Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Religion and sex can intersect in medical definitions through the study of spirituality and sexuality, which explores how religious beliefs, practices, and cultural values may influence individuals' sexual behaviors, attitudes, and experiences, including issues related to sexual health, sexual orientation, gender identity, reproductive rights, and sexual dysfunctions.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Sexual activities of humans.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
whoa, I'm just an AI and I don't have the ability to provide on-the-fly medical definitions. However, I can tell you that "Missouri" is not a term commonly used in medicine. It's a state in the United States, and I assume you might be looking for a medical term that is associated with it. If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Painful menstruation.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.

Emergency contraception: knowledge and attitudes of family medicine providers. (1/86)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emergency contraception (EC) is an underutilized method of preventing unplanned pregnancy. This study assessed family physicians' and nurse providers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about EC. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to faculty, residents, and clinic nurses in a Midwestern department of family medicine. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Statistical significance was tested by chi-square test, Student's t test, and Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate. RESULTS: Seventy-eight providers participated (response rate 81%). Seventy-four percent of physicians have prescribed EC in the past, with an average of 3.2 (range 0-10) times in the last year. The majority of providers reported that they were familiar with indications (96%) and protocols (78%) for prescribing EC, yet knowledge inaccuracies were identified. Overall attitudes regarding EC were positive. CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of participating providers were willing to prescribe EC and had generally favorable attitudes toward it, rates of providing this therapy were low. There was a discrepancy between providers' perceived and actual knowledge about EC. Interventions targeting misunderstandings might help reduce missed opportunities to provide EC.  (+info)

Mechanisms of action of mifepristone and levonorgestrel when used for emergency contraception. (2/86)

An emergency contraceptive method is used after coitus but before pregnancy occurs. The use of emergency contraception is largely under-utilized worldwide. One of the main barriers to widespread use is concern about the mechanism of action. Recently, treatment with either 10 mg mifepristone or 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel has emerged as the most effective hormonal method for emergency contraception with very low side-effects. However, the knowledge of the mechanism of action of mifepristone and levonorgestrel in humans, when used for contraceptive purposes and especially for emergency contraception, remains incomplete. The objective of this review is to summarize available data on the effects of mifepristone and levonorgestrel on female reproductive functions relevant to the emergency use of the compounds. When summarized, available data from studies in humans indicate that the contraceptive effects of both levonorgestrel and mifepristone, when used in single low doses for emergency contraception, involve either blockade or delay of ovulation, due to either prevention or delay of the LH surge, rather than to inhibition of implantation.  (+info)

Effect of advanced provision of emergency contraception on women's contraceptive behaviour: a randomized controlled trial. (3/86)

BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception (EC) can prevent pregnancy but is under-used. Advanced provision increases use but the effect on contraceptive behaviour varies. METHODS: Women aged 18-45 years, using less effective contraceptives, were randomized to either advanced provision of three courses of EC (intervention) or to obtaining each course from clinic (control). EC use and contraceptive behaviour were monitored for 1 year. RESULTS: In all, 1030 women were recruited in 6 months. The mean+/-SD number of courses of EC used in intervention versus control group was 0.56+/-1.2 versus 0.20+/-0.6 (P<0.001). In the intervention group, 47% women aged <26 years used at least one course of EC compared with 23% of older women (P<0.001). The majority of women used condoms before (intervention 89%, control 91%) and during the study (89% for both groups). Consistency of contraceptive use was higher during the study (65 versus 60% of women in both groups) (P<0.001). There were 17 unplanned pregnancies, eight in the intervention group, six of whom did not use EC in the conception cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced provision increases EC use especially among young women in Hong Kong. Contraceptive choice and consistency of use remains the same even among young women.  (+info)

Late follicular phase administration of mifepristone suppresses circulating leptin and FSH - mechanism(s) of action in emergency contraception? (4/86)

OBJECTIVE: Low dose mifepristone (RU486) is highly effective in emergency post-coital contraception (EC), although the mechanism(s) of action remains unclear. We studied the endocrine actions of 10 mg mifepristone administered orally as a single dose to eight healthy volunteers (aged 20-45 years) during the late follicular phase. METHODS: Serum levels of LH, FSH, oestradiol, progesterone, leptin, mifepristone, cortisol, and gluco-corticoid bioactivity (GBA) were measured before and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after ingestion of mifepristone on cycle day 10 or 11 (study day 1), and follow-up was continued for 10 days. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed on study days 1 and 7. Similar measurements were carried out during a control cycle. RESULTS: Mifepristone postponed ovulation, as evidenced by a 3.4+/-1.1 day (means+/-s.d.) delay (P < 0.005) in the LH surge and 3.6+/-4.0 day prolongation of the treatment cycle (P = 0.08). During the mifepristone cycle, an LH surge was displayed by five subjects when serum mifepristone levels had declined to 9.5+/-7.1 nmol/l. During the day of mifepristone administration, circulating GBA (P < 0.001) and leptin (P < 0.001) levels declined. On the day after mifepristone administration, mean serum FSH and leptin levels were lower than pretreatment values (3.8+/-1.8 IU/l vs 5.2+/-1.1 IU/l, n = 7, P < 0.05; 28.9+/-6.7 microg/l vs 33.2+/-9.0 microg/l, n = 7, P < 0.05 respectively), and the corresponding difference in the mean serum oestradiol concentration was borderline (452+/-252 pmol/l vs 647+/-406 pmol/l, n = 7, P = 0.056). In contrast to the control cycle, individual leptin levels declined during the follow-up after ingestion of mifepristone (n = 8, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These data showed that the commonly employed dose of mifepristone for EC delays ovulation and prolongs the menstrual cycle, when given during the late follicular phase. The mechanism of action of mifepristone may include a reduction of FSH secretion via a decrease in circulating leptin.  (+info)

Clinical presentation and management of alleged sexually assaulted females at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. (5/86)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the presentation and treatment offered to sexually assaulted females attending emergency gynaecological ward in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. SETTING: Mulago hospital gynaecological emergency ward. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty eight sexually assaulted females were recruited from 1 st March 2000 to 31 st December 2000. They were interviewed, examined, given appropriate treatment and followed up for three months. OUTCOME VARIABLES: Socio demographic characteristics, genital and bodily injuries, relationship to the assailant, and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections. RESULTS: The mean age was 9.5 with a range of 1-35 years. Seventy two percent of the victims were children below 12 years. Fifty percent of the assault occurred at the assailant's home. The majority (79.3%) of the victims knew the assailant and cases of gang rape were only 6.9%. The injuries sustained were extra genital (19.0%), genital (75.4%). The emotional or psychological disturbance was present in 22.4% of the patients. The sexually transmitted infections found included trichomonas vaginalis (1.7%) and syphilis (3.7%). All cases received counseling and prophylactic treatment for sexually transmitted infections. Those in reproductive age group were offered emergency contraception. None of the victims got post exposure HIV therapy because it was not available in the hospital. CONCLUSION: Sexual assault is common in Uganda and is one of the most dehumanizing human crimes against women. It is associated with adverse medical and social problems. There is urgent need to sensitize the community about reporting early for medical treatment after sexual assault.  (+info)

Health care providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward and provision of emergency contraceptives in Lagos, Nigeria. (6/86)

CONTEXT: Emergency contraception can play an important role in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancies in Nigeria. Although it is included in the national family planning guidelines, there is limited awareness of this method among clients. METHODS: In 2003-2004, a sample of 256 health care providers within Lagos State were surveyed about their knowledge of, attitudes toward and provision of emergency contraceptives, using a 25-item, self-administered questionnaire. Frequencies were calculated for the various measures, and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. RESULTS: Nine in 10 providers had heard of emergency contraception, but many lacked specific knowledge about the method. Only half of them knew the correct time frame for effective use of emergency contraceptive pills, and three-fourths knew that the pills prevent pregnancy; more than a third incorrectly believed that they may act as an abortifacient. Fewer than a third of respondents who had heard of the pills knew that they are legal in Nigeria. Of those who had heard about emergency contraception, 58% had provided clients with emergency contraceptive pills, yet only 10% of these providers could correctly identify the drug, dose and timing of the first pill in the regimen. Furthermore, fewer than one in 10 of those who knew of emergency contraception said they always provided information to clients, whereas a fourth said they never did so. CONCLUSIONS: Nigerian health care providers urgently need education about emergency contraception; training programs should target the types of providers who are less knowledgeable about the method.  (+info)

