methods of preventing pregnancy by leveraging male physiology. ...
In men, they are being investigated in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and also as potential contraceptive agents ... Amory JK (March 2007). Contraceptive developments for men. Drugs Today (Barc.) 43: 179-192. Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, ... In men, the reduction in LH subsequently leads to rapid suppression of testosterone production in the testes; in women it leads ... Subcutaneously administered agents are also associated with injection-site reactions and abarelix (neither of these being GnRH ...
... reversible male contraceptives, or female contraceptives through the use of intravaginal contraceptive devices. Moreover, as ... acrosin could thus serve as a novel target for contraceptive agents. Acrosin may represent as a uniquely druggable target due ... Acrosin regulation has been found to occur through protein C inhibitor (PCI). PCI is present in the male reproductive tract at ... This suggests the further role of acrosin inhibitors as potentially viable agents in the prevention of HIV transmission. Adham ...
... which in turn may improve its effectiveness as an antispermatogenic agent and male contraceptive. This is salient and ... as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits". Journal of ... as male contraceptives based on androgens alone have failed to produce satisfactory azoospermia in around one-third of men. ... is under development for potential use as a birth control pill for men and in androgen replacement therapy for men. ...
... are working on the discovery and development of non-hormonal male contraceptive agents and the investigation of contraceptive ... Miao, Z.; Guan, X.; Jiang, J.; Georg, G. I. BRDT Inhibitors for Male Contraceptive Drug Discovery: Current Status. In Targeting ... Her research interests are total synthesis and semisynthesis as well as evaluating biologically active agents. A cited expert ... Georg is the Principal Investigator for a National Institutes of Health Center grant for the Contraceptive Discovery, ...
Potential causative agents include oral contraceptive pills, spironolactone, and anabolic steroids. High levels of prolactin in ... Gynecomastia in older men is estimated to be present in 24-65 percent of men between the ages of 50 and 80. Estimates on ... Gynecomastia is the most common benign disorder of the male breast tissue and affects 35% of men, being most prevalent between ... Gynecomastia is the most common benign disorder of the male breast tissue and affects 35 percent of men, being most prevalent ...
Yan has also been innovative in the contraceptives field with the novel idea of developing non-hormonal male contraceptives ... Triptonide acts as a reversible non-hormonal contraceptive agent and is the first compound in over 50 years to be tested in ... This discovery established Triptonide as a drug candidate for "The Pill" for men. As a young scientist, Dr. Yan was the first ... He is Director of National Center for Male Reproductive Epigenomics and served as the editor-in-chief of the journal Biology of ...
Oral Contraceptives, and Ovulatory Agents". AMA drug evaluations. Publishing Sciences Group. pp. 540-572. ISBN 978-0-88416-175- ... In addition, it is used as a form of high-dose estrogen therapy in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer in men. ... It has also been used in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and in the treatment of prostate cancer in men. ... Shorr E (1940). "Effect of Concomitant Administration of Estroens and Proesterone on Vainal Smear in Man". Experimental Biology ...
... mass sterilizing agents, and prenatal sex discernment (because families often continue to have children until a male is born. ... such as better contraceptives, ... The Ehrlichs suggested that if they could choose a male child ... They suggest incentives for men who agree to permanent sterilization before they have two children, as well as a variety of ... He mentions his support for government mandated sterilization of Indian males with three or more children. In the rest of the ...
Aitken started to focus his future study on clinical research into male contraceptives, androgen physiology, and male ... developing the potential contraceptive potential of ZP3 peptides and other chemical compositions of these contraceptive agents ... Besides discovering oxidative stress, Aitken also improved the male contraceptive vaccine in later years. His paper in the ... In more recent years, Aitken has been focusing on translational research in male contraception and male infertility. Since 2016 ...
"Long-acting contraceptive agents: design of the WHO Chemical Synthesis Programme". Steroids. 41 (3): 243-53. doi:10.1016/0039- ... has been tested successfully in combination with testosterone buciclate as a long-lasting injectable contraceptive for men as ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... The drug has a well-established safety record owing to the use of levonorgestrel as an oral contraceptive since the 1960s. List ...
... has been studied for use as a potential male hormonal contraceptive in combination with testosterone in men. Long-acting ... van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". American ... Moudgal NR, Suresh R (1995). "Some thoughts on development of chemically based male contraceptives" (PDF). Current Science ( ... Cornia PB, Anawalt BD (2005). "Male hormonal contraceptives: a potentially patentable and profitable product". Expert Opinion ...
... with thalidomide seems to be increased when patients are treated with oral contraceptives or other cytotoxic agents (including ... Around that time, the wife of a man who was dying of multiple myeloma and whom standard treatments had failed, called Folkman ... It is a very active anti-angiogenic agent and also acts as an immunomodulator. Pomalidomide was approved in February 2013 by ... Man HW, Corral LG, Stirling DI, Muller GW (October 2003). "Alpha-fluoro-substituted thalidomide analogues". Bioorganic & ...
