Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often in mixtures with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Sexual activities of humans.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Sexual activities of animals.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Absence of menstruation.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.

Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.(1/444)


The effects of levonorgestrel implants on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the endometrium. (2/444)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the microvascular density of the endometrium were studied in Norplant users and normal controls, using immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrial sections. The VEGF staining index was quantified using computerized image analysis. The VEGF staining index between stages of the menstrual cycle and between normal and Norplant endometria were compared. Norplant VEGF staining index was analysed for correlation with microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period up to 90 days prior to biopsy, and the length of time since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The results showed that immunoreactive VEGF was detected predominantly in endometrial glands but weakly expressed in the stroma throughout the menstrual cycle, and also in Norplant users. Large variation in the VEGF staining index between individuals was observed and no significant difference in the VEGF staining index was detected between stages of the menstrual cycle for the glands and stroma. The glandular and stromal VEGF staining indices were significantly higher in Norplant than in normal endometrium (P<1x10(-4)). No correlation was found between the Norplant VEGF staining index and endometrial microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period, and the length of time since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The VEGF staining index was higher in glands than stroma for both normal and Norplant endometrium. The results suggest a differential control of endometrial glandular versus stromal VEGF expression, and possible positive effects of levonorgestrel on VEGF expression.  (+info)

Levonorgestrel versus the "Yuzpe" regimen.(3/444)

New choices in emergency contraception.  (+info)

Three countries' experience with Norplant introduction. (4/444)

Despite international efforts to plan for Norplant introduction, the method has drawn the attention of critics of family planning programmes, and has raised several issues for debate since it was introduced into family planning programmes. The experiences of three countries with the introduction of Norplant highlight some of the unique features of the method that have affected its introduction. Indonesia, Bangladesh and the United States represent diverse cultural settings and systems of family planning provision. Experience in each country has highlighted the need to focus on quality of care for clients, most notably the need for good counselling and attention to removal as well as insertion. The cost of Norplant also has influenced its introduction in each country. Another issue includes the need to work with women's health advocacy groups, which is illustrated particularly in Bangladesh. Finally, the role of litigation in the United States, and its potential role in influencing Norplant introduction in other countries, is discussed. These three countries' experience illustrate the importance of understanding the programmatic context of contraceptive introduction.  (+info)

Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female sex steroids. (5/444)

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose relationship of selegline and desmethylselegiline pharmacokinetics within the selegiline dose range from 5 to 40 mg. METHODS: Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethlylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication. RESULTS: The total AUC and Cmax of selegiline were 10-to 20-fold higher in those subjects taking oral steroids compared with subjects with no concomitant medication; this finding was consistent and statistically significant at all the four dose levels. The dose linearity of selegiline pharmacokinetics failed to be demonstrated in both groups. The AUC and Cmax of desmethylselegiline were only moderately higher (about 1.5-fold; P=NS at each dose level) in the subjects taking oral steroids than in those not receiving concomitant medication. The AUC values of desmethylselegiline increased in a dose linear manner in subjects with no concomitant medication, but not in the oral steroid group. The metabolic ratio (AUC(desmethylselegiline)/AUC(selegiline)) was several-fold lower in the group receiving oral steroids compared with the no-concomitant-medication group (P<0.005 at all the four dose levels). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of oral contraceptives caused a drastic (20-fold) increase in the oral bioavailability of selegiline. The highly significant difference in the metabolic ratio between the groups provides evidence that the mechanism of the interaction between selegiline and female sex steroids involves reduced T-demethylation of selegiline. The present results suggest that concomitant use of selegiline with exogenous female sex steroids should be avoided or the dosage of selegiline should be reduced in order to minimize the risks of selegiline related adverse drug reactions.  (+info)

The effect of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device on human endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors after one year of use. (6/444)

Thirty-four women bearing a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, 20 micrograms/day (LNG-IUD-20), for 12-15 months were recruited. Endometrial biopsies were collected during the late proliferative phase of the cycle (on cycle days 10-12) before (control) and after the use of the IUD for 12 months, and assayed for oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). An immunohistochemical technique with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase detection system (PAP method) was employed. D75 and JZB39 were the primary antibodies for ER and PR respectively. The immunostaining semiquantitative analysis was performed with a computerized microscope image processor, and expressed as 'grey value'. Both endometrial ER and PR populations were significantly lower after insertion of the IUD (P < 0.01) than in control biopsies. The intensity of nuclear staining and the percentage of positively stained cells for ER and PR in women with LNG-IUD were each about 50% of those in control biopsies. The results suggested that LNG released locally from the IUD has a depressive action on the ER and PR, which may contribute to the contraceptive effectiveness of this type of IUD and also to the possible causes of LNG-IUD-induced irregular bleeding and amenorrhoea.  (+info)

A multicentre efficacy and safety study of the single contraceptive implant Implanon. Implanon Study Group. (7/444)

An open, multicentre study was performed to assess efficacy, safety and acceptability of the single-rod contraceptive implant Implanon. The study involved 635 young healthy women, who were sexually active and of childbearing potential. The women were followed up every 3 months over the entire study period. Originally the study was designed for 2 years, but was extended to 3 years in a group of 147 women from two centres. Altogether, 21 centres in nine different countries participated. The average age of the women was 29 years (range 18-42 years), of whom 83.5% had been pregnant in the past. No pregnancy occurred during treatment with Implanon, resulting in a Pearl Index of 0 (95% confidence interval: 0.0-0.2). In the first 2 years, 31% had discontinued the treatment. Of the 147 women in the study extension, nine discontinued (6%) treatment. Bleeding irregularities was the main reason for discontinuation during the first 2 years of use (17.2%) and adverse experiences in the third year (3.4%). Implant insertion and removal were fast and uncomplicated in the vast majority (97%) of cases. Return of fertility was prompt. In conclusion, Implanon has excellent contraceptive action during its lifetime of 3 years. The safety profile is acceptable and not essentially different from progestogens in general.  (+info)

Changes in vascular basement membrane in the endometrium of Norplant users. (8/444)

Progestogen-only contraception is almost invariably associated with changes in menstrual bleeding patterns. Changes in the endometrial vasculature, and in particular an increase in vascular fragility, may contribute to this bleeding. In this study, endometrial vascular density and endothelial cell basement membrane components were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after insertion of Norplant. Endometrial vascular density was increased from a mean (+/- SEM) of 189.6 +/- 7.0 vessels/mm2 during the control cycle to 253.9 +/- 80.7 vessels/mm2 at 2-13 weeks of Norplant exposure, and to 212.7 +/- 12.9 vessels/mm2 at 14-42 weeks. During the control cycle, a mean of 161.4 +/- 4.5 vessels/mm2 stained for collagen IV (85% of all vessels), while at 2-13 weeks, 144.5 +/- 13.0 vessels/mm2 stained for collagen IV (57% of all vessels) (t ratio = 2.08, P = 0.0057). By 14-42 weeks, 71% of vessels (151.0 +/- 9.8) vessels/mm2 were surrounded by collagen IV. This was not significantly different from control values (t ratio = 2.03). Endometrial vascular laminin was also reduced following Norplant insertion, from a mean of 176.0 +/- 4.2 vessels/mm2 in the control cycle (93% of vessels), to 156.3 +/- 6.7 vessels/mm2 at 2-13 weeks of exposure (57% of vessels) (t ratio = 2.08, P = 0.01). By 14-42 weeks of exposure to Norplant, 162.5 +/- 9 vessels/mm2 (76%) stained for laminin. This was not significantly different from control values (t ratio = 2.04). Endometrial vascular heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) was reduced from 58.6 +/- 3.0 vessels/mm2 during the control cycle (31% of vessels) to 43.6 +/- 5.6 vessels/mm2 (only 17% of vessels) at 2-13 weeks (t ratio = 2.08, P = 0.025). At 14-42 weeks, only 19% of vessels stained for HSPG (41.3 +/- 5.8 vessels/mm2; t ratio = 2.04, P = 0.009).  (+info)