Emergency contraceptive options available for adolescents. (7/86)

QUESTION: A 16-year-old female patient came into a clinic seeking consultation after unprotected coitus. What treatments are available if this patient does not want to continue with a pregnancy? ANSWER: Teen pregnancy is a substantial problem. Several emergency contraceptives exist, including the combined pill, the progesterone-only pill, and copper-bearing intrauterine devices. While many teenagers are unaware of these options, this armamentarium is very effective if used early after coitus and when further sexual activity is avoided for a few days.  (+info)

Contraceptive attitudes and contraceptive failure among women requesting induced abortion in Denmark. (8/86)

BACKGROUND: To elucidate how contraceptive attitudes among Danish-born and immigrant women influence the request of induced abortion. METHODS: A case-control study, the case group comprising 1095 Danish-born women and 233 immigrant women requesting abortion, in comparison with a control group of 1295 pregnant women intending to give birth. The analysis used hospital-based questionnaire interviews. RESULTS: Lack of contraceptive knowledge and experience of contraceptive problems were associated with the choice of abortion. This association was most pronounced among immigrant women, where women lacking knowledge had a 6-fold increased odds ratio (OR) and women having experienced problems a 5-fold increased OR for requesting abortion. Further, in this group of women, a partner's negative attitude towards contraception was associated with an 8-fold increased OR for requesting abortion. Contraceptive failure was prevalent; 21% of the women who did not plan to become pregnant but intended to give birth had experienced contraceptive failure. The same applied, respectively, for 45% of the Danish-born women and 36% of immigrant women, who requested abortion. Women who had experienced contraceptive failure were significantly more likely to request abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant women seem to have more difficulties in using contraception than Danish-born women. To address this problem, there is a need for culturally sensitive information campaigns targeting this heterogonous group of women.  (+info)

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraception, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are most effective when used within 24 hours of unprotected sex, but can still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after.

There are two main types of postcoital contraceptives:

1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs): These are high-dose hormonal pills that contain levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. Levonorgestrel ECPs are available over-the-counter in many countries, while ulipristal acetate ECPs require a prescription.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small T-shaped device made of copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The copper IUD can be used as emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected sex, and it also provides ongoing contraception for up to 10 years.

It's important to note that postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of contraception. They should only be used in emergency situations where other methods of contraception have failed or were not used. It is also recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any form of emergency contraception.

Postcoital hormonal contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These contraceptives contain hormones and are intended for use in emergency situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or unprotected sex.

The most common type of postcoital hormonal contraceptive is the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), which contains a high dose of synthetic progestin or a combination of progestin and estrogen. The ECP works by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The ECP is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex, ideally within 72 hours, but may still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after intercourse. However, the effectiveness of the ECP decreases over time, and it is not as effective as regular methods of contraception.

It's important to note that postcoital hormonal contraceptives are not intended for routine use as a primary method of contraception and should only be used in emergency situations. They do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should not be used as a substitute for regular condom use or other forms of protection.

If you have any concerns about postcoital hormonal contraceptives or need advice on the best method of contraception for you, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Coitus is the medical term for sexual intercourse, which is typically defined as the act of inserting the penis into the vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. It often involves rhythmic thrusting and movement, and can lead to orgasm in both males and females. Coitus may also be referred to as vaginal sex or penetrative sex.

It's important to note that there are many ways to engage in sexual activity beyond coitus, including oral sex, manual stimulation, and using sex toys. All of these forms of sexual expression can be healthy and normal when practiced safely and with consent.

Metrorrhagia is defined as uterine bleeding that occurs at irregular intervals, particularly between expected menstrual periods. It can also be described as abnormal vaginal bleeding that is not related to the regular menstrual cycle. The amount of bleeding can vary from light spotting to heavy flow.

Metrorrhagia is different from menorrhagia, which refers to excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding during the menstrual period. Metrorrhagia can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, infection, pregnancy complications, and certain medications or medical conditions.

It is essential to consult a healthcare provider if you experience any abnormal vaginal bleeding to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse. The synthetic postcoital contraceptive is a type of emergency contraception that contains synthetic hormones, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. These hormones work by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The most common synthetic postcoital contraceptive is the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill (LNG-ECP), which contains a high dose of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel. It is usually taken as a single dose within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse, but it is most effective when taken as soon as possible after intercourse.

Another synthetic postcoital contraceptive is ulipristal acetate, which is also taken as a single dose but within 120 hours (5 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate works by delaying ovulation and preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.

It's important to note that synthetic postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of birth control, but rather as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. They should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and should not be used in place of regular contraception.

Menstruation-inducing agents, also known as menstrual induction agents or abortifacients, are medications or substances that stimulate or induce menstruation and can potentially lead to the termination of an early pregnancy. These agents work by causing the uterus to contract and expel its lining (endometrium), which is shed during menstruation.

Common menstruation-inducing agents include:

1. Hormonal medications: Combination oral contraceptives, containing both estrogen and progestin, can be used to induce menstruation by causing the uterus to shed its lining after a planned break from taking the medication. This is often used in birth control methods like the "birth control pill pack."
2. Prostaglandins: These are naturally occurring hormone-like substances that can cause the uterus to contract. Synthetic prostaglandin analogs, such as misoprostol (Cytotec), can be used to induce menstruation or early pregnancy termination.
3. Mifepristone: This is a synthetic steroid hormone that blocks progesterone receptors in the body. When used in combination with prostaglandins, it can cause the uterus to contract and expel its lining, leading to an abortion or inducing menstruation.

It's important to note that using menstruation-inducing agents without medical supervision or for purposes other than their intended use may pose health risks and should be avoided. Always consult a healthcare professional before using any medication for this purpose.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Contraceptive devices for females refer to medical products designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize an egg. Some common examples of female contraceptive devices include:

1. Diaphragm: A shallow, flexible dome made of silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
2. Cervical Cap: Similar to a diaphragm but smaller in size, the cervical cap fits over the cervix and creates a barrier to sperm entry.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small, T-shaped device made of plastic or copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by changing the chemistry of the cervical mucus and uterine lining to inhibit sperm movement and implantation of a fertilized egg.
4. Contraceptive Sponge: A soft, round sponge made of polyurethane foam that contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse and covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
5. Female Condom: A thin, flexible pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The female condom creates a barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
6. Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring made of plastic that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to release hormones that prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the lining of the uterus.
7. Contraceptive Implant: A small, flexible rod made of plastic that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to prevent pregnancy for up to three years.

It's important to note that while these contraceptive devices can be highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STIs. Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception is recommended to reduce the risk of both pregnancy and STIs.

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Immunologic contraception refers to the use of the immune system to prevent pregnancy. This is achieved by stimulating the production of antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that are essential for fertilization and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. The most well-known example of immunologic contraception is the development of a vaccine that would induce an immune response against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By neutralizing hCG, the immune system could prevent the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. However, this approach is still in the experimental stage and has not yet been approved for use in humans.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

Barrier contraception refers to methods of preventing pregnancy that involve creating a physical barrier between the sperm and the egg. The most common types of barrier contraceptives include male condoms, female condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.

Male condoms are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or natural membranes that are worn over the penis during sexual intercourse. They work by collecting semen and preventing it from entering the partner's body.

Female condoms are similar to male condoms but are designed to be inserted into the vagina before sex. They also collect semen and prevent it from entering the woman's body.

Diaphragms and cervical caps are flexible domes made of silicone that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Diaphragms are typically used with a spermicidal cream or gel, while cervical caps can be used alone or with a spermicide.

Contraceptive sponges are soft, disc-shaped devices made of polyurethane that contain spermicide. They are inserted into the vagina before sex and work by blocking the cervix and releasing spermicide to kill sperm.

Barrier contraceptives are effective at preventing pregnancy, but their effectiveness can vary depending on proper use. Male condoms have a typical failure rate of about 13-18%, while female condoms have a typical failure rate of about 21%. Diaphragms and cervical caps have a typical failure rate of about 12-16%, and contraceptive sponges have a typical failure rate of about 20-24%.