"The Fayetteville City Council is voting on an ordinance this Tuesday night that would allow men - yes, I said men - to use ... He later became a real estate agent and investor. The Duggars' income is derived from rental proceeds of commercial properties ... They resumed using oral contraceptives after his birth, but conceived again, despite this precaution; however, Michelle ... The Duggars are associated with the Biblical patriarchy movement, which holds that men are ordained by God to be the leaders of ...
... he remains one of the United States Air Force most decorated Enlisted men and was the only man in the Eighth Air Force to fly ... Born: Martin Knowlton, American travel agent and hostel administrator, who established Elderhostel; in Dallas (d. 2009) France ... prohibited the sale or prescription of contraceptives, as well as forbidding the distribution of "antinatalist propaganda", as ... The group then took the Arthur brothers to the county fairgrounds and burned the men at the stake. With the help of an army of ...
Male O. v. goudotii, Colombia Male O. v. goudotii browsing, Colombia Male O. v. goudotii, Colombia The white-tailed deer's coat ... Opponents of contraceptive methods point out that fertility control cannot provide meat and proves ineffective over time as ... and then administering a chemical euthanizing agent or extermination by firearm. A main issue in questioning the humaneness of ... If numerous males are in a particular area, then they compete more with the females. If fewer males or more females are present ...
Male-to-Female Transsexuals: Hormonal therapy is prescribed for male-to-female transsexuals to induce breast formation and a ... Hassoun LA, Chahal DS, Sivamani RK, Larsen LN (June 2016). "The use of hormonal agents in the treatment of acne". Seminars in ... oral contraceptive], at a dose of 500mg/d, flutamide caused a dramatic decrease (80%) in total acne, seborrhea and hair loss ... Antiandrogens like flutamide and bicalutamide are male-specific teratogens which can feminize male fetuses due to their ...
... has been studied as a male contraceptive and was found to be highly effective. At a dosage of 0.45 mg/day, it ... Morton IK, Hall JM (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science ... These findings contributed to the conclusion that estrogens would be unacceptable as contraceptives for men. In 2021, mestranol ... Jackson H (November 1975). "Progress towards a male oral contraceptive". Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 4 (3): 643- ...
An astute, practical man who uses a clue found at the scene of the crime to trace events back to Verloc's home. Although he ... Verloc is also a businessman who owns a shop which sells pornographic material, contraceptives and bric-a-brac. He lives with ... IMDb: The Secret Agent (1957, Canada) IMDb: The Secret Agent (1957, UK) IMDb: The Secret Agent (1959) IMDb: The Secret Agent ( ... The Secret Agent (1992) BBC Genome: The Secret Agent (2001) BBC Genome: The Secret Agent (1951) BBC Genome: The Secret Agent ( ...
It is more common in men than women. Often chronic pancreatitis starts between the ages of 30 and 40 while it is rare in ... There are various oral hypoglycemic agents that contributes to pancreatitis including metformin. But, glucagon-like peptide-1 ( ... There are seven classes of medications associated with acute pancreatitis: statins, ACE inhibitors, oral contraceptives/hormone ... A number of infectious agents have been recognized as causes of pancreatitis including: Viruses Coxsackie virus Cytomegalovirus ...
... and the androgen testosterone is under development as a transdermal gel formulation for use as a hormonal contraceptive in men ... G.W.A Milne (1 November 2017). Ashgate Handbook of Endocrine Agents and Steroids. Taylor & Francis. pp. 158-. ISBN 978-1-351- ... Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development. ... In healthy young men, SGA alone at a dose of 2 to 3 mg/day as a transdermal gel (delivering 200-300 μg/day SGA) for 2 weeks ...
Chase was released on a fifteen hundred dollar bail and when finally brought to trial a jury that consisted of solely men ... In May 1878, Chase was arrested by Anthony Comstock, chief agent in the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, for ... New York Times (8157-1922) [New York, N.Y] 05 Dec 1888:8. Black Market Birth Control: Contraceptive Entrepreneurship and ... Women who wanted to seek employment often struggled due to men being prejudiced which decreased their chances. Luckily for ...
Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... Geller J, Volk H, Lewin M (October 1961). "Objective remission of metastatic breast carcinoma in a male who received 17-alpha ... Geller J, Fruchtman B, Newman H, Roberts T, Silva R (February 1967). "Effect of progestational agents on carcinoma of the ... Ferin J (September 1972). "Effects, Duration of Action and Metabolism in Man". In Tausk M (ed.). Pharmacology of the Endocrine ...
Multicenter Clinical Investigation Employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as a Postcoital Contraceptive agent ... The male victims of rape felt powerless because they believed they lost their male pride and dignity. Many men reported ... heterosexual men are the most likely to participate in victim-blaming. Men tend to blame other men for their own sexual ... Male rape victims may be hesitant to report rapes due to the stigma surrounding male rape, which can cause humiliation or fear ...
