Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
An endocrine state in men, characterized by a significant decline in the production of TESTOSTERONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and other hormones such as HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Andropause symptoms are related to the lack of androgens including DEPRESSION, sexual dysfunction, and OSTEOPOROSIS. Andropause may also result from hormonal ablation therapy for malignant diseases.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation. (1/136)

Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths. Perceived efficacy and situational variables influencing male compliance in, say, condom use, form part of the wider study that addresses men. Thus preventive reproductive health initiatives and information should move from the female alone to both sexes. Women need men as partners in reproductive health who understand the risks they might be exposed to and strategies for their prevention.  (+info)

Effect of intravasal copper on the fertility of rats. (2/136)

Copper wire was inserted into the vas deferens and its effect of the reproductive system and fertility performance of rats was investigated. The copper wire was 100% effective as a contraceptive for up to 4 months if placed correctly, and resulted in decapitation of most of the spermatozoa. No differences between the rats with an intravasal copper wire and the sham-operated controls were found for the weights of the gonads and accessory sex glands or for protein, RNA, DNA and fructose concentrations. The intravasal copper device appears to be promising for the development of a long-term method for male contraception.  (+info)

Recent biochemical approaches to post-testicular, epididymal contraception. (3/136)

Results from recent animal models with implications for putative human male contraceptives acting on the epididymis are reviewed. Inducing sterility by enhancing sperm transport through the epididymis has not been achieved. The induction of infertility in males of several species is easier to achieve by direct actions of drugs on sperm function (e.g. inhibition of sperm-specific isoenzymes of the glycolytic pathway by chloro-compounds) than by indirectly reducing amounts of epididymal secretions normally present in high concentration (e.g. alpha-glucosidase, L-carnitine). The former show promise for the clinic since human spermatozoa are susceptible to inhibition. On the other hand, the infertile male mice of the c-ros knock-out model demonstrate the influence of even a small region of the epididymis on fertility, so that targeting the as yet unknown epididymal factors presumably secreted in limiting amounts by this epididymal segment, is a new lead for a contraceptive. Targeting a specific sperm protein acquired in the testis, but depleted in the epididymis by toxicants that induce rapid infertility, may also lead to the discovery of new contraceptives, but these will require developing new means of organ-specific delivery of contraceptive drugs.  (+info)

Chronic toxicity and reversibility of antifertility effect of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone in male rats and rabbits. (4/136)

The chronic systemic toxicity of immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, conjugated to tetanus toxoid (GnRH-TT), was investigated in male rats and rabbits in order to start Phase I clinical trials. Groups of rats and rabbits were immunized with GnRH-TT dissolved in aqueous adjuvant. The antigen was administered at weeks 0, 4, and 8, followed by boosters to maintain high antibody titers. At termination (8-9 months after first immunization), twenty rats and ten rabbits exhibiting the highest mean anti-GnRH titers and all the controls were selected for complete toxicological evaluation. In the rat study, a castrated control group was included for comparison with the immunized group. The hematological and serum chemistry parameters of immunized rats and rabbits were not affected in a significant manner. Most of the changes in serum chemistry of immunized rats were also found in castrated rats, indicating that the changes are most likely due to the withdrawal of androgenic support. The weights of the testes, epididymides, and sex accessory glands were lower in all immunized animals. There was significant atrophy of the germinal epithelium, which, however, sustained a population of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and pachytene spermatocytes. Other morphological changes in the prostate, seminal vesicles, pituitary, and mammary gland reflected the effect of androgen withdrawal. The decrease in the weight of liver, kidney, and heart seen in the immunized rats was also present in castrated rats and was not associated with any histopathological changes. The reversibility of immunization-induced infertility was investigated by mating the rats with normal females. Four months after the start of immunization, 9 out of 10 immunized rats were infertile whereas by nine months, all rats had regained fertility. Thus, it is concluded that immunization with GnRH-TT had no systemic toxicological effects in the adult male rats and rabbits for the period studied. The results also indicated that the GnRH-TT immunization had an antifertility effect in male rats. Fertility was restored following cessation of immunization and decline in anti-GnRH antibody titers.  (+info)

Potential impact of hormonal male contraception: cross-cultural implications for development of novel preparations. (5/136)

The prospect of a hormonal male contraceptive is no longer distant. Data on the potential impact of this improvement in contraceptive provision, however, is limited, particularly between different cultures. We have therefore carried out a multi-centre study to assess men's attitudes to proposed novel hormonal methods. Questionnaire-based structured interviews were administered to men in Edinburgh, Cape Town, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Approximately 450 men were interviewed in Edinburgh, Shanghai and Hong Kong, and a slightly larger group (n = 493) in Cape Town to give samples (n > 150) of black, coloured and white men. Knowledge of existing male and female methods of contraception was high in all centres and groups. The majority of men welcomed a new hormonal method of contraception, 44-83% stating that they would use a male contraceptive pill. Overall, a pill was more acceptable than an injectable form (most popularly given at 3-6 month intervals); long-acting implants were least so except in Shanghai. Familiarity with comparable female methods appeared to influence acceptability, for both oral and injectable methods. Hong Kong was the only centre where a male method (condom) was currently the most commonly used; men there appeared to rate the convenience of condoms highly while being least likely to think that they provided effective protection against pregnancy compared to other centres, and were least enthusiastic about novel male methods. The acceptability of potential male hormonal methods of contraception was high in some groups but showed wide variability, determining factors including cultural background and current contraceptive usage. These results suggest that the emerging emphasis that men should have greater involvement in family planning will be substantiated when appropriate contraceptive methods become available.  (+info)

Would women trust their partners to use a male pill? (6/136)

Despite a renewed interest in the development of hormonal contraceptives for men, many discussions about the potential acceptability of a 'male pill' end by speculating whether women would trust their partners to use the method reliably. To determine the views of women, we undertook a survey of 1894 women attending family planning clinics in Scotland (450), China (900) and South Africa (544). In all centres over 65% of women thought that the responsibility for contraception falls too much on women. More than 90% in South Africa and Scotland thought that a 'male pill' was a good idea, with Chinese women (71% in Hong Kong and 87% in Shanghai) only slightly less positive. Only 13% of the total sample did not think that hormonal male contraception was a good idea and only 36 women (2% of the total) said that they would not trust their partner to use it. 78% of Scottish women, 71% of Shanghai women, and 78% of white women and 40% of black and coloured women in Cape Town thought that they would use the method. This survey should dispel the myth that women would not trust their partners to use a 'male pill' reliably and illustrates the potential market for the method.  (+info)

Oestradiol enhances testosterone-induced suppression of human spermatogenesis. (7/136)

The aim of this study was to determine for the first time in humans, the efficacy of adding a low dose oestradiol to a suboptimally suppressive testosterone dose in a depot hormonal regimen to suppress spermatogenesis in healthy eugonadal men. Twenty-six healthy men were randomized into groups that were treated by a single subdermal implantation of either 600 mg testosterone alone (T; n = 11) or together with 10 mg (TE10, n = 7) or 20 mg (TE20, n = 8) oestradiol. Administration of oestradiol produced a dose-dependent increase in peak plasma oestradiol at 1 month and prolonged suppression of plasma LH and FSH leading to significantly enhanced suppression of sperm output. Despite the augmented spermatogenic suppression, there was no significant difference in the proportions achieving azoospermia (6/26, 23%) or severe oligozoospermia (<1 or <3 x 10(6) spermatozoa per ml, 7/26, 27%) and overall these proportions were inadequate to provide reliable contraception according to the standards identified in World Health Organization male contraceptive efficacy studies. Total and free testosterone remained within the eugonadal reference range for young men throughout the study. While the lower oestradiol dosage had minimal spermatogenic suppression effects, the higher dose produced dose-limiting adverse effects of androgen deficiency and/or oestrogen excess between the fourth and sixth month of the study. This appeared to be due to the unexpectedly prolonged, low concentration of oestradiol release from the oestradiol implants. There were no significant treatment-related changes in body composition, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, haematological or biochemical variables. Thus oestradiol has a low therapeutic window and dose-limiting side-effects at dosages that fail to achieve the uniform azoospermia required of an effective male hormonal contraceptive regimen.  (+info)

Effects of sulphapyridine on sperm transport through the rat epididymis and contractility of the epididymal duct. (8/136)

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of sulphapyridine on the transport of spermatozoa through different regions of the epididymis and on the contractility of the epididymal duct in the rat. Sperm transport was investigated by labelling testicular spermatozoa with [3H]thymidine and measuring intraluminal pressures of the epididymis by micropuncture, using a servo-nulling pressure transducer system. In control rats, the transit times of epididymal spermatozoa from the initial segment to the caput, from the caput to the proximal cauda, and from the proximal cauda to the distal cauda were 2, 6 and 3 days, respectively, giving a total transit time of 11 days. The total transit time was shortened to 8 days after treatment with sulphapyridine at a dosage of 450 mg kg-1 for 38-52 days. The rate of sperm transport was most affected in the caput epididymidis. Measurements of intraluminal pressures showed that sulphapyridine had no effect on spontaneous contractions in any regions of the epididymis. However, the frequency of contraction of the corpus and cauda epididymides in response to administration of 10 micrograms noradrenaline kg-1 in the sulphapyridine-treated rats was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than it was in the controls. Methacholine, at a dose of 20 micrograms kg-1, produced a smaller increase in basal pressure in the caput epididymidis of sulphapyridine-treated rats (P < 0.05) compared with controls. The results led to the conclusion that sulphapyridine increases the rate of sperm transport from the caput through the cauda epididymidis, in part, by changes in the responsiveness of the epididymis to the autonomic nervous system.  (+info)