Injectable contraceptives are hormones delivered to a woman through an inter-muscular or subcutaneous injection. Depending on the type, an injectable lasts for one, two or three months before a new injection is needed to maintain efficacy as a contraceptive. They are highly effective, reversible, safe, private and convenient. Injectable contraceptives are rapidly increasing in popularity, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The types of injectables include: combined injectable contraceptives containing both progestin and estrogen, administered once a month; progestin-only injectable contraceptives containing norethisterone oenanthate (NET-EN), administered once every two months; progestin-only injectable contraceptives containing depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), administered every three months. The primary function of injectables are to stop monthly ovulation (release of eggs from ovaries). They also thicken cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to pass through to the uterus.
The use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) has increased from 1.3 to 5.5 percent over the past decade. There are three LARCs available in the United States: the etonogestrel single-rod implant and two types of intrauterine devices (IUDs; copper T380A and levonorgestrel intrauterine system [Mirena]). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has released a practice bulletin to guide physicians on the use of LARCs.
A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control. The implant may depend on the timed release of hormones to hinder ovulation or sperm development, the ability of copper to act as a natural spermicide within the uterus, or it may work using a non-hormonal, physical blocking mechanism. As with other contraceptives, a contraceptive implant is designed to prevent pregnancy, but it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections. Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to almost 100 countries around the globe with the World Health Organization declaring it a public health emergency. The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Contraceptive Implants market in 2020.. COVID-19 can affect the global economy in three main ways: by directly affecting production and demand, by creating supply chain and market disruption, and by its ...
In this partially randomized patient preference study, women aged 18-29 seeking oral or injectable contraception will be offered an opportunity to try LARC instead; the FDA-approved options include two types of intrauterine products and one type of subdermal contraceptive implant. Over a 24-month period, the experiences of LARC users will be compared to the experiences of those opting for their initial short-acting method. It is expected that 38% of the participants using short-acting methods will stop using them during the first year and be at risk of unintended pregnancy. In contrast, less than 20% of LARC users will want to have their contraceptive removed. Continuation rates will be measured and pregnancies will be tallied in the two groups to document any differences that emerge ...
Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; CHC = combined hormonal contraceptive; Cu-IUD = copper-containing intrauterine device; DMPA = depot medroxyprogesterone acetate; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; LNG-IUD = levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device; POP = progestin-only pill; STD = sexually transmitted disease; U.S. MEC = U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010.. * In cases in which access to health care might be limited, the blood pressure measurement can be obtained by the woman in a nonclinical setting (e.g., pharmacy or fire station) and self-reported to the provider.. † Weight (BMI) measurement is not needed to determine medical eligibility for any methods of contraception because all methods can be used (U.S. MEC 1) or generally can be used (U.S. MEC 2) among obese women (Box 2). However, measuring weight and calculating BMI at baseline might be helpful for monitoring any changes and counseling women who might be concerned about weight change perceived to ...
Pharmacology and key clinical study for Sayana Press (medroxyprogesterone acetate), a long-acting reversible contraceptive for subcutaneous injection.
Injectable contraceptives are one of the most effective and convenient form of birth control means as more than 30 million women are using it throughout the world. There are two main choices of progestron only injectable methods include depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) used 90-day intervals and norethisterone enantate (NET-EN) used at 60-day intervals which only less than 1 million women use this type and it is used as Unidepo in Malaysia since 1976. It contains a synthetic hormonal progestron, like the natural female progesterone and its annual pregnancy rates is less than one per 100 users. Although birth control injections have a number of advantages, but like all other medications, have some potential side effects. One of the most worrying complications is bone density reduction. Bone loss and in turn osteoporosis as a systemic multi factorial skeletal disease is a growing public health concern especially in elderly people particularly in postmenopausal women that is reaching an ...
The rate of unintended pregnancy among opioid-dependent women is extremely high: nearly 9 of every 10 pregnant opioid-dependent women report that the current pregnancy was unintended, a rate 2-3 times that of the general population. Despite these dire statistics, there is a dearth of scientific knowledge about contraceptive use in this population and about how to promote use of more effective contraceptives (e.g., birth control pills, IUDs, implants).. The aim of this Stage I Behavioral and Integrative Treatment Development Program application is to develop and pilot test a novel contraceptive management program to increase use of more effective contraceptives among OM women. OM women (N=100) at risk for unintended pregnancy will be randomly assigned to a 6-month contraceptive management program or to usual care. The contraceptive management program will consist of two components: (1) the World Health Organizations contraception protocol and (2) reinforced follow-up visits. At their first ...
A contraceptive implant is a device that is put under the skin in order to offer you an even dose of contraception without you having to take a daily pill.
Question - Bleeding after contraceptive implant. On microgynon. Bleeding not stopped. On cerazette. Cause of continuous bleeding?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Progesteroen-only pill, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Results Patient backgrounds were, initial group: average age 54 years, bio-naïve rate 37.2%, MTX combination rate 37.2%, average DAS28-ESR at introduction 5.7; middle group: average age 60 years, bio-naïve rate 28.3%, MTX combination rate 47.5%, average DAS28-ESR at introduction 5.6; late group: average age 59 years, bio-naïve rate 25.8%, MTX combination rate 63.4%, average DAS28-ESR at introduction 5.3. The MTX combination rate was high in the late group (p=0.001).. 12-month continuation rates were 70.8% (80/113) in the initial group, 82.8% (82/99) in the middle group, 90.3% (84/93) in the late group, which was high in the late group (p=0.002). The mean DAS28-ESR after 12 months showed no difference at 2.9 in the initial group, 3.0 in the middle group and 2.8 in the late group. Discontinuations numbered 20 patients in the initial group (insufficient effect in 6 cases, adverse drug reactions in 9 cases, others (such as economic reasons) in 5 cases), 14 patients in the middle group ...
Transitioning away from a popular contraceptive shot known as DMPA could help protect women in Sub-Saharan Africa and other high-risk regions from becoming infected with HIV, according to a research review published in the Endocrine Societys journal Endocrine Reviews.. The predominant contraceptive in Sub-Saharan Africa is depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-a birth control shot administered every three months. Human studies suggest DMPA use may raise the risk of HIV infection by 40 percent. Other forms of contraceptive shots do not show the same correlation with HIV infection. In this article, the authors review the underlying biological mechanisms that could contribute to increased risk of HIV infection for certain hormonal contraceptives but not others.. According to UNAIDS, 36.7 million people worldwide were living with HIV as of 2016. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.. To protect individual and public health, it is important to ensure women in areas with high rates of ...
Depo-Provera is an injectable contraceptive used to prevent pregnancy. In 2004, the FDA announced that a black box warning would be added to Depo-Provera labeling,
During the COVD-19 outbreak, reproductive desires and pregnancy planning should be discussed with all women of childbearing potential. This discussion should include information on what is known and not known about COVID-19 during pregnancy. Preconception discussions should be patient-centered and should include the option to defer efforts to conceive until after the peak of the pandemic and/or more is known about the effect of COVID-19 during pregnancy. Women may be at increased risk of unintended pregnancy when stay-at-home measures are in effect and continuation or initiation of appropriate contraception should be addressed, including emergency contraception. Based on clinical trial data, use of intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants beyond the expiration date specified on a package insert may be considered. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate may also be considered for subcutaneous self-injection ...
Similar to any other technique of birth control, the DMPA contraceptives also have their advantages and disadvantages. First, a look at the advantages. This method is hassle free and effective. It has been used by over 90 million women and is reported to be as effective as sterilization. One injection can prevent pregnancy for 3 months. Secondly, it offers no hindrance to normal sexual life and can be made use of at any stage. Thirdly, it is extremely safe and can be even used by nursing mothers as early as six weeks after childbirth. Also, there is probably no increase in congenital abnormalities when contraception failure occurs. Fourthly, there are no side effects related to estrogen, which involve the risk of heart attack. Fifthly, it shields the body from ovarian and endometrial cancer and uterine fibroids. Lastly, it is reversible and one can plan a family after a gap of three to six months on stopping the usage.. The disadvantages include alteration in menstrual bleeding, which implies ...
SO. ILL. UNIV.,[Document.TitleWithFallback]:Contraceptive Implant (2 of 6),[Document.Identifier]:SS2628080,[Document.Id_Client]:GA7465,M2:Description:,[Truncate(150):Document.CaptionLong]:A doctor creates a space for a Norplant contraceptive implant under the skin of a woman\u0027s upper arm. Image 2 in a series of 6. Norplant is a hormonal progestogen...,GAK:[email protected]**,EID:2OPEBMRV5KCM,IID:SS2628080 ...
Contraceptive injections moderately increase a womans risk of becoming infected with HIV, a large scientific analysis has found. The research in a leading medical journal will further fuel a controversy that has been raging for more than two decades. The implications of a possible link between hormonal injections and the virus alarm both HIV and birth control campaigners… (Boseley, 1/8).. TIME: This Contraceptive Is Linked to a Higher Risk of ...
For further information, explanation on how to get it and how its put in and personal experiences see The Contraceptive Implant The implant has been met with heavy scepticism, with one type even being taken off the listing because it caused so much scarring. This is Norplant. Some of you might still have it in, but its been discontinued in the UK. The main type now is Implanon. Its a small, flexible tube that is about the same size as a Kirby grip, containing progestogen. It releases it steadily into the bloodstream from the comfiness of your upper arm. It lasts for three years. [Norplant for 5]. It basically does what most contraceptives in the body do; thicken mucus around your cervix, thins your uterine lining and also prevents egg release [and therefore bleeds, in time] When it is put in [usually first day of period], you are likely to be given a local anaesthetic, then have the implant injected. You will probably be bruised and sore for a few days. Youll be able to feel and fiddle with ...
This paper examines the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as a part of the Sino-implant (II) study, a trial in Kingston, Jamaica, that evaluated whether the initiation of the implant led to more unprotected sex among women ages 18 to 44 years. The authors found that the immediate initiation of Sino-implant (II) was not associated with higher STI prevalence rates over three months for these women. These findings fill an important gap in the evidence regarding the effect of initiation of long-acting reversible contraceptives on STIs. ...
The only implant currently available in the UK is Nexplanon. It is a small plastic rod, about the size of a matchstick, which is inserted under the skin of your upper arm. The implant slowly releases a low dose of progestogen. This method is highly reliable. It lasts for three years.. Inserting and removing the implant is a simple, quick procedure in the clinic, needing just a little local anaesthetic to numb the skin.. You will most likely need to discuss Nexplanon carefully with the doctor or nurse at your first visit. You might get Nexplanon inserted at the same visit. A Nexplanon removal would be done in a booked appointment clinic.. ...
Characteristics of Implants Why might these women be interested in using implants? Breastfeeding mother Adolescent Infected with HIV Has little to no access to a health care facility Desires no more children Ask participants for reasons why these women might prefer or avoid implants. Then, click the mouse to reveal the next example.
A full range of family planning advice and service is offered including fitting of coils and contraceptive implants. Where possible we will make every effort for female patients to see a female member of staff if requested.. If you feel you would like to have a Coil fitted or Contraceptive Implant please speak to our reception team to arrange an initial consultation with either Dr Tonge, or Dr Willcocks.. Alternatively you can contact the RUH Riverside Clinic. You can pick up the morning after pill from a pharmacy.. For help with an unwanted pregnancy please make an appointment with a GP or contact a Marie Stopes clinic. We treat everything you tell us with the strictest confidence. All personal information is kept private.. ...
Depo-Provera Contraceptive official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
View drug interactions between Depo-Provera Contraceptive and gabapentin. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
What the Quality Payment Program (QPP) lacks in simplicity, it makes up for in deck-stacking. In the January issue, read how after three years, Medicares program to drive value-based care continues to generate confusion, frustration, and worry that its only going to swallow up more physicians in its complex and financially punitive gameplay. Plus, a new state initiative could boost access to long-acting reversible contraceptives, or LARCs.. ...
What the Quality Payment Program (QPP) lacks in simplicity, it makes up for in deck-stacking. In the January issue, read how after three years, Medicares program to drive value-based care continues to generate confusion, frustration, and worry that its only going to swallow up more physicians in its complex and financially punitive gameplay. Plus, a new state initiative could boost access to long-acting reversible contraceptives, or LARCs.. ...
Special consideration: Adolescents, In general, adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and must have access to a variety of contraceptive choices. Age alone does not constitute a medical reason for denying any method to adolescents. While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents. For example, in some settings, adolescents are also at increased risk for STIs, ...
Depo-provera or projesterone contraceptions: definition, side effects, what to expect, where to get it, cost complications, benefits of
Call (585) 279-4890 to get the shot Depo-Provera, and other affordable and confidential birth control services for teens and adults. Walk-ins are welcome. Free bus passes are available.
In three districts, a USAID-funded grant1 enabled ChildFund International to introduce a new method of contraceptives to rural areas through community-based distributors (CBDs). To meet growing demand, the injectable contraceptive Dep-Provera was added as a third option to condoms and contraceptive pills. In the context of human resource shortages, the provision of family planning services at the community level has shifted from health workers to CBDs. The project established a learning site through which other NGOs could witness best practices for CBDs, which has facilitated broader distribution of Depo-Provera.. The CBDs program has been instrumental in increasing the uptake of family planning services, with the number of users increasing over six-fold in just four years - from 1,822 in 2012 to 11,700 users in 2015. Ruth Mushili, a 33-year-old woman from Kamoba village commented, Access to family planning [before CBDs] was never easy. The distance to the facility used to discourage me and the ...
On October 6, the Trump administration released an overhaul of federal regulations governing religious objections to the Affordable Care Acts (ACA) contraceptive coverage guarantee. The move had been long expected.
The WHO reclassification last month of progestogen-only injectable contraceptives has triggered a critical debate in the family planning community over how to manage the potential link between higher rates of HIV acquisition and one of the most popular birth control methods in many at-risk communities....Providers said the new guidance is causing them to rethink how to identify a woman with a higher likelihood of acquiring HIV and how to communicate the possible risk of the injectables to those clients. The stakes are enormous. ...
In the UK only 3% of women choose the Depo-Provera injection as their form or birth-control but many others claim the side effects are too problematic and feel as though it should be banned… just how safe is it? Depo-provera is a form of hormonal contraceptive used by women that requires an injection every three Continue Reading. ...
I just had my contraceptive implant out on Dec 18th - I had it for the 3 years. Havent DTD since having it removed, but no sign of AF yet. Hoping AF arrives so can begin to track cycles and see where Im at now Im 30 and havent had a period for 3 years lol ...
Purpose : To compare attitudes and practices related to clinicians use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate Depo-Provera DMPA and levonorgestrel implants in adolescents in three northern European countries and the United States. Methods : Between the fall of 1993 and the winter of 1995, surveys eliciting clinician attitudes and practices with...