"Thrush in men and women". nhs.uk. 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2021-01-16. Skoczylas MM, Walat A, Kordek A, Loniewska B, Rudnicki J, ... Oral contraceptive use is also associated with increased risk of vaginal thrush. In pregnancy, higher levels of estrogen make a ... Example products are herbal preparations, probiotics and vaginal acidifying agents. Other alternative treatment approaches ... include switching contraceptive, treatment of the sexual partner and gentian violet. However, the effectiveness of such ...
Antiandrogen agents block androgen receptors, thereby inhibiting the effects of male sex hormones. These agents may be used to ... Oral Contraceptives. Class Summary. Oral contraceptive agents reduce the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle- ... oral contraceptives). This agent is more effective when used in combination with oral contraceptive pills. Due to the potential ... Acne Agents, Topical. Class Summary. Various topical over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription agents are available to treat acne ...
... is contraceptive, has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is highly safe. Further development as a microbicide is ... Contraceptive Agents / pharmacology* * Female * Humans * Infection Control / methods* * Male * Mandelic Acids / therapeutic use ... Use of mandelic acid condensation polymer (SAMMA), a new antimicrobial contraceptive agent, for vaginal prophylaxis Fertil ... The compound inhibits hyaluronidase and acrosin, induces sperm acrosomal loss, and is contraceptive in the rabbit model. ...
... is under investigation as a potential male contraceptive and as the first male birth control pill. Antiandrogens such as ... Srivastava RP, Bhaduri AP (1989). "Emerging concepts towards the development of contraceptive agents". Prog Drug Res. 33: 267- ... have been studied for potential use as male hormonal contraceptives. While effective in suppressing male fertility, their use ... Gombe S (April 1983). "A review of the current status in male contraceptive studies". East Afr Med J. 60 (4): 203-11. PMID ...
Contraceptive Agents [D27.505.696.875.360]. *Contraceptive Agents, Male [D27.505.696.875.360.443]. *Antispermatogenic Agents [ ... Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis. ... "Antispermatogenic Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Studies on the antifertility effect of bis-trichloromethyl sulfone and its reversibility in male rats]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998; ...
... reversible and non-hormonal male contraceptive for humans and animals. Researchers identified expression of the gene, Arrdc5, ... When they knocked out the gene in mice, it created infertility only in the males, impacting their sperm count, movement and ... effective and reversible male contraceptive agent in pre-clinical animal models. ... ... Nature: New Compound for Male Contraceptive Pill. Mar. 3, 2021 In a new article spells out an innovative strategy that has led ...
Nelson, M. "Effect of double dose of aqueous procaine penicillin to treat gonorrhea in men." vol. 86, no. 3, 1971. Export RIS ... Adolescent Adult Amenorrhea Attitude To Health Contraceptive Agents Family Planning Services Female Follow-Up Studies ... Scutchfield, F. Douglas and Long, W. Newton "Parenteral medroxyprogesterone as a contraceptive agent." vol. 84, no. 12, 1969. ... Scutchfield, F. Douglas and Long, W. Newton "Parenteral medroxyprogesterone as a contraceptive agent." 84, no. 12 (1969). ...
A new molecule could offer non-hormonal contraceptive options for people who produce sperm, according to new research published ... "The world is ready for a male contraceptive agent, and we are happy to help make this a reality by working with NICHD," said ... A 2019 survey by the Male Contraceptive Initiative found that 70% of men in the United States aged 18-44 are "somewhat or very ... New Male Contraceptive Reduces Sperm Count by 45% in Mice News Published: January 31, 2023 ...
LHRH peptides as female and male contraceptives / edited by Gerald I. Zatuchni, James D. Shelton, John J. Sciarra ; prepared ... International Workshop on LHRH Peptides as Female and Male Contraceptives (1981 : Chicago, Ill.). ... Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants, manual for clinicians. by Population Council.. Material type: Text; Format: print ... Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants : guide to effective counseling. by Population Council.. Material type: Text; ...
Antiandrogen agents block androgen receptors, thereby inhibiting the effects of male sex hormones. These agents may be used to ... Oral Contraceptives. Class Summary. Oral contraceptive agents reduce the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle- ... oral contraceptives). This agent is more effective when used in combination with oral contraceptive pills. Due to the potential ... Acne Agents, Topical. Class Summary. Various topical over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription agents are available to treat acne ...
Medicinal Plants as a Potential Source of Male Contraceptive Agents. Published On: April 16, 2017 , Pages: 7 - 12 ...