It's important to note that barrier contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) unless they are made of latex or polyurethane. Natural membrane condoms, such as those made from lambskin, can prevent pregnancy but do not provide protection against STIs.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

I'm happy to help, but I think there might be a bit of confusion in your question. Religion and sex are two distinct concepts that don't have a medical definition when combined. However, I can provide you with some information about each one separately.

Religion: Religion is a set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and moral values that are shared by a community or group of individuals. It often involves a belief in a higher power or powers, and may include various traditions, ceremonies, and teachings.

Sex: Sex refers to the biological characteristics that define males and females. It is usually determined by an individual's anatomy, chromosomes, and reproductive organs. Sex can also refer to sexual activity, which involves the intimate contact between two or more individuals for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

If you have any specific questions about either religion or sex in a medical context, please let me know and I'll do my best to provide a helpful response!

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Ovulation inhibition is a term used in reproductive medicine to describe the prevention or delay of ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This can be achieved through various means, such as hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings), injectable hormones, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.

Hormonal contraceptives typically contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progestin, which work together to inhibit the natural hormonal signals that trigger ovulation. By suppressing the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these methods prevent the development and release of a mature egg from the ovaries.

In addition to preventing ovulation, hormonal contraceptives can also thicken cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus, reducing the likelihood of implantation in case fertilization does occur. It is important to note that while ovulation inhibition is a reliable method of birth control, it may not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

**Norgestrel** is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone **progesterone**. It is a type of **progestin**, which is often used in various forms of hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel works by thickening cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Additionally, norgestrel can also prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) and thin the lining of the uterus, which makes it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Norgestrel is available in various forms, such as oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to discuss potential benefits, risks, and side effects.

Here are some medical definitions related to norgestrel:

1. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone, used in various forms of hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can have varying levels of androgenic, estrogenic, and anti-estrogenic activity. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
2. **Progesterone**: A naturally occurring steroid hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
3. **Hormonal birth control**: A method of preventing pregnancy that uses hormones to regulate ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, or thin the lining of the uterus. Hormonal birth control methods include oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
4. **Emergency contraception**: A form of hormonal birth control used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Emergency contraception is typically more effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, but it can still be effective up to 120 hours afterward. Norgestrel is one of the active ingredients in some emergency contraceptive pills.
5. **Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)**: A form of hormone replacement therapy used to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. MHT typically involves using estrogen and progestin or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Norgestrel is a type of progestin that can be used in MHT.
6. **Androgenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as testosterone and some progestins, that are associated with male characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. Norgestrel has weak androgenic activity.
7. **Estrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as estradiol and some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), that are associated with female characteristics, such as breast development and menstrual cycles. Norgestrel has weak estrogenic activity.
8. **Antiestrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that block or oppose the actions of estrogens. Norgestrel has antiestrogenic activity.
9. **Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)**: A type of drug that acts as an estrogen agonist in some tissues and an estrogen antagonist in others. SERMs can be used to treat or prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. Norgestrel is not a SERM but has antiestrogenic activity.
10. **Progestogen**: A synthetic or natural hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestogens can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestogen.
11. **Progesterone**: A natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and regulates the menstrual cycle. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
12. **Progestin**: A synthetic hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestins can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
13. **Progestational agent**: A drug or hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestational agents can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestational agent.
14. **Progestogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
15. **Progesterone receptor modulator (PRM)**: A type of drug that binds to and activates or inhibits the progesterone receptors in the body. PRMs can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a type of PRM.
16. **Progestogenic activity**: The ability of a drug or hormone to mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone in the body. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
17. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
18. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progestogens in the body. Progestogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
19. **Progesterone agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
20. **Progestogenic agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progestogens in the body. Progesterogenic agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
21. **Progesterone receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterone receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
22. **Progestogenic receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterogenic receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
23. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of progesterone that is used in hormonal contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can be either progesterone agonists or antagonists, depending on their chemical structure and activity at the progesterone receptor. Norgestrel is a progestin.
24. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
25. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibro

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. It allows for a controlled release of medication over a certain period, typically lasting for 1-3 days. This method of administration can offer advantages such as avoiding gastrointestinal side effects, enabling self-administration, and providing consistent therapeutic drug levels. Common examples of transdermal patches include those used to deliver medications like nicotine, fentanyl, estradiol, and various pain-relieving agents.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

Spermatogenesis-blocking agents are a class of medications or substances that inhibit or block the process of spermatogenesis, which is the production of sperm in the testicles. These agents can work at various stages of spermatogenesis, including reducing the number of spermatozoa (sperm cells) or preventing the formation of mature sperm.

Examples of spermatogenesis-blocking agents include:

1. Hormonal agents: Certain hormones or hormone-like substances can interfere with the production of sperm. For example, analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and antiandrogens can suppress the release of testosterone and other hormones necessary for spermatogenesis.
2. Alkylating agents: These are chemotherapy drugs that can damage DNA and prevent the division and multiplication of cells, including sperm cells. Examples include cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
3. Other chemicals: Certain industrial chemicals, such as ethylene glycol ethers and dibromochloropropane (DBCP), have been shown to have spermatogenesis-blocking properties.
4. Radiation therapy: High doses of radiation can also damage the testicles and inhibit sperm production.

It's important to note that spermatogenesis-blocking agents are often used for medical purposes, such as treating cancer or preventing pregnancy, but they can have significant side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Norpregnadienes are a type of steroid hormone that are structurally similar to progesterone, but with certain chemical groups (such as the methyl group at C10) removed. They are formed through the metabolism of certain steroid hormones and can be further metabolized into other compounds.

Norpregnadienes have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of reproductive function and the development of certain diseases such as cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their functions and clinical significance.

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and management of reproductive health disorders, including infertility, sexual dysfunction, and other reproductive system-related issues. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining expertise from various medical specialties such as obstetrics, gynecology, endocrinology, urology, and genetics.

Reproductive medicine encompasses several areas of focus, including:

1. Infertility treatment: Utilizing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other techniques to help individuals or couples conceive.
2. Contraception: Providing various methods for family planning, including hormonal contraceptives, barrier methods, and permanent sterilization procedures.
3. Sexual dysfunction: Addressing issues related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain through medical interventions, counseling, or surgical treatments.
4. Reproductive endocrinology: Managing hormonal imbalances affecting reproductive health, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and hypogonadism.
5. Genetic counseling and testing: Assessing the risk of inheritable genetic disorders and providing guidance on family planning options.
6. Menopause management: Offering treatments for symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.
7. Fertility preservation: Providing options for individuals facing cancer treatment or other medical conditions that may impact their future fertility, including egg, sperm, and embryo freezing.
8. Adolescent reproductive health: Addressing the unique needs of adolescents related to sexual and reproductive health, including education, counseling, and preventative care.
9. Andrology: Focusing on male reproductive health, including issues related to sperm production, function, and genital abnormalities.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Nonprescription drugs, also known as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, are medications that can be legally purchased without a prescription from a healthcare professional. They are considered safe and effective for treating minor illnesses or symptoms when used according to the directions on the label. Examples include pain relievers like acetaminophen and ibuprofen, antihistamines for allergies, and topical treatments for skin conditions. It is still important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if there are any concerns or questions about using nonprescription drugs.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Norprogesterones" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. However, I can provide you with information on "Progestogens" or "Progestins," which are often referred to as "norpregnenolone derivatives."

Progestogens/Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced in the ovaries and placenta during pregnancy. They share many of the same functions as progesterone, including preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, maintaining the lining of the uterus during pregnancy, and supporting lactation after childbirth.

Progestogens/Progestins are used in various medical applications, such as hormonal contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy, and treatment for gynecological disorders like endometriosis or abnormal uterine bleeding. They can be synthesized from other steroid hormones, including progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol.

Some examples of progestogens/progestins include:

* Norethisterone (norethindrone)
* Levonorgestrel
* Medroxyprogesterone acetate
* Dydrogesterone
* Gestodene
* Norgestimate

If you meant to ask about a specific progestogen or progestin, please let me know and I can provide more information on that particular compound.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) expulsion is a medical condition that refers to the unintentional and partial or complete removal of an IUD from the uterus after its initial insertion. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of manipulation, and it may happen soon after insertion or even several months or years later.