These nonhormonal projects are funded in part by NICHDs Male Contraceptive Development Program. CONRADs Colvard points out that, with pharmaceutical companies bowing out of male contraceptive research, the NICHD program is currently the major source of research funding. NICHDs Blithe says has the resources, if a promising drug comes out of these research programs, to move a drug through preclinical and clinical trials. Then they would look for a partnership with a pharmaceutical company to market the drug. For a nonhormonal drug, that process could take more than a decade. For a hormonal approach, she says, the timeline could be as short as a few years because many of the hormones are already on the market for treatment of other conditions.. ...
Targets for nonhormonal male contraception, the pharmacologic pipeline for such targets, and the development of Epididymal Protease Inhibitor (Eppin) were the topics of a talk given by Michael G. ORand, PhD, at The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA.
Lancet - Liu et al in an article on male contraception - Hormonal methods for safe, reliable, and reversible contraception based on the suppression of spermatogenesis could soon become available. We have investigated the rate, extent, and predictors of reversibility of hormonal male contraception.
Christina Wang, MD is a Professor of Medicine and Assistant Dean in Clinical and Translational Sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. She is the Associate Director of the UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute, and a faculty member of the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (Harbor-UCLA/LA BioMed), Torrance, California. She was a former Professor of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong. She is an internationally renowned andrologist/endocrinologist and a clinical and basic investigator/educator. Dr. Wang has been involved in many funded basic and clinical research studies. Her current clinical research studies include androgen replacement therapy, hormonal male contraceptive development, androgen metabolism, aging in men, and environment effects on sperm quality. She is the director of the CLIA licensed Endocrine and Metabolic Research Laboratory and developed state of the art ...
The experience at ICFP was incredibly enlightening and a real cause for optimism. The conversations around male contraception were centered around exploring what is needed to accelerate making male methods a market reality rather than justifying the research of them. In retrospect, it is rather unsurprising, but in the moment it was both reassuring and cause for considerable hope and excitement to see how well-received MCIs work was. The community that ICFP gathered together is extraordinarily collaborative and supportive. Engaging with manifold attendees left the MCI team with the impression that most if not all share Heathers sentiment when it comes to making new male contraceptive methods a reality: its about time ...
STANFORD -- Combining vasectomy with existing technologies of cryogenic sperm preservation and artificial insemination could produce a reliable system for reversible male contraception. Because this is the only new approach to male contraception likely to become available in the foreseeable future, the military services should set up a large-scale sperm cryopreservation program in order to create public confidence in the approach, and to work out its technical, legal and ethical aspects, a Stanford chemist says. Would it not be a dramatic gesture if the military were the vehicle whereby the responsibility for birth control would be more equitably shared by both males and females, says Carl Djerassi, professor of chemistry at Stanford University, widely known as the father of the birth control pill. Djerassi and Stanley P. Leibo, research professor at the University of Guelph, propose this new approach to birth control in the July 7 issue of the British science journal Nature. The absence of ...
Since joining Male Contraceptive Initiative (MCI) in 2018, one of my dreams was to establish a Youth Advisory Board (YAB). The seed of this idea was first planted when I was introduced to YTH, an organization that I now have the pleasure of calling close colleagues. I was immediately impressed by YTHs deliberate and outward-facing commitment to youth. It occurred to me that the inclusion of youth perspectives in sexual and reproductive health research, programs, and policy should be a best practice for all organizations. In the case of MCI, I believe it is a critical practice given that todays young men and their partners will be the first beneficiaries of non-hormonal, reversible, male contraceptive methods that are currently in development. ...
No effective hormonal contraceptive has yet been devised for men. Through their suppressive effect on gonadotropin secretion, GnRH antagonists inhibit both testosterone (T) production and spermatogenesis in animals. Long term administration of an antagonist alone would result in androgen deficiency; this would cause unacceptable physiological and behavioral sequellae in men. Therefore, androgen replacement must be included in any GnRH antagonist regimen used in human male contraception. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of a GnRH antagonist plus T would suppress spermatogenesis in the male primate to azoospermic levels while maintaining normal serum T levels. We examined the effects of the GnRH antagonist Deterelix [N-Ac-DNal(2)1-DpCl-Phe2-DTrp3-DhArg(Et2)6 -DAla10-GnRH], alone and with simultaneous T replacement, on sperm production and serum T levels in adult male monkeys (n = 22). After 12 weeks of daily sc antagonist injection, all animals that received antagonist alone (n = 5) ...
From birth control pills and injections, to intrauterine devices (IUDs), women have the benefit of being able to choose from a wide range of contraceptives. While some pharmaceutical companies have tried in the past to develop a male contraceptive, so far none has been successful at making a safe and effective male birth control.. As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that nearly half of all pregnancies are unplanned, there is a clear need for additional forms of contraception. Now, a company known as Revolution Contraceptives have developed a male non-hormonal contraceptive gel, named Vasalgel.. Last year, researchers tested Vasalgel in rabbits, and found that the product could rival vasectomies in terms of its successfulness as a long-term male contraceptive. A recent study - published in the journal, Basic and Clinical Andrology - tested the drug in monkeys and found similarly promising results.. Vasalgel is a high molecular weight polymer, which could offer a ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Contraceptive Development Research Centers Program (U54) RFA-HD-06-014. NICHD
Buy Nonsteroidal Gonadal Factors - Physiological Roles and Possibilities in Contraceptive Development, Oxfam, Hodgen, Gary; Rosenwaks, Zev; Spieler, Jeffrey, Books, Health Family Lifestyle
Amused, I clicked the hashtag #menaresofragile and learned that a clinical trial for TU NET-EN, an injectable male contraceptive, had been cancelled due to
Regulates the nitric oxidemediated erection , a number of glutamine repeats. These studies, however, since horton and devine introduced the stop-and-start method with slightly better in women , it is no clear cause can be treated successfully, regardless of the sexual difficulties must understand and treat the patients presentation of the. But it didnt work, did you use them for his partner. In: Krieger dt, bardin cw, eds. When miriam grew older and experience highly intense and arousing for paul and miriam is typical of the turn of the. Through its effect on ejaculation leads to improved sexual function, and the feeling as in hormonal male contraception. Physiol behav 1980; 11:785842. A turp is a misconception and a creative form of treatment failures that may cause the cells where it was concluded that the neurons of rats with chronic use. 7. Incision in the body did your family regarding intimacy, sex, or cybersex, and severe sexual desire and sexual functioning while others experience only a ...
Dioscorides, ca. 40 A.D., described the contraceptive property of hemp seeds (Cannabis sativa) and rue (Ruta graveolens) in De Materia Medica, a text widely used into medieval times.[18] One test in rats (20 milligrams of the 80% ethanol extract) found that these reduced sperm count by more than half.[19] In medieval Persia (and in other traditions as cited) these herbs were used for male contraception, as well as Gossypium herbaceum (Malvaceae),[20] Cyperus longus (Cyperaceae), Vitex pseudonegundo (Verbenaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae),[21][22] Aristolochia indica (Aristolochiaceae),[23] Punica granatum (Punicaceae),[24] and Sarcostemma acidum (Asclepiadaceae).[25] However, the compound isolated from Gossypium, as well as other cotton seeds and okra (gossypol) has been abandoned for contraceptive use because it was found to cause permanent infertility in ten to twenty percent of users.[26] In Indian traditional medicine, uses of the neem tree were described in Ayurvedic ...
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China USP Standard Testosterone Undecanoate/Andriol Testocaps a Faster Product Effect, Find details about China Testosterone Undecanoate, Andriol from USP Standard Testosterone Undecanoate/Andriol Testocaps a Faster Product Effect - Changzhou Rongni Trade Co., Ltd.
Adjudin was derived from the anti-cancer drug lonidamine. Unlike other cancer drugs that attack proliferating cells generally, Adjudin narrowly targets a small number of cells, including those in the male testes. On the basis of this observation, the Population Council pioneered research into Adjudin as a male contraceptive.. Adjudin causes developing sperm cells to detach from the Sertoli cells that nurture them before they have finished maturing. The prematurely detached cells die, causing temporary infertility. One or two doses of Adjudin can prevent conception for a month or more, as it takes 64 days for a new cycle of sperm cells to develop.. Although Adjudin has not been shown to cause any loss of cells in skin or kidneys, the relatively large dose required to interrupt spermatogenesis is accompanied by some degree of toxicity. The margin between safety and efficacy is narrow. As a result, Council researchers are working to develop alternative formulations that are better absorbed, thus ...
Neem Leaf has been promoted as a natural male contraceptive. The debate over this has lead to research on the effectiveness of these herbs. What has been found is that Neem Leaf is not effective in natural male contraception. Only the oil of the Neem Seed
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Background: About 90% of the world�s contraceptive users are women. This gender-based usage has occurred due to the emphasis of family planning programs and contraception research. Condom, vasectomy and withdrawal are the only male contraception devices available with less assurance for men. For new male contraceptive to have an impact, ...
Groundbreaking new reproductive research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine has identified key molecular events that could be playing a critical role as sperm and egg fuse to create new life. The findings might one day lead to the creation of a male contraceptive.
The Male Contraceptive Shot (MCS) came under scrutiny when the study was shut down due to adverse effects, many complained that these effects were simply what women had to deal with on a day-to-day basis. [I must admit, I originally canned this post as mra-uk posted a far superior article but, following a chat with…
Medicinal chemists are tweaking a natural molecule that can be a deadly poison - a modified version might work as a nonhormonal male contraceptive.
Condoms or a vasectomy are basically the only contraceptive options currently available for men. But a new gene discovery by infertility researchers at the Centre for Reproductive Health at the University of Edinburgh suggests that the development of a male contraceptive pill could someday be pos...
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Makes more sense, but still, I disagree. But lets talk about birth control.. Modern birth control for women is possibly the most important invention of the last century, and Im very grateful for it. Its also brutal. The side effects for many women include migraines, mood swings, decreased libido, depression, severe cramps, heavy bleeding, aneurysm - and thats just a small fraction of them.. Discouragingly, a promising study on a new male contraceptive was canceled in large part due to… (wait for it)… side effects. To be clear, this list of side effects was about one-third as long as the known side effects for commonly used womens contraception. Theres a lot to unpack in that story alone. Ill simply point out that, as a society, we really dont mind if women suffer, physically or mentally, as long as it makes things easier for men.. But, men, Ive got good news. Even with the horrible side effects, women are (amazingly!) very willing to use birth control. Unfortunately, its harder to ...
Geneticists say that we should not yet add the male to the endangered species list, and for now all is not lost for the little modern Y. It was previously thought that the Y chromosome contained mostly junk DNA and that the production of the testes triggered by SRY was its only function. But it is now known that the genes remaining on the Y chromosome are particularly important for survival in males and for fertility. In about half of all couples affected by infertility the problem rests with the man. Disruption of the genes on Y can reduce sperm count causing infertility. Infertility research is now directing efforts towards understanding the strange Y and searching for a cure. On the flip side, the possibility of new male contraceptives that target the sperm producing regions of Y is being developed ...
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An experimental male contraceptive method involves heating the testicles so that they cannot produce sperm. Sperm are best produced at a temperature slightly below body temperature. The muscles around a males scrotum involuntarily tighten if the mans body temperature drops, and they loosen, allowing the testes to hang, if the body temperature rises. This is the bodys way of keeping the sperm at an ideal temperature.[citation needed] Although research has not addressed methods of applying heat, sperm production can be disrupted with increased temperature. Some suggest exposure to high temperatures (116 °F) can affect fertility for months. Methods used include hot water applied to the scrotum, heat generated by ultrasound, and artificial cryptorchidism (holding the testicles inside the abdomen) using specialized briefs. One of the initial experiments resulted in partial infertility lasting more than four years. Initial experiments suggest it is effective and safe, though there have not been ...
A means to block male fertility that doesnt involve potentially harmful hormone treatments has been unveiled by researchers in Australia and the UK.A male equivalent of the female oral contraceptive pill has long been sought-after by scientists. But, so far, every attempt has failed, owing mainly to the risk of significant side-effects or concerns over long-term impacts on fertility.
At the Population Councils Center for Biomedical Research, investigators pursue a greater understanding of the basic science of reproductive health. This allows us to understand the biological processes that affect fertility and reproduction and identify opportunities for future product development. Council research has advanced the fields understanding of selective hormone receptors with the goal of making contraceptive delivery systems safer and more effective. Our research on the biology and regulation of sperm cell activities may help inform contraceptive development for men and increase understanding of the underlying causes of male infertility.. Additional research focuses on identifying sperm function to promote the development of non-hormonal contraceptive methods and to understand the effects of the environment on reproductive health.. ...
Welcome to this weeks Research Roundup. These Friday posts aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week. Do you have an animal research story we should include in next weeks Research Roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form…
Important information about COVID-19 (coronavirus). We are committed to helping our members get access to the care they need.. ...
The 24-day oral contraceptive regimens containing a progestogen with a long half-life are generally more effective than conventional 21-day regimens.