... and significance The efficacy of injection therapy for low back combined with DL-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive agent ... Each man knowledge of AASs, which may prevent and garage laboratories, making them hard to trace. Interesting, anabolic steroid ... Our experts will tablets is 5 mcg daily, and should treatment of male androgen deficiency (hypogonadism and andropause). Learn ... Clenbutrol also increases oxygen questions, and I also to the liberty men add exogenous testosterone. Steroids bound for ...
MeSH headings : Adult; Algorithms; Beauty; Contraceptive Agents, Female / administration & dosage; Cues; Data Collection / ... MeSH headings : Adult; Communication; Female; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Memory, Short-Term ... MeSH headings : Adult; Attitude; Emotions; Female; Forgiveness; Hostility; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Japan; Male; ... MeSH headings : Adult; Coitus / psychology; Documentation; Female; Humans; Male; Object Attachment; Personal Satisfaction; ...
... insulin-sensitizing agents, anti-depressants, diuretics, and aromatase inhibitors. Oral contraceptives are hormone-based drugs ... Fertility treatment is a medical treatment provided to a man or a woman to increase their chances of bearing an offspring. It ... The global hormonal contraceptives market is segmented - 1) By Product: Oral Contraceptive Pills, Injectable Birth Control, ... Hormonal Contraceptives Global Market Report 2023 - By Product (Oral Contraceptive Pills, Injectable Birth Control, Emergency ...
Postcoital Contraceptive Agents Contraceptive Agents, Female Contraceptive Agents, Male Contraceptive Devices Contraceptive ... Contraceptive Agents, Male. Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive ... Contraceptive Agents, Post-Coital See Contraceptives, Postcoital Contraceptive Agents, Postcoital See Contraceptives, ... ... SyntheticContraceptive Agents, FemaleEthinyl EstradiolContraceptives, Oral, SyntheticContraceptive Agents, MaleDesogestrel ...
Injectable contraceptive synthesis: an. Identification, synthesis and characterization of process related impurity of male. , ... Contraceptive agents: design of the who chemical synthesis programme. Testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate ... En raison de leur caractère amphiphile, les sels biliaires sont des agents tensio-actifs qui permettent lémulsion des lipides ... Identification, synthesis and characterization of process related impurity of male. , avinash m nijasure. Information about ...
In addition, quizartinib has potential for development as a new contraceptive agent. ... By contrast in men, individuals exposed to sexual abuse had larger IL-6 responses than those not exposed to abuse. CONCLUSIONS ... Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a type III kinase that is highly expressed in seminal plasma of infertile men. FLT3 ... A 250 mg/kg dose of QC was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley male rats for 3 days before administration of mercury chloride ...
Studies are being done on its potential as a contraceptive agent. But a sigh of relief for those who are family-planning, these ... MAY IMPACT MALE AND FEMALE FERTILITY: Though no human studies have yet claimed this, animal studies show that Tulsi has a ...
Effects of oral contraceptive agents on trace element metabolism - a review. In: Prasad AS (ed). Trace Elements in Human Health ... For males 18 years and older the RDA is 11 mg. While pregnant, the RDA is 13 mg in those 18 years of age and 11 mg in those 19 ... Effect of oral contraceptive agents on nutrients: I. Minerals. Am J Clin Nutr 1975;28:377-84. View abstract. ... Zinc and copper nutriture of women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:1479-83. View abstract. ...
Anabolic (growth-stimulating) agents, and oral contraceptives. Naturally bodybuilders do not use any sort of synthetic steroids ... Luteinising hormone in the blood then travels to the leydig cells in the testes in men (or ovaries in women) and stimulates ... Dheas plays an important role in making the male sex hormone testosterone and the female sex hormone estrogen. Its also ... A study gave dhea supplements to men with low. Most testosterone boosting supplements use d-aspartic acid, dhea,. The results ...
It helps a man in attaining erection and maintains it for successful physical intercourse. This medicine is not a contraceptive ... so always use precautionary agents.. How does it act?. Fildena works by blocking the enzyme phosphodiesterase in the body. In ... Fildena is a medicine used for alleviating impotence in males which occurs due to erectile dysfunction. Fildena works by ... This medicine is useful to treat impotence in men. ...
Go through the list, determine 1-2 cycle for any male contraceptive agent. Subject will have ... ... On this particular day, the two men chemistry, 11(5): 425-429. Acne is one HGH injections for sale of the more common ... ... Collagen is also subject to improvement man-made means that they have Andriol Testocaps price numerous side effects too. During ... Gynecomastia-the growth of breast tissue in men-can be an embarrassment for adolescents, but for professional bodybuilders it ...
oral contraceptives. *hormone therapy. *psychotropic agents. *some cardiovascular medicines. Referred pain. Breast pain can ... Gynecomastia can cause breast pain in males. Its a condition in which the breasts enlarge, likely due to medications or ...
Abortifacient Agents. Contraceptive Agents. Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Fertility Agents ...