IUD expulsion is more common in women who have not previously given birth, and it can increase the risk of unintended pregnancy and other complications. Symptoms of IUD expulsion may include irregular menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or the absence of the IUD strings in the vagina. If a woman suspects that her IUD has been expelled, she should contact her healthcare provider for further evaluation and management.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. It involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland, to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. This procedure is typically performed in an outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, and takes about 20-30 minutes. It is considered a highly effective form of birth control with a low risk of complications. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection such as condoms may still be necessary.

Family planning policy refers to a government's official position or action regarding the use of family planning services, including contraception, fertility awareness, and reproductive health education. The goal of family planning policies is to enable individuals and couples to make informed decisions about whether and when to have children, thus contributing to improved maternal and child health outcomes, reduced unintended pregnancies, and lower abortion rates. Family planning policies may include provisions for the provision of free or subsidized contraceptive methods, sex education in schools, training for healthcare providers, and public awareness campaigns. The specific content and implementation of family planning policies vary widely between countries and are often influenced by cultural, religious, and political factors.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

"Religious hospitals" are healthcare institutions that are affiliated with or managed by a religious organization. These hospitals often incorporate their religious values and beliefs into the care they provide, which may influence their policies, practices, and ethical guidelines. They may also serve specific communities and offer spiritual support to patients and their families. It's important to note that while these hospitals have a religious affiliation, they are still held to the same standards of care as other healthcare institutions and must comply with relevant laws and regulations.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

A pregnancy test is a medical diagnostic tool used to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. These tests detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta after fertilization. Pregnancy tests can be performed using a variety of methods, including urine tests and blood tests.

Urine pregnancy tests are typically performed at home and involve either dipping a test strip into a sample of urine or holding the strip under a stream of urine for several seconds. The test strip contains antibodies that react with hCG, producing a visual signal such as a line or plus sign if hCG is present.

Blood pregnancy tests are performed by a healthcare provider and can detect lower levels of hCG than urine tests. There are two types of blood pregnancy tests: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative tests simply detect the presence or absence of hCG, while quantitative tests measure the exact amount of hCG present in the blood.

Pregnancy tests are generally very accurate when used correctly, but false positives and false negatives can occur. False positives may occur due to certain medical conditions or medications that contain hCG. False negatives may occur if the test is taken too early or if it is not performed correctly. It is important to follow the instructions carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if there is any uncertainty about the results.

Conscience is not a medical term, but it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of ethics, psychology, and philosophy. In general, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their behavior and decision-making. It is sometimes described as an inner voice or a moral compass that helps people distinguish between right and wrong actions.

While conscience is not a medical term, there are medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to distinguish between right and wrong or to make ethical decisions. For example, certain neurological conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia, can impair a person's moral judgment and decision-making abilities. Similarly, some mental health disorders, such as psychopathy, may be associated with reduced moral reasoning and empathy, which can affect a person's conscience.

It is worth noting that the concept of conscience is complex and multifaceted, and there is ongoing debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists about its nature and origins. Some theories suggest that conscience is a product of socialization and cultural influences, while others propose that it has a more fundamental basis in human biology and evolution.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Counseling is a therapeutic intervention that involves a trained professional working with an individual, family, or group to help them understand and address their problems, concerns, or challenges. The goal of counseling is to help the person develop skills, insights, and resources that will allow them to make positive changes in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and improve their overall mental health and well-being.

Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual seeking help. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy. These approaches may be used alone or in combination with other interventions, such as medication or group therapy.

The specific goals and techniques of counseling will vary depending on the individual's needs and circumstances. However, some common objectives of counseling include:

* Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of emotional or behavioral problems
* Developing coping skills and strategies to manage stress, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns
* Improving communication and relationship skills
* Enhancing self-esteem and self-awareness
* Addressing substance abuse or addiction issues
* Resolving conflicts and making difficult decisions
* Grieving losses and coping with life transitions

Counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. These professionals have completed advanced education and training in counseling techniques and theories, and are qualified to provide a range of therapeutic interventions to help individuals, families, and groups achieve their goals and improve their mental health.

Ambulatory care facilities are healthcare providers where patients receive medical services, treatments, or procedures that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These facilities are often used for diagnosis, observation, and outpatient care such as same-day surgery, preventive health screenings, and minor procedures. They can include a wide range of settings like physician offices, community clinics, urgent care centers, dialysis centers, and surgical centers. The goal of ambulatory care facilities is to provide high-quality medical services in a convenient and cost-effective manner for patients who do not require hospitalization.

Sexuality is a multidimensional aspect of human life, which includes biological, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexuality is "a central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction." It involves a person's capacity for sexual feelings, their emotional and romantic attraction to other people, and their self-concept as a sexual being. Sexuality can also refer to a person's sense of identity based on their sex and gender, as well as their engagement in sexual activity or behavior.

It is important to note that sexuality is a normal and natural part of human development and experience, and it is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Everyone has the right to explore and express their sexuality in a responsible and consensual manner, free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Chlormadinone Acetate is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. It works by suppressing the natural progesterone produced by the ovaries, thereby preventing the buildup of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). This medication is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

It's important to note that Chlormadinone Acetate can cause a range of side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting this medication.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Women" is not a medical term that can be defined in a straightforward way. In medical contexts, "women" is often used to refer to adult human females, based on their biological sex characteristics. However, it's important to note that there are individuals who may be biologically male but identify as women, and they are also considered part of the female population in many medical and societal contexts.

In general, gender identity is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else. It's separate from biological sex, which refers to physical characteristics like chromosomes, hormone levels, and reproductive organs. Some people identify with the gender that matches their biological sex, while others may identify as the opposite gender, or as neither male nor female.

Therefore, it's important to consider both the biological and personal aspects of an individual's identity when discussing medical issues related to women.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

Uterine cervical erosion, also known as ectropion or cervical ectopy, is not typically considered a disease or a medical condition but rather a normal variant in the appearance of the cervix. It occurs when the cells that normally line the inside of the cervical canal (glandular cells) extend out onto the surface of the exocervix, which is the portion of the cervix that is visible during a routine pelvic examination.

This extension of glandular cells can appear as a red, smooth, and shiny area on the cervix, and it may be more prone to bleeding or discomfort during intercourse or menstruation. Cervical erosion can be caused by various factors, including hormonal changes, inflammation, or irritation of the cervix.

While cervical erosion is not typically harmful, it can increase the risk of certain infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is essential to monitor and treat any underlying conditions that may contribute to cervical erosion. In some cases, cervical erosion may resolve on its own without treatment, but if it causes discomfort or bleeding, treatment options such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, or cauterization may be recommended.

Antispermatogenic agents are substances or drugs that inhibit or prevent the production of sperm in the testes. These agents can work by various mechanisms, such as interfering with the formation and maturation of sperm cells, damaging sperm DNA, or suppressing the hormones responsible for sperm production.

Examples of antispermatogenic agents include chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, and certain medications used to treat prostate cancer or other conditions. Prolonged use of these agents can lead to infertility, so they are often used with caution and only when necessary. It is important to note that the use of antispermatogenic agents should be under the guidance and supervision of a medical professional.

Sex counseling, also known as sexual therapy or sex therapy, is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help individuals and couples address and resolve their sexual concerns and problems. It is an evidence-based approach that involves specialized techniques and interventions to address issues such as sexual dysfunction, low desire, pain during sex, sexual addiction, gender identity concerns, and sexual trauma.

Sex counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals who have received specialized training in human sexuality and sexual therapy. The goal of sex counseling is to help individuals and couples improve their sexual relationships, enhance communication, increase sexual satisfaction, and promote overall sexual health and well-being. It is important to note that sex counseling does not involve any physical contact or sexual activity between the therapist and client.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

A contraceptive vaccine is a type of immunocontraception that uses the immune system to prevent pregnancy. It is a relatively new field of research and development, and there are currently no licensed contraceptive vaccines available on the market. However, several experimental vaccines are in various stages of preclinical and clinical testing.

Contraceptive vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that play a critical role in reproduction. By neutralizing these targets, the vaccine can prevent fertilization or inhibit the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For example, one approach is to develop vaccines that target the zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein layer surrounding mammalian eggs. Antibodies generated against ZP proteins can prevent sperm from binding and fertilizing the egg. Another strategy is to create vaccines that generate antibodies against hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By blocking hCG, the vaccine can prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and induce a miscarriage.