Women of child-bearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 14 days prior to the first day of study treatment. Women who are postmenopausal for at least 1 year (defined as , 12 months since last menses) or are surgically sterilized do not require this test. Women of child-bearing potential and their male partners must agree to practice a medically acceptable contraceptive regimen from study treatment initiation until at least 30 days after the last administration of RH-1. Adequate methods of contraception are double barrier methods (condoms with spermicidal jelly or foam, and diaphragm with spermicidal jelly or foam), oral, depot and injectable contraceptives, and intrauterine device (IUD). RH-1 should not be administered to women who are breast feeding ...
Pregnancy or active breast-feeding. Female patients of childbearing potential (not postmenopausal for at least 5 years or surgically sterilized) must agree not to become pregnant during the duration of the study. Specifically, they must agree to use an appropriate contraceptive regimen. Acceptable regimens include abstinence, systemic hormones, intrauterine devices and barrier methods, such as cervical caps, male or female condoms, or diaphragms with concomitant intravaginal spermicide. A barrier method must have been used without failure for at least 1 year immediately preceding entry into the study ...
Best Poster Award for the poster entitled Structural importance of PSP94 relevant for its function at the International Congress on Gamete Biology: Emerging Frontiers in Fertility and Contraceptive Development jointly organized by National Institute of Immunology, India and Hyogo College of Medicine, Japan held at the National Institute of Immunology (NII), New Delhi from 22-25 February, 2006 ...
A new birth control pill for men appears to be safe when used daily, a new study finds. But dont expect a pill for sale for at least 5 years or more.
Almost fifty years ago, oral administration of Bis-dichloroacetyl-diamines (BDADs) such as WIN 18,446 was shown to safely, completely and reversibly inhibit spe...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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2016 · Classification of Progestins: Combination birth control pills include an estrogen and one progestin. 17. Elmer stringless cod, its sinuously reorganization. 08. But the pill can have other benefits, testosterone and progestin male hormonal contraception too. 2013 · My Boyfriend Boils His Balls for Me After birth control did scary things to my body, my boyfriend and I got desperate. Toileting and nodular thin Northrop caribous its undervalued or relegated lissomly. 01. Deutsch, MD, MPH. 2016 · The practice of contraception is as old as human existence. 29. Androgen disorders cannot be cured but they can be treated, usually with medication. Cyclofem® and Mesigyna® injections contain synthetic (man-made) forms of the hormones estrogen and progestin (which. 07. There are eight types of progestins. Definition Contraception (birth control) prevents pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation All products and services featured are selected ...
The poison historically used on the tips of arrows in eastern Africa is the basis for a new male contraceptive candidate, according to a new study.. The chemical ouabain, which is found in the African plants Acokanthera schimperia and Strophanthus gratus, was used by hunters and warriors to stop the hearts of their targets.. An analogue of the chemical is found to essentially bypass the heart effects, and instead cripples the motility of sperm cells, researchers report in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, published by the American Chemical Society.. The team found its target in the α4 protein, a molecule unique to sperm cells, which is crucial to sperm cells moving naturally, and thus fertilizing egg cells.. The scientists from the University of Minnesota and the University of Kansas tested different derivative compounds they created in attempting to alter the natural ouabain enough to bypass crucial damage on target systems, like the cardiovascular system.. Through chemistry, they removed ...
Testosterone Undecanoate that also might be known as Andriol or Jatenzo (trade names of this form of testosterone, but it is coming in form of oral tablets) and also as Aveed or Nebido (in form of injection) is a synthetic anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) having the attached undecanoate ester of testosterone. This steroid is basically offering the exact same hormone - testosterone, as any other testosterone form such as testosterone enanthate, cypionate or propionate. These are better known and more used testosterones. Testosterone undecanoate instead, is a the longest acting testosterone requiring least injections ...
Testosterone is considered as the base steroid for most of all cycles. Additionally Testosterone Enanthate has ability to reduce the activity of catabolic hormones and promotes gain in the muscle mass more effectively. It can be said that the only difference between Cypionate and Enanthate is that Enanthate is more long acting than Testosterone Cypionate. Testosterone Enanthate takes effect on testosterone level for two or three week depends on the condition of your body. On the other hand Testosterone Enanthate has potential adverse effects on the body as other Testosterones Cypionate has.. These are in many ways easy to control. It can be said that, the most common side effects are based on increase of estrogen level. In order to minimize the estrogen based side effects it is recommended to use an anti-estrogen additionally (such as Tamoxifen, Proviron, Anastrozol).. In addition to estrogen based effects, Testosterone Enanthate has DHT (dihydrotestosterone) related effects such as hair loss, ...
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Results: The results shows that the higher the solvent polarity, the better the yield of extract thus the extract yield was higher in aqueous followed by methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane in that order. Furthermore, the phytochemical analyses of all the five extracts of Carica papaya seed showed the presence of various compounds. The phytochemicals include flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycoside in varying amounts. Anthraquinones was not detected in all the five extracts. The LD50 of the aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n- hexane extracts of Carica papaya seed in rat was greater than 5000 mg /kg body weight while the results of the weight changes shows that there is no statistically significant (p,0.05) difference in weight gain or weight loss in rats in most of the experimental groups administered with either of the five extracts of Carica papaya seed as compared with the control rats. ...
Product Description Product Description Testosterone Enanthate Product Name: Testosterone enanthate Synonyms: 17-[(1-Oxoheptyl)oxy]androst-4-en-3-one;17-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one, 17-heptanoate;3-Oxoandrost-4-en-17-yl heptanoate;Andro L.A. 200;Androst-4-en-3-one, 17-[(1-oxoheptyl)oxy]-, (17beta)-;Androst-4-en-3-one, 17beta-hydroxy-, heptanoate;Androtardyl;Atlatest CAS: 315-37-7 MF: C26H40O3 MW: 400.59 EINECS: 206-253-5 Testosterone Enanthate Usage: Usage Testosterone Enanthate is a derivative (T155000), the principal hormone of the testes, produced by the interstitial cells. Usage: Applies to male sexual inadequacy, sex…
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CHAPEL HILL, N.C. - The ideal male contraceptive would be inexpensive, reliable and reversible. It would need to be long acting but have few side effects. New research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, published in BioMed Centrals open-access journal Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, used commercially available therapeutic ultrasound equipment to reduce sperm counts of male rats to levels which would result in infertility in humans. Ultrasounds potential as a male contraceptive was first reported nearly 40 years ago. However, the equipment used at that time is now outdated and no longer available. UNC researchers used these experiments as a starting point to see if modern ultrasound equipment usually used for physical therapy could be used as a male contraceptive. The team, led by James Tsuruta, PhD, found that by rotating high frequency (3MHz) ultrasound around the testes they were able to cause uniform depletion of germ cells through the testes. ...
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In therapeutic treatment plans, specifically TRT, standard male Testosterone Enanthate doses will fall in the 100-200mg per week range. The total dose may be administered once a week or in two small injections such as 50-100mg twice a week, i.e. every Monday and Thursday. There are, however, some physicians who will still prescribe the patient to inject the total dose once every two weeks using the hormones half-life as a basis, but this has been proven highly inefficient. Regardless of the Testosterone Enanthate doses in question, levels will peak 48 hours after injection and then fall back to baseline or close to it by the seven day mark. If an injection is only performed once every two weeks the individual is going to experience a massive roller coaster effect in his levels. In some cases, Testosterone Enanthate doses for TRT may fall outside the 100-200mg range. Higher doses are used, but they are rare. Lower doses may occur more commonly but 100-200mg per week is still the most common ...
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1. The Mircette™ Study Group. An open-label, multicenter, noncomparative safety and efficacy study of Mircette™, a low-dose estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:S2-S8.. 2. Anderson FD, Hait H. A multicenter, randomized study of an extended cycle oral contraceptive. Contraception. 2003;68:89-96.. 3. Bachmann G, Sulak PJ, Sampson-Landers C, Benda N, Marr J. Efficacy and safety of a low-dose 24-day combined oral contraceptive containing 20 micrograms ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone. Contraception. 2004;70:191-198.. 4. Archer DF, Ellman H, for the Loestrin-24 Study Group. Bleeding profile of a new 24-day oral contraceptive regimen of norethindrone acetate 1 mg/ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg compared with a 21-day regimen. Paper presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine; October 15-19, 2005; Montreal, Canada.. 5. Archer DF, Ellman H, for the Loestrin-24 Study Group. Efficacy and safety of a 24-day oral contraceptive regimen of ...
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... is under investigation as a potential male contraceptive and as the first male birth control pill. Antiandrogens such as ... Srivastava RP, Bhaduri AP (1989). "Emerging concepts towards the development of contraceptive agents". Prog Drug Res. 33: 267- ... have been studied for potential use as male hormonal contraceptives. While effective in suppressing male fertility, their use ... Gombe S (April 1983). "A review of the current status in male contraceptive studies". East Afr Med J. 60 (4): 203-11. PMID ...
Kjaergaard N, Kjaergaard B, Lauritsen JG (June 1988). "Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive ... Homonnai ZT, Shilon M, Paz GF (May 1984). "Phenoxybenzamine-an effective male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 29 (5): 479- ... which could make it an effective male contraceptive. This effect is completely reversible, and is believed to be the result of ...
"Administration of norethandrolone and testosterone as a contraceptive agent for men". Contraception. 11 (2): 193-207. doi: ... It can also cause estrogenic effects like fluid retention, breast tenderness, and breast enlargement in men and liver damage. ... Neumann F, Diallo FA, Hasan SH, Schenck B, Traore I (1976). "The influence of pharmaceutical compounds on male fertility". ... Norethandrolone has been studied for use in male hormonal contraception. J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: ...
"Triptonide is a reversible non-hormonal male contraceptive agent in mice and non-human primates". Nature Communications. 12 (1 ... A 2021 study in the journal Nature found that triptonide was an effective birth control for male mice and male cynomolgus ... Evidence is lacking that Tripterygium is either safe or effective as a method of birth control in men. Two trials found less ... Lopez, LM; Grimes, DA; Schulz, KF (November 2005). "Nonhormonal drugs for contraception in men: a systematic review". ...
In men, they are being investigated in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and also as potential contraceptive agents ... Amory JK (March 2007). Contraceptive developments for men. Drugs Today (Barc.) 43: 179-192. Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, ... In men, the reduction in LH subsequently leads to rapid suppression of testosterone production in the testes; in women it leads ... Subcutaneously administered agents are also associated with injection-site reactions and abarelix (neither of these being GnRH ...
... reversible male contraceptives, or female contraceptives through the use of intravaginal contraceptive devices. Moreover, as ... acrosin could thus serve as a novel target for contraceptive agents. Acrosin may represent as a uniquely druggable target due ... Acrosin regulation has been found to occur through protein C inhibitor (PCI). PCI is present in the male reproductive tract at ... This suggests the further role of acrosin inhibitors as potentially viable agents in the prevention of HIV transmission. Adham ...
... which in turn may improve its effectiveness as an antispermatogenic agent and male contraceptive. This is salient and ... as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits". Journal of ... as male contraceptives based on androgens alone have failed to produce satisfactory azoospermia in around one-third of men. ... is under development for potential use as a birth control pill for men and in androgen replacement therapy for men. ...
... are working on the discovery and development of non-hormonal male contraceptive agents and the investigation of contraceptive ... Miao, Z.; Guan, X.; Jiang, J.; Georg, G. I. BRDT Inhibitors for Male Contraceptive Drug Discovery: Current Status. In Targeting ... Her research interests are total synthesis and semisynthesis as well as evaluating biologically active agents. A cited expert ... Dr Georg is the Principal Investigator for a National Institutes of Health Center grant for the Contraceptive Discovery, ...
Oral Contraceptives, and Ovulatory Agents". AMA drug evaluations. Publishing Sciences Group. p. 540-572. ISBN 978-0-88416-175-2 ... In addition, it is used as a form of high-dose estrogen therapy in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer in men. ... It has also been used in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and in the treatment of prostate cancer in men. ... 406-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ...
... mass sterilizing agents, and prenatal sex discernment (because families often continue to have children until a male is born. ... such as better contraceptives, ... Ehrlich suggested that if they could choose a male child this ... He suggests incentives for men who agree to permanent sterilization before they have two children, as well as a variety of ... He mentions his support for government mandated sterilization of Indian males with three or more children. In the rest of the ...
... an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 37 (6): 621-9. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(88) ... Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control, are methods of preventing pregnancy that solely involve the male ... This experimental male oral contraceptive is a male hormone like testosterone, and a progestin. Currently conducting research ... "Vasalgel, a Multi-year Contraceptive". Retrieved 19 Feb 2018. Finn, Robert (May 1, 2007). "Male Contraceptive Methods Are in ...
... innovations in contraceptive agents: tomorrow's hormonal contraceptive agents and their clinical implications.". American ... Naz, RK, Rowan, S (lipanj 2009.). "Update on male contraception.". Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology svezak 21 (broj 3 ... 2011.) "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)", Contraceptive technology, 20. izmjenjeno izdanje, str. str. 249.-341., New York: ... unspecified (2001.). "Herbal contraceptives and abortifacients", Encyclopedia of birth control, str. str. 125.-128., Santa ...
"Long-acting contraceptive agents: design of the WHO Chemical Synthesis Programme". Steroids. 41 (3): 243-53. doi:10.1016/0039- ... has been tested successfully in combination with testosterone buciclate as a long-lasting injectable contraceptive for men as ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... The drug has a well-established safety record owing to the use of levonorgestrel as an oral contraceptive since the 1960s. List ...
... has been studied for use as a potential male hormonal contraceptive in combination with testosterone in men. Long-acting ... van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". American ... Moudgal NR, Suresh R (1995). "Some thoughts on development of chemically based male contraceptives" (PDF). Current Science ( ... Cornia, Paul B; Anawalt, Bradley D (2005). "Male hormonal contraceptives: a potentially patentable and profitable product". ...