Author(s): Civic, D; Scholes, D; Ichikawa, L; LaCroix, AZ; Yoshida, CK; Ott, SM; Barlow, WE | Abstract: To evaluate the possible effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injectable contraception on depressive symptoms, we conducted a population-based prospective study with women aged 18-39 years old enrolled at a health maintenance organization. At baseline, 183 women used DMPA and 274 were non-users. Data on depressive symptoms and on factors potentially related to DMPA use and depression were collected by questionnaire at 6-month intervals for up to 3 years. In multivariate longitudinal analysis, we found an increased likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms among continuous DMPA users (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.00-2.07) and discontinuers (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.03-2.48) when compared to non-users. Women who discontinued DMPA use had elevated depressive symptoms prior to discontinuation (OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.42-3.70) and immediately following discontinuation (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1. 46-4.14),
Background & aim: Sexual health is an essential element of quality of life, affecting both physical and psychological domains. Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), referred to healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2013. Methods: This descriptive, comparative study was performed on 240 women (n=120 per group), selected through multistage sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire consisting of three parts, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), demographic characteristics, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), was completed through interviews. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were calculated, and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square, and Fishers exact test were performed, using SPPS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was
The use of implants and Intra-uterine devices (IUD) during the post-partum period is very low in Uganda especially in rural settings. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are known to be the most cost-effective for prevention of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortions. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with long-acting reversible contraceptive use among women in the extended postpartum period in rural Uganda. We conducted a household-based, cross-sectional study among 400 women in two rural communities in Mityana district, central Uganda. Eligible women were aged 15 to 45 years who had childbirth within 12 months of study enrollment in September 2014. The outcome variable was self-reported use of a LARC method, either IUD or implants in the extended postpartum period. The main independent variables were previous childbirths (parity), fertility desire, willingness to use modern contraception, duration of postpartum period and previous pregnancies (gravidity). A logistic
DISCUSSION. We can consider that our population has a differential in relation to other studies evaluating the effect of DMPA, considering that our group was paired with the control group at baseline for BMI (± 1 kg/m2) and age (± 1 year), becoming a homogeneous group. Our study found that after 12 months of follow-up the injectable DMPA users had significant weight gain (3.01 kg). As most prospective studies evaluating the effect of DMPA were for at least 30 months (6,8,9), we can consider that the follow-up period of our study is short compared to the others, but we can already observe significant changes in important variables studied.. To better assess changes in weight and body composition, we made a subdivision of the DMPA group for weight gain (, 3 kg and , 3 kg), and observed significant changes in weight and body composition in both groups, but the group which gained , 3 kg had the more pronounced changes. This group had a mean gain of 5.53 kg, increased fat mass (2.3 kg) and fat-free ...
Expanding contraceptive options through self-injection may improve access and confidentiality. There are few published studies on contraceptive self-injection in sub-Saharan Africa and none in West Africa, a region with high unmet need. This study was performed to assess feasibility of subcutaneous DMPA self-injection in Senegal. These first research results on contraceptive self-injection in West Africa indicate initial feasibility and acceptability of the practice. Results underscore the importance of designing self-injection programs that empower and support women, including those with limited education.. ...
From August 2013 to March 2015, we enrolled 461 participants with pregnancy durations of 75 days or less. Of participants included in the abortion outcome analyses, 14 of 220 (6.4%) and 12 of 226 (5.3%) in the Quickstart and Afterstart groups, respectively, had surgery to complete the abortion; the upper 90% confidence limit on this difference was 4.9%, within our prestipulated 5% noninferiority margin. Ongoing pregnancy after initial abortion treatment was significantly more common in the Quickstart group (8/220 [3.6%]) than in the Afterstart group (2/226 [0.9%]); the difference was 2.7% (90% confidence interval 0.4-5.6%). By 6 months, 5 of 213 (2.3%) and 7 of 217 (3.2%) in the Quickstart and Afterstart groups, respectively, became pregnant (exact log-rank test, P=.64). Use of highly effective contraceptives was significantly more common in the Quickstart group at 31 days (P,.001), but no difference was apparent at 6 months. The Quickstart group was significantly more satisfied with group ...
Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate is a commonly used injectable contraceptive that has been associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition. This study compares effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate on immune parameters from several upper reproductive tract compartments relevant to HIV-1 susceptibility in repetitive samples from 15 depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate users and 27 women not on hormonal contraceptives. Compared with samples from unexposed women in the mid-luteal phase, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate use was associated with: increased endocervical concentrations of MCP1 and IFNalpha2; decreased endocervical concentrations of IL1beta and IL6; increased proportions of endometrial CD4+ and CD8+ cells expressing the activation marker HLADR; increased density of endometrial macrophages; and decreased density of endometrial regulatory T cells. Unlike previous reports with samples from the vagina, we did not observe increased expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 on CD4+ T ...
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In the entire study 27% of participants used hormonal contraception at some point during the study. What the researchers found was that, in general, women who reported using hormonal contraceptives had a longer delay to onset of AIDS and a longer time until death. Specifically, those who used hormonal contraception had on average 3.92 years until death, and 3.72 years until AIDS, compared to 3.04 years until death and 2.98 years until AIDS or those without hormonal contraceptive use. Interestingly, this study also took note as to what kind of behavioral patterns the hormonal contraceptive users engaged in compared to the nonusers. This study found that women using hormonal contraceptives had on average a higher degree of education, were in the median age category (25-35), and were also less likely to use condoms. These have to be taken into account as well as the hormonal contraceptive use as possible variables affecting onset of AIDS and death ...
Break Through Bleeding (BTB) - vaginal bleeding that requires use of sanitary protection during the time of active hormonal contraception. Combined hormonal contraception (CHC) - hormonal contraception that contains both estrogen and progestin Continuous use - ongoing use of a CHC without a consistently planned hormone-free interval Consult - conferring with a health care provider for information and direction without transferring care DMPA - depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, brand name Depo-Provera™ EC - emergency contraception, 150mg levonorgestrel in a single oral dose if unprotected intercourse occurred in past 5 days, or copper IUD if unprotected intercourse occurred within the past 7 days ECP - emergency contraceptive pill(s) Extended use - using a CHC for two or more cycles without a hormone-free interval with a planned hormonal-free interval Hormone Free Interval (HFI) - the interval in which a client using combined hormonal contraceptives takes either a placebo dose or ≤7 days off, ...
Although CBD of injectable contraceptives is no longer a novel idea in sub-Saharan Africa, the process of translating community-based health care policies into effective programs is not always straightforward. For example, policy makers in Mozambique were supportive of CBD, but there was limited country-specific experience and no country-level data to support the policy. Consequently, this study generated evidence to support CBD of DMPA in northern Mozambique and found that provision of injectable contraceptives by APEs and TBAs was feasible, safe, effective, and acceptable among women. Very few morbidities at the injection site and no deaths were reported. The study demonstrated that APEs and TBAs can improve contraceptive access and use in rural Mozambican communities; in fact, the majority of women in the study started using contraception for the first time during the study period, and satisfaction with community-based providers was high and improved over the entire study ...
Background: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) contraceptive use is associated with an increased risk for Chlamydia infection. However, prior studies inadequately account for potential differences in sexual behavior between users of DMPA and users of other contraceptive methods. In this study we compare sexual risk-taking behavior in women using DMPA to women using oral contraceptive pills (OCP) to assess risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 630 reproductive-aged women seeking routine gynecologic care (449 OCP and 181 DMPA users) sexual risk-taking was evaluated by use of the Safe Sex Behavior Questionnaire, a validated measure of sexual behaviors and attitudes ...
Title: Hormonal Contraceptive Use Can Be a Major Downer. Summary: Hormonal contraception was introduced way back in 1960 with the release of the combined oral contraceptive pill (containing two hormones: estrogen and progestin).
Healthdirect Australia is not responsible for the content and advertising on the external website you are now entering.Depo-Provera is the brand name of the birth control shot. This is an injectable form of the drug depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.or DMPA for short. DMPA is a man-made version of the hormone progestin.. 1. Carcinoma. Palliative treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic breast or renal cell cancer and of inoperable recurrent or metastatic endometrial carcinoma. 2. Endometriosis. For use in the treatment of visually proven (laparoscopy) endometriosis where the required end-point of treatment is pregnancy.or for the control of symptoms when surgery is contraindicated or has been cost of provera 2.5mg. 3. Secondary Amenorrhoea proven not due to pregnancy. In amenorrhoea associated with a poorly developed proliferative endometrium.conventional oestrogen therapy may be employed in conjunction with medroxyprogesterone acetate. 4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. In the cost of provera 2.5mg ...
This is a clinical study of bone and renal safety with concurrent use of tenofovir (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use for pregnancy prevention. This five-year study will be conducted in Kampala, Uganda and will enroll a prospective cohort of 400 HIV-uninfected young women initiating DMPA and non-hormonal contraception who will all be offered PrEP. Bone health outcomes in women using DMPA and PrEP concurrently will be compared to women using other PrEP/contraceptive combinations. Primary outcomes include assessing the relationship between concurrent use of PrEP and DMPA on bone health including bone mineral density, rates of bone turnover and subclinical kidney injury (precursors to bone loss), and attainment of peak bone mass. ...
I had the Implanon Implant fitted in 2010. I had no problems for the three years that I had this form of contraception. 2 months ago, I had the old one removed and a new Nexplanon Implant fitted. Since...
The new guidelines ignore basic facts about how breastfeeding works, says Dr. Gerald Calnen, President of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM). Mothers start making milk due to the natural fall in progesterone after birth. An injection of artificial progesterone could completely derail this process.. The CDC report, U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, released in the May 28 issue of Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), contains important changes in what constitutes acceptable contraceptive use by breastfeeding women. The criteria advise that by 1 month postpartum the benefits of progesterone contraception (in the form of progestin-only pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DPMA) injection, or implants), as well as the use of combined (progestin-estrogen) oral contraceptives outweigh the risk of reducing breastfeeding rates. Previously, progesterone birth control was not recommended for nursing mothers until at least 6 weeks after giving birth, ...
Dr Valerie Druon provides Implanon / contraceptive implant advice and procedures. Osler Health caring for womens health. Read more.
Butt , S A , Lidegaard , Ø , Skovlund , C W , Hannaford , P , Iversen , L , Fielding , S & Mørch , L S 2018 , Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer : A cohort study among premenopausal women , PloS ONE , vol. 13 , no. 10 , 0206358 , pp. 1-8 . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206358 , https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. ...
Zanger, P., Nurjadi, D., Gaile, M., Gabrysch, S. and Kremsner, P.G. (2012) Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55, 1625-1632.
Contraceptive implants are long-acting, effective methods of contraception. They are over 99% reliable in preventing pregnancy. The implant works by slowly releasing a hormone called progestogen into your body. They can be started at any time during your menstrual cycle, as long as you and your doctor are reasonably sure that you are not pregnant.. The implant is a small flexible rod like structure that is put under the skin inside the upper arm. The implant can be felt if the skin is touched but you are unable to see it ...
Depo-provera (depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate) is an injectable birth control drug that is made of a hormone similar to progesterone.
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are the most effective forms of contraception available, owing to high continuation rates that eliminate the daily adherence challenge, as well as being reversible, cost effective and maintaining high satisfaction rates.14 Only a minority of the female adolescent population is currently using LARC; however, there is a trend towards increasing use.15. The Mirena intrauterine system (IUS) is a very effective form of contraception, releasing levonorgestrel continuously over a five-year period.16 Contrary to perceptions regarding its use, the IUS is a safe method for adolescents and has a low failure rate of 0.8 pregnancies per 100 women in the first 12 months of use.17 18The IUS can safely be inserted in the primary healthcare setting, and importantly, in adolescents there is no increased risk of insertion complications, such as uterine perforation.19 The risk of pelvic infection following insertion is minimal, due to the protective effect of cervical ...
The new guideline will apply not only to depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) -based injectable contraceptive drugs like Depo-Provera, but will also apply to norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) injectables as well.. Until now, the WHO had recommended that injectable contraceptives could be used with no restrictions…including DMPA for women at high risk of HIV (MEC Category 1).[4]-[5] The WHO had maintained a MEC category 1 with clarification on progestogen-only injectables. This meant that women at risk for HIV could use these injectables without restriction but should have been counseled that injectables may or may not increase their risk of HIV acquisition[6] and should have been provided with condoms and counseling about how to reduce their risk for HIV transmission.. While the WHO specifically mentions condoms as a prevention strategy against HIV, abstinence (the only one-hundred percent reliable prevention strategy against HIV) is never mentioned once. In one particularly ...
Expression of protein regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) and VEGF in ovarian epithelial cancer and metastatic site Changes of Body Mass Index and Lipid Profile in Injectable Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate and Levonorgestrel Implant Acceptors Comparison of Local and Systemic Interleukin 10 Levels on The Pregnant Women with Bacterial Vaginosis A1298C Polymorphism of Fetal Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene as a Risk Factor for .... Read More » ...
Thousands of women using the contraceptive implant Implanon, have reported that having been inserted into their bodies, their implants can not be found.
A study published last week in The New England Journal of Medicine has found that hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptive pills and hormone-releasing IUDs, significantly increase womens risk for breast cancer.. The study found that women who used hormonal contraception had a 20 percent elevated risk[1] for breast cancer compared to women who had never used a hormonal method.. The risk was also found to be time-dependent, increasing the longer the hormonal drugs were used. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than 10 years saw their risk for breast cancer increase by almost 40 percent.[2]. While the study showed that the breast cancer risk decreased after stopping hormonal contraception, for women who used a hormonal method for five years or more, the effects of drug lingered. Women who used hormonal contraception longer than five years saw a significant elevated risk for breast cancer even five years or more after discontinuation.. The results were adjusted for age, ...
A retrospective cohort study to assess the association between DMPA injection and the incidence of bone fractures was conducted in 312,395 female contraceptive users in the UK. The incidence rates of fracture were compared between DMPA users and contraceptive users who had no recorded use of DMPA. The Incident Rate Ratio (IRR) for any fracture during the follow-up period (mean = 5.5 years) was 1.41 (95% CI 1.35, 1.47). It is not known if this is due to DMPA use or to other related lifestyle factors that have a bearing on fracture rate.. In the study, when cumulative exposure to DMPA was calculated, the fracture rate in users who received fewer than 8 injections was higher than that in women who received 8 or more injections. However, it is not clear that cumulative exposure, which may include periods of intermittent use separated by periods of non-use, is a useful measure of risk, as compared to exposure measures based on continuous use.. There were very few osteoporotic fractures (fracture ...
In an article just published in the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Drs Neil Pickering and Lynley Anderson from the Universitys Bioethics Centre and Dr Helen Paterson from its Department of Womens and Childrens Health say teen pregnancy places significant costs on the individual and society, and is associated with higher perinatal mortality.. We also know the children of teen pregnancies do poorly in statistics related to poverty, imprisonment and teen pregnancy.. In a worryingly large number of cases, pregnancy in the teenage years is bad for the teenager, is bad for the child of the teenager and it is bad for both of them during the whole pregnancy. Obviously that also impacts on society.. Dr Paterson says teenage pregnancy and abortion is an issue in New Zealand, although the rates of both have improved recently, possibly since the LARC Jadelle became funded by Pharmac five years ago.. If you use withdrawal as a method, pregnancy rates are 22% per annum. If you use ...