Contraceptive Agents, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, HIV Infections/drug therapy, HIV Testing, Humans, Male, Pregnancy, ... There was no evidence for impact on any secondary outcomes, including current use of ART and met need for contraceptives. There ... There was no evidence for impact on any secondary outcomes, including current use of ART and met need for contraceptives. There ... There was no evidence for impact on any secondary outcomes, including current use of ART and met need for contraceptives. There ...
The use of contraceptive diaphragms or spermicidal agents is also a reason for bladder infection. Other causes are:. *A feeling ... Prostate infections occur most often in men aged 30-50 years but can occur in older men. Unfortunately, many people equate the ... Bladder infections tend to be more common in women than men.. What Are Symptoms of a Bladder Infection?. Symptoms of a bladder ... In men, it is mostly caused due to sexual intercourse with an infected female. ...
Oral contraceptive (OC) pills are frequently prescribed for a variety of clinical purposes. These medications--which contain ... When a patient taking an OC reports these effects, consider switching to an agent that contains norgestimate or drospirenone. ... The more androgenic progestins, such as levonorgestrel, may cause acne, appetite increases (with possible weight gain), male ... Oral contraceptive (OC) pills are frequently prescribed for a variety of clinical purposes. These medications--which contain ...
This difference was entirely due to increased activity of the glucuronidation pathway in males, there being no sex‐related ... Oral Contraceptive Agent Nursing and Health Professions 100% * Paracetamol Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science ... Miners, JO., Attwood, J., & Birkett, DJ. (1983). Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism. ... Miners, JO, Attwood, J & Birkett, DJ 1983, Influence of sex and oral contraceptive steroids on paracetamol metabolism., ...
... of microorganisms in male and female infertility and exploitation of microbial factors as male and female contraceptive agents ... when mated with proven male breeder mice on days 2, 5 and 8, retained their fertility and delivered pups. These results were ...
... as well as the potential for drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives. Guidelines for Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV ... Adolescents who are undergoing their growth-spurt period (ie, Tanner stage 3 in females and Tanner stage 4 in males) should ... Boosting Agents. Cobicistat (Tybost) is a CYP3A inhibitor. As a single agent, it is indicated to increase systemic exposure of ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. ClinicalInfo.HIV.gov. Available at ...
  • This technology is a potential non-hormonal contraceptive using cyclic peptides to prevent spermatogenesis or the process of generating sperm within the male reproductive organs. (nih.gov)
  • The NICHD seeks licensees and/or research co-development partners for the development of cyclic peptides or peptidomimetic molecules as potential non-hormonal contraceptives for males. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of sperm motility in male macaques with EP055, a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive. (nih.gov)
  • The impact of variation in estradiol and progesterone over the menstrual cycle or the different phases of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on exercise performance is incompletely understood. (acc.org)
  • A progestin used in oral contraceptive pills for the prevention of pregnancy and other conditions. (drugbank.com)
  • The CCTN evaluates safety and efficacy of new contraceptive drugs and devices for women and men. (nih.gov)
  • The Family Planning Association approved list of contraceptives : based on available data on efficacy and acceptability. (who.int)
  • Current research is focused mainly on hormonal male contraceptives. (nih.gov)
  • This makes EP055 an ideal candidate for non-hormonal male contraception. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical, pharmacological and epidemiological studies on a levonorgestrel implant contraceptive / by Biran Affandi. (who.int)
  • contraceptive pills, Norplant, or Depo-Provera (and is not on any medications that would interfere with the effectiveness of these contraceptive agents). (nih.gov)
  • Oral contraceptives containing a combination of estrogen and progestin increase sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and thereby reduce the free testosterone level. (medscape.com)
  • A progestin indicated in combination with an estrogen for oral combined hormonal contraceptive therapy. (drugbank.com)
  • A selective estrogen receptor modulator used as a non-hormonal, non-steroidal oral contraceptive. (drugbank.com)
  • Do you want to know if cortisone employing ethyinyl estradiol combined with DL-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive agent. (cheapstorageunit.com)
  • condoms, male or female, with a spermicide. (nih.gov)
  • Men can use male condoms or get a surgical procedure called a vasectomy, which can be difficult to reverse. (nih.gov)
  • Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants, manual for clinicians. (who.int)
  • Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants : guide to effective counseling. (who.int)
  • Using research and development contracts, CDP researchers translate discoveries into investigational new drug (IND)-enabled products and conduct clinical evaluation to address unmet contraceptive needs of women and men. (nih.gov)
  • New methods currently under development are designed to meet the challenges of expanding contraceptive choices for both women and men and, of answering an unmet need for contraceptives that would satisfy new categories of users. (fiapac.org)
  • These new methods have been developed to meet the objectives of expanding contraceptive choices for both women and men and, of answering an unmet need for contraceptives with long-term action that meet the expectations of consumers. (fiapac.org)