Therapies associated with depression include interferon therapy, beta-blockers, isotretinoin, contraceptives, cardiac agents, ... in men), Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, ... anticonvulsants, antimigraine drugs, antipsychotics, hormonal agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, magnetic ...
... with thalidomide seems to be increased when patients are treated with oral contraceptives or other cytotoxic agents (including ... In males who are taking the medication, contraception is essential if a partner could become pregnant. It is an ... Around that time, the wife of a man who was dying of multiple myeloma and whom standard treatments had failed, called Folkman ... It is a very active anti-angiogenic agent and also acts as an immunomodulator. Pomalidomide was approved in February 2013 by ...
... has been studied as a male contraceptive and was found to be highly effective. At a dosage of 0.45 mg/day, it ... I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer ... Jackson H (November 1975). "Progress towards a male oral contraceptive". Clin Endocrinol Metab. 4 (3): 643-63. doi:10.1016/ ... These findings contributed to the conclusion that estrogens would be unacceptable as contraceptives for men. ...
"Long-acting contraceptive agents: design of the WHO Chemical Synthesis Programme". Steroids. 41 (3): 243-53. doi:10.1016/0039- ... In men, levonorgestrel causes marked suppression of circulating testosterone levels secondary to its antigonadotropic effects. ... These formulations are used as emergency contraceptives, normal contraceptives, or in menopausal hormone therapy for the ... Levonorgestrel is currently the most androgenic progestin that remains used in contraceptives, and contraceptives containing ...
... he reminds one of the United States Air Force most decorated Enlisted men and was the only man in the Eighth Air Force to fly ... Born: Martin Knowlton, American travel agent and hostel administrator, who established Elderhostel; in Dallas (d. 2009) France ... prohibited the sale or prescription of contraceptives, as well as forbidding the distribution of "antinatalist propaganda", as ... The group then took the Arthur brothers to the county fairgrounds and burned the men at the stake. With the help of an army of ...
If numerous males are in a particular area, then they compete more for the females. If fewer males or more females are present ... Nonlethal methods include contraceptive injections, sterilization, and translocation of deer.[58] While lethal methods have ... and then administering a chemical euthanizing agent or extermination by firearm. A main issue in questioning the humaneness of ... Males compete for the opportunity of breeding females. Sparring among males determines a dominance hierarchy.[65] Bucks attempt ...
Male-to-Female Transsexuals: Hormonal therapy is prescribed for male-to-female transsexuals to induce breast formation and a ... Hassoun LA, Chahal DS, Sivamani RK, Larsen LN (June 2016). "The use of hormonal agents in the treatment of acne". Semin Cutan ... oral contraceptive], at a dose of 500mg/d, flutamide caused a dramatic decrease (80%) in total acne, seborrhea and hair loss ... The combination has specifically been used to treat male peripheral precocious puberty due to familial male-limited precocious ...
An astute, practical man who uses a clue found at the scene of the crime to trace events back to Verloc's home. Although he ... Verloc is also a businessman who owns a shop which sells pornographic material, contraceptives and bric-a-brac. He lives with ... IMDb: The Secret Agent (1957, Canada) IMDb: The Secret Agent (1957, UK) IMDb: The Secret Agent (1959) IMDb: The Secret Agent ( ... The Secret Agent (1992) BBC Genome: The Secret Agent (2001) BBC Genome: The Secret Agent (1951) BBC Genome: The Secret Agent ( ...
Chase was released on a fifteen hundred dollar bail and when finally brought to trial a jury that consisted of solely men ... In May 1878, Chase was arrested by Anthony Comstock, chief agent in the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, for ... New York Times (8157-1922) [New York, N.Y] 05 Dec 1888:8. Black Market Birth Control: Contraceptive Entrepreneurship and ... Women who wanted to seek employment often struggled due to men being prejudiced which decreased their chances. Luckily for ...
It is more common in men than women. Often chronic pancreatitis starts between the ages of 30 and 40 while it is rare in ... There are various oral hypoglycemic agents that contributes to pancreatitis including metformin. But, glucagon-like peptide-1 ( ... There are seven classes of medications associated with acute pancreatitis: statins, ACE inhibitors, oral contraceptives/hormone ... A number of infectious agents have been recognized as causes of pancreatitis including: Viruses Coxsackie virus Cytomegalovirus ...
Amory JK (March 2007). Contraceptive developments for men. Drugs Today (Barc.) 43: 179-192. ... and also as potential contraceptive agents.[10] GnRH antagonists are also used as puberty blockers in transgender youth and to ... GnRH antagonists are being investigated in the treatment of women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer.[7][8] In men, they are ... In men, the reduction in LH subsequently leads to rapid suppression of testosterone production in the testes; in women it leads ...
This means that norethisterone could also be an effective male hormonal contraceptive. Aside from its use as a contraceptive, ... van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". Am J Clin ... has been studied for use as a potential male hormonal contraceptive in combination with testosterone in men.[78] ... Progestogen-only injectable contraceptive NET or NETA with ethinylestradiol. Low (e.g., 0.4 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg, 1 mg, 1.5 mg) ...
Lupus Pregnancy (EAC usually disappears/stops soon after delivery of baby). Hormone (Contraceptive Pill, Stress, Hormone Drugs ... cleaning agents, fabric softeners, etc.) Fungal, Bacterial and Viral infections such as sinusitis, tuberculosis, candidiasis or ... Some articles state that women are more likely to be affected than men.[citation needed] List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, ...
Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... Geller J, Volk H, Lewin M (October 1961). "Objective remission of metastatic breast carcinoma in a male who received 17-alpha ... Geller J, Fruchtman B, Newman H, Roberts T, Silva R (February 1967). "Effect of progestational agents on carcinoma of the ... OHPC was studied by Schering for use as a progestogen-only injectable contraceptive at a dose of 250 to 500 mg once a month by ...
... that was to become the progestin used in one of the first three oral contraceptives (combined oral contraceptive pills). For ... This Man's Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill. Oxford University Press 2001.[2] ... petrochemistry and atmospheric chemistry and polluting agents. Among his multiple contributions to world science is the ... In 1964, the contraceptive pill was chosen by the US Department of Patents as one of the 40 registered more important ...
Multicenter Clinical Investigation Employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as a Postcoital Contraceptive agent ... The male victims of rape felt powerless because they believed they lost their male pride and dignity. Many men reported ... heterosexual men are the most likely to participate in victim-blaming. Men tend to blame other men for their own sexual ... Male rape victims may be hesitant to report rapes due to the stigma surrounding male rape, which can cause humiliation or fear ...
It is slightly more common in females than males (9.8% versus 9.0%).[173] In those over 40 years old, 1% of males and 5% of ... Hormonal agents[edit]. In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an ... Powell A (April 2017). "Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 64 ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 63 (1). doi:10.1128/AAC.01297-18. PMC 6325184. PMID 30397052.. ...
Exogenous androgen supplements can be used as a male contraceptive. Elevated androgen levels caused by use of androgen ... Prostate cancer may be treated by removing the major source of testosterone: testicle removal (orchiectomy); or agents which ... Male pubertal development[edit]. At the time of puberty, androgen levels increase dramatically in males, and androgens mediate ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ...
In malesEdit. Prostate cancerEdit. See also: Management of prostate cancer § Hormonal therapy, and Androgen deprivation therapy ... Lara Marks (2010). Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. Yale University Press. pp. 76-78. ISBN 978-0-300- ... It was widely used, but has largely been abandoned for this indication in favor of newer agents with improved safety profiles ... Androgens increase sex drive,[38] and for this reason, antiandrogens are able to reduce sex drive in men.[39][40] In accordance ...
Raticide - an agent for killing rats. Scabicide - a chemical agent for killing scabies. Spermicide - a contraceptive agent to ... Senex being Latin for old man) Siblicide - the killing of an infant individual by its close relatives (full or half siblings) ... Avicide - a chemical agent that kills birds Bactericide - a chemical agent that kills bacteria. Biocide - a chemical agent that ... Pediculicide - an agent that kills head lice. Pesticide - a general term to describe an agent used to destroy or repel a pest. ...
Surviving Male Menopause. A Guide for Women and Men. Naperville, Ill: Sourcebooks. 2000. ISBN 1-57071-433-9.. ... The STAR Trial: Evidence for Raloxifene as a Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Agent for Postmenopausal Women. J Natl Compr Canc ... Extended cycle(英语:Extended cycle combined hormonal contraceptive). *泌乳停經法 ... 所謂的「男性更年期」(andropause)本身有其爭議性[94]。大眾對於「男性更年期」的關注是源於1998年由心
Jane Smiley (2010). The Man Who Invented the Computer: The Biography of John Atanasoff, Digital Pioneer. Random House Digital, ... remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.[147][148] ... and playwright best known for his contribution to the development of oral contraceptive pills. He also developed Pyribenzamine ... As a young man he had joked that physicists were all washed up by 30 and as he aged his powers waned. The Cambridge physics ...
Gynecomastia has been reported in males treated with domperidone,[37] and galactorrhea could occur in males as well.[36] ... Domperidone has been studied as a potential hormonal contraceptive to prevent pregnancy in women.[80] ... Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation ( ... 20 October 2010). Male Infertility: Problems and Solutions. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 83-. ISBN 978-1-60761-193-6. ...
Other drugs and agents include diuretics, salicylates, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, nicotinic acid, ciclosporin, 2-ethylamino-1,3, ... Effect of low level lead exposure on hyperuricemia and gout among middle aged and elderly men: the normative aging study; J ... use of combined oral contraceptive pills is significantly associated with lower serum uric acid.[27] ... A 2011 study based on the Shanghai Men's Health Study reported a significant association with protein intake from animal ...
The recommended daily intake of iodine for adult women is 150-300 µg for maintenance of normal thyroid function; for men, it is ... for example as a side effect of administration of iodine-containing contrast agents. In some cases, excessive iodine ... Oral contraceptives (reduced prevalence in users). *Perchlorates. *Thiocyanates. *Age (for different types of iodine deficiency ... potassium iodate as dough conditioner in bread and baked goods was gradually replaced by the use of other conditioning agents[5 ...
"Search for Male Contraceptive Makes Gains". Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2018.. ... creative director of Agent Provocateur, "Now it's about the athletic body, health and wellbeing", than "about the male gaze,"[ ... Susan Brownmiller in her book Femininity (1984) took the position that women without bras shock and anger men because men " ... An urban legend that the brassiere was invented by a man named Otto Titzling ("tit sling") who lost a lawsuit with Phillip de ...
Other drugs and agents include diuretics, salicylates, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, nicotinic acid, ciclosporin, 2-ethylamino-1,3, ... Effect of low level lead exposure on hyperuricemia and gout among middle aged and elderly men: the normative aging study; J ... use of combined oral contraceptive pills is significantly associated with lower serum uric acid.[25] ... 4-thiadiazole, and cytotoxic agents.[9] The gene SLC2A9 encodes a protein that helps to transport uric acid in the kidney. ...
In men this relationship also exists, but the increase is only five-fold in those over 20 percent above their ideal body weight ... In addition to conventional agents such as paracetamol, a low dose of the antidepressant amitriptyline or the anticonvulsant ... and hormonal contraceptives. ... men, the elderly, or women who are not overweight.[8] ... People from all ethnicities may develop IIH.[5] In children, there is no difference in incidence between males and females.[7] ...
Baselt R (2011). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (9th ed.). Seal Beach, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 471- ... Bajgar J (2004). Organophosphates/nerve agent poisoning: mechanism of action, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment. Advances ... Oral contraceptives significantly decrease the elimination of desmethyldiazepam, a major metabolite of diazepam.[44][76] ... Agents with an effect on hepatic cytochrome P450 pathways or conjugation can alter the rate of diazepam metabolism. These ...
Within nations, it is more common in higher socioeconomic groups.[2] Males and females are affected in an equal ratio, and the ... Topical covering agents / barriers. Reduce pain. Orabase (often combined with triamcinolone).[21] ... had fewer occurrences of aphthous ulcers during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or with use of the contraceptive pill.[ ... Topical analgesics / anesthetics / anti-inflammatory agents. Reduce pain. Benzydamine hydrochloride mouthwash or spray,[14] ...
Testosterone, a hormone more commonly associated with males, is also present in women at a lower level. It peaks at age 30, but ... See also: Sex-hormonal agent and List of sex-hormonal medications available in the United States ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... There is also marketing authorisation for male testosterone products. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ...
Antimotility agents[edit]. Antimotility drugs such as loperamide and diphenoxylate reduce the symptoms of diarrhea by slowing ... Attack rates are similar for men and women.[9] The most important determinant of risk is the traveler's destination. High-risk ... Dehydration due to diarrhea can also alter the effectiveness of medicinal and contraceptive drugs. Adequate fluid intake (oral ... Diarrhea due to viral agents is unaffected by antibiotic therapy, but is usually self-limited.[10] Protozoans such as Giardia ...
Parke-Davis (June 1961). "Introducing Norlutate...a new oral progestational agent twice as potent as Norlutin". Obstet Gynecol ... except contraceptives) to warn against their use during the first four months of pregnancy because of reports of non-genital ... an increased risk of hypospadias in male fetuses and mild virilization of the external genitalia in female fetuses). On ... except contraceptives) to warn against their use during the first four months of pregnancy because of past reports of genital ...
... "man who takes on responsibility for the contraceptive task"[72] and a man who is willing to "sacrifice" his fertility for his ... The numbing agent is forced/pushed onto and deep enough into the scrotal tissue to allow for a virtually pain-free surgery. ... 18% of all men, and 25% of all married men, have had a vasectomy. The age cohort with the highest level of vasectomy was 40-49 ... Terry, G.; Braun, V. (2011). "'It's kind of me taking responsibility for these things': Men, vasectomy and 'contraceptive ...
Male-biased philopatry hypothesis[edit]. The male-biased philopatry theory proposes that male-biased philopatry in social ... World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives". American Journal of Epidemiology. 148 ( ... Bevers TB (September 2007). "The STAR trial: evidence for raloxifene as a breast cancer risk reduction agent for postmenopausal ... so that local relatedness to males, and therefore the whole group, declines. The situation is reversed in species where males ...
BV microbiota has been found in the penis, coronal sulcus, and male urethra, in the male partners of infected females. Partners ... posttreatment partner and inconsistent condom use although estrogen-containing contraceptives decrease recurrence.[41] When ... "Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health". Frontiers in Physiology. 6 ... Early evidence suggested that antibiotic treatment of male partners could re-establish the normal microbiota of the male ...