Evidence: One study found that women using etonogestrel implants with EFV had a higher pregnancy rate than women not using ARVs, although confidence intervals overlapped and absolute pregnancy rates were still lower than for other hormonal methods; another study found that etonogestrel levels were decreased and 5% of women had presumptive ovulation while using etonogestrel implants with EFV (140,141). Three studies of women using LNG implants showed increased pregnancy rates for women using EFV-containing ARV therapy compared with no ARV use, although absolute pregnancy rates were still lower than for other hormonal methods in one study (141-143); another study of LNG implant users found no difference in pregnancy rates with EFV compared with no EFV (144). No significant effects were found on pregnancy rates, DMPA levels, EFV levels, or HIV disease progression in women using DMPA and EFV compared with DMPA alone (141,144-148). No significant effects were found on HIV disease progression in women ...
Depo-Provera (DMPA) is an injectable form of hormonal contraception. Depo-Provera is a synthetic form of progesterone called medroxyprogesterone acetate. It primarily works by preventing ovulation and by thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Each injection provides protection for 12-13 weeks ...
However, in clinical practice, it is usually easier to view the nerve in short axis and slide along the nerve path. Right-handed operators prefer a right-hand screen bias so that they can see their hands and display during the procedure. References 1. Goldstein A, Parks JA, Osborne B. Visualization of B-scan transducer transverse cross-sectional beam patterns. J Ultrasound Med 1982;1:23-35. 2. Gabriel H, Shulman L, Marko J, et al. Compound versus fundamental imaging in the detection of subdermal contraceptive implants. Because they are covered in common connective tissue, successful injections should separate the connected structures. This is why practitioners often perform infraclavicular blocks or axillary blocks by placing the block needle tip between the axillary artery and the adjacent nerves. Understanding these connective tissue layers can provide a means of keeping the needle tip at a distance from the peripheral nerves. Fourth, peripheral nerves are often more echogenic after injection ...
Depo-Provera - Get up-to-date information on Depo-Provera side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Depo-Provera
ATLANTA, GA - The thorny issue of the relationship between hormonal contraceptives and HIV infection was highlighted again at this years CROI conference by Angela Crook from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. As usual, limited contraceptive options, high rates of maternal and child mortality in African settings, and the role of pregnancy itself in increasing vulnerability to HIV against a number of studies are part of the backdrop for any discussion that seems to suggest that hormonal contraceptives increase HIV acquisition risk.. This study like several others was a secondary analysis of a microbicide trial-MDP 301- testing a product called Pro2000 which proved ineffective in protecting the trial participants from HIV. This is the largest look at a population of women, with 8663 study participants from four sub-Saharan African countries-South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia. There were significantly more HIV infections in the group of women using injectable but the analysis ...
Module 2: Contraceptive Methods. Contraceptive methods Part 2 - Progestogen-only contraceptives. Raqibat Idris. Family Planning: An Online Evidence-based Course. June 21, 2021 - Geneva. Download the document. ...
There are two kinds of hormonal birth control pills: (1) the combination pill which contains estrogen and progestin and (2) the progestin-only pill (known as the minipill). Combo pills are significantly more effective than progestin-only pills and have the added benefit of less breakthrough bleeding. However, some women cannot tolerate estrogen and prefer the progestin-only pill. Both types of pills are available in several different brands, each of which have slightly different blends of hormones.. These two kinds of hormonal birth control are available in other forms besides pills. The combination formula is also available as a patch and a vaginal ring. The progestin-only formula is also available in intramuscular shots (Depo-Provera), an implant (Implanon), and in intrauterine devices (the Mirena IUD).. Some women may prefer these other forms of hormonal birth control because they can be taken less often (and consequently are easier to remember). While birth control pills must be taken ...
In this study involving 100 women, the metabolic changes seen with Norplant® use were evaluated. Besides a significant increase in serum bilirubin, there were no other changes in liver function to suggest possible hepatocellular dysfunction at the end of five years. Even the raised mean levels of bilirubin remained within the normal clinical range for the local population. As regards lipid metabolism total triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were decreased through the five years of Norplant® use. The HDL-cholesterol showed a significant increase in the first year; it then decreased over the years to its preinsertion level at the end of five years. As a result, the HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol-HDL-cholesterol showed a significant increase in the first year and then decreased to almost its preinsertion value at the end of five years. The findings appear to indicate Norplant® use not to be contributory to cardiovascular risk. The use of Norplant® was not associated with any ...
Most popular Combined Hormonal Contraceptive products are Nuvaring and Ortho Evra. CHC products are broadly used throughout the world by women in the age-group of 15 to 49 years. With increasing health consciousness and awareness, adoption of CHC products or birth control methods is increasing in lesser privileged economic segments too. The growth of CHC market is driven by urbanization and increasing user awareness, rise in menstruating population globally and initiatives taken by governments to encourage the use of contraception. Major trends prevailing in the market are the increasing number of mergers and acquisitions in this business space and demand for reversible method of contraception with fewer side effects.. Country Coverage: United states, United Kingdom, India, China & Japan. Company Coverage: Agile Therapeutics Inc., Actavis Plc., Bayer Healthcare & Teva Pharmaceuticals. Complete report available at http://www.marketreportsonline.com/394315.html. Combined Hormonal Contraceptives ...
In addition to these clinical studies, the authors examined animal, cell and biochemical research on the form of progestin used in DMPA - medroxyprogesterone acetate, or MPA. The analysis revealed MPA acts differently from other forms of progestin used in contraceptives. In the cells of the genital tract that can come in contact with HIV, MPA behaves like the stress hormone cortisol.. The increased rate of HIV infection among women using DMPA contraceptive shots is likely due to multiple reasons, including decreases in immune function and the protective barrier function of the female genital tract, Hapgood said. Studying the biology of MPA helps us understand what may be driving the increased rate of HIV infection seen in human research. These findings suggest other forms of birth control should rapidly replace DMPA shots.. Access to safe, effective and affordable contraception is critical for womens health worldwide, Hel said. Up to 50 percent of unintended pregnancies in Africa end in ...
The decline among teens specifically is striking: the U.S. pregnancy rate among 15-19-year-olds was at its lowest point in at least 80 years and had dropped to just above one-third of a recent peak rate in 1990. As the lead author of the report Kathryn Kost noted in a news release, These new estimates affirm that long-term declines in adolescent pregnancies, births and abortions have continued. The available evidence suggests that improved contraceptive use continues to be the primary driver of these declines. Indeed, the report discusses recent research showing significant increases in the use of contraceptives in young women, including the use of multiple methods and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods.. Read the full report at Guttmacher.. ...
Jaydess, a new long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) that protects against unwanted pregnancy for 3 years has just launched in the UK. We explore the birth control options besides the Pill and condoms to see if you should reconsider your contra
IMPLANON (Etonogestrel) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
LNG-B has been under investigation as a long-lasting injectable contraceptive for women. A single intramuscular injection of an ... "Long-acting contraceptive agents: design of the WHO Chemical Synthesis Programme". Steroids. 41 (3): 243-53. doi:10.1016/0039- ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... The drug has a well-established safety record owing to the use of levonorgestrel as an oral contraceptive since the 1960s. List ...
van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". American ... Edelman AB, Cherala G, Stanczyk FZ (October 2010). "Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of contraceptive steroids in obese women: a ... Shoupe, Donna (1993). "Injectable Contraceptives and Contraceptive Vaginal Rings". Clinical Perspectives in Obstetrics and ... as well as the atypical agent danazol. Both norethisterone and NETA are also available in the United States as contraceptives. ...
van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". Am J Clin ... Edelman AB, Cherala G, Stanczyk FZ (2010). "Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of contraceptive steroids in obese women: a review ... This means that norethisterone could also be an effective male hormonal contraceptive. Aside from its use as a contraceptive, ... and Safety of Hormonal Contraceptives in Women Living with HIV". Drug Safety. 39 (11): 1053-1072. doi:10.1007/s40264-016-0452-7 ...
"Effect of low zinc intake and oral contraceptive agents on nitrogen utilization and clinical findings in young women". The ... This effect can be even more pronounced in women taking oral contraceptive medication. Sevelamer, a drug indicated for ... The female of the species releases uric acid into the water during mating, to induce males to release sperm. Although foods ... Both uric acid and ascorbic acid are strong reducing agents (electron donors) and potent antioxidants. In humans, over half the ...
"The police monitored the Clinic from its opening and sent in a female undercover agent to purchase contraceptive supplies. On ... As historian Jill Lepore reports in The Secret History of Wonder Woman, Ethel Byrne was the first female political prisoner in ... confiscated an assortment of contraceptives from pessaries to condoms, along with 20 'books on young women', and arrested ... WOMEN NOISY IN COURT Defendants Bring Before Justices a Mother and Her Six Children as a 'Demonstration'". The New York Times. ...
"The police monitored the Clinic from its opening and sent in a female undercover agent to purchase contraceptive supplies. On ... confiscated an assortment of contraceptives from pessaries to condoms, along with 20 'books on young women', and arrested ... Together, the three women opened the first birth control clinic in the United States in Brooklyn known as the "Brownsville ... All were released the next morning on $500.00 bail." All three women were found guilty, but eventually the verdicts were ...
In men, they are being investigated in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and also as potential contraceptive agents ... In men, the reduction in LH subsequently leads to rapid suppression of testosterone production in the testes; in women it leads ... Subcutaneously administered agents are also associated with injection-site reactions and abarelix (neither of these being GnRH ... This protocol is likely beneficial in women expected to be hyper-responders, and probably also those expected to be poor ...
A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... Evaluation of Female Sterilization Procedures AA Yuzpe, WJ Lancee (1977). Ethinylestradiol and dl-norgestrel as a postcoital ... A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... "For his distinguished career in academic reproductive endocrinology and infertility and his dedication to women's health in ...
... or female contraceptives through the use of intravaginal contraceptive devices. Moreover, as serine proteases are important in ... acrosin could thus serve as a novel target for contraceptive agents. Acrosin may represent as a uniquely druggable target due ... This suggests the further role of acrosin inhibitors as potentially viable agents in the prevention of HIV transmission. Adham ... Burck P.J., Zimmerman R.E. An intravaginal contraceptive device for the delivery of an acrosin and hyaluronidase inhibitor" ...
Multicenter Clinical Investigation Employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as a Postcoital Contraceptive agent ... and 1.3 million women have rape-induced PTSD. A study found that women who were raped were more depressed than women who were ... Female jurors can look at the woman in the witness stand and decide she has done something 'wrong' such as flirting or having a ... Research on women in shelters has shown that women who experience both sexual and physical abuse from intimate partners are ...
... contraceptive agents, propranolol, and antifungals. Vaginal rings can also be used to deliver medication, including birth ... Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is genital modification with no health ... is still under dispute because reports of its location can vary from woman to woman, it appears to be nonexistent in some women ... Some women have an increase in sexual desire following menopause. It may be that menopausal women who continue to engage in ...
... may interfere with various contraceptives, and hence it is advised that women of reproductive age use at least two ... It is a very active anti-angiogenic agent and also acts as an immunomodulator. Pomalidomide was approved in February 2013 by ... Thousands of pregnant women took the drug to relieve their symptoms. At the time of the drug's development, scientists did not ... Thalidomide should not be used by women who are breastfeeding or pregnant, trying or able to conceive a child, or cannot or ...
... women with vaginal yeast infection were no more likely to describe their discharge as cottage-cheese like than women without. ... Oral contraceptive use is also associated with increased risk of vaginal thrush. In pregnancy, higher levels of estrogen make a ... Example products are herbal preparations, probiotics and vaginal acidifying agents. Other alternative treatment approaches ... Around 75% of women have at least one vaginal yeast infection at some point in their lives, while nearly half have at least two ...
Oral Contraceptives, and Ovulatory Agents". AMA drug evaluations. Publishing Sciences Group. pp. 540-572. ISBN 978-0-88416-175- ... Women who are not on a birth control pill or hormone therapy have a risk of VTE of about 1 to 5 out of 10,000 women per year. ... It is also used in hormonal birth control for women, in hormone therapy for transgender women, and in the treatment of hormone- ... "Risk of venous thromboembolism in women taking the combined oral contraceptive: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Aust ...
Oral Contraceptives, and Ovulatory Agents". AMA drug evaluations. Publishing Sciences Group. pp. 540-572. ISBN 978-0-88416-175- ... For female hypogonadism, castration, or primary ovarian failure, 0.1 to 1.0 mg is given weekly in single or divided doses. ... Speroff, Leon (2015). Women's Hormonal Health Issues. pp. 341-354. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-13832-9_28. ISBN 978-3-319-13831-2. ... The range of single doses of estrone by intramuscular injection that are typically used clinically in women is 0.1 to 5 mg. ...
women aged 15-49 married or in consensual union. *^ David Delvin. "Contraception - the contraceptive pill: How many women take ... Rice-Wray, Edris (1957). "Field Study with Enovid as a Contraceptive Agent". Proceedings of a Symposium on 19-Nor ... Women who are experiencing menstrual dysfunction due to female athlete triad are sometimes prescribed oral contraceptives as ... Although the FDA approved the first oral contraceptive in 1960, contraceptives were not available to married women in all ...
... innovations in contraceptive agents: tomorrow's hormonal contraceptive agents and their clinical implications.". American ... Ammer, Christine (2009.). "oral contraceptive", The encyclopedia of women's health, 6. izdanje, str. str. 312.-315., New York: ... Burrows, LJ, Basha, M; Goldstein, AT (rujan 2012.). "The effects of hormonal contraceptives on female sexuality: a review.". ... Rosemary Radford Ruether (2006.). "Women in North American Catholicism", Rosemary Skinner Keller Encyclopedia of women and ...
Oral Contraceptives, and Ovulatory Agents". AMA drug evaluations. Publishing Sciences Group. p. 540-572. ISBN 978-0-88416-175-2 ... It has also been used in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and in the treatment of prostate cancer in men. ... As a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, estradiol dipropionate has been used at dosages of 2 to 10 ... It is also used in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women. Aside from hormone therapy, estradiol dipropionate is used ...
... antipsychotics Many antiepileptics Theophylline and other methylxanthine drugs Several anesthetic agents Oral contraceptive ... Biliary tract disease Renal dysfunction Pregnant women Obese patients Anticoagulants: Gemfibrozil potentiates the action of ...
Tranexamic acid an antifibrinolytic agent. *Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).. *Combined oral contraceptive pills ... HMB is associated with increased omega-6 AA in uterine tissues.[8] The endometrium of women with HMB have higher levels of ... If the degree of bleeding is mild, all that may be sought by the woman is the reassurance that there is no sinister underlying ... NICE guidelines says that for women (with HMB and no identified pathology or fibroids less than 3 cm in diameter) who do not ...
The two most popular women-controlled contraceptives (oral contraceptives and IUDs) will be discussed due to their popular ... "Which States have free Birth Control?". Independent Health Agents. Retrieved 2021-04-08. "Insurance Coverage for Contraception ... The two most popular women-controlled contraceptives (oral contraceptives and IUDs) will be discussed due to their popular ... They state that providing over the counter contraceptives could increase overall contraceptive accessibility for young women of ...
14% women on oral contraceptives are found to have polycystic ovaries. Ovarian cysts are also a common side effect of ... Although these agents have shown significant efficacy in clinical trials (for oral contraceptives, in 60-100% of individuals), ... Although 80% of PCOS presents in women with obesity, 20% of women diagnosed with the disease are non-obese or "lean" women. ... When appropriate (e.g., in women of child-bearing age who require contraception), a standard contraceptive pill is frequently ...