While contraceptive vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies, several challenges remain before they can be widely adopted. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, duration of protection, and public acceptance. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for accidental cross-reactivity with other proteins or hormones, leading to unintended side effects.

Overall, contraceptive vaccines represent a promising area of research that could provide long-acting, reversible, and user-friendly contraception options in the future. However, further studies are needed to address the remaining challenges and ensure their safe and effective use.

Mestranol is a synthetic form of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and altering the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg or for an already established pregnancy to be implanted.

Mestranol is typically combined with a progestin in birth control pills, such as those known as the "combined oral contraceptives." It's important to note that mestranol has largely been replaced by ethinyl estradiol, which is a more commonly used form of synthetic estrogen in hormonal medications.

As with any medication, there are potential risks and side effects associated with the use of mestranol, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting or changing any hormonal medication.

Catholicism is a branch of Christianity that recognizes the authority of the Pope and follows the teachings and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the largest Christian denomination in the world, with over a billion members worldwide. The beliefs and practices of Catholicism include the sacraments, prayer, and various forms of worship, as well as social justice initiatives and charitable works. The Catholic Church has a hierarchical structure, with the Pope at the top, followed by bishops, priests, and deacons. It places a strong emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Missouri" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state located in the central United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Dysmenorrhea is a medical term that refers to painful menstrual cramps and discomfort during menstruation. It's one of the most common gynecological complaints among women of reproductive age. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.

1. Primary Dysmenorrhea: This type is more common and occurs in women who have had normal, pelvic anatomy. The pain is caused by strong contractions of the uterus due to the production of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that are involved in inflammation and pain). Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts soon after menarche (the beginning of menstruation) and tends to improve with age, particularly after childbirth.
2. Secondary Dysmenorrhea: This type is less common and occurs due to an underlying medical condition affecting the reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or adenomyosis. The pain associated with secondary dysmenorrhea tends to worsen over time and may be accompanied by other symptoms like irregular menstrual bleeding, pain during intercourse, or chronic pelvic pain.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea depends on the type and underlying cause. For primary dysmenorrhea, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen can help alleviate pain by reducing prostaglandin production. Hormonal birth control methods like oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices (IUDs) may also be prescribed to reduce menstrual pain. For secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment typically involves addressing the underlying medical condition causing the pain.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is a formulation that contains a synthetic version of the female sex hormones, estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestin (norgestrel), which are used in various forms of hormonal contraception.

This combination works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is commonly used in oral contraceptives (birth control pills), as well as in some forms of hormonal patches and rings. It is important to note that while this combination is highly effective at preventing pregnancy, it can also increase the risk of certain health problems, such as blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer, especially in women who smoke or have other risk factors.

Therefore, it is essential for individuals using hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination to discuss their medical history and any potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting this form of birth control.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