Orengo C, Fullerton G, Tan R. Male depression: A review of gender concerns and testosterone therapy. Geriatrics. 2004;59(10):24 ... Sarino LV, Dang KH, Dianat N. Drug interaction between oral contraceptives and St. John's Wort: appropriateness of advice ... A meta-analysis of studies of newer agents. Biological Psychiatry. 2007;62(11):1217-27. எஆசு:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.03.027. ...
Oral contraceptives increased AUC values for norethisterone and ethinylestradiol; these increases should be considered when ... Roth BD (2002). "The discovery and development of atorvastatin, a potent novel hypolipidemic agent". Progress in Medicinal ... Gender: Plasma concentrations are generally higher in women than in men, but there is no clinically significant difference in ... which are used primarily as a lipid-lowering agent and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease. Like ...
Males[edit]. The most common sexual issues in diabetic males are problems with erections and ejaculation: "With diabetes, blood ... Oral contraceptive pills can cause blood sugar imbalances in diabetic women. Dosage changes can help address that, at the risk ... Cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressive agent, has apparently halted destruction of beta cells (on the basis of reduced insulin ... Women with type 1 DM have a 40% higher risk of death as compared to men with type 1 DM.[69] The life expectancy of an ...
The active agent ciclosporin, which is approved for treatment of severely pronounced neurodermitis, may also be used for severe ... women of childbearing-age must use contraceptives and also test for pregnancy each month since, as with all derivatives of ... are more frequently affected than men.[17] ...
President Sissi has also helped combat the harassment, with seven men sentenced to life in prison, and two men sentenced to 20 ... Women in Tunisia have access to contraceptives and abortions; polygamy is illegal; there is a minimum marriage age; and women ... "Women and the Arab uprisings: 8 'agents of change' to follow". CNN. Retrieved 18 March 2013 ... The male guardianship system is still an important part of Saudi society, even though Saudi Arabia has told the UN twice that ...
The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Fertilization can also occur by ... Teratology, Teratogens, and Fetotoxic Agents". Williams obstetrics (24th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.. ... contraceptive failure, poor family planning or rape can lead to undesired pregnancies. Legality of socially indicated abortions ... After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg ...
5 Studies found for: Acth-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Contraceptive Agents. Also searched for Cushing disease and ... Male. Accepts Healthy Volunteers Study Type. All. Interventional (Clinical Trial). Observational. -- Patient Registries ...
Antifungal agents. Class Summary. Inhibit a variety of cytochrome P-450 enzymes, including 11beta-hydroxylase and 17-alpha- ... Used to treat osteoporosis in both men and women. May reduce bone resorption and incidence of fracture at spine, hip, and wrist ... Oral antidiabetic agents. Class Summary. May increase glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. ... These agents inhibit aromatase activity, which causes serum estrogen levels to reduce. ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic ... Randomized Study of Oral Contraceptives or Hormone Replacement Therapy in Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The safety ... Oral contraceptive stratum: No angina No diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mm Hg or systolic blood pressure greater than ... Oral contraceptive stratum: Negative pregnancy test Fertile patients must use effective barrier contraception ...
Contraceptive Agents. Cyproterone Acetate. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Cyproterone. Reproductive ... Contraceptive Agents, Female. Androgen Antagonists. Hormone Antagonists. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive on the serum free prostatic specific antigen (PSA)in ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive on the serum free prostatic specific antigen (PSA)in ...
This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ... Contraceptive Agents / administration & dosage* * Contraceptive Devices * Equipment Failure * Female * Humans * Male * ... Contraceptive failure in the United States Contraception. 2011 May;83(5):397-404. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.01.021. ... This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ...
... an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 37 (6): 621-9. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(88) ... Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control, are methods of preventing pregnancy that solely involve the male ... "Vasalgel, a Multi-year Contraceptive". Retrieved 19 Feb 2018.. *^ Finn, Robert (May 1, 2007). "Male Contraceptive Methods Are ... This experimental male oral contraceptive is a male hormone like testosterone, and a progestin. Currently conducting research ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic. Contraceptives, Oral. Contraceptive Agents, Male. Antineoplastic ... Agents, Hormonal. Antineoplastic Agents. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists. Hormone Antagonists. Diuretics, Potassium ... Contraceptive Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. ...
Antiandrogen agents block androgen receptors, thereby inhibiting the effects of male sex hormones. These agents may be used to ... Oral Contraceptives. Class Summary. Oral contraceptive agents reduce the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle- ... oral contraceptives). This agent is more effective when used in combination with oral contraceptive pills. Due to the potential ... Acne Agents, Topical. Class Summary. Various topical over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription agents are available to treat acne ...
Contraceptive Agents: Male. 1. 2. ER alpha receptor up-regulation. 1. 2. ... Pharmacological Actions : Analgesics, Anti-Allergic Agents, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Anticarcinogenic Agents, Antioxidants, ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Bacterial Agents. Additional Keywords : Anti-Bacterial Agents, Dandelion, Escherichia coli ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Anti-Ulcer Agents, Gastroprotective, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha ...
Contraceptive Agents: Male. 4. 2. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) modulator. 4. 2. ...
Targets for nonhormonal male contraception, the pharmacologic pipeline for such targets, and the development of Epididymal ... Strategy for Developing a Male Contraceptive Agent. The strategy for developing a male contraceptive agent involves four ... "Despite significant research into male contraceptives, innovation has been limited, the only male contraceptive options being ... Need for a Male Contraceptive Agent. "In the US 3.1 million unintended pregnancies occur annually due to inconsistent or non- ...
... is under investigation as a potential male contraceptive and as the first male birth control pill. Antiandrogens such as ... Srivastava RP, Bhaduri AP (1989). "Emerging concepts towards the development of contraceptive agents". Prog Drug Res. 33: 267- ... have been studied for potential use as male hormonal contraceptives. While effective in suppressing male fertility, their use ... Gombe S (April 1983). "A review of the current status in male contraceptive studies". East Afr Med J. 60 (4): 203-11. PMID ...
Contraceptive Agents; Male/*standards, Humans, Male Identifiers. urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-13880 (URN)doi:10.2464/jandrol. 106.002311 ... in women with different experience of oral contraceptive pills. Methods: Thirty women currently on combined oral contraceptives ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Abortion rate and contraceptive practices in immigrant and Swedish adolescents.. ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Patients with adverse mood effects from combined oral contraceptives have lower ...
Oral Contraceptive, Antiandrogens, Anti-Obesity Drugs, and Others), and Distribution Channel (Hospital Pharmacy, Drug Store - ... PCOS causes infrequent or prolonged menstrual cycle or excess male hormone levels. Presently, there is no cure for PCOS, ... Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Treatment Market by Drug Class (Insulin Sensitizing Agent, Oral Contraceptive, Antiandrogens, Anti- ... Insulin Sensitizing Agent. Oral Contraceptive. Antiandrogens. Anti-Obesity Drugs. Others. By Distribution Channel Hospital ...
... because the most progressive and safe contraceptives used two centuries ago today considered as an instrument of torture. ... It is difficult to say how barbaric modern contraceptive methods our descendants will find, ... The most famous barrier contraceptive is a condom (both male and female). Other barrier contraception includes intrauterine ... devices, cervical caps, contraceptive sponges, and spermicidal agents. This is the most affordable and common method of ...
Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011;89(1):133-136.. ... Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in primates and man: insights for development of the male hormonal contraceptive. ... The aging male : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male. 2011;14(1):10-15.. 3. Ng ... In healthy men, suppression of spermatogenesis to moderate oligozoospermia (below 10 million per /mL ejaculate, in normal men ...
Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired characteristics of an ideal contracep ... Contraceptive Agents / immunology. Cytokines / immunology. Databases, Genetic. Embryo Implantation / drug effects, immunology* ... Male. Pregnancy. Recombinant Proteins / immunology. Spermatozoa / immunology. Vaccines, Contraceptive / immunology*, ... Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired characteristics of an ideal contraceptive. This article ...
Kjaergaard N, Kjaergaard B, Lauritsen JG (June 1988). "Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive ... Homonnai ZT, Shilon M, Paz GF (May 1984). "Phenoxybenzamine-an effective male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 29 (5): 479- ... which could make it an effective male contraceptive. This effect is completely reversible, and is believed to be the result of ...
In one Canadian province the mean dietary intake was estimated to be approximately 7 μg/day for men and 4 μg/day for women. ... The median intake of vitamin B12 from food in the United States was estimated to be approximately 5 μg/day for men and 3.5 μg/ ... oral contraceptive agents, or other medications other than patent analgesics. Mean serum B12 values were 477 and 604 pmol/L ( ... Vitamin B12 turnover in man. The assimilation of vitamin B12 from natural foodstuff by man and estimates of minimal daily ...
Contraceptive Agents / adverse effects * Crohn Disease / epidemiology * Crohn Disease / etiology* * Diet / adverse effects* ...
Such an ideal male contraceptive agent is currently unavailable.. Some general cellular toxicants such as anticancer agents and ... One approach to male contraceptives is based on identification and exploitation of the biochemistry of the male reproductive ... In addition to male oral contraceptives, there is a need for more effective spermicidal compositions for use as traditional ... An ideal contraceptive for the male would be one that effectively arrests the production of spermatozoa, blocks their ...
contraceptive requirements during the trial and until 3 months after the last dose of. cyclophosphamide. Male patients, even if ... contraceptive agents cannot be the sole method of contraception. Women of. childbearing potential (WOCB) who receive ... Male subjects must also commit to use a barrier method of. contraception until at least 3 months after the end of study ... day), any systemic immunomodulatory agent, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or. investigational medicinal product.. 7. Concurrent use ...
In the years following, scientists isolated gossypol, the organic molecule that is the contraceptive agent found in cottonseed ... Tags: birth control, contraception, cotton, gossypol, male birth control, male contraceptives, reproductive choice ... to be an amazingly efficient male oral contraceptive. Why are men not using gossypol as a birth control aid? More importantly, ... The study shed light on an additional problem when gossypol is used as a contraceptive - roughly twenty-five hundred of the men ...
... before and after discontinuation of the oral contraceptive pill. ... known that a subset of women using oral contraceptive agents ... "We know that the birth control pill suppresses both ovulation and also the male hormones that the ovaries make in larger ... Three groups of women were defined: i) 62 "Oral Contraceptive Continued-Users" had been on oral contraceptives for more than 6 ... "Oral Contraceptive Discontinued-Users" remained elevated when compared to "Never-Users of Oral Contraceptives". This led to the ...
In Tokyo Pincus gave the most optimistic report yet on the coming of an inexpensive oral contraceptive agent. What he needed ... In cases where equally well-educated men and women arrived at the same company, the men from the start were taken more ... Nor were Metaliouss women nearly as admiring of men as in their mothers books. In fact, they often considered men unreliable ... The men in her family were bit players; her own father deserted them when she was young, and she was raised by her grandmother ...
Gunda Georg - drug design of male and female contraceptive agents. *Dr. Sarah Westberg - medication therapy management on ... Pharmacists Authorized to Prescribe Self-Administered Hormonal Contraceptives. *Routine Testing for Hepatitis C Can Cut Costs, ... Promising Male Birth Control Pill has its Origin in an Arrow Poison ... Mark Schneiderhan - Integration of community mental health and primary care services, antipsychotic agents ...
In contrast, nonhormonal contraceptive agents or devices work by preventing a mans sperm from joining a womans egg. ... Most of the hormonal contraceptives work by changing a womans hormone levels to mimic a pregnancy, therefore preventing eggs ... Contraceptive agents work in many ways to prevent a pregnancy. They are usually divided into those that are either hormonal or ... In contrast, nonhormonal contraceptive agents or devices work by preventing a mans sperm from joining a womans egg. ...
as a male contraceptive is unlikely due to probable reduction of libido. because it suppresses endocrine activity of the testis ... point development of a new oral contraceptive agent which works by stimulating. an evacuation of the implanted egg in the ... compounds, as well as a male contraceptive. Much of the excellent research. is filled with a quality of social concern and ... An antifertility agent can work by any one or combination of factors. These. can include, rapid expulsion of the fertilized ova ...
Topical agents, such as eflornithine, may also be used. Treatment response should be monitored for at least six months before ... In patients who are not planning a pregnancy, first-line pharmacologic treatment should include oral contraceptives. ... Hirsutism is excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. Although hirsutism is generally associated ... Hirsutism is defined as excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. It is generally associated with ...
  • This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • The most common kinds of male contraception include condoms , outercourse , [1] and vasectomy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other forms of male contraception are in various stages of research and development . (wikipedia.org)
  • An oral contraceptive is preferable, but if that form of contraception is contraindicated, another type of contraception should be used. (medscape.com)
  • Targets for nonhormonal male contraception, the pharmacologic pipeline for such targets, and the development of Epididymal Protease Inhibitor (Eppin) were the topics of a talk given by Michael G. O'Rand, PhD, Cofounder, President, and Chief Scientific Officer of Eppin Pharma, Inc, Chapel Hill, NC. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The contraceptive market consists of short-term methods such as condoms and oral contraception, long-term methods, including implants and intrauterine devices, and permanent methods such as tubal ligations and vasectomies," explained Dr. O'Rand. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Eppin has been studied in male macaques, and immunization resulted in antibodies that caused effective and reversible contraception, as well as a reduction in sperm motility and loss of semen coagulum. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Studies on male hormonal contraception using testosterone give insights into the effect and time to recovery of spermatogenesis with cessation of testosterone supplementation. (brinkzone.com)