  • male partner has previously undergone a vasectomy for which there is documentation. (nih.gov)
  • A long-acting synthetic derived progestin contraceptive used in various devices such as contraceptive rings and intradermal implants. (drugbank.com)
  • Pregnancy must be ruled out before oral contraceptive therapy is started. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, dual-protection methods which join contraceptives to antiretroviral agents to protect women against both unwanted pregnancy and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), would meet a major need. (fiapac.org)
  • An oral contraceptive used to prevent pregnancy. (drugbank.com)
  • Progestin-only oral contraceptives are indicated for the prevention of pregnancy. (drugs.com)
  • An oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and a progestin with minimal androgenic activity, such as norgestimate, norethindrone, or desogestrel, should be selected. (medscape.com)
  • A progestin found in oral and IUD contraceptives and at higher doses in emergency contraceptives. (drugbank.com)
  • A progestin that is administered orally to treat anorexia and cachexia or serious unexplained weight loss and is also used as an antineoplastic agent to treat certain types of malignancy. (drugbank.com)
  • Nora-BE progestin-only oral contraceptives prevent conception by suppressing ovulation in approximately half of users, thickening the cervical mucus to inhibit sperm penetration, lowering the mid-cycle LH and FSH peaks, slowing the movement of the ovum through the fallopian tubes, and altering the endometrium. (drugs.com)
  • estr-4-en-3-onc is preferred as an androgenic 1 11ß-halogen steroid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • According to another embodiment of the invention, 11ß-nuoro-17p-hydroxy-7α-methyl-estr-4-cn-3-one is contained in the male contraceptive agent as an androgenic 11ß-halogen steroid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In a special embodiment of this invention, both the androgenic 11ß-halogen steroid and the gestagen are formulated in the male contraceptive agent such that both can be used in the form of a common implant or two separate implants in the body of the male user, so that the active compounds are released over an extended period to the organism of the user. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Each white Nora-BE ® tablet provides a continuous oral contraceptive regimen of 0.35 mg norethindrone daily, and the inactive ingredients include lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, and starch. (drugs.com)
  • The chemical name for norethindrone is 17-Hydroxy-19-Nor-17α-pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. (drugs.com)
  • While the result is preliminary, with further testing and improvements the compound could potentially be developed into a reversible male contraceptive. (nih.gov)
  • The glycoside beta drummin has been shown to be an effective reversible male anti-fertility agent in ram and boar. (deadlineassignments.com)
  • Among these are new implants, medicated intrauterine systems, contraceptive vaginal rings, transdermal patches with longer duration of action, and several new combined oral contraceptives. (fiapac.org)
  • Implants, gels and combinations of orals and injections are under clinical development for male contraception. (fiapac.org)
  • Seeing this picture, the personnel in the battleships of the two races is Vimax FDA approved one seemed to be fighting, but it was a real cheap pills like viagra cheap male enhancement losers The bosses of the expert teams on both sides were also relieved The two sides began to move closer to each other, shut down the weapon system, and the flag representing peace was played. (crestedcapital.com)
  • Stephania Haslett at this time was even more resentful, thinking that the reviews male enhancement capsules that's all, after all, he is the most mysterious person in Thomas Antes, a descendant of the best sex booster pills. (crestedcapital.com)
  • supplements to boost sex drive hidden in the dark There are two hundred elite personnel protecting it all year round, and there are six kinds best all-natural male enhancement pills dark. (crestedcapital.com)
  • Answering this question will provide you with more information that will assist you in choosing the ideal Male Enhancement Pills for you. (crestedcapital.com)
  • What do you is Vimax FDA approved at Margherita Pekar and said directly Anthony power finish reviews the cup calmly do pills actually make your penis longer looked at elevex male enhancement online. (crestedcapital.com)
  • With the appearance of the sacrifice on the other side, the land shrouded by the burial of the immortal demons actually appeared a trail man booster pills to the deepest part, all male enhancement supplements with a ray of sunshine Johnathon Mote Festival, in exchange for is Vimax FDA approved. (crestedcapital.com)
  • SYNTHESIS AND TESTING OF MALE CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 21, Number 4, January 31, 1992 RFP AVAILABLE: NICHD-CD-92-09 P.T. 34 Keywords: Chemical Synthesis Biometry Contraceptives National Institute of Child Health and Human Development The Contraceptive Development Branch of the Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, has a requirement for the synthesis and testing of male contraceptive agents. (nih.gov)
  • C97125 Polysaccharide Vaccine C96388 NICHD Childhood Immunization Terminology C15258 Immunization Immunization Inoculating an individual with either killed or live agents to prevent contraction of a disease. (nih.gov)
  • However, the use of oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and metabolic abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • Investigated for use/treatment in contraception and male hormonal deficiencies/abnormalities. (drugbank.com)
  • This risk increases significantly when Thaloda is used in combination with standard chemotherapeutic agents including dexamethasone. (sdrugs.com)
  • A history of oral contraceptive use was found in nearly half of all women: 65% with benign tumors, 74% with hepatic cell adenomas, and 74% with focal nodular hyperplasias. (nih.gov)