Vinyl chloride, combined oral contraceptive pill, anabolic steroid, arsenic, thorotrast. Diagnosis[edit]. ... Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g., microcystins) and herbal ... Other poor predictors of outcome are old age, female sex, high AST.[48][49] ... Hepatic vein thrombosis: Oral contraceptives. Neoplasm[edit]. Neoplasms have been described with prolonged exposure to some ...
... the added contraceptive effect of breastfeeding makes it highly effective in breastfeeding women. While combined contraceptives ... "Emergency Contraceptive Agents", LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury, National Institute ... of the world's contraceptive users. Other hormonal contraceptives are less common, accounting for less than 1% of contraceptive ... Combined oral contraceptives can increase the risk of certain types of cardiovascular disease in women with a pre-existing ...
Combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are a form of hormonal birth control for women. They consist of monthly injections of ... Progestational Drugs and Antifertility Agents. II. Pergamon Press. pp. 13-24. ISBN 978-0080168128. OCLC 278011135. Henzl MR, ... Garza-Flores J, Hall PE, Perez-Palacios G (1991). "Long-acting hormonal contraceptives for women". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D (1999). "The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive ...
Oral Contraceptives, and Ovulatory Agents". AMA drug evaluations. Publishing Sciences Group. pp. 540-572. ISBN 978-0-88416-175- ... In women, it is used in hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms and low estrogen levels, hormone therapy for transgender women ... In transgender women, estradiol valerate given by intramuscular injection is usually used at a dosage of 5 to 20 mg, but up to ... Estradiol valerate has been used at very high doses of 40 to 100 mg once per week in women and men, without overt signs of ...
... as well as other less well-known agents. These agents are generally used if oral contraceptives and NSAIDs are ineffective. ... Endometriomas can increase the risk of ovarian cancer in reproductive women, decrease normal ovarian function, and cause pain ... Therapy with these agents has a large number of sometimes permanent side effects, such as hot flushes, loss of bone mass, ... This can also be accomplished with progestational agents (i.e., medroxyprogesterone acetate), danazol, gestrinone, or ...
... therefore concomitant use with these agents is not recommended. It might also interact with hormonal contraceptives and ... It has not been studied in women under the age of 18. It is also not recommended for women with severe asthma receiving ... Of the 29 women studied who became pregnant despite taking ulipristal acetate, 16 had induced abortions, six had spontaneous ... In addition, use of the medicine for more than one treatment course has been restricted to women who are not eligible for ...
Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g., microcystins) and herbal ... a) Bland: Oral contraceptive pills, anabolic steroid, androgens. (b) Inflammatory: Allopurinol, co-amoxiclav, carbamazepine. (c ... Other poor predictors of outcome are old age, female sex, high AST.[45][46] ... Certain medicinal agents, when taken in overdoses and sometimes even when introduced within therapeutic ranges, may injure the ...
eds.). Contraceptive Technology (19th rev. ed.). New York: Ardent Media. p. 120. ISBN 0-9664902-0-7. .. ... One small study, using fourteen women, might be considered as providing evidence of such an effect for IUDs[26] and a study of ... Those who define pregnancy from fertilization subsequently may conclude that the agents should be considered abortifacients. ... "Ethical Issues Regarding Hormonal Contraceptives". The Truth About Birth Control. Retrieved 14 March 2011.. ...
Hormonal agents[edit]. In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an ... "Use of oral contraceptives for management of acne vulgaris and hirsutism in women of reproductive and late reproductive age". ... "International Journal of Women's Dermatology. 3 (1): 44-52. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.018. PMC 5419026. PMID 28492054.. ... "International Journal of Women's Dermatology (Review). 4 (2): 56-71. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.10.006. PMC 5986265. PMID 29872679 ...
Female-specific effects[edit]. Androgens have potential roles in relaxation of the myometrium via non-genomic, androgen ... Prostate cancer may be treated by removing the major source of testosterone: testicle removal (orchiectomy); or agents which ... Exogenous androgen supplements can be used as a male contraceptive. Elevated androgen levels caused by use of androgen ... Although androgens are commonly thought of only as male sex hormones, females also have them, but at lower levels: they ...
In femalesEdit. Skin and hair conditionsEdit. See also: Acne vulgaris § Hormonal agents, Seborrhoeic dermatitis § Antiandrogens ... to 4-fold in women and to reduce free testosterone concentrations by 40 to 80%.[124] However, combined oral contraceptives that ... This is evidenced by the perfectly female phenotype of women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.[95][96] These women ... adult female sheep).[128][129] The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease ...
Raticide - an agent for killing rats. Scabicide - a chemical agent for killing scabies. Spermicide - a contraceptive agent to ... Gendercide - the systematic killing of members of a specific sex or gender, either males, females, or non-binary. Genocide - ... Avicide - a chemical agent that kills birds Bactericide - a chemical agent that kills bacteria. Biocide - a chemical agent that ... Pediculicide - an agent that kills head lice. Pesticide - a general term to describe an agent used to destroy or repel a pest. ...
The STAR Trial: Evidence for Raloxifene as a Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Agent for Postmenopausal Women. J Natl Compr Canc ... Extended cycle(英语:Extended cycle combined hormonal contraceptive). *泌乳停經法 ... Stotland, N. L. Menopause: Social expectations, women's realities. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2002, 5: 5-8. doi:10.1007 ... Nursing for Women's Health. 2011年8月及9月, 15 (4): 320 [2013-04-11]. doi:10.1111/j.175-486X.2011.01652.x.. 请检查. ,date=. 中的日期值 (帮助) ...
... and adding a warning to the label advising women to start taking contraceptives a month before starting the drug. However use ... there are strict controls on prescribing isotretinoin to women who may become pregnant and women who become pregnant while ... Women taking isotretinoin must not get pregnant during and for one month after the discontinuation of isotretinoin therapy. ... Women with child-bearing potential must commit to using two forms of effective contraception simultaneously for the duration of ...
W. M. Goss; W. William Miller Goss; Richard X. McGee (2009). "Last Years". Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy ... remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.[147][148] ... and playwright best known for his contribution to the development of oral contraceptive pills. He also developed Pyribenzamine ... "When you feel your own equal in the body of a beautiful woman, just as ready to forget the world for you as you for her - oh my ...
The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by FDA in 1960. Oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation and so prevent ... antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... In the 1960s and early 1970s, more and more physicians began to prescribe estrogen for their female patients. between 1991 and ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ...
... has been studied as a potential hormonal contraceptive to prevent pregnancy in women.[80] ... Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation ( ... much greater in women than in men.[60][61] This appears to be due to the higher estrogen levels in women, as estrogen ... prolactin levels peak at 100 to 300 ng/mL at parturition in pregnant women, and in lactating women, prolactin levels have been ...
"Department of Neurology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine; Uchiyama S. Diakses tanggal 2011-08-21.. ... "Effects of the spin trap agent disodium- [tert-butylimino)methyl]benzene-1,3-disulfonate N-oxide (generic NXY-059) on ... oral contraceptive use. 'sticky platelet syndrome" dan sejenisnya. *Meningitis. *Cortical vein thrombosis-dehydration. ... Women's Hospital, Division of Cardiology (G.C.F.), University of California, Stroke Service (L.H.S.), Massachusetts General ...
Weisberg E (May 1999). "Interactions between oral contraceptives and antifungals/antibacterials. Is contraceptive failure the ... "General Background: Antibiotic Agents". Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/ ... "Genital Candida species detected in samples from women in Melbourne, Australia, before and after treatment with antibiotics" ... Hassan T (March 1987). "Pharmacologic considerations for patients taking oral contraceptives". Conn Dent Stud J 7: 7-8. PMID ...
In women, use of combined oral contraceptive pills is significantly associated with lower serum uric acid.[27] ... Other drugs and agents include diuretics, salicylates, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, nicotinic acid, ciclosporin, 2-ethylamino-1,3, ... 4-thiadiazole, and cytotoxic agents.[11]. The gene SLC2A9 encodes a protein that helps to transport uric acid in the kidney. ... for women and 400 µmol/L (6.8 mg/dL) for men.[3] ...
... to the health service per pregnant woman and save £4476 per pregnant woman in societal costs.[39] ... for example as a side effect of administration of iodine-containing contrast agents. In some cases, excessive iodine ... Oral contraceptives (reduced prevalence in users). *Perchlorates. *Thiocyanates. *Age (for different types of iodine deficiency ... The recommended daily intake of iodine for adult women is 150-300 µg for maintenance of normal thyroid function; for men, it is ...
Few women of childbearing age have high blood pressure, up to 11% develop hypertension of pregnancy.[51] While generally benign ... Medications commonly associated with rebound hypertension include centrally-acting antihypertensive agents, such as clonidine[ ... such as those found in oral contraceptives with high estrogenic activity), certain antidepressants (such as venlafaxine), ...
"Ruby Ribbon Asks 3,000 Women "What's Your BRAma?"". www.prnewswire.com.. *^ a b Guerra, Julia. "Half Of Women Do This One Thing ... "Search for Male Contraceptive Makes Gains". Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2018.. ... Other lingerie manufacturers like Frederick's of Hollywood and Agent Provocateur also joined the competition by that time,[77] ... Ten percent of women's breasts are asymmetrical, with the left breast being larger in 62 percent of cases.[110] One woman's ...
... and also as potential contraceptive agents.[10] GnRH antagonists are also used as puberty blockers in transgender youth and to ... Female infertility (assisted reproduction). Peptide. SC. 2000. 134,000 Degarelix. Firmagon. Prostate cancer. Peptide. SC. 2008 ... Female infertility (assisted reproduction). Peptide. SC. 2000. 134,000 Linzagolix. KLH-2109; OBE-2109. Endometriosis; Uterine ... GnRH antagonists are being investigated in the treatment of women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer.[7][8] In men, they are ...
About 2 per 100,000 people are newly affected per year.[4] The condition most commonly affects women aged 20-50.[2] Women are ... In addition to conventional agents such as paracetamol, a low dose of the antidepressant amitriptyline or the anticonvulsant ... and hormonal contraceptives. ... The figures in females are in women between 20 and 45 years old ... People from all ethnicities may develop IIH.[5] In children, there is no difference in incidence between males and females.[7] ...
Bajgar J (2004). Organophosphates/nerve agent poisoning: mechanism of action, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment. Advances ... Oral contraceptives significantly decrease the elimination of desmethyldiazepam, a major metabolite of diazepam.[44][76] ... Males abuse benzodiazepines as commonly as females.[113]. Benzodiazepines, including diazepam, nitrazepam, and flunitrazepam, ... Agents with an effect on hepatic cytochrome P450 pathways or conjugation can alter the rate of diazepam metabolism. These ...
Use of oral contraceptives for management of acne vulgaris and hirsutism in women of reproductive and late reproductive age»։ ... The use of hormonal agents in the treatment of acne»։ Semin Cutan Med Surg 35 (2): 68-73։ June 2016։ PMID 27416311։ doi: ... 109,0 109,1 «Current aspects of antiandrogen therapy in women»։ Curr. Pharm. Des. 5 (9): 707-23։ September 1999։ PMID 10495361 ... 122,0 122,1 122,2 «A review of diagnosis and treatment of acne in adult female patients»։ Int J Womens Dermatol 4 (2): 56-71։ ...
Within nations, it is more common in higher socioeconomic groups.[2] Males and females are affected in an equal ratio, and the ... Topical covering agents / barriers. Reduce pain. Orabase (often combined with triamcinolone).[21] ... had fewer occurrences of aphthous ulcers during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or with use of the contraceptive pill.[ ... Occasionally, in females where ulceration is correlated to the menstrual cycle or to birth control pills, progestogen or a ...
"Health Care Law Contraceptive Rule". C-SPAN Video Library. February 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-20.. ... On the day of the hearing, Democrats demanded the committee also add Sandra Fluke, a woman enrolled at Georgetown, to the panel ... a leak of classified or secret information naming Central Intelligence Agency agent Valerie Plame, abuses and war crimes traced ... Darrell Issa Bars Minority Witness, a Woman, on Contraception". ABC News. Retrieved 2012-06-20.. ...
Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 9, 25-32 *^ a b c d e Boardman, HM; Hartley, L; Eisinga, A; Main, C; Roqué ... See also: Sex-hormonal agent and List of sex-hormonal medications available in the United States ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Epidemiological surveys of women between 40-69 years suggest that 75% of women remain sexually active after menopause.[4] With ...
Antimotility agents[edit]. Antimotility drugs such as loperamide and diphenoxylate reduce the symptoms of diarrhea by slowing ... Attack rates are similar for men and women.[9] The most important determinant of risk is the traveler's destination. High-risk ... Dehydration due to diarrhea can also alter the effectiveness of medicinal and contraceptive drugs. Adequate fluid intake (oral ... Diarrhea due to viral agents is unaffected by antibiotic therapy, but is usually self-limited.[10] Protozoans such as Giardia ...
The only sex steroid currently utilized in women that can cause virilization of female fetuses when administered in usually ... Parke-Davis (June 1961). "Introducing Norlutate...a new oral progestational agent twice as potent as Norlutin". Obstet Gynecol ... except contraceptives) to warn against their use during the first four months of pregnancy because of reports of non-genital ... Affected females mature normally with normal fertility, there is almost total regression of the genital anomaly in cases of ...
... contraceptive economy' of a relationship, in which women have maintained responsibility of the contraceptive task up until the ... The numbing agent is forced/pushed onto and deep enough into the scrotal tissue to allow for a virtually pain-free surgery. ... Vigoya has referred to a global "cultura anticonceptiva femenina"-a female contraceptive culture, where, despite the ... perhaps more so than a woman who has been on an oral contraceptive or similar for years prior.[72] ...
Interactions between oral contraceptives and antifungals/antibacterials. Is contraceptive failure the result?»։ Clinical ... General Background: Antibiotic Agents»։ Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics։ Վերցված է 21 December 2014 ... Genital Candida species detected in samples from women in Melbourne, Australia, before and after treatment with antibiotics»։ ... 144,0 144,1 «Bacteriophage therapy»։ Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45 (3): 649-59։ March 2001։ PMC 90351։ PMID 11181338 ...
... evidence for raloxifene as a breast cancer risk reduction agent for postmenopausal women". Journal of the National ... World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives". American Journal of Epidemiology. 148 ( ... initially being closely related to the males and females. Females are born and stay in the group, so relatedness to the females ... Female-biased dispersal or non-local mating leads to an increase in relatedness to the social group with female age.[127] In ...
5 Studies found for: Acth-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Contraceptive Agents. Also searched for Cushing disease and ... Female. Male. Accepts Healthy Volunteers Study Type. All. Interventional (Clinical Trial). Observational. -- Patient Registries ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Topoisomerase II ... Contraceptive Agents. Norgestimate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination. Contraceptives, Oral. Moxifloxacin. Hypoglycemic Agents ... Oral Contraceptives, Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Profile in Pre-Menopausal Women. This study is ongoing, but not ... oral contraceptive. birth control pill. women. healthy volunteer. insulin sensitivity. insulin resistance. cardiovascular risk ...
Contraceptive Agents. Norelgestromin. Norgestimate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination. Contraceptives, Oral. Estradiol. ... Contraception Female Contraception Drug: EVRA® transdermal contraceptive patch containing 6 mg of norelgestromin and 0.60 mg of ... a Transdermal Contraceptive Patch Manufactured by LOHMANN Therapie-Systeme) and CILEST (an Oral Contraceptive). The safety and ... and ethinyl estradiol in healthy female volunteers across multiple commercial lots of EVRA® (a transdermal contraceptive patch ...
Contraceptive Agents. Levonorgestrel. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Contraceptive Agents, Female ... in 100 women years) that the women were under risk of getting pregnant. ... Dose-finding Study for the Ultralow-dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive System (LCS). The safety and scientific ... Levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LCS) releasing 12 microg/24h in vitro. Drug: Levonorgestrel IUS (BAY86-5028, ...
This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ... Contraceptive Agents / administration & dosage* * Contraceptive Devices * Equipment Failure * Female * Humans * Male * ... Contraceptive failure in the United States Contraception. 2011 May;83(5):397-404. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.01.021. ... This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of ...
Results of search for su:{Contraceptive agents, Female.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... by Mintzes, Barbara , Hardon, Anita , Hanhart, Jannemieke , Women and Pharmaceuticals Project , Womens Health Action ... Book; Format: print Publisher: S.l : Womens Health Action Foundation, 1993Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call ... Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants, manual for clinicians. by Population Council Material type: Book; Format: print ...
... injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2- ... each composed of 20 women, who used depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) ... Contraceptive Agents, Female / administration & dosage * Contraceptive Agents, Female / pharmacology* * Contraceptive Agents, ... Effect of long-acting progestagen-only injectable contraceptives on carbohydrate metabolism and its hormonal profile ...