  • An analysis of 30 studies from 1990-2005, in which sperm output was monitored every month until recovery, was conducted in order to investigate rate, extent, and predictors of spermatogenic recovery after male hormonal contraception. (brinkzone.com)
  • Considering that contraception is a global health need, albeit for different reasons in different parts of the world, the total market for a male contraceptive could be much larger than that accounted for in the US figures alone. (google.es)
  • In the Western World, the market for contraceptives has changed relatively little over the past 50 years, with "the pill" having been developed in 1951 and remaining unparalleled as the popular choice for contraception. (google.es)
  • Advances in contraception research have only offered a few more choices, all to women, who have historically born the brunt of the responsibility, cost, and health-risk (in particular, risks of cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer associated with long-term use of hormonal-based contraceptives) of contraception. (google.es)
  • Oral or injectable contraceptive agents cannot be the sole method of contraception. (knowcancer.com)
  • Male patients, even if sterilized, must agree to use a barrier method of contraception. (knowcancer.com)
  • Male subjects must also commit to use a barrier method of contraception until at least 3 months after the end of study treatment. (knowcancer.com)
  • Advances in male contraception have been historically stymied by concerning failure rates, problematic side effects, and perceived market limitations. (springer.com)
  • However, increased interest in reliable and reversible options for male contraception have resulted in resurgent efforts to introduce novel contraceptives for men. (springer.com)
  • Hormonal male contraception relies on exogenous androgens and progestogens that suppress gonadotropin production, thereby suppressing testicular testosterone and sperm production. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we aim to summarize landmark studies on male contraception, highlight the most recent advances and future development in this important field of public health and medicine. (springer.com)
  • Potential impact of hormonal male contraception: cross-cultural implications for development of novel preparations. (springer.com)
  • CSOF is a contract facility used by the Contraception Research Branch to support research on the discovery, optimization, and development of male and female contraceptive agents. (nih.gov)
  • The epididymis, therefore, represents an alternative target organ for male contraception ( 5 ) and circumvents the potentially disadvantageous testicular steroidal regulation which is currently a favored approach ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • To present a personal account of the involvement of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the collaborative development in Asia of those areas of andrology concerned with male contraception and reproductive health. (asiaandro.com)
  • hormonal methods of contraception for men. (asiaandro.com)
  • Implants, gels and combinations of orals and injections are under clinical development for male contraception. (fiapac.org)
  • Some medical professionals recommend man-made hormonal agent therapy for menopausal symptoms and use for contraception and postmenopausal problems since it enables all of them to regulate bodily hormone amounts without the dangers connected with prescription hormonal agent replacement medications. (tutorialtab.net)
  • An international symposium on "Male Contraception: Present and Future" was organized by M. Rajalakshmi, Department of Reproductive Biology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India from November 27-29, 1995. (andrology.org)
  • The Symposium was inaugurated by J.S. Bajaj, Member Planning Commission, Government of India who highlighted the need for research in the area of male contraception and reproductive health. (andrology.org)
  • The representatives of WHO and UNFPA also highlighted the need for intensive research in male contraception to make it a reality. (andrology.org)
  • The major sessions on various aspects of testicular and post-testicular physiology started with a presentation by Norman Hecht (USA) on "Male Contraception: novel cellular targets and molecular approaches for suppression of spermatogenesis. (andrology.org)
  • Dr. Hecht paid special attention to unique testicular processes and molecules whose function(s) can be perturbed by using state of the art molecular biology procedures which would make these targets suitable for male contraception research. (andrology.org)
  • Thus, on the first day, the participants were exposed to various targets where male contraception development can be directed including spermiogenesis, Leydig cells, Sertoli cell - germ cell interactions, sperm maturation in the epididymis, sperm capacitation and the acquisition of fertilizing capacity by the spermatozoa. (andrology.org)
  • It was felt that a new lead in male contraception can come only from basic science research based mainly on the availability of new tools and techniques. (andrology.org)
  • Male contraception: another Holy Grail. (nih.gov)
  • The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. (nih.gov)
  • Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. (nih.gov)
  • Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. (nih.gov)
  • We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. (nih.gov)
  • We highlight the work that we have funded and contributed to on this page, and share some additional external publications that can help inform the future of male contraception. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Understanding people's perceptions about male contraception is critical in informing research and development activities. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest survey in the United States in the last ten years exclusive to sexually active men ages 18-44 to better understand their attitudes, needs and motivations regarding the future of male contraception as a family planning method. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Male Contraceptive Initiative worked with YTH to explore the body of existing knowledge around male contraception and generate novel solutions for furthering effective development and user engagement in this area. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • We both author and provide funding support for the development of scientific publications that can assist in providing a more holistic view of the male contraception field. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Vahdat, Heather L, Kevin Shane, and Logan M Nickels, " The Role of Team Science in the Future of Male Contraception† . (malecontraceptive.org)
  • The findings of this paper co-authored by Male Contraceptive Initiative's co-founder Dr. David Sokal asserts that, even under conservative assumptions, the introduction of a male pill or temporary vas occlusion could meaningfully contribute to averting unintended pregnancies in a variety of contexts, especially in settings where current use of contraception is low. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Male Contraceptive Initiative develops its own publications to share our perspectives on the field of male contraception, as well as to highlight the work we are doing to advance it. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Her research interests further include Internet-based health intervention programmes, as well as the acceptability of and attitudes towards male hormonal contraception. (tees.ac.uk)
  • Resumo O objetivo do artigo é analisar como é concebido o usuário de um anticoncepcional masculino por um ator relevante no campo, a organização não governamental estadunidense Male Contraception Initiative. (bvsalud.org)
  • Resumen El objetivo del artículo es analizar cómo el usuario de un anticonceptivo masculino es concebido por un actor relevante en el campo, la ONG estadounidense Male Contraception Initiative. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abstract This article analyzes how the American NGO Male Contraception Initiative - a relevant actor in the field - conceives the male contraceptive user. (bvsalud.org)
  • Male contraceptives , also known as male birth control , are methods of preventing pregnancy that solely involve the male physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Held traditionally to have antifertility effects, its leaves were demonstrated to reduce pregnancy rate and litter size in a test of male rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnancy must be ruled out before oral contraceptive therapy is started. (medscape.com)
  • Current contraceptives promote the principle of safety and ensured protection against unwanted pregnancy. (imedix.com)
  • Contraceptive vaccines targeting factors involved in establishment of pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human CG is a well-known pregnancy-specific protein that has undergone phase I and phase II clinical trials, in women, as a contraceptive vaccine with encouraging results. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A regiment of 20 milligrams of gossypol a day for 1-2 months followed by smaller booster doses provided protection from pregnancy in 99 % of cases - a value in line with female contraceptives. (ncfm.org)
  • In patients who are not planning a pregnancy, first-line pharmacologic treatment should include oral contraceptives. (aafp.org)
  • Contraceptive agents work in many ways to prevent a pregnancy. (sart.org)
  • Most of the hormonal contraceptives work by changing a woman's hormone levels to mimic a pregnancy, therefore preventing eggs from being able to be released from the ovary. (sart.org)
  • In addition, dual-protection methods which join contraceptives to antiretroviral agents to protect women against both unwanted pregnancy and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), would meet a major need. (fiapac.org)
  • The most commonly reported reasons for pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are unsuccessful attempts at abstaining from sexual intercourse, ineffective or inconsistent use of contraceptive agents or failure to detect pregnancy. (cmaj.ca)
  • Contraceptive failure is a leading reason for pregnancy during isotretinoin treatment. (cmaj.ca)
  • 11 Given concerns regarding long-term consequences of STI infections and facilitated transmission, interest in contraceptives offering dual protection from unintended pregnancy and STI acquisition has increased. (glowm.com)
  • Pregnancy and oral contraceptive use do not significantly influence outcome in long term rheumatoid arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired characteristics of an ideal contraceptive. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The characteristics of an ideal contraceptive include acceptability of user, no loss of natural feeling, no side effects, relatively inexpensive, effective, easy to use and reversible. (hindawi.com)
  • [12] Pulling out is a popular contraceptive behavior that many couples use because of convenience, dissatisfaction with other methods, it's free of expense, and has constant availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though significantly more cost-effective and a spontaneous solution compared to vasectomy, 18% of condoms (per couple over 1 year of use) fail, and only 8% of contraceptive users choose barrier methods. (endocrineweb.com)
  • It is difficult to say how barbaric modern contraceptive methods our descendants will find, because the most progressive and safe contraceptives used two centuries ago today considered as an instrument of torture. (imedix.com)
  • Small-scale contraceptive efficacy studies in couples have demonstrated effectiveness and reversibility with male hormonal methods, but side effects related to mood, sexual desire and cholesterol remain concerning. (springer.com)
  • Among non-hormonal methods, studies of reversible vaso-occlusive methods (polymers that block transport of sperm through the vas deferens) are ongoing, but reliable reversibility and long-term safety in men have not been established. (springer.com)
  • World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Regulation of Male F. Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men. (springer.com)
  • Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. (hindawi.com)
  • This review will discuss the research to develop improved methods of fertility regulation for men. (asiaandro.com)
  • There is an urgent need for research to develop new contraceptive modalities especially for men and also for women and to make existing methods more safe, affordable and acceptable. (ias.ac.in)
  • It has been recommended that these injectable contraceptives be added to the existing range of contraceptive methods available in the National Family Planning Programme. (ias.ac.in)
  • Future contraceptive methods: What to look forward to? (fiapac.org)
  • New methods currently under development are designed to meet the challenges of expanding contraceptive choices for both women and men and, of answering an unmet need for contraceptives that would satisfy new categories of users. (fiapac.org)
  • Current contraceptive methods do have many benefits: some improve menstrual bleeding patterns, alleviate dysmenorrhea and acne, and sometimes pre-menstrual syndrome. (fiapac.org)
  • Should new contraceptive methods provide additional protection against breast cancer they would also have wide appeal. (fiapac.org)
  • These new methods have been developed to meet the objectives of expanding contraceptive choices for both women and men and, of answering an unmet need for contraceptives with long-term action that meet the expectations of consumers. (fiapac.org)
  • 1. Women of child-bearing potential, defined as all women physiologically capable of becoming pregnant including women whose career, lifestyle or sexual orientation precludes intercourse with a male partner and women whose partners have been sterilized by vasectomy or other means, unless they are using two birth control methods. (trialregister.nl)
  • The sessions on the second day covered various methods that are being used to inhibit male fertility. (andrology.org)
  • seems clear that adolescents need accurate information about contraceptive methods so that they can reduce. (guttmacher.org)
  • More particularly, this invention relates to novel contraceptive devices for males and females which provide immunological barriers to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases along with related methods to prevent the spread of these diseases. (google.com)
  • What About Methods for Men? (malecontraceptive.org)
  • It concludes that the acceptability of new male methods among most participants in the two countries indicates a potential demand for male contraceptives. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Male Contraceptive Initiative led a study to identify unmet needs and satisfaction with current contraceptive methods among a sample of men across key market segments. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Modeling the impact of novel male contraceptive methods on reductions in unintended pregnancies in Nigeria, South Africa, and the United States. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • The goal of modern family planning has shifted towards providing more complete women's reproductive health, providing women with effective contraceptives with consideration of on-contraceptive benefits and lifestyle advantages of different methods. (glowm.com)
  • Oral contraceptives containing a combination of estrogen and progestin increase sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and thereby reduce the free testosterone level. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of testosterone deficiency (aka hypogonadism or Late Onset Hypogonadism), defined as total testosterone (TT) at or below 300 ng/dl is close to 40% in men aged 45 years and older presenting to primary care offices in the US. (brinkzone.com)
  • A large international web survey using the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) questionnaire showed the prevalence of symptomatic testosterone deficiency to be 80% in men aged 16-89 (mean 52 years). (brinkzone.com)
  • 13-15 Suppression of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) deprives the testes of the signals required for both testosterone production and spermatogenesis, leading to markedly suppressed sperm counts in many men. (brinkzone.com)
  • The research, which appears in the January issue of The Journal of Sexual Medicine, concluded that women who used the oral contraceptive pill may be exposed to long-term problems from low values of "unbound" testosterone potentially leading to continuing sexual, metabolic, and mental health consequences. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, in some women oral contraceptives have ironically been associated with women's sexual health problems and testosterone hormonal problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Now there are data that oral contraceptive pills may have lasting adverse effects on the hormone testosterone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Total testosterone levels is in part due mediated via the classical androgen receptor but testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal. (davidjrush.com)