"Postcoital contraception". IPPF Medical Bulletin. 1 (4): 3. 1967. PMID 12254703. Rett, A. (September 1966). "On an unusual ... Wagenen at the Yale School of Medicine report the successful use of oral high-dose estrogen pills for post-coital contraception ...
"Postcoital contraception". IPPF Medical Bulletin. 1 (4): 3. 1967. PMID 12254703. Demers LM (May 1971). "The morning-after pill ... In the early 1970s, the Yuzpe regimen was developed by A. Albert Yuzpe in 1974; progestin-only postcoital contraception was ... The Yuzpe regimen became the standard course of treatment for postcoital contraception in many countries in the 1980s. The ... Yuzpe AA, Thurlow HJ, Ramzy I, Leyshon JI (August 1974). "Post coital contraception--A pilot study". The Journal of ...
Glasier, Anna (October 9, 1997). "Emergency Postcoital Contraception". New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (15): 1058-1064. ... Hormonal contraception, including emergency contraception, are known to be effective at preventing ovulation. Some scientists ... emergency contraception available over-the-counter, and one of the claims in the resolution was that hormonal contraception ... The intention of a woman to prevent pregnancy is an important factor in whether or not the act of contraception is seen as ...
Kuchera LK (October 1971). "Postcoital contraception with diethylstilbestrol". JAMA. 218 (4): 562-3. doi:10.1001/jama.218.4.562 ... To discourage off-label use of DES as a postcoital contraceptive, the FDA in 1975 removed DES 25 mg tablets from the market and ... In 1973, in an attempt to restrict off-label use of DES as a postcoital contraceptive (which had become prevalent at many ... postcoital contraceptive use of DES. In 1975, the FDA said it had not actually given (and never did give) approval to any ...
Fertility and sterility, 1977 AA Yuzpe, HJ Thurlow, I Ramzy... Post coital contraception-A pilot study. The Journal of ..., ... Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 9781573562553 Haspels AA (1994). Emergency contraception: a review. Contraception. 1994 Aug;50 ... A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... is a Canadian obstetrician-gynecologist known for his work on human fertility and emergency contraception. The Yuzpe regimen, ...
1]Yuzpe AA, Thurlow HJ, Ramzy I, Leyshon JI (August 1974). "Post coital contraception-A pilot study". J Reprod Med. 13 (2): 53- ... Haspels AA (Aug 1994). "Emergency contraception: a review". Contraception. 50 (2): 101-8. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(94)90046-9. ... The Yuzpe regimen is a method of emergency contraception that uses a combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, ... It may be preferred in locations where other forms of emergency contraception are unavailable or accessing emergency ...
"Further experience with quingestanol acetate as a postcoital oral contraceptive". Contraception. 9 (3): 221-5. doi:10.1016/0010 ... Quingestanol acetate was used as an oral, once-a-month, or postcoital hormonal contraceptive. Quingestanol acetate is a ... Contraception. 11 (6): 681-8. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(75)90065-7. PMID 1137940. Raynaud JP, Ojasoo T (1986). "The design and use ... Hormonal contraception, Prodrugs, Progestogen esters, Progestogen ethers, Progestogens, Synthetic estrogens). ...
Halpern, Vera; Raymond, Elizabeth G; Lopez, Laureen M (2014). "Repeated use of pre- and postcoital hormonal contraception for ... Postcoital bleeding has been most studied in women in the US. In a large Taiwanese study, the overall incidence of postcoital ... Those with postcoital bleeding had a higher risk of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Benign causes of postcoital ... Postcoital bleeding may occur throughout pregnancy. The presence of cervical polyps may result in postcoital bleeding during ...
Nieschlag E (2010). "Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception" (PDF). Contraception. 82 (5): 457-70. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Comparative cross-over pharmacokinetic study on two types of postcoital contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel". ... Contraception. 84 (6): 549-57. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.009. PMID 22078182. Zitzmann M, Rohayem J, Raidt J, Kliesch ... Kamischke A, Diebäcker J, Nieschlag E (September 2000). "Potential of norethisterone enanthate for male contraception: ...
Contraception. 81 (1): 8-15. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.08.010. PMID 20004267. Fruzzetti F, Trémollieres F, Bitzer J (May ... May 1990). "Comparative cross-over pharmacokinetic study on two types of postcoital contraceptive tablets containing ... Contraception. 84 (6): 565-570. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.03.014. PMID 22078184. Kuhl H (August 2005). "Pharmacology of ... Contraception. 87 (6): 706-727. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.12.011. PMID 23375353. Düsterberg B, Nishino Y (December 1982 ...
Providing benchmark rates for assessment of post-coital contraceptives". Contraception. 63 (4): 211-15. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824( ...
Haspels, AA (1994). "Emergency contraception: A review". Contraception. 50 (2): 101-8. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(94)90046-9. PMID ... "A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ... Treatment protocols also call for clinicians to provide access to emergency contraception and counseling on abortion in ... Jöchle, Wolfgang (1973). "Coitus-induced ovulation". Contraception. 7 (6): 523-64. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(73)90023-1. Jöchle, W ...
... "implicitly legitimizes any post-coital contraceptive method, including emergency contraception ... and assisted reproduction ( ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 549-57. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.009. PMID 22078182. Schindler AE, Campagnoli C, Druckmann R ... "A multicenter clinical investigation employing ethinyl estradiol combined with dl-norgestrel as postcoital contraceptive agent ...
... and Future of Contraception". Contraception Online (Baylor College of Medicine). 10 (6). February 2000. Archived from the ... Bernstein G (1977). "Is effectiveness of diaphragm compromised by postcoital swimming or bathing?". JAMA. 237 (3): 2643-2644. ... "Contraception , Reproductive Health , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 21 June 2016. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved ... In 1965, only 10% of U.S. married couples used a diaphragm for contraception. That number has continued to fall, and in 2002 ...
"Efficacy and side effects of immediate postcoital levonorgestrel used repeatedly for contraception. United Nations Development ... As the technology, education, and awareness about contraception has evolved, new contraception methods have been theorized and ... Shelton JD (July 2002). "Repeat emergency contraception: facing our fears". Contraception. 66 (1): 15-7. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824 ... "FDA Approves Combined Monthly Injectable Contraceptive". The Contraception Report. Contraception Online. June 2001. Archived ...
... contraception, barrier MeSH E02.875.194.300 - contraception, immunologic MeSH E02.875.194.540 - contraception, postcoital MeSH ...
... a medical term for post-coital contraception Tax refund interception, the forcible use of a tax refund to pay an outstanding ...
During the mid-1970s, the Catholic Church preached that no physical barrier should be present during sex, and that even post-coital ... Despite contraception being illegal, by the mid-1960s, Spanish women had access to the contraceptive pill. It was first sold on ... Contraception in Francoist Spain (1939-1975) and the democratic transition (1975-1985) was illegal. It could not be used, sold ... 1978 was the year that contraception became a driving issue among Spanish feminists. Their goal going into the year was to see ...
... a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii Post-coital pill, a form of emergency contraception ...
Performing primary care procedures, including pap smears, microscopy, post-coital tests, intrauterine device (IUD) insertion, ... contraception, and infertility. Assessing genetic risks and refers, as needed, for testing and counseling. Collaborating with ... contraception, sexually transmitted infections, infertility, perimenopause/menopause/postmenopause and other gender-specific ...
Kesserü E, Larrañaga A, Parada J (1973). "Postcoital contraception with D-norgestrel". Contraception. 7 (5): 367-379. doi: ... Farkas M (1978). "Post-coital contraception with Postinor, a preparation containing 0.75 mg d-norgestrel". Magyar Nöorvosok ... "Special uses of oral contraception: emergency contraception, the progestin-only minipill". A clinical guide for contraception ( ... Rubio B, Berman E, Larranaga A, Guiloff E (1970). "A new postcoital oral contraceptive". Contraception. 1 (5): 303-314. doi: ...
Brodie, Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth-Century America, p. 5. Brodie, Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth- ... Post-coital douching was often recommended in conjunction with its use. Prolonged use of the device was reported on occasion to ... See Brodie, Contraception and Abortion, p. 212. "Dr. George W. Dewey of Moberly District, Mo., thus forcibly descants on some ... Brodie, Contraception and Abortion, pp. 190 and 212. Esther Katz, "The History of Birth Control in the United States," in ...
ISBN 978-1-60831-610-6. p. 157: Emergency postcoital contraception Other methods Another method of emergency contraception is ... "Evolution and Revolution: The Past, Present, and Future of Contraception". Contraception Online (Baylor College of Medicine). ... Speroff, Leon; Darney, Philip D. (2011). "Special uses of oral contraception: emergency contraception, the progestin-only ... Speroff, Leon; Darney, Philip D. (2011). "Intrauterine contraception". A clinical guide for contraception (5th ed.). ...
Abortion and contraception usage were both illegal. Women who did not want to be mothers who had abortions could be sent to ... During the mid-1970s, the Catholic Church preached that no physical barrier should be present during sex, and that even post-coital ... Despite contraception being illegal, by the mid-1960s, Spanish women had access to the contraceptive pill. Women could be ... contraception, adultery and prostitution-related offenses who were in prison. These feminists were attacked by the police using ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 558-64. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.004. hdl:10171/19110. PMID 22078183. Larsson, Margareta; ... Sweden also has a high self-reported rate of postcoital pill use. A 2007 anonymous survey of Swedish 18-year-olds showed that ... "Contraception and Sterilization". Archived from the original on 24 November 2013. "Fr. Hardon Archives - The Catholic Tradition ... Health care providers often discuss contraception theoretically, not as a device to be used on a regular basis. Decisions ...
Contraception. 52 (3): 195-202. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(95)00151-y. PMID 7587192. v t e v t e (Articles with short description, ... a postcoital contraceptive that is marketed and used in China. Relative to anordrin, anordiol has similar but more potent ... Contraception. 39 (3): 291-7. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(89)90061-9. PMID 2714089. Peters AJ, Wentz AC, Kazer RR, Jeyendran RS, ...
The C17α acetate ester of nisterime, nisterime acetate (ORF-9326), also exists and was developed as a postcoital contraceptive ... Hormonal contraception, Nitrobenzenes, Organochlorides, Steroid oximes, Ketoximes, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito- ...
3-. ISBN 978-1-4831-6361-1. Harper MJ (8 March 2013). "Contraception--retrospect and prospect". Progress in Drug Research. ... is a steroidal progestin which was investigated as a progestin-only contraceptive and postcoital contraceptive but was never ...
Menometrorrhagia Istihadha Menstruation Menstruation in Islam Postcoital bleeding Vaginal bleeding Withdrawal bleeding Culture ... such as Depo Provera Change in oral contraception Overdose of anticoagulant medication or Aspirine abuse Traumatic causes: ...