Hormonal contraception is available in oral contraceptive pills and in newer formulations, including the transdermal patch, the ... 0/Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0/Contraceptives, Oral; 0/Contraceptives, Oral, Combined From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of ... Contraceptive Agents, Female / administration & dosage*, adverse effects*. Contraceptives, Oral / administration & dosage*, ... Hormonal contraceptive use should be avoided in women at risk for blood clots, by heavy smokers, and in women with breast or ...
Results of search for su:{Contraceptive agents.} and su-to:Contraceptive agents, Female. ... by Mintzes, Barbara , Hardon, Anita , Hanhart, Jannemieke , Women and Pharmaceuticals Project , Womens Health Action ... Book; Format: print Publisher: S.l : Womens Health Action Foundation, 1993Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call ... Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants, manual for clinicians. by Population Council Material type: Book; Format: print ...
Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired characteristics of an ideal contracep ... Contraceptive Agents / immunology. Cytokines / immunology. Databases, Genetic. Embryo Implantation / drug effects, immunology* ... Female. Fertilization / drug effects, immunology*. Humans. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor / immunology*. Male. Pregnancy. ... Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired characteristics of an ideal contraceptive. This article ...
Contraceptive Agents, Female. Grant support. *U01 CA074783/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... Age at initiation of hormonal contraceptives was associated with colorectal cancer risk; women who initiated use at younger ... A population based case-control study of incident colorectal cancer was conducted among women aged 20-74 years in Ontario and ... These results indicate that exogenous hormone-use is linked with reduced risk of colorectal cancer among women with a strong ...
Effect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid status in young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33: ... Riboflavin deficiency in women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:247-9.. View abstract. ... Ahmed F, Bamji MS, Iyengar L. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin nutrition status. Am J Clin Nutr 1975;28:606-15.. ... The recommended amounts are 1.4 mg per day for pregnant women and 1.6 mg per day in breast-feeding women. Riboflavin is ...
Effect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid status in young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33: ... Riboflavin deficiency in women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:247-9.. View abstract. ... Ahmed F, Bamji MS, Iyengar L. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin nutrition status. Am J Clin Nutr 1975;28:606-15.. ... Dyer, A. R., Elliott, P., Stamler, J., Chan, Q., Ueshima, H., and Zhou, B. F. Dietary intake in male and female smokers, ex- ...
Although the use of contraceptive agents has not been implicated in the pathogenesis of FNH, their use is associated with an ... In symptomatic females, hemorrhagic foci or infarctions may occur within the FNH; these are aggravated by administration of ... contraceptive agents. The rare complication of a spontaneous rupture into the peritoneum has also been associated with ... Dynamic MRIs in a 36-year-old woman referred for a gallbladder sonography, during which the patient was found to have a vague ...
van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". Am J Clin ... Edelman AB, Cherala G, Stanczyk FZ (2010). "Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of contraceptive steroids in obese women: a review ... This means that norethisterone could also be an effective male hormonal contraceptive. Aside from its use as a contraceptive, ... and Safety of Hormonal Contraceptives in Women Living with HIV". Drug Safety. 39 (11): 1053-1072. doi:10.1007/s40264-016-0452-7 ...
0 (Contraceptive Agents, Female). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1712. [Cu] Atualiza o por classe:. 180228. ... 0 (Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal); 0 (Abortifacient Agents, Steroidal); 0E43V0BB57 (Misoprostol); 320T6RNW1F (Mifepristone ... Eligible women were ≤63 days pregnant, aged 16-45, and had no medical contraindications. Between 2014-2015, participants (n = ... RESULTS: Over 99% of enrolled women completed follow-up (n = 600). Complete abortions occurred in 588 (98 0%) cases, with ten ...
2.Contraceptive Agents, Female. 3.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. 4.Intrauterine Devices. 5.Natural Family Planning Methods. 6. ... 7.4.1 Combined oral contraceptives (COCs), the combined contraceptive patch and the combined contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) ... Very low Strong 3. Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs): the combined contraceptive patch and the combined contraceptive ... a woman may resume her contraceptive method, or start any contraceptive method immediately, including a copper-bearing ...
Adolescent; Contraceptive Agents; Female; Humans; Knowledge; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence /prevention & control; ... One study reported a significant decrease in females only, whilst another found no significant change in contraceptive use. ... One of these also reported no significant change in age of initiation, contraceptive use or pregnancy rate. The third reported ... Six of the 9 studies reporting contraceptive use reported an increase with abstinence-plus programmes, and a seventh an ...
Zinc and copper nutritive of women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 34:1479-83. ... Smith JC, Allen PV, Von Burg R. Hair methylmercury levels in U.S. women. Arch Environ Health. 1997 Nov-Dec; 52(6):476-80. ... Assessment of copper and zinc status in hair and urine of young women descendants of NIDDM parents. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; ... Aharoni A, Tesler B, Paltieli Y, Tal JH, Dori Z, Sharf M. Hair chromium content of women with gestational diabetes compared ...
Steroidal contraceptives: effect on bone fractures in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(7):CD006033. PubMedexternal icon ... Leiman G. Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive agent: its effect on weight and blood pressure. Am J Obstet ... Pregnancy and contraceptive use among women participating in the FEM-PrEP trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2015;68:196-203. ... Hormonal contraceptive use and female-to-male HIV transmission: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. AIDS 2013;27 ...
New contraceptive gel contains spermicidal, anti-viral, libido-enhancing agents in one formulation Researchers from North ... Mathematical model to show how to prevent fistulas in women during childbirth It is better to invest in measures that make it ... UICs first-of-its-kind contraceptive receives FDA approval A first-of-its-kind contraceptive developed at the University of ... WHO recommends dapivirine vaginal ring as additional HIV prevention choice for at-risk women WHO today recommended that the ...
Key words: Bone demineralization; Contraceptive agents, female; Contraceptives, oral, hormonal; Medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate ... Various professional bodies have made different recommendations on the management of women prescribing such long-term ...
Effect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid status in young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33: ... women 14-18 years, 1 mg; women over 18 years, 1.1 mg; pregnant women, 1.4 mg; and breast-feeding women, 1.5 mg.. BY INJECTION: ... Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin and mineral requirements. J Am Diet Assoc 1980;76:581-4.. View abstract. ... Effect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamin status. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1979;49:291-5. ...
Cystitis is very common in women. It is caused by a bacterial infection. Typical symptoms include a burning pain during ... Sperm-killing agents (spermicides) and contraceptive diaphragms can also increase the risk somewhat. ... More than half of all women have cystitis at least once in their lifetime. Half of all women who have had acute cystitis ... Antimicrobial agents for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (10): ...
... because the most progressive and safe contraceptives used two centuries ago today considered as an instrument of torture. ... It is difficult to say how barbaric modern contraceptive methods our descendants will find, ... The most famous barrier contraceptive is a condom (both male and female). Other barrier contraception includes intrauterine ... devices, cervical caps, contraceptive sponges, and spermicidal agents. This is the most affordable and common method of ...
LNG-B has been under investigation as a long-lasting injectable contraceptive for women. A single intramuscular injection of an ... "Long-acting contraceptive agents: design of the WHO Chemical Synthesis Programme". Steroids. 41 (3): 243-53. doi:10.1016/0039- ... Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive ... The drug has a well-established safety record owing to the use of levonorgestrel as an oral contraceptive since the 1960s. List ...
Leaf DA, Bland D, Schaad D, Neighbor WE, Scott CS "Oral contraceptive use and coronary risk factors in women." Am J Med Sci 301 ... Leiman G "Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive agent: its effect on weight and blood pressure." Am J Obstet ... Crane MG, Harris JJ, Winsor W 3d "Hypertension, oral contraceptive agents, and conjugated estrogens." Ann Intern Med 74 (1971 ... "The effect of oestrogen dose and progestogen type on haemostatic changes in women taking low dose oral contraceptives." Br J ...
Oral contraceptive agent use and bone mineral density. in premenopausal. women: cross-sectional, population-based data from the ... intake protects women consuming oral contraceptives from spine and hip bone loss. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2005;90(9):5127-33. ... Oral contraceptive treatment inhibits the normal acquisition of bone mineral in skeletally immature young adult female monkeys ... Is the Pill a Smart Choice for a Conscientious Young Woman?. Is the Pill a Smart Choice for a Conscientious Young Woman?. ...
  • Multi-center, Open, Randomized, Dose Finding Phase II Study to Investigate Ultra Low Dose Levonorgestrel Contraceptive Intrauterine Systems (LCS) Releasing Different Amounts of Levonorgestrel Compared to MIRENA in Nulliparous and Parous Women in Need of Contraception. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Hormonal contraception is available in oral contraceptive pills and in newer formulations, including the transdermal patch, the vaginal ring, subcutaneous implants, and IM injections. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To compare abstinence-only secondary-school-based pregnancy prevention programmes with abstinence-plus programmes in terms of their effects on teenage sexual behaviour, contraception knowledge, contraceptive use and pregnancy rates. (who.int)
  • Third edition 2016 World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use - 3rd ed. 1.Contraception - methods. (rhsupplies.org)
  • Naessen T, Olsson SE, Gudmundson J. Differential effects on bone density of progestogen-only methods for contraception in premenopausal women. (cdc.gov)
  • Change in bone mineral density among adolescent women using and discontinuing depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception. (cdc.gov)
  • Assigning a woman a certain method of contraception, gynecologists often provide her with the opportunity to independently select the appropriate means from a number of similar ones. (imedix.com)
  • Women can use emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy after known or suspected failure of birth control or after unprotected intercourse. (aafp.org)
  • Emergency contraception has been an off-label use of oral contraceptive pills since the 1960s. (aafp.org)
  • Despite the large number of women who have received emergency contraception, there have been no reports of major adverse outcomes. (aafp.org)
  • If a woman becomes pregnant after using emergency contraception, she may be reassured about the lack of negative effects emergency contraception has on fetal development. (aafp.org)
  • Emergency contraception, sometimes referred to as the "morning-after" pill, is birth control that women can use to prevent pregnancy after known or suspected failure of contraception or unprotected intercourse, including sexual assault. (aafp.org)
  • 6 Research analyzing abortion trends from 2000, when only 2 percent of women reported ever using emergency contraception, 7 supports estimates that 51,000 abortions were prevented by emergency contraception use that year, suggesting that increased use of emergency contraception as a back-up method may have accounted for up to 43 percent of the total decline in abortion rates between 1994 and 2000. (aafp.org)
  • In a woman with a history of idiopathic thrombosis, the progestin-only regimen of emergency contraception may be preferable. (aafp.org)
  • Spermicides, a form of chemical contraceptive that work by killing sperm, are often combined with barrier methods of contraception for greater effectiveness. (rxlist.com)
  • Barrier methods of contraception generally do not have the side effects of hormonal contraceptives, and some forms of barrier contraception (contraceptive sponges and condoms) may be obtained without a prescription and easily purchased over the counter at pharmacies. (rxlist.com)
  • However, with the exception of male and female condoms that can provide some protection against infection with sexually-transmitted diseases ( STDs ), most methods of barrier contraception are not effective in preventing STDs. (rxlist.com)
  • Once the population size was reduced to a level that could be supported by the available habitat, contraception was applied to adult females. (usda.gov)
  • METHODS: Between September and October 2001, a randomly selected sample of female undergraduate students at the University of Benin, Nigeria, were surveyed about their demographic information, sexual history and contraceptive use, and their awareness and knowledge of emergency contraception. (guttmacher.org)
  • sexually active respondents were significantly more likely than those who were not and those who had ever practiced contraception were more likely than those who had not to be aware of emergency contraceptives. (guttmacher.org)
  • However, only 18% of respondents who reported knowing about emergency contraception knew the correct time frame in which emergency contraceptives must be used to be effective. (guttmacher.org)
  • Among the various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. (guttmacher.org)
  • The aim of the study presented in this article was to determine knowledge about and perceptions of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in Nigeria. (guttmacher.org)
  • 11. Female patients must be postmenopausal (12 months of amenorrhea), surgically sterile or they must agree to use a physical method of contraception. (knowcancer.com)
  • Oral or injectable contraceptive agents cannot be the sole method of contraception. (knowcancer.com)
  • Despite acknowledging their familiarity with the risks of isotretinoin to the fetus, 7%-59% of women taking the drug do not use any form of contraception, 3 - 5 and as many as 80% of women do not use 2 methods of birth control in parallel, as recommended. (cmaj.ca)
  • With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. (scielo.br)
  • Hormonal contraception is the reversible method most widely used by the Brazilian female population (± 25%) for family planning 1 . (scielo.br)
  • CSOF is a contract facility used by the Contraception Research Branch to support research on the discovery, optimization, and development of male and female contraceptive agents. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, they will explore novel approaches to contraception that will target two important processes essential for female fertility -- cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation, which can be targeted together because they occur simultaneously during ovulation. (eurekalert.org)
  • This book will open the ears and the hearts - of those willing to listen - to the pain so many women endure because of the loss of children by contraception. (priestsforlife.org)
  • Hormonal contraception is most often used by women in the United States and developing countries, including Indonesia. (hindawi.com)
  • Female Contraception: Update and Trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormonal contraceptive use should be avoided in women at risk for blood clots, by heavy smokers, and in women with breast or other cancers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Norethisterone is used as a hormonal contraceptive in combination with an estrogen - usually ethinylestradiol (EE) - in combined oral contraceptive pills and alone in progestogen-only pills . (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that norethisterone could also be an effective male hormonal contraceptive . (wikipedia.org)
  • RH067 trade name] is an oral combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) agent for women. (who.int)
  • Combined hormonal contraceptive agents are contraindicated in patients with a current or past history of stroke, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, coronary thrombosis, myocardial infarction, thrombophlebitis, thromboembolic disease, or valvular heart disease with complications. (pdr.net)
  • Work is in progress to do just that, as the group has recently developed a ring to co-deliver TFV and the hormonal contraceptive levonorgestrel (LNG). (medindia.net)
  • Contraceptive vaccines targeting factors involved in establishment of pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human CG is a well-known pregnancy-specific protein that has undergone phase I and phase II clinical trials, in women, as a contraceptive vaccine with encouraging results. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In women that are 4 months pregnant, starting to take riboflavin by mouth does reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This review aimed to compare the effectiveness of abstinence-only secondary-school-based pregnancy prevention programmes with abstinence-plus programmes that incorporate contraceptive information. (who.int)
  • Studies that assessed sexual behaviour, contraceptive behaviour and pregnancy rates were eligible for inclusion in the review. (who.int)
  • One of these also reported no significant change in age of initiation, contraceptive use or pregnancy rate. (who.int)
  • It is better to invest in measures that make it easier for women to visit a doctor during pregnancy than measures to repair birth injuries. (news-medical.net)
  • Current contraceptives promote the principle of safety and ensured protection against unwanted pregnancy. (imedix.com)
  • It has long been proven that the prolonged absence of pregnancy is impairing the health of a woman, triggering a hormonal failure, as well as mental and organ diseases associated with it. (imedix.com)
  • At the same time, unwanted pregnancy and abortion can cause a woman no less harm than the prolonged absence of pregnancy. (imedix.com)
  • Immediate use of an emergency contraceptive reduces a woman's risk of pregnancy to 1 to 2 percent. (aafp.org)