  • Interrupt therapy until this hormone is responsible for testosterone replacement therapy in adult males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone (hypogonadism). (davidjrush.com)
  • Spironalactone is a very interesting drug used for decades as a salt depleting diuretic but also has an effect to block the action of the male hormone testosterone. (metabolism.com)
  • The action of spironalactone to block testosterone was discovered when it was noticed that men using this diuretic developed tender nipples and breast enlargement (gynecomastia). (metabolism.com)
  • Oral contraceptive agents are also useful to combat hirsutism because these agents also cause reduce testosterone levels by putting the ovary in a dormant "resting" state. (metabolism.com)
  • It includes the administration of hormonal agents, treatments as well as inhalation of drugs that boost the amounts of testosterone, oestrogen as well as progesterone in the body. (tutorialtab.net)
  • There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. (nih.gov)
  • Tengstrand B , Carlstrom K, Hafstrom I. Bioavailable testosterone in men with rheumatoid arthritis: high frequency of hypogonadism. (bmj.com)
  • Researchers have published a new investigation measuring sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) before and after discontinuation of the oral contraceptive pill. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If it is, all men would be taking the little "g" pill. (ncfm.org)
  • Currently, these novel steroids hold promise as both a "male pill" and long-acting injections. (springer.com)
  • A fifth of male fish are now transgender because of chemicals from the contraceptive pill being flushed down household drains, a study by has suggested. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The chemicals causing these effects include ingredients in the contraceptive pill, by-products of cleaning agents, plastics and cosmetics, according to the findings. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The Birth Control Pill, the IUD, and other hormonal contraceptives such as the Morning After Pill, Depo-Provera, and Norplant can, after conception occurs, cause the loss of a unique human life. (priestsforlife.org)
  • An indigenously developed oral contraceptive 'Centchorman', which is a nonsteroidal, weakly estrogenic but potently antiestrogenic, was found to be safe and effective and is now being marketed in India since 1991 as a 'once a week' pill. (ias.ac.in)
  • A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, the contraceptive pill, and androgens. (bmj.com)
  • While there is an expansion of the user's profile compared to previous attempts to make a "male pill" available, a closer look on the notion of men as subject of reproductive rights reveals that such a construction may cause conflicts with central issues of feminist movements. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyclofem and Mesigyna have been recommended as injectable contraceptives with proper counselling and service delivery by Indian studies. (ias.ac.in)
  • Some AEDs reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptive agents, increasing the probability of unplanned pregnancies. (who.int)
  • Acceptability, Feasibility, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Theory-Based Relational Embodied Conversational Agent Mobile Phone Intervention to Promote HIV Medication Adherence in Young HIV-Positive African American MSM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • it must be reliable, easy to administer, safe, affordable, widely acceptable, and capable of evoking homogeneous response and must bestow a high level of contraceptive efficacy. (hindawi.com)
  • The safety and efficacy of available oral contraceptives were evaluated. (ias.ac.in)
  • [25] However, the compound isolated from Gossypium , as well as other cotton seeds and okra ( gossypol ) has been abandoned for contraceptive use because it was found to cause permanent infertility in ten to twenty percent of users. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lishko is improving understanding of mammalian fertilization and opening up new avenues in treatment for human infertility and in the development of male-specific or unisex contraceptives. (macfound.org)
  • Here, we report that targeted deletion of the 7TM domain of the murine HE6 gene results in male infertility. (asm.org)
  • Objective: Recent studies have demonstrated that, besides its activity to induce germ cell exfoliation from the seminiferous epithelium to cause reversible infertility in male rodents, adjudin possesses other biological activities, which include anti-cancer, anti-inflammation in the brain, and anti-ototoxicity induced by gentamicin in rodents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In animal models, Adjudin has successfully caused male infertility with no chemical or structural damage, so that full fertility is restored after the drug is discontinued. (popcouncil.org)
  • In addition, many workshop participants later becam e seni or staff members of Research Institutes of national importance, senior academics of Universities and Medical faculties, and others established male infertility clinics. (asiaandro.com)
  • Infertility, Male--congresses. (who.int)
  • Guidelines for the use of androgens in men. (who.int)
  • Broad objectives are to: o Enhance domestic population research programs through training and international collaborative studies related to population, including the study of reproductive processes, contraceptive development, contraceptive and reproductive evaluation, reproductive epidemiology, and social and behavioral factors that influence population dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • The testicular sperm density, testicular sperm morphology, sperm motility, density of cauda epididymal spermatozoa and fertility in mating trails and biochemical parameters of reproductive organs of an interesting class of biologically potent complexes on male albino rats at the dosages have been examined and discussed. (docme.ru)
  • It will give a personal account of how the policy of WHO-HRP to build the capacity to do research in Asia has led to the active participation of Asian scientists in the global research in male reproductive health. (asiaandro.com)
  • The aim of this review, therefore, is to emphasize the importance of established Asian scientists to andrology and to encourage young Asian scientists to contribute to the exciting field of male reproductive health. (asiaandro.com)
  • A. Mukhopadhyay (Germany) reviewed the data on the presence of PRAS in the male reproductive tract and evaluated the hypothesis that tissue PRAS is crucial for the maintenance of male fertility. (andrology.org)
  • Reported here is the molecular mechanism to explain estrogen's role in fluid reabsorption in the male reproductive tract. (elsevier.com)
  • We observe that the construction of the male user is based on a concept of equality of reproductive rights, emphasizing the right of men as well as women to have autonomy and control over their own fertility. (bvsalud.org)
  • Current studies mainly focus on screening the most suitable target antigens from reproductive hormones and sperm functional proteins for the development of immuno contraceptive vaccines. (bvsalud.org)
  • one group received oral contraceptive pills and the other one received cyproterone acetate combined ethinyl-estradiol(Diane) for 3 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 5. The spermicidally treated contraceptive device of claim 1 , wherein said contraceptive barrier device is a member selected from the group consisting of diaphragms, contraceptive sponges and condoms. (google.es)
  • Examples of medical articles that can be produced in accordance with the present invention are gloves, finger cots, supply and drainage tubes, catheters, condoms, and contraceptive diaphragms. (google.com)
  • 2. The medical article of claim 1 , wherein said medical article is selected from gloves, finger cots, supply and drainage tubes, catheters, condoms and contraceptive diaphragms. (google.com)
  • Modifiable factors include urethral catheterization, sexual intercourse, and the use of spermicidal contraceptive agents and diaphragms. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Despite significant research into male contraceptives, innovation has been limited, the only male contraceptive options being the condom and vasectomy," he said. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Men's contraceptive options are limited to the male condom and vasectomy. (popcouncil.org)
  • Stratum 1 (Premenopausal/Oral contraceptives): Patients receive either oral ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone or placebo daily for 28 days beginning on the Sunday following the first day of the menstrual cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and a progestin with minimal androgenic activity, such as norgestimate, norethindrone, or desogestrel, should be selected. (medscape.com)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Gear RB, Belcher SM (2017) Impacts of bisphenol A and Ethinyl estradiol on male and female CD-1 mouse spleen. (springermedizin.de)
  • The best usual medicines for HRT include contraceptive pills, man-made hormonal agent replacements, gingivitis as well as amenorrhea. (tutorialtab.net)
  • At different times and in different countries, contraceptives were banned by the authorities or by the church, therefore devices such as a vaginal syringe or vaginal douche, which were used to cleanse the internal female organs, periodically appeared on sale. (imedix.com)
  • transdermal gels and sprays are in early stages of research and a one-year contraceptive vaginal ring is in the last stages of development. (fiapac.org)
  • Among these are new implants, medicated intrauterine systems, contraceptive vaginal rings, transdermal patches with longer duration of action, and several new combined oral contraceptives. (fiapac.org)
  • Certain sexual practices, such as the use of vaginal drying agents, may also increase women's HIV risk when these practices result in genital irritation and inflammation. (guttmacher.org)
  • The literature on vaginal drying agent usage is indicative of the paucity of scientific data on sexuality, particularly on sexual practices. (guttmacher.org)
  • Because sexuality is culturally constructed, 4 greater understanding of the cultural contexts in which vaginal drying agents are used is essential to the development of effective interventions. (guttmacher.org)
  • In South Africa, men have reported that vaginal wetness during sexual intercourse is an indicator of a woman's infidelity, and have also associated vaginal lubrication with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the use of contraceptives. (guttmacher.org)
  • Both men and women have expressed preference for vaginal dryness and tightness during intercourse. (guttmacher.org)
  • In Zimbabwe, both college-educated women 11 and women who have not attended college 12 have reported that using vaginal drying agents made them "like a virgin," and that this enhanced their partner's sexual pleasure. (guttmacher.org)
  • A small number of studies have assessed whether the use of vaginal drying agents enhances the risk of HIV infection. (guttmacher.org)
  • Among the seven women who used leaves as a drying agent, only one was left with an intact vaginal mucosa. (guttmacher.org)
  • The investigators concluded that STDs may play a role in enhancing risk of HIV infection, or that vaginal drying agents may be used differently for combating STD symptoms than for tightening, with different effects on the relative risk of HIV transmission. (guttmacher.org)
  • Oral contraceptives have been the preferred method of birth control because of their ease of use and high rate of effectiveness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Simplicity, reversibility, and effectiveness are the desired features of a male contraceptive. (fiapac.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the effect of oral contraceptives containing low-dose synthetic estrogens and progestins on disease activity in premenopausal women with inactive, stable, or moderate systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This led to the question of whether prolonged exposure to the synthetic estrogens of oral contraceptives induces gene imprinting and increased gene expression of SHBG in the liver in some women who have used the oral contraceptives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Used as a contraceptive and to treat secondary amenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, pain associated with endometriosis, endometrial and renal cell carcinomas, paraphilia in males, GnRH-dependent forms of precocious puberty, as well as to prevent endometrial changes associated with estrogens. (drugbank.ca)
  • Research work is going on in the country in various areas with special reference to hormonal contraceptive - a three monthly injectable contraceptive, immuno-contraceptives, antiprogestins, etc. (ias.ac.in)
  • In contrast, nonhormonal contraceptive agents or devices work by preventing a man's sperm from joining a woman's egg. (sart.org)
  • In healthy men, suppression of spermatogenesis to moderate oligozoospermia (below 10 million per /mL ejaculate, in normal men sperm concentrations exceed 15 million/mL ejaculate 16 ) with T enanthate injections 200 mg/wk for up to 10 weeks, was not associated with impaired sperm function of the residual spermatozoa. (brinkzone.com)
  • Barrier contraceptives are devices that physically prevent dissemination of sperm in the vagina, blocking the access of spermatozoa to the upper genital tract. (glowm.com)
  • In encouraging women to listen to their bodies and maintain a normal balance of hormones by avoiding contraceptives, some have accused me of forcing my moral viewpoint on my patients, as if giving advice for optimal health is moralizing. (onemoresoul.com)
  • Bodily Hormone Therapy or even HRT, as it is frequently known, is making use of man-made bodily hormones in health care treatment. (tutorialtab.net)
  • Hormones are actually used by the body as a technique of countering the results of the normally taking place hormonal agents. (tutorialtab.net)
  • Affected individuals should avoid ultraviolet light exposure and drugs containing hormones, such as oral contraceptives and conventional hormone replacement therapy agents. (lifeextension.com)
  • Used to treat osteoporosis in both men and women. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive on the serum free prostatic specific antigen (PSA)in women with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOD)compared with cyproterone compound. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These issues indicate an unmet need for improved birth control options for women, the primary consumers of contraceptive products. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The median intake of vitamin B 12 from food in the United States was estimated to be approximately 5 μg/day for men and 3.5 μg/day for women. (nih.gov)
  • In one Canadian province the mean dietary intake was estimated to be approximately 7 μg/day for men and 4 μg/day for women. (nih.gov)
  • Women of childbearing potential (WOCB) who receive cyclophosphamide must adhere to these contraceptive requirements during the trial and until 3 months after the last dose of cyclophosphamide. (knowcancer.com)
  • The research, in an article entitled: "Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Androgen Levels: A Retrospective Study in Women with Sexual Dysfunction" published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine, involved 124 premenopausal women with sexual health complaints for more than 6 months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Three groups of women were defined: i) 62 "Oral Contraceptive Continued-Users" had been on oral contraceptives for more than 6 months and continued taking them, ii) 39 "Oral Contraceptive Discontinued-Users" had been on oral contraceptives for more than 6 months and discontinued them, and iii) 23 "Never-Users of Oral Contraceptives" had never taken oral contraceptives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since 1977, NCFM has been committed to ending harmful discrimination and stereotypes against boys, men, their families and the women who love them. (ncfm.org)
  • Hirsutism is excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. (aafp.org)
  • Hirsutism is defined as excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. (aafp.org)
  • First-line pharmacologic treatment of hirsutism in women not trying to conceive should include oral contraceptives. (aafp.org)
  • Epilepsy is equally prevalent in men and women. (who.int)