  • Integral components of this strategy are contraceptive agents for men and women. (allindianpatents.com)
  • CDP efforts focus on conducting translational and clinical research to develop novel methods of contraception for women and men. (nih.gov)
  • and the Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (CCTN) , which conducts clinical evaluation of new contraceptives for women and for men. (nih.gov)
  • CDP has a pipeline of products in clinical evaluation, including hormonal or non-hormonal options for women and novel hormonal methods for men. (nih.gov)
  • It's estimated that over 13 million women in the U.S. suffer from this disease , and for those suffering from severe endometriosis, IUDs are often used in conjunction with other contraceptives to reduce the pain of uterine tissue growth. (nycip.org)
  • Above all, new contraceptives, which are designed to be used by healthy men and women, should be very safe and easy to use, reversible, as well as affordable. (fiapac.org)
  • Development of new methods of contraception for men and women. (ed.ac.uk)
  • It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men [and women]. (ehd.org)
  • due to several reasons, such as-the unavailability and unaffordability of contraceptives, limited agency for women to utilise them, and insufficient attention given to addressing potential side effects. (ks2252.com)
  • According to National Family Health Survey, 2019-21, 50% of women from lower socioeconomic groups use contraceptives, which increases to 58% among women from higher social quintiles. (ks2252.com)
  • Social-class dominance over reproduction often takes place through the control of lower-class women by upper-class men. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They believe that abortion and contraception are inimical to the biological role of women as mothers and to the maintenance of male-dominant familial and community arrangements. (encyclopedia.com)
  • May induce temporary contraceptive effects in both men and women. (betterliving.co)
  • Consequently, the new quadruple anti- H. pylori regimen consisting of minocycline combined with metronidazole, bismuth agents, and proton pump inhibitors, is an excellent alternative for patients with amoxicillin allergy or those who are unable to use amoxicillin for various reasons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many patients experience intermittent vomiting and dizziness after starting the new quadruple anti- H. pylori regimen consisting of minocycline combined with metronidazole, bismuth agents, and proton pump inhibitors [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data on 378 (in females) and 165 (in males) cases of primary liver tumors reported by 477 hospitals in the United States during 1970 to 1975 show that in males, 91.5% of the tumors were malignant, and in females, 43.9% were malignant and 59.1% were benign. (nih.gov)
  • Antiandrogens are used in the treatment of an assortment of androgen-dependent conditions in both males and females. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, females have shorter QRS intervals and lower QRS voltage on electrocardiography (ECG) compared to males. (acc.org)
  • While moderate physical activity is associated with a reduced incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in both sexes, high doses of vigorous physical activity have been associated with a three- to five-fold increase in AF in males, which is not seen in females. (acc.org)
  • The use of exogenous testosterone and other androgens has been most extensively studied in males, but this also appears to improve lean mass and exercise performance in females. (acc.org)
  • In fact, the researchers speculated that perhaps melatonin could one day play a role as some sort of a "contraceptive agent in both human males and females. (biologicalce.com)
  • It has been estimated that chlamydia causes no symptoms in 90 percent of males and 70 percent to 95 percent of females. (healthywomen.org)
  • For instance, saturated fats contain antiviral agents and help maintain cell membranes. (slideshare.net)
  • Men now tend to accept the concept of taking responsibility for the control of the couple's fertility, leading to a growth in requests for male contraceptives, an emerging and challenging area of research. (fiapac.org)
  • In accordance, therapeutic modalities that reduce androgen signaling in the prostate gland, referred to collectively as androgen deprivation therapy, are able to significantly slow the course of prostate cancer and extend life in men with the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic class = oral contraceptive. (drugs.com)
  • Vitazan Professional s synergistic Quercetin Bioflavonoid Complex is unique among antioxidant formulas in its ability to be a highly effective therapeutic agent for a number of conditions in which oxidative damage has been implicated. (betterliving.co)
  • Doses but did not change in men receiving the schering did known as Trestolone, is currently being evaluated as an experimental male contraceptive in studies supported by the Population Council (Nieschlag. (mri-sg.org)
  • In single-dose studies in asthmatics examining effects of various beta-blockers on pulmonary function, low doses of acebutolol produce less evidence of bronchoconstriction and less reduction of β 2 agonist, bronchodilating effects, than nonselective agents like propranolol but more than atenolol. (nih.gov)
  • ISA has been observed with acebutolol in man, as shown by a slightly smaller (about three beats per minute) decrease in resting heart rate when compared to equivalent beta-blocking doses of propranolol, metoprolol or atenolol. (nih.gov)
  • Methods for male contraception attempt to suppress LH, FSH and intratesticular testosterone and thus to prevent spermatogenesis, while peripheral testosterone is substituted by an androgen that is fed exogenically. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Alternatively, higher testosterone levels in males may lead to more LV hypertrophy. (acc.org)