  • Some contraceptive methods are more effective in preventing pregnancy than others, while only condoms offer any protection against sexually transmitted infections. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Contraceptive effectiveness may be reduced by antibiotics , antifungals, anticonvulsants, anti- HIV drugs, St. John's Wort, and other drugs that speed the body's breakdown and use of contraceptive hormones, which could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • [ 62 ] However, women with severe endometriosis had lower live birth rates, clinical pregnancy rates, and mean number of retrieved oocyte relative to those without endometriosis. (medscape.com)
  • The potential of emergency contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancy in developed countries has been described, but in Nigeria, the awareness about the method is poor and no study has looked at efficacy. (guttmacher.org)
  • Given increasing adolescent sexual activity and decreasing age at first sex in developing countries, 2 the use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion is especially important. (guttmacher.org)
  • But here comes the difficulty, because it is more long lasting than oral contraceptives it stays in your body for a longer period of time, and can potentially stall your pregnancy plans. (amazonaws.com)
  • Seizure frequency may change during pregnancy, seizures may cause pregnancy complications, and the treatment of a woman with epilepsy must consider all these issues. (who.int)
  • The most commonly reported reasons for pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are unsuccessful attempts at abstaining from sexual intercourse, ineffective or inconsistent use of contraceptive agents or failure to detect pregnancy. (cmaj.ca)
  • Contraceptive failure is a leading reason for pregnancy during isotretinoin treatment. (cmaj.ca)
  • 2 Although most women know that taking isotretinoin confers a high risk of congenital defects if pregnancy occurs, 3 - 5 they still choose to use it for the treatment of acne. (cmaj.ca)
  • Many women taking isotretinoin do not monitor for pregnancy before and during treatment. (cmaj.ca)
  • Only 44%-67% of women report taking a pregnancy test before starting isotretinoin therapy, and only about 1 in 5 reports taking a repeated pregnancy test. (cmaj.ca)
  • 6 Moreover, most women use over-the-counter pregnancy tests for human chorionic gonadotropic hormone. (cmaj.ca)
  • A contraceptive chemical that kills sperm, which is placed in the vagina or within a condom before sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Drugs not recommended for initial use because of toxicity (stavudine, didanosine, and treatment-dose ritonavir) should also be stopped in women who present during pregnancy while taking these medications. (nih.gov)
  • If women with HIV/HBV coinfection are virally suppressed on an antiretroviral (ARV) regimen that includes tenofovir alafenamide when they become pregnant, they can be offered the choice of continuing that ARV regimen or switching tenofovir alafenamide to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in their regimen, since there are limited data about the use of tenofovir alafenamide in pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • In order to rapidly suppress viral load to reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission in women with acute HIV infection during pregnancy, the Panel recommends initiating a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen or a dolutegravir-based regimen with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. (nih.gov)
  • We report analyses designed to address the recent hypothesis that women who use combination-type OCs containing ethinylestradiol (EE) are at increased risk of breast cancer before age 45, if use of such OCs occurs prior to first term pregnancy (FTP). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • With regard to exclusive use of OCs containing mestranol, parous women who used such preparations long-term before their FTP showed no alteration of breast cancer risk, even 15 years or more after pregnancy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This is effective contracep- tives are in the following oral agents in pregnancy. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Contraceptive agents work in many ways to prevent a pregnancy. (sart.org)
  • Most of the hormonal contraceptives work by changing a woman's hormone levels to mimic a pregnancy, therefore preventing eggs from being able to be released from the ovary. (sart.org)
  • Hormonal Contraceptives: What if Exposed During Pregnancy? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She was, therefore, advised to omit POP for four weeks and to use alternative contraceptive methods to avoid unplanned pregnancy, before having ARR measurement repeated by the same immunoassays. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Even a single dose [1 capsule (regardless of strength)] taken by a pregnant woman during her pregnancy can cause severe birth defects. (rxlist.com)
  • Drug prescribing to females of reproductive potential is contingent upon initial and continued negative results of pregnancy testing [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • As a routine contraceptive use, the effectiveness of this compound is almost 90 days with the pregnancy rate of less than 1% [ 3 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Because tubal ligation permanently sterilizes a woman, it is the most effective method for preventing pregnancy. (heart.org)
  • Most women with repaired congenital heart disease can have a safe pregnancy with little risk. (heart.org)
  • However, the normal changes of pregnancy, particularly in the second and third trimesters, can worsen symptoms of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias and cause women with no symptoms to develop problems. (heart.org)
  • Women who remain cyanotic should also avoid pregnancy because it increases the risk of blood clots and stroke. (heart.org)
  • Aside from its use as a contraceptive, norethisterone can be used to treat premenstrual syndrome , dysmenorrhea , menorrhagia , irregular menstruation , menopausal symptoms (in combination with estrogen), or to postpone a period . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone accretion in adolescents using the combined estrogen and progestin transdermal contraceptive method Ortho Evra: a pilot study.J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2010;23:23-31. (cdc.gov)
  • Some studies have demonstrated a 2 to 4 fold increase in gallbladder disease in postmenopausal women taking estrogen therapy. (drugs.com)
  • One study of Swedish women has reported that a 10% increase in the relative risk of breast cancer may occur and that the risk is related to increasing duration of estrogen therapy. (drugs.com)
  • In that study, women with more than nine years of estrogen use had a 70% greater relative risk of breast cancer than controls. (drugs.com)
  • As adjuvant therapy (treatment following successful surgery) in those with lymph node negative or positive breast cancer though cancers with positive estrogen (and progesterone) receptors in both females and males. (news-medical.net)
  • As treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor positive breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. (news-medical.net)
  • Abernethy DR, Greenblatt DJ, Divoli M, Arendt R, Ochs HR, Shader RI(1982)Impairment of diazepam metabolism by low-dose estrogen-containing oral contraceptive steroids. (springer.com)
  • Adlercreutz H, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR, Woods MN, Dwyer JT, Hamalainen E(1994) Estrogen metabolism and excretion in oriental and caucasian women. (springer.com)
  • Birth control ( contraceptive ) medications contain hormones (estrogen and progesterone , or progesterone alone). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Women who use estrogen-containing birth control pills are at a 3- to 6-fold increased risk of developing blood clots. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • or the progestogen-only contraceptive, without the estrogen component. (scielo.br)
  • Scientists have been very interested in the effects of female sex hormones on the cardiovascular system, because such effects target blood vessels, since there are estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in all layers that make up blood vessels. (scielo.br)
  • At the start of the study, participants then began a feminizing hormone therapy regimen of estradiol valerate (2 milligrams/day), a form of the female hormone estrogen, plus the androgen blocker cyproterone acetate (25 milligrams/day). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, women with complex heart disease, cyanosis or pulmonary hypertension should not use estrogen-containing contraceptive agents like the Pill because they increase the risk of blood clots. (heart.org)
  • However, NETE, an intramuscularly administered prodrug of norethisterone which is used as a long-acting contraceptive, is used without an estrogen, and hence can be employed as a surrogate for norethisterone in terms of understanding its effects and tolerability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraceptives are agents or devices to prevent conception, such as barriers, spermicides, hormonal compounds, and intrauterine devices. (cdc.gov)
  • Hormonal contraceptives are available in various dosage forms and for different routes of administration (oral, intramuscular, vaginal, transdermal, subdermal implants and associated with the intrauterine system). (scielo.br)
  • If you are in a single-partner relationship, you may wish to use an Intrauterine device (IUDs), but IUDs are not recommended for women who have multiple sexual partners because they don't protect against sexually transmitted diseases, which can result in endocarditis. (heart.org)
  • Ethinylestradiol + etonogestrel contraceptive vaginal ring: new drug. (biomedsearch.com)
  • WHO today recommended that the dapivirine vaginal ring (DPV-VR) may be offered as an additional prevention choice for women at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches. (news-medical.net)
  • It is known, for example, that in the Middle Ages women wore iron caps on the cervix, lubricated it with a solution of mercury and lead, and inserted into it vaginal pessary made of steel wire and caused infection and bedsores of the reproductive organs. (imedix.com)
  • At different times and in different countries, contraceptives were banned by the authorities or by the church, therefore devices such as a vaginal syringe or vaginal douche, which were used to cleanse the internal female organs, periodically appeared on sale. (imedix.com)
  • Vaginal contraceptive film needs to be in place in the vagina about 5 minutes prior to sexual intercourse in order to liquefy and become effective. (rxlist.com)
  • Kiser's research group shows that the vaginal concentration of TFV in sheep using the new ring is similar to or exceeds that of a short-lasting TFV vaginal gel that was proven to be clinically effective at reducing the risk of HIV acquisition in women. (medindia.net)
  • The purpose of this research study is to examine whether birth control pills change heart disease risk and how the body handles blood sugar when given to different women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Now there are data that oral contraceptive pills may have lasting adverse effects on the hormone testosterone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a woman stops taking birth control pills, it may take several months for her normal ovulatory cycle to return. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Once the pills are stopped, a woman can become pregnant even if her menstrual cycle has not returned to normal. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Medications currently recommended include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, progestins, oral contraceptive pills, and androgens. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, combination oral contraceptive pills (COCPs), danazol, progestational agents, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues form the mainstay of medical therapy. (medscape.com)
  • The questionnaire, which had been pretested among 50 nonparticipants, asked women about their demographic information, sexual history and contraceptive use, and their awareness and knowledge of emergency contraceptive pills. (guttmacher.org)
  • BRAND: There is some kind of logic, I assume, behind making this available for women only over the age of 18 and by prescription, because birth-control pills are available only by prescription, and isn't Plan B made up of the same ingredients? (npr.org)
  • Cites a study showing that contraceptive pills can damage women's gums. (ebscohost.com)
  • However, most abstinence-plus programmes increased rates of contraceptive use. (who.int)
  • 3 Studies from western and southern Nigeria have found rates of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents of about 30%, 4 considerably lower than the rates reported for developed countries. (guttmacher.org)
  • What differs is that young women with CMC are at higher risk for unintended pregnancies due to lower rates of contraceptive use. (chop.edu)
  • Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired characteristics of an ideal contraceptive. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The characteristics of an ideal contraceptive include acceptability of user, no loss of natural feeling, no side effects, relatively inexpensive, effective, easy to use and reversible. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanism of action of chemical agents contained in oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • Clinical, pharmacological and epidemiological studies on a levonorgestrel implant contraceptive / by Biran Affandi. (who.int)
  • Monteiro-Dantas C, Espejo-Arce X, Lui-Filho JF, Fernandes AM, Monteiro I, Bahamondes L. A three-year longitudinal evaluation of the forearm bone density of users of etonogestrel- and levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive implants. (cdc.gov)
  • Levonorgestrel butanoate (LNG-B) (developmental code name HRP-002), or levonorgestrel 17β-butanoate, is a steroidal progestin of the 19-nortestosterone group which was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Contraceptive Development Branch (CDB) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development as a long-acting injectable contraceptive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug has a well-established safety record owing to the use of levonorgestrel as an oral contraceptive since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injectable contraceptives : their role in family planning care. (who.int)
  • Two groups, each composed of 20 women, who used depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) injectable contraceptives were investigated for changes in 75-g OGTT and in the fasting and two-hour post oral glucose load (2-hours) levels of serum insulin, growth hormone, glucagon, cortisol and blood pyruvate. (nih.gov)
  • Kaunitz AM, Darney PD, Ross D, Wolter KD, Speroff L. Subcutaneous DMPA vs. intramuscular DMPA: a 2-year randomized study of contraceptive efficacy and bone mineral density. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent studies with free-ranging California ground squirrels, captive Norway rats, domestic and feral swine, wild horses, and white-tailed deer have demonstrated the efficacy of the single-shot GnRH vaccine as a contraceptive agent. (usda.gov)
  • Field studies in Maryland and New Jersey evaluated the efficacy of GonaCon™ as a contraceptive agent for free-ranging female white-tailed deer. (usda.gov)
  • it must be reliable, easy to administer, safe, affordable, widely acceptable, and capable of evoking homogeneous response and must bestow a high level of contraceptive efficacy. (hindawi.com)
  • Some AEDs reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptive agents, increasing the probability of unplanned pregnancies. (who.int)
  • Belara-a reliable oral contraceptive with additional benefits for health and efficacy in dysmenorrhoea. (globale-dermatologie.com)
  • Acceptability, Feasibility, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Theory-Based Relational Embodied Conversational Agent Mobile Phone Intervention to Promote HIV Medication Adherence in Young HIV-Positive African American MSM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Researchers from North Carolina State University have created a trifunctional contraceptive gel that contains spermicidal, anti-viral and libido-enhancing agents in one formulation. (news-medical.net)
  • 6 . A device according to claim 5 wherein the spermicidal agent is selected from the group consisting of: nonoxynol-9, octoxynol-9, menfegol, benzalkonium chloride and N-docasanol. (google.com)
  • Total iron binding capacity was increased as a result of oral contraceptive agent administration. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Plasma copper was increased and plasma zinc was decreased as a result of oral contraceptive agent administration. (wellnessresources.com)
  • During the first 3 months of treatment, she was taking an oral contraceptive agent that she had started at the same time as the isotretinoin. (cmaj.ca)
  • Do progestogen-only contraceptives (POCs) increase the risk for myocardial infarction (MI)? (acc.org)
  • Aharoni A, Tesler B, Paltieli Y, Tal JH, Dori Z, Sharf M. Hair chromium content of women with gestational diabetes compared with nondiabetic pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • It also doesn't include information about treating cystitis in pregnant women. (nih.gov)
  • Pregnant women are more likely to get cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • The combination treatment is thought to be a safe regimen for pregnant women. (aafp.org)
  • The Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States (Perinatal Guidelines) are published in an electronic format that can be updated as relevant changes in prevention and treatment recommendations occur. (nih.gov)
  • The Panel on Treatment of Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission (the Panel) is committed to timely changes in this document because so many health care providers, patients, and policy experts rely on this source for vital clinical information. (nih.gov)
  • In German folk medicine, pea soup is considered an excellent tonic for pregnant women and growing children, nourishing for growing bones. (healthy.net)
  • A randomized trial comparing LARC uptake and satisfaction after either video or conversational-based contraceptive counseling for pregnant women in labor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Back DJ, Bolt HM, Breckenridge AM, Crawford FE, Orme MLE, Rowe PH, Schindler AE(1980e)The pharmacokinetics of a large (3mg) oral dose of ethinylestradiol in women. (springer.com)
  • Table 2: Effectiveness of contraceptive methods. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Oral contraceptives have been the preferred method of birth control because of their ease of use and high rate of effectiveness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The US military is funding a three-year study to evaluate the effectiveness of an enzyme found naturally in the blood that could help protect soldiers against the effects of the deadly nerve agent, Sarin. (medindia.net)
  • It ought to be mentioned that wrong contraceptive can result in harm to the woman's health. (imedix.com)
  • There are also concerns from some anti-abortion groups that the pill could work as an abortive agent by preventing a fertilized egg from implanting in a woman's uterus. (npr.org)
  • In contrast, nonhormonal contraceptive agents or devices work by preventing a man's sperm from joining a woman's egg. (sart.org)