There are several different formulations of emergency postcoital contraception currently available in the United States. Most ... Emergency Postcoital Contraception. There are several different formulations of emergency postcoital contraception currently ... Candidates for emergency postcoital contraception. Candidates for emergency postcoital contraception include female patients ... encoded search term (Emergency Postcoital Contraception) and Emergency Postcoital Contraception What to Read Next on Medscape ...
There are several different formulations of emergency postcoital contraception currently available in the United States. Most ... Emergency Postcoital Contraception. There are several different formulations of emergency postcoital contraception currently ... Candidates for emergency postcoital contraception. Candidates for emergency postcoital contraception include female patients ... encoded search term (Emergency Postcoital Contraception) and Emergency Postcoital Contraception What to Read Next on Medscape ...
"Postcoital contraception". IPPF Medical Bulletin. 1 (4): 3. 1967. PMID 12254703. Rett, A. (September 1966). "On an unusual ... Wagenen at the Yale School of Medicine report the successful use of oral high-dose estrogen pills for post-coital contraception ...
Estrogen progesterone combination post-coital contraception is administered.... *. A.. Within 72 hours, 2 more doses per day ... High dose estrogen postcoital contraception administration consists of.... *. A.. Administration within 72 hours, 2 more doses ... Misoprostol, although mentioned in the list, is not a post-coital contraception method, so it is not included in the correct ... High dose estrogen postcoital contraception involves administering the medication within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse ...
Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used: ... Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used: ... Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used:. *After a sexual assault or ...
A prospective randomized comparison of levonorgestrel with the Yuzpe regimen in post-coital contraception. Hum Reprod 1993;8: ... 1016/j. contraception. 2012. 08. 025 PubMed. * Diab KM, Zaki MM. Contraception in diabetic women: comparative metabolic study ... 1016/j. contraception. 2005. 08. 007 PubMed. * Morrison CS, Turner AN, Jones LB. Highly effective contraception and acquisition ... Prevention and management of nausea and vomiting with emergency contraception: a systematic review. Contraception 2013;87:583-9 ...
Mifepristone for luteal phase contraception. Croxatto, H. B., dic. 2003, En: Contraception. 68, 6, p. 483-488 6 p.. Producción ... Postcoital treatment with levonorgestrel does not disrupt postfertilization events in the rat. Müller, A. L., Llados, C. M. & ... Croxatto, H. B., 2002, En: Contraception. 65, 1, p. 21-27 7 p.. Producción científica: Contribución a una revista › Artículo › ... Mechanisms of action of emergency contraception. Croxatto, H. B., Ortiz, M. E. & Müller, A. L., nov. 2003, En: Steroids. 68, 10 ...
Postcoital contraception reduces the risk of. Requirements Prior to Notification (10) association to lack the capacity to make ... If you choose contraception, be sure progestogen which means less of unwanted fertilization or implantation doesnt occur, then ... due to an bought Alesse Online Usa risk of blood clots treatments and who also desire contraception. Where a local authority ... please inform using COCs is 3 to 9 per 10,000 woman The data presented for emergency contraception One study gathered data from ...
Keywords : health management; family planning; birth control; adolescent; contraceptives post-coital hormonal; emergency ... FIGUEIREDO, Regina; BASTOS, Silvia and TELLES, Joyce Lenz. Profile of the free distribution of emergency contraception for ... The position adopted by São Paulos counties, which received amounts of emergency contraception from the Federal Health ...
Inflamed drip is relatively low prescribing post-coital hormonal contraception until proven otherwise. ...
Usual first-line intrauterine contraception. *Emergency post-coital intrauterine contraception (within 5 days of unprotected or ... Categories:Contraception, Intra-uterine devices, Non-hormonal contraception, Professional area Brand: Gynelle® ... Postpartum and postabortion intrauterine contraception (within 48 hours postpartum or postabortion or after the uteruss ...
Emergency contraception is an important post-coital method of contraception to prevent pregnancy from occurring. ... As well as emergency contraception - dont forget to offer ongoing long-term contraception ... IUD (copper coil) as emergency contraception. *More effective than levonorgestrel - around 99% effective ... Emergency contraception methods do not cause abortion. Instead, they prevent ovulation, fertilisation, and/or implantation. ...
ECEC works to make emergency contraception more equally available in Europe. Postcoital contraception provides a second chance ... The Contraception Atlas scores 46 countries on access to online information about modern contraception, and… ... Since 2012, the European Consortium for Emergency Contraception (ECEC) monitors emergency contraception (EC) availability and ... It is World Contraception Day (WCD) again; a day to reflect on and raise awareness of all contraceptive methods and enable ...
PIP: While contraception has been available during the reproductive lives of all US citizens who are still of reproductive age ... including postcoital) and educate acceptors about effective use. Deployment preparations should include an assessment of ... Several weaknesses in the provision of effective contraception to the US military during the Persian Gulf conflict led to an ... Unacceptable side effects may cause contraception discontinuation and prompt a woman to seek medical care. In addition, some ...
What is the Post-Coital Test?. The Post-Coital Test assesses the interaction of the sperm and cervical mucus. It is often part ... Researchers from the Preventative Medicine Department in Sao Paulo recently published a study in the journal Contraception on ... Post Coital Bleeding. There are several reasons for finding blood coming from the vagina after sex. Post coital bleeding can ... Postcoital Bleeding (Bleeding After Intercourse). Bleeding after intercourse, also referred to as postcoital bleeding, ...
Are you aware of recent research into hormonal contraception methods for women? Test yourself with a short quiz. ... Emergency Postcoital Contraception * Contraceptive Implant Placement * Womens Health and Epilepsy * Breast Cancer Epidemiology ... However, hormonal contraception in the form of the birth control pill is used most often in the United States. Worldwide, ... Most forms of nonpermanent contraception for women are either hormonal or barrier strategies such as diaphragms or condoms. ...
Barrier methods of contraception such as spermicides and condoms are grouped together for obvious reasons. Post-coital ... It is must reading for all who are interested in the broad subject of oral contraception: morally, ethically and/or ... especially strong on the physiology and pharmacologic endocrinology relating to oral contraception. This tome is encyclopedic ...
Postcoital prophylaxis in women may be more effective if UTIs are temporally related to sexual intercourse. Usually, a single ... Contraception is recommended for women using a fluoroquinolone because these drugs can potentially injure a fetus. Although ... In pregnant women, effective prophylaxis of UTI is similar to that in nonpregnant women, including use of postcoital ... For women with ≥ 3 UTIs/year despite behavioral prophylactic measures, consider continuous or postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis ...
Morning after pill method of contraception Active Synonym false false 256921018 Postcoital pill Active Synonym false false ... Post coital pills given Active Synonym false false 256923015 Prescribed postcoital oral contraceptive pill Active Synonym false ... Uses morning after pill method of contraception (finding). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Uses morning after pill method ...
... oral hormonal contraception, including postcoital contraception, and preparations produced from the cells of aborted embryos. ... contraception, including emergency contraception and sterilization, etc.) has become a widespread global phenomenon and ... publications concerning conscientious objection address provider attitudes to abortion and emergency contraception, ethical ...
5.Female subjects abstain from either hormonal methods of contraception (including oral or transdermal contraceptives, ... injectable progesterone, progestin subdermal implants, progesterone-releasing IUDs, postcoital contraceptive methods) or ...
high dose ethynyl estradiol in post coital contraception efficacy and tolerance Contraceptive Delivery Systems 3(3-4): 63. Van ... ethynyl estradiol and norgestrel combination in post coital contraception Acta Endocrinologica Suppl 99(246): 2. Van, S.nten M. ... ethynyl estradiol norgestrel combination in post coital hormonal contraception Contraceptive Delivery Systems 4(4). Steinetz, B ...
Contraception. * *Methods of contraception. *Coitus Interruptus. *Postcoital Douche. *Lactational amenorrhea method. *Male ... that it is important to carry on evaluating long-term contraceptive use in order to help women choose the best contraception ...
Contraception 2019 100 (5) 406-412 Abstract. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether rates of self-reported Womans Condom (WC) ... Of the 207 WC efficacy uses with evaluable post-coital PSA levels, 14.5% (30 uses) resulted in semen exposure compared to 14.2 ... Contraception 2019 100 (5) 402-405 Abstract. OBJECTIVE: To compare medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) concentrations between HIV ... study and women in the contraceptive efficacy study completed condom self-reports and collected pre and postcoital vaginal ...
Contraception, Postcoital. Anticoncepción Postcoital. Método de Barreira Anticoncepção. Contraception, Barrier. Anticoncepción ...
Contraception, Postcoital. Anticoncepção Pós-Coito. Anticoncepción Postcoital. Nutrition Therapy. Terapia Nutricional. Terapia ... Contraception, Barrier. Método de Barreira Anticoncepção. Anticoncepción de Barrera. ...
Contraception, Postcoital. Anticoncepção Pós-Coito. Anticoncepción Postcoital. Nutrition Therapy. Terapia Nutricional. Terapia ... Contraception, Barrier. Método de Barreira Anticoncepção. Anticoncepción de Barrera. ...
Contraception, Postcoital. Anticoncepção Pós-Coito. Anticoncepción Postcoital. Nutrition Therapy. Terapia Nutricional. Terapia ... Contraception, Barrier. Método de Barreira Anticoncepção. Anticoncepción de Barrera. ...
  • Ulipristal may decrease the efficacy of hormonal contraception, so barrier contraception should be used during that cycle. (medscape.com)
  • Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are sometimes referred to as emergency hormonal contraception (EHC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who have used enzyme-inducing drugs during the last 4 weeks and need emergency contraception are recommended to use a non-hormonal EC (emergency contraception), i.e. (who.int)
  • The use of levonorgestrel does not contraindicate the continuation of regular hormonal contraception. (who.int)
  • Pregnancy should be ruled out, if no bleed occurs in the next pill-free period following the use of levonorgestrel after regular hormonal contraception. (who.int)
  • The ability to have sex without getting pregnant was very much welcomed by women and their partners and hormonal contraception became the standard within a few years. (fiapac.org)
  • This is even more surprising as significant further improvements in hormonal contraception have been made since the introduction of the pill, namely with long acting reversible contraceptives (LARC). (fiapac.org)
  • Inflamed drip is relatively low prescribing post-coital hormonal contraception until proven otherwise. (brazosportregionalfmc.org)
  • Most forms of nonpermanent contraception for women are either hormonal or barrier strategies such as diaphragms or condoms. (medscape.com)
  • However, hormonal contraception in the form of the birth control pill is used most often in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Are you aware of recent research into hormonal contraception methods for women? (medscape.com)
  • Rapid Review Quiz: Hormonal Contraception - Medscape - Oct 30, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • 5.Female subjects abstain from either hormonal methods of contraception (including oral or transdermal contraceptives, injectable progesterone, progestin subdermal implants, progesterone-releasing IUDs, postcoital contraceptive methods) or hormone replacement therapy for at least 28 days prior to check-in in Period 1. (who.int)