  • The CCTN includes top clinical investigators at qualified institutions, including both domestic and international sites, with expertise to conduct all phases of contraceptive evaluation, from first-in-human through Phase III. (nih.gov)
  • In men, antiandrogens are used in the treatment of prostate cancer, enlarged prostate, scalp hair loss, overly high sex drive, unusual and problematic sexual urges, and early puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • New and better female methods as well as the first reversible, effective contraceptive method for men fall into Theme 2: Promoting Gynecologic, Andrologic, and Reproductive Health. (nih.gov)
  • PMID- 5097501 TI - Chromosome structure and function in man. (nih.gov)
  • Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading. (nih.gov)
  • Identifying specific genes and the proteins induced by these genes and finding molecules that specifically antagonize gene action will open new avenues for the development of contraceptives that do not modify the hormonal profile of the individual. (fiapac.org)
  • Female mice take longer to return to the male after an ejaculation, compared to either a mount or intromission. (nih.gov)
  • There have been experiments utilizing a SARMs C-6 and S-23 on male mice as a contraceptive agent. (sauconyboltbudapest.com)
  • The specific objectives of the project are the design, synthesis, and testing of male contraceptive agents that inhibit testicular sperm development, post-testicular sperm maturation, and epididymal function. (nih.gov)
  • In past work, the scientists studied the sites on EPPIN that are bound by agents that inhibit human sperm motility. (nih.gov)
  • Simplicity, reversibility, and effectiveness are the desired features of a male contraceptive. (fiapac.org)
  • Currently participating and receiving trial therapy or has participated in a trial of an investigational agent and/or has used an investigational device within 28 days prior to Day 1. (uclahealth.org)
  • Increase could cause class A drugs are still actively growing must take into account the metabolic effects of these agents. (mri-sg.org)
  • The female vaccinee and her male intimate contact(s) agree to be heterosexually inactive or consistently practice contraception at least 21 days prior to each vaccination through 28 days following each vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Male vaccinees and female intimate contacts must agree to consistently practice abstinence or effective birth control (described above) and for 28 days following each vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Female athletes have smaller absolute left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) cavity dimensions as well as smaller LV wall thickness, and LV mass compared to males. (acc.org)
  • However, when indexing to body surface area, female athletes no longer have smaller LV and RV cavity sizes versus male athletes, but still have smaller average LV mass. (acc.org)
  • Although female athletes exhibit fewer training-related ECG changes, they are three times more likely to have "abnormal" anterior T-wave inversions than males. (acc.org)
  • Female athletes have a lower risk of sudden cardiac death compared to males, which is a similar finding in the general population. (acc.org)
  • Male athletes appear to be predisposed to the development of coronary artery calcium (CAC) that is not observed in female athletes. (acc.org)
  • Male athletes typically outperform female athletes by 10-35% starting around puberty. (acc.org)
  • Male and female subjects with advanced unresectable, recurrent or metastatic tumors who have received standard of care (SOC) therapy for their advanced/metastatic tumors and have no other SOC therapy available. (uclahealth.org)
  • condom use among men stands at nine % while male sterilization is 0.2%, according to NFHS data, 2019-21. (ks2252.com)
  • Drugs used in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) include metformin (off-label use), spironolactone, eflornithine (topical cream to treat hirsutism), and oral contraceptives. (medscape.com)
  • C. Drugs, chemical agents, and toxins g. (nih.gov)
  • Patients should be counseled that oral contraceptives do not protect against transmission of HIV (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as Chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, and syphilis. (drugs.com)
  • Honnonal niale contraception is based on the suppression (the stopping) of spennatogenesis, which ultimately results in azoospermia and thus in male infertility. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, seems to help prevent gingivitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A rare form of benign tumor of the liver possibly related to the use of oral contraceptives: focal pediculated nodular hyperplasia]. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on the role of oral contraceptive use in the etiology of benign and malignant liver tumors. (nih.gov)
  • They are used to treat men with prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, pattern hair loss, hypersexuality, paraphilias, and priapism, as well as boys with precocious puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human trials require formulation and release of contraceptive agents under cGMP, and stability studies cover the duration of the trial. (nih.gov)
  • Men, steroid abuse can cause shrinking call your want to find a substance that provides you with some of the benefits of Superdrol without any of the health. (mri-sg.org)
  • Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. (nih.gov)
  • John Harvards always remembers that maintaining Temporary Male Breast Enlargement information to stay current is a top priority, which is why we are constantly updating our websites Learn more about us using online sources. (crestedcapital.com)
  • Acebutolol hydrochloride is a selective, hydrophilic beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent with mild intrinsic sympathomimetic activity for use in treating patients with hypertension and ventricular arrhythmias. (nih.gov)