  • Hormonal contraceptives, however, can cause serious side effects on a woman's health, and implantable barrier devices require a medical professional for placement, adjustment and removal," Diaz said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The risk of arterial thromboses, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, is especially increased in women with other risk factors for these events. (pdr.net)
  • POCs do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and women using these methods should be counseled that consistent and correct use of the male latex condom reduces the risk for transmission of HIV and other STDs. (cdc.gov)
  • It is difficult to say how barbaric modern contraceptive methods our descendants will find, because the most progressive and safe contraceptives used two centuries ago today considered as an instrument of torture. (imedix.com)
  • Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. (hindawi.com)
  • Lishko developed sperm patch-clamp cellular electrophysiological methods that can be used on sperm cells of any mammalian species, thereby enabling rigorous study of how the cellular ion channels respond to chemical and mechanical signals along the female reproductive tract. (macfound.org)
  • There is a critical need for fertility regulation methods that fit the needs of women and men throughout their reproductive lives. (nih.gov)
  • This FOA supports the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in its mission to develop novel, safe and effective contraceptive methods for men and women. (nih.gov)
  • Current hormonal and barrier methods do not meet the needs of a large number of women. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers assert that additional biological targets -- and methods to test potential contraceptive agents on these targets -- are needed to ensure that a wide variety of effective, noninvasive, low-cost and easy-to-use contraceptives are available to all women. (eurekalert.org)
  • Women with many forms of congenital heart disease can use most methods safely. (heart.org)
  • At contraceptive and hormone replacement dosages (0.35 to 1 mg/day), norethisterone has essentially progestogenic side effects only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its weak androgenic activity, norethisterone can produce androgenic side effects such as acne, hirsutism, and voice changes of slight severity in some women at high dosages (e.g., 10 to 40 mg/day). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is notably not the case with combined oral contraceptives that contain norethisterone and EE, however. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antisperm contraceptive vaccines: where we are and where we are going? (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous contraceptive vaccines required at least two injections (an initial dose followed by a booster dose). (usda.gov)
  • A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is immunocontraception, which is the use of contraceptive vaccines (CVs) or preformed antibodies to prevent fertilization. (hindawi.com)
  • 3 . A device according to claim 2 wherein the therapeutic substance delivered by the device comprises a contraceptive. (google.com)
  • A substance or agent that kills spermatozoa, especially one used as a contraceptive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Peas have been investigated for their potential as a contraceptive agent, for both men and women, due to their content of an anti-fertility substance called m-mylohydroquinone. (healthy.net)
  • This led to the question of whether prolonged exposure to the synthetic estrogens of oral contraceptives induces gene imprinting and increased gene expression of SHBG in the liver in some women who have used the oral contraceptives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The rare complication of a spontaneous rupture into the peritoneum has also been associated with contraceptive use. (medscape.com)
  • A 20-year-old woman was being investigated privately for syncope in May 2017. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • In this sample, 40 women (8%) had a current mood disorder, but women taking a progestin-only contraceptive agent were three times more likely to have a current mood disorder, compared with those taking other contraceptives. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Study leader Dr Gjertrud Svendal, lecturer at the University of Bergen in Norway, said: 'Because of the potential adverse effect progestin-only agents have on current mood, caution should be taken when prescribing these to women. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Although it was originally developed as a two-injection contraceptive treatment, NWRC's GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) vaccine was subsequently tested in a single-injection form that is much more practical as a field delivery system. (usda.gov)
  • The oral contraceptive pill is the most commonly used birth control method. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Is the Pill a Smart Choice for a Conscientious Young Woman? (ubc.ca)
  • Researchers have published a new investigation measuring sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) before and after discontinuation of the oral contraceptive pill. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The research, which appears in the January issue of The Journal of Sexual Medicine, concluded that women who used the oral contraceptive pill may be exposed to long-term problems from low values of "unbound" testosterone potentially leading to continuing sexual, metabolic, and mental health consequences. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Women who need the morning-after pill may be able to get it soon, without a prescription. (npr.org)
  • The birth control pill was introduced with the primary purpose of being a contraceptive agent. (consciencelaws.org)
  • Women are much less likely to develop a mood disorder if they are taking a combined contraceptive pill, conclude researchers. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The Birth Control Pill, the IUD, and other hormonal contraceptives such as the Morning After Pill, Depo-Provera, and Norplant can, after conception occurs, cause the loss of a unique human life. (priestsforlife.org)
  • NOTE: If switching from combined oral contraceptive (OC), initiate norethindrone the day after the last active combined OC pill. (pdr.net)
  • However, hormonal agents such as the combined oral contraceptive (COCP) or progestogen-only pill (POP) are not listed for omission. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Most women can use progesterone-only birth control like Depo-provera (the Shot), the Mini Pill or Implanon, but they may cause you to retain fluid. (heart.org)
  • Although the use of contraceptive agents has not been implicated in the pathogenesis of FNH, their use is associated with an increase in the risk of complications for patients with FNH, and they may be a factor in the development of FNH. (medscape.com)
  • 3 Contraceptive agents have not been involved in the pathogenesis but they are associated with an increased risk of complications for patients with FNH. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants, manual for clinicians. (who.int)
  • Norplant : contraceptive subdermal implants : guide to effective counseling. (who.int)
  • Norplant contraceptive subdermal implants : managerial and technical guidelines. (who.int)
  • Kaunitz AM, Miller PD, Rice VM, Ross D, McClung MR. Bone mineral density in women aged 25-35 years receiving depot medroxyprogesterone acetate: recovery following discontinuation. (cdc.gov)
  • Bone mineral density in adolescent females using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2004;17:17-21. (cdc.gov)
  • Akpoviroro JO, Mangalam M, Jenkins N, Fotherby K(1981)Binding of the contraceptive steroids medroxyprogesterone acetate and ethynyloestradiol in blood of various species. (springer.com)
  • As a result, when the GnRH vaccine is injected into the animal's body, the body's immune response neutralizes the hormone's function, resulting in infertility in both males and females. (usda.gov)
  • As part of its program to develop tools for managing populations of overabundant wildlife species, NWRC scientists have developed a new GnRH immunocontraceptive vaccine (named GonaCon™) that shows great promise as a wildlife infertility agent. (usda.gov)
  • The second major obstacle to the development of a new immunocontraceptive vaccine for wildlife was the need for a single-dose contraceptive, because of the impracticality of capturing free-ranging wild animals twice to vaccinate them. (usda.gov)
  • The usefulness of a single-shot immunocontraceptive vaccine depends, among other things, on the duration of the contraceptive effect that the vaccine produces. (usda.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to estimate exposure to the hormones norelgestromin, norgestrel, and ethinyl estradiol in healthy female volunteers across multiple commercial lots of EVRA® (a transdermal contraceptive patch manufactured by LOHMANN Therapie-Systeme), to compare these data to exposure data from one clinical lot, and to compare these data to exposure data from a commercially available oral contraceptive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Abnormalities of sex steroid hormones charity clinic, and to verify aspects of epilepsy may adversely affect cortical excitability in specific to women e.g. persons who have epilepsy. (who.int)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS) have not been shown to have any benefit in placebo-controlled trials. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to support and facilitate multidisciplinary research approaches for the development of novel nonsteroidal contraceptive products for men and women that act prior to fertilization. (nih.gov)
  • This may be easily managed with commonly prescribed medications, like high-dose nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), hormonal contraceptives, or anti-fibrinolytic agents. (chop.edu)
  • However, for women there are unique concerns related to hormone effects on seizures and the effects of seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on reproductive health. (who.int)
  • Use of female condoms can provide protection from transmission of STDs, although data are limited. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently practiced contraceptive options available for men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This is especially since an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma has been found in women treated chronically with tamoxifen. (news-medical.net)
  • As treatment for women categorized as high risk for the development of breast cancer to reduce the incidence of developing breast cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting decrease when antiemetic agents are taken one hour before the first contraceptive dose. (aafp.org)
  • Back DJ, Breckenridge AM, Crawford FE, Orme MLE, Rowe PH(1980d)Phenobarbitone interaction with oral contraceptive steroids in the rabbit and rat. (springer.com)
  • Initially, studying glucose tolerance in women treated with contraceptive steroids seemed to be a logical way to dissociate the effects of gonadal steroids from the metabolic effects of human placental lactogen during gestation. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to discuss the main effects of sex steroids on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and expose available scientific evidence for prescribing hormonal contraceptives to women with arterial and venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure. (scielo.br)
  • The overall risk of venous thromboembolism in women using COCs has been estimated to be 3 to 9 per 10,000 woman-years. (pdr.net)
  • Several epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between the use of combined oral contraceptives (COC) and an increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis 3-5 . (scielo.br)
  • Discusses the prevalence of benign liver tumor among women, associated with the use of oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • Antiepileptic drugs and hormonal contraceptives in adolescent women with epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Abdel-Aziz MT, Williams KIH(1970)Metabolism of radioactive 17 a-ethynylestradiol by women. (springer.com)
  • The epidemiological aspects of oral contraceptive agents on nutrient metabolism were studied in a large population of women. (wellnessresources.com)
  • The alterations in lipid metabolism that occur with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) have aroused considerable concern that OCs might increase the risk of premature atherosclerosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Pearl Index (PI) is defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 woman years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The 3-year PI was obtained by dividing the number of pregnancies that occurred during the first three years of treatment by the time (in 100 women years) that the women were under risk of getting pregnant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some young women with unintended pregnancies obtain abortions-many of which are performed in unsafe conditions-and others carry their pregnancies to term, incurring risks of morbidity and mortality higher than those for adult women. (guttmacher.org)
  • Improper use of contraceptives, in our experience, is the most common reason for unexpected pregnancies among women using isotretinoin and highlights the need for more comprehensive contraceptive counselling for all women starting treatment with this drug. (cmaj.ca)
  • While most women with congenital heart disease can live fulfilling lives and have safe pregnancies, there are some differences that make it important to consult with your physician. (heart.org)
  • The research, in an article entitled: "Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Androgen Levels: A Retrospective Study in Women with Sexual Dysfunction" published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine, involved 124 premenopausal women with sexual health complaints for more than 6 months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In fact, the medical philosophy that has accompanied the oral contraceptive and abortion now applies to the treatment of the infertile couple. (consciencelaws.org)
  • Aedo AR, Sunden M, Landgren BM, Diczfalusy E(1989)Effect of orally administered estrogens on circulating profiles in postmenopausal women. (springer.com)
  • Anderson F(1993)Kinetics and pharmacology of estrogens in pre- and postmenopausal women. (springer.com)
  • MR imaging is an ideal modality to work up lesions in relatively young women with suspected FNH because radiation and iodine-based contrast media are not used in these patients. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Dr. Claudia Panzer, an endocrinologist in Denver, CO and lead author of the study, noted that "it is important for physicians prescribing oral contraceptives to point out to their patients potential sexual side effects, such as decreased desire, arousal, decreased lubrication and increased sexual pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dr. Laurence Jacobs of Fertility Centers of Illinois has treated patients with PCOS, and has helped many women lessen disorder symptoms and conceive. (chicagotribune.com)
  • 2008. 630 female patients with epilepsy were included in the study. (who.int)
  • Our approach presents a human-virtual agent mediated system that leverages the conversational agent to handle menial caregiver's works by engaging users (e.g., patients) in a conversation with the conversational agent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Routinely obtaining a confidential sexual history and providing or referring patients for contraceptive counseling is essential. (chop.edu)
  • Drug: EVRA® transdermal contraceptive patch containing 6 mg of norelgestromin and 0.60 mg of ethinyl estradiol (versus CILEST® tablets). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Low-dose (less than 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol) oral contraceptives pose less risk than older, higher-dose formulations. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The drug was also previously tested successfully as a combined injectable contraceptive with estradiol hexahydrobenzoate, but this formulation was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Interactions Between Antiretroviral Agents and Hormonal Contraceptives includes updated recommendations regarding atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, atazanavir/cobicistat, and darunavir/cobicistat. (nih.gov)
  • Infertility among treated female swine and white-tailed deer, for example, has lasted up to five years without requiring a booster vaccination. (usda.gov)
  • Estimated to affect one in 10 women of childbearing age, a PCOS diagnosis is also strongly linked to obesity and diabetes , and is one of the leading causes of infertility. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The cysts can disturb hormone cycles, causing ovulation problems and resulting in female infertility. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Lishko is improving understanding of mammalian fertilization and opening up new avenues in treatment for human infertility and in the development of male-specific or unisex contraceptives. (macfound.org)
  • Dynamic MRIs in a 36-year-old woman referred for a gallbladder sonography, during which the patient was found to have a vague ill-defined hypoechoic mass in the right lobe of the liver (not shown). (medscape.com)
  • Bone mass and long-term monophasic oral contraceptive treatment in young women. (ubc.ca)
  • Oral contraceptive treatment inhibits the normal acquisition of bone mineral in skeletally immature young adult female monkeys. (ubc.ca)
  • Women who have had treatment for DCIS (intraductal carcinoma - a less common type of breast cancer ) through surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation are at high risk for developing invasive breast cancer in the future, and hormone therapy (with tamoxifen) prevents the development of this cancer in a great deal of women within the first five years of treatment. (news-medical.net)
  • With regard to the artificial reproductive technologies, it has now become the absolute foundation upon which the treatment of infertile women has been built. (consciencelaws.org)
  • Contraceptive measures are only necessary for women during treatment with topical agents. (papaa.org)
  • Two randomized, double-blind, controlled trials of 2219 subjects to compare the combination clindamycin/tretinoin hydrogel with each agent alone and vehicle for the treatment of acne vulgaris. (globale-dermatologie.com)
  • In accordance, they are in fact approved by the FDA for the treatment of acne in women in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systemic Contraceptives and Liver Tumors. (ebscohost.com)
  • We wish to emphasize that malignant, as well as benign, liver tumors can occur in users of oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • The most famous barrier contraceptive is a condom (both male and female). (imedix.com)
  • My strong suggestion, especially for young women like you, is using a barrier method, like a condom or diaphragm plus a whole applicator of contraceptive jelly or foam. (ubc.ca)
  • Official contraceptive drugs of three types are justified and approved by official medicine: physiological, barrier, and medication. (imedix.com)
  • In Nigeria, however, contraceptive use among adolescents is low. (guttmacher.org)
  • 5 As is the case in Kenya, 6 the low levels of contraceptive use among adolescents in Nigeria may reflect inadequate contraceptive knowledge and access, as well as the spontaneity of adolescent sexual activities. (guttmacher.org)