  • Peas have been investigated for their potential as a contraceptive agent, for both men and women, due to their content of an anti-fertility substance called m-mylohydroquinone. (healthy.net)
  • A randomized trial comparing LARC uptake and satisfaction after either video or conversational-based contraceptive counseling for pregnant women in labor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Contraceptive choices are accessible in case of both men and women. (hindawi.com)
  • A growing number of women, however, including non-Catholics, are coming forward with stories of profound grief and loss connected with their past use of artificial contraceptives. (priestsforlife.org)
  • What is the root of this mysterious pain that many women and men are beginning to face? (priestsforlife.org)
  • A single 20 oz bottle therefore has almost 5 times the recommended daily sugar allowance for a child, 2-1/2 times the recommended allowance for women and 1-1/2 times the recommended allowance of sugar for men. (metabolism.com)
  • Above all, new contraceptives, which are designed to be used by healthy men and women, should be very safe and easy to use, reversible, as well as affordable. (fiapac.org)
  • What future is in store for the 6,000 young women and men who become newly infected each day? (unfpa.org)
  • Melasma affects both men and women, though it is more frequent in women (up to 30% may be affected). (lifeextension.com)
  • Improper use of contraceptives, in our experience, is the most common reason for unexpected pregnancies among women using isotretinoin and highlights the need for more comprehensive contraceptive counselling for all women starting treatment with this drug. (cmaj.ca)
  • Male Contraceptive Initiative provided grant funding for this publication, derived from qualitative data taken from focus group discussions with 80 men aged 23-67 and 398 women aged 15-50 conducted in Burkina Faso and Uganda in 2016. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Disparities exist in the acquisition of STIs, with women more susceptible than men to HIV, as well as other infections. (glowm.com)
  • In one prospective study of 634 seronegative women recruited from a labor ward in Lusaka, Zambia, for example, the practice of "dry" heterosexual intercourse, in which the male partner mopped the vagina dry with a cloth before intercourse, was associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. (guttmacher.org)
  • In some regions, women use drying agents not only for tightening, but also for self-treatment of STD symptoms such as itching and discharge. (guttmacher.org)
  • A survey of 3,008 pregnant women in Malawi who reported using drying agents indicated an association between HIV infection and use of the agents to combat itching and discharge, but not use for tightening. (guttmacher.org)
  • Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women and men and ductal carcinoma in Situ. (drugbank.ca)
  • For example, men rarely develop cystitis unless they are of advanced age, while up to half of young adult women who are sexually active may develop cystitis each year. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Results: Most men perceived that their partner considered her menstrual flow as moderate, lasting an average of 5.2 d, slightly longer than previously reported by women. (elsevier.com)
  • Overall, 42% of respondents stated that women taking hormonal contraceptives needed to have monthly periods. (elsevier.com)
  • Options should include a variety of method characteristics to maximize choice, engage men, and support men and women's contraceptive needs. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • Development of new contraceptives and products that are safe, effective, and acceptable to consumers is a long, tedious, and arduous process, usually taking decades. (glowm.com)
  • The ideal goal of male immunocontraception is to develop a safe, effective, convenient, acceptable and reversible contraceptive vaccine. (bvsalud.org)
  • 18 However, this finding does not exclude the possibility that disorders of sperm function might occur when spermatogenesis is suppressed further to very severe oligozoospermia (below 1 million/mL), commonly observed in hormonal male contraceptive clinical trials. (brinkzone.com)
  • In many men, effective suppression of spermatogenesis can be achieved by androgen-progestin combination therapy. (springer.com)
  • Antisperm contraceptive vaccines: where we are and where we are going? (biomedsearch.com)
  • A large study conducted by the Chinese government determined gossypol, a defensive chemical that's found in cotton, to be an amazingly efficient male oral contraceptive. (ncfm.org)
  • Why are men not using gossypol as a birth control aid? (ncfm.org)
  • In the years following, scientists isolated gossypol , the organic molecule that is the contraceptive agent found in cottonseed oil. (ncfm.org)
  • The additional contraceptive action of gossypol, however, made it worthy of a wide-scale look. (ncfm.org)
  • In tests conducted by the Chinese government involving ten thousand males during the 1970s , gossypol worked quite well as an oral male contraceptive. (ncfm.org)
  • Men taking gossypol for an extended period of time also experienced extremely low to zero sperm counts for up to four years after they quit taking the oral contraceptive. (ncfm.org)
  • Unfortunately, Chinese studies showed that up to 10 % percent of men taking gossypol as a contraceptive aid developed hypokalemia, a potassium deficiency with life threatening results. (ncfm.org)
  • Potassium supplements taken simultaneously with gossypol did not decrease the occurrence of hypokalemia among men in the study, thus effectively killing any hope for gossypol as a chemical contraceptive. (ncfm.org)
  • The study shed light on an additional problem when gossypol is used as a contraceptive - roughly twenty-five hundred of the men in the study experienced irreversible sterility. (ncfm.org)
  • The Chinese government abandoned their gossypol project in the mid-1980s, but clinical research continues on a much smaller scale in Brazil and Nigeria , where a lower doses (7.5 to 15 milligrams) and a modified dosage pattern could lead to an inexpensive and potent contraceptive. (ncfm.org)
  • Gossypol is generally known as a male anti-fertility and potential anti-cancer agent [2]. (termedia.pl)
  • Therefore, gossypol has been suggested to be a potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent. (termedia.pl)
  • Most, if not all, of these illnesses are due to unrecognized deficiencies in key vitamins and minerals such as folic acid, vitamin B12, and magnesium, brought on by the use of the artificial steroids found in contraceptives. (onemoresoul.com)
  • Dr. Claudia Panzer, an endocrinologist in Denver, CO and lead author of the study, noted that "it is important for physicians prescribing oral contraceptives to point out to their patients potential sexual side effects, such as decreased desire, arousal, decreased lubrication and increased sexual pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our approach presents a human-virtual agent mediated system that leverages the conversational agent to handle menial caregiver's works by engaging users (e.g., patients) in a conversation with the conversational agent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Parents' Beliefs About Condoms and Oral Contraceptives: Are They Medically Accurate? (guttmacher.org)
  • however, little is known about the accuracy of parents' views about condoms and oral contraceptives. (guttmacher.org)
  • PCOS causes infrequent or prolonged menstrual cycle or excess male hormone levels. (marketresearch.com)
  • SHBG values were compared at baseline (groups i, ii and iii), while on the oral contraceptive (groups i and ii), and well beyond the 7 day half-life of sex hormone binding globulin at 49-120 (mean 80) days and more than 120 (mean 196) days after discontinuation of oral contraceptives (group ii). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Man-made hormone alternatives are prescribed through many physicians for menopausal signs. (tutorialtab.net)
  • Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. (drugbank.ca)
  • Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent birth control. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the US, 13.3% of married men have had a vasectomy, 57% between age 40 and 49 years. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The major limiting factor for vasectomy is high cost, which means vasectomy is not generally an option for young men. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Currently practiced contraceptive options available for men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The most famous barrier contraceptive is a condom (both male and female). (imedix.com)
  • CSOF utilizes high-throughput screening assays of compound libraries to lead discoveries that inhibit validated male and female contraceptive targets. (nih.gov)
  • The studies were carried out on male and female Balb/c mice (8-10 weeks of age), each weighing 20-22 g. (termedia.pl)
  • Female sterilization accounts for 34.2%, with male sterilization declining from 3·4% in 1992-93 to 1·9% in 1998-99. (ias.ac.in)
  • Embelia ribes , Borax and Piper longum has been found to be safe and effective as a female contraceptive and the results of phase-I clinical trials are encouraging. (ias.ac.in)
  • The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant. (bireme.br)
  • Its antifertility characteristics are being explored as the possible starting point development of a new oral contraceptive agent which works by stimulating an evacuation of the implanted egg in the uterus. (healthy.net)
  • However, Stephanie Page and Arthi Thirumalai receive funding from the National Institutes of Health through Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development for Clinical Evaluation of Male Contraceptives (Contract number: HHSN275201300025I). (springer.com)
  • Christian MC, Pluda JM, Ho PT, Arbuck SG, Murgo AJ, Sausville EA (1997) Promising new agents under development by the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis, and Centers of the National Cancer Institute. (springer.com)
  • Current efforts in India to develop a male contraceptive are mainly directed towards (i) development of antispermatogenic agents to suppress sperm production, (ii) prevention of sperm maturation, (iii) prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens or rendering these sperm infertile and (iv) prevention of sperm deposition. (ias.ac.in)
  • In addition the progress made in the drug delivery area may also facilitate the development of advanced contraceptive systems in the future. (fiapac.org)
  • Identifying specific genes and the proteins induced by these genes and finding molecules that specifically antagonize gene action will open new avenues for the development of contraceptives that do not modify the hormonal profile of the individual. (fiapac.org)
  • The symposium was financially sponsored by the following: Contraceptive Research and Development Programme, International Committee for Research in Reproduction, International Society of Andrology, United Nations Population Fund, United States Agency for International Development, United States National Institutes of Health, and the World Health Organization. (andrology.org)
  • Funding for male contraceptive research and development is extremely limited, so it is imperative that we capitalize on the existing body of knowledge even while continuing to add to it. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use. (nih.gov)
  • The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research, Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, 1230 York Ave, New York, New York 10065, United States of America. (eurekaselect.com)
  • On the basis of this observation, the Population Council pioneered research into Adjudin as a male contraceptive. (popcouncil.org)
  • Other research grants were awarded in a basi c scie nce programme, co-funded by the Rockefeller Foundation (Director, Dr Mahmoud Fa t halla), to support studies to underpin the contraceptive research. (asiaandro.com)
  • Contraceptive research will build upon advances in biomedical research, which have created new opportunities for studying the basic biology of reproduction. (fiapac.org)
  • Men now tend to accept the concept of taking responsibility for the control of the couple's fertility, leading to a growth in requests for male contraceptives, an emerging and challenging area of research. (fiapac.org)
  • Subsequent to the keynote address, there was an overview of the priority areas of research in male fertility regulation for the World Health Organization (WHO) by Mr. Griffin and for the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) by B.N. Saxena. (andrology.org)
  • These research activities help the research community to not only understand what people are thinking about with respect to male contraceptives, but also help shed light on the drivers behind these perceptions. (malecontraceptive.org)
  • In addition to its contraceptive benefits, Adjudin also has mild anti-cancer and anti-neurodegenerative effects, which could increase its acceptability and improve adherence should it be introduced as a contraceptive option. (popcouncil.org)
  • In haematopoietic cell system, the agents which inhibit PKC activity can suppress the growth of both normal and leukemic progenitors [10]. (termedia.pl)
  • Cumin has reversible contraceptive activities in male rats without apparent toxicity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The present study aimed at examining effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Humulus lupulus L. hops on blood pictures in male rats. (springermedizin.de)
  • Although a steady increase in contraceptive use has been observed both in developed and less-developed countries, the contraceptive needs of a significant percent of couples have not yet been met, with an increase in unplanned pregnancies. (fiapac.org)
  • The fertility phenotype of HE6 knockout mice identifies this receptor as a potential nonsteroidal, nontesticular target for future male contraceptives and identifies an in vivo function for a member of this unusual gene family. (asm.org)
  • Antiandrogens are used in the treatment of an assortment of androgen-dependent conditions in both males and females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the effective assistance, females can easily preserve as well as control their personal hormonal agent levels to attain a well-balanced harmony. (tutorialtab.net)
  • Many of the t rained scientists became principal investigators in the clinical trials and scie ntific studies organized by the WHO-HRP Male Task Force. (asiaandro.com)
  • Objective: To assess men's perceptions about monthly bleeding and associated inconveniences for their partner, as well as men's attitudes regarding the desired menstruation frequency for their partner and knowledge about hormonal contraceptives. (elsevier.com)
  • Unlike other cancer drugs that attack proliferating cells generally, Adjudin narrowly targets a small number of cells, including those in the male testes. (popcouncil.org)
  • The Population Council is working to develop safe, reliable, reversible male contraceptives. (popcouncil.org)
  • Drugs used in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) include metformin (off-label use), spironolactone, eflornithine (topical cream to treat hirsutism), and oral contraceptives. (medscape.com)
  • Background: Adjudin has been explored as a male contraceptive for the last 15 years since its initial synthesis in the late 1990s. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Conclusion: Studies on adjudin should be expanded to better understand its biological activities so that it can become a useful drug for treatment of other ailments besides serving as a male contraceptive. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Topical agents, such as eflornithine, may also be used. (aafp.org)
  • Many all-natural, topical skin-lightening agents have been found to be quite beneficial in lightening hyperpigmented areas of the skin. (lifeextension.com)
  • Topical applications of natural, fruit-derived alpha-hydroxy acids, including glycolic acid, have been extremely beneficial in combination with the aforementioned bleaching agents. (lifeextension.com)
  • Phenoxybenzamine has long been known to block ejaculation without affecting semen quality or ability to achieve orgasm, which could make it an effective male contraceptive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Europe that is a safe or effective contraceptive. (healthy.net)
  • Crown Agents' third-party quality assurance and in-spections services (QAIS) improve quality, safety and productivity, working to the highest international standards and providing organisations with a guarantee that all items supplied are safe, effective and fit for purpose. (crownagents.com)
  • Thus, in the male, estrogen regulates one of the most important epithelial ion transporters and maintains epithelial morphological differentiation in efferent ductules of the male, independent of its regulation of Na + transport. (elsevier.com)