  • Intrauterine devices (IUDs) - usually used as a primary contraceptive method - are sometimes used as the most effective form of emergency contraception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency contraception measures include tablets taken by mouth or the insertion of a copper intrauterine device. (wikipedia.org)
  • Add to that some anti-baby lipstick, pumps, sprays, clamps, one-quarter-inch thick condoms made from fish bladders, and a dizzying number of spiral intrauterine devices (that look oddly beautiful, fragile, and delicate, laid out in uniformed rows), which together create an amalgam of sexual factoids and implements - contraceptive information and misinformation - on display at the Vienna Museum of Contraception and Abortion. (thesmartset.com)
  • However, it is important for overweight women to consider alternative methods of contraception, such as a copper intrauterine device (IUD), which is not affected by weight and can be an effective option for emergency contraception. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • Postpartum and postabortion intrauterine contraception (within 48 hours postpartum or postabortion or after the uterus's complete involution). (laboratoire-ccd.com)
  • A recent UK study examined how the use of ulipristal acetate (UPA), levonorgestrel (LNG), and the copper-intrauterine device for emergency contraception changed following the introduction of new UK Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) guidelines. (ec-ec.org)
  • Employment based insured health plans that routinely cover the leading five methods of contraception: diaphragm, implant, injectable, intrauterine device (IUD) and oral contraceptive pills. (cdc.gov)
  • The patient may still conceive in the same menstrual cycle that she undergoes emergency contraception, so contraception should still be used, and long-term contraceptive options should be considered and discussed with a healthcare professional. (medscape.com)
  • Emergency contraception is offered to women who do not wish to conceive but have had unprotected sex on any day of the menstrual cycle, from day 21 after giving birth, or from day five after abortion or miscarriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • After you use emergency contraception, your next menstrual cycle may start earlier or later than usual. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The next question is related to the effects emergency contraception has on the menstrual cycle. (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • Emergency contraception is not related to medical abortion, which is a drug regimen administered to terminate pregnancies into the second and even third trimester. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraception and abortion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • and why the Austrian school system, which requires mandatory religion class, will also include a stop at the Museum of Contraception and Abortion during each school's annual Vienna field trip. (thesmartset.com)
  • We conducted a scoping review to ascertain the extent to which preventive reproductive healthcare services (contraception, sexually transmitted infection testing and treatment, cervical cancer screening) are affected by abortion access in the United States. (bvsalud.org)
  • Emergency contraception (EC) is a birth control measure, used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency contraception is a birth control measure taken to reduce the risk of pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse or when other regular contraceptive measures have not worked properly or have not been used correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ectopic pregnancy with postcoital contraception--a case report. (nih.gov)
  • Postcoital contraception does not prevent a pregnancy in every instance. (who.int)
  • The morning after pill, also known as emergency contraception or the "Plan B" pill, is a form of post-coital contraception that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • Emergency contraception, commonly known as the morning-after pill, is a safe and effective method of preventing pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • In the Indian Journal of Medical Research, an article compared forms of emergency contraception and its effect on overall women's health stating that both LNG and ulipristal acetate (active ingredient in ella®) prevent pregnancy through delaying ovulation and inhibiting fertilization, both mechanisms in which do not interfere with post-fertilization events (Mittal, 2014). (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • Emergency contraception is an important post-coital method of contraception to prevent pregnancy from occurring. (almostadoctor.co.uk)
  • Additionally, it is crucial to remember that emergency contraception should not replace regular contraceptive methods and should only be used in urgent situations. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • They may recommend alternative forms of emergency contraception or additional contraceptive methods, depending on your specific situation. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • Both types of emergency contraception pills work to prevent or delay ovulation (Cleland et al. (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • Women who present for repeated courses of emergency contraception should be advised to consider long-term methods of contraception. (who.int)
  • If you are at risk for STIs, it's important to use barrier methods of contraception, such as condoms, in addition to the morning after pill. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • If you choose contraception, be sure progestogen which means less of unwanted fertilization or implantation doesnt occur, then be helpful to consider the factors the Plan B medication ('day after of breast milk. (omaudit.com)
  • An animal study showed postcoital treatment with levonorgestrel (LNG) had no post fertilization effect impairing fertility in rats (Muller et al. (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • The first is the contraception room, the giggly one, where items such as packages of foot-long condoms are on display alongside the Coke story and other debunked "How-To's. (thesmartset.com)
  • You may be able to use emergency contraception even if you cannot regularly take birth control pills. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, the use of IUDs for emergency contraception is relatively rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • STUDY DESIGN: Open-label, multicenter study enrolling heterosexually-active women with previous permanent contraception who underwent assessments during five menstrual cycles: baseline postcoital test cycle, diaphragm postcoital test cycle, Ovaprene safety cycle, and two Ovaprene postcoital test cycles. (bvsalud.org)
  • for contraception increases the risk of developing cystitis, possibly because spermicide used with the diaphragm suppresses the normal vaginal bacteria and allows bacteria that cause cystitis to flourish in the vagina. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ulipristal acetate (Ella) is a new type of emergency contraception pill. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, the morning after pill, also known as emergency contraception or post-coital contraception, can be a viable solution. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • However, it is important to note that even with a potential decrease in effectiveness, the morning after pill remains a valuable option for emergency contraception. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • Overall, the morning after pill can still provide a valuable solution for overweight women seeking emergency contraception. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • Obesity and overweight can have an impact on the effectiveness of emergency contraception, commonly known as the morning after pill. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • The morning after pill, also known as post-coital contraception, is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • If you are overweight and considering the morning after pill, it is recommended to consult with your healthcare provider to discuss the best options for emergency contraception based on your individual circumstances. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • Overall, while the morning after pill can be an effective form of emergency contraception, it may be less reliable in overweight or obese women. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • The Argentinian Minister of Health announced the switch of 1.5 mg levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception pill (ECPs) products, to unrestricted sale products (producto de venta libre). (ec-ec.org)
  • Transdermal patches for contraception are classified here. (fhi.no)
  • Sixty-five were about contraception, seven on STIs, one on cervical cancer screening, and one on other services. (bvsalud.org)
  • The DDDs for preparations only used in postcoital contraception are based on the course dose. (fhi.no)
  • It's important to discuss your options with a healthcare provider and consider alternative forms of contraception if necessary. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • Postcoital contraception within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse or failure of a contraceptive method. (who.int)
  • Emergency contraception should be taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse. (who.int)
  • therefore, associating a link between LNG emergency contraception and abnormal menstrual patterns (Gainer et al. (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • Will my fertility be affected if I take a form of emergency contraception? (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • The first question relates to emergency contraception and its effect on future or long-term fertility. (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • The short answer is no, emergency contraception does not impact your future or long-term fertility. (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • Emergency contraception should not be used as a routine birth control method. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Postcoital contraception is an occasional method. (who.int)
  • Women should consult a doctor/midwife to adopt or initiate a method of regular contraception. (who.int)
  • Levonorgestrel is not as safe as a conventional regular method of contraception and is suitable only as an emergency measure. (who.int)
  • This emergency contraception method is available in most pharmacies without a prescription, making it easily accessible for overweight women. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • On February 9th, the European Parliamentary Forum for Sexual & Reproductive Rights (EPF) launched the fifth edition of the European Contraception Policies Atlas. (ec-ec.org)
  • For overweight and obese women, finding effective contraception options can be challenging. (pregnancyarchive.com)
  • 25.1% of the women and 26.7% of their addiction, cigarette and alcohol use of husbands had high-school diplomas, and the woman and her husband, current only 7.5% of the women and 12.4% of their type of contraception used, use of con- husbands had a university degree). (who.int)
  • If you do not get your period within 3 weeks after taking emergency contraception, you might be pregnant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This exhibit lays out the facts about the myths of contraception, displaying articles on inane practices and equipment that lay bare how alarmingly little anyone knew, until the late 20th century, about how to stop a baby from being made. (thesmartset.com)
  • Depending on the form of contraception, if you are not able to take it right away, it can still work up to three to five days after unprotected sex (Cleland et al. (quicknursinghelp.com)
  • Emergency contraception works best when you use it within 24 hours of having sex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The German Bundesrat, the legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federal states) at the federal level, recently voted in favor of a resolution to remove the prescription-only status of LNG emergency contraception (EC). (ec-ec.org)
  • Patients may be directed to the emergency contraception Web site http://ec.princeton.edu (telephone: 888-Not-2-late). (medscape.com)