Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Sexual activities of humans.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Painful menstruation.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Contraceptive devices used by males.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.
The application of NURSING knowledge to questions of law. It is a specialty of nursing practice involving victims of crime which includes not only attending to the physical and emotional distress of victims, but also the identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence for law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Size and composition of the family.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
The unmarried man or woman.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.
Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
Absence of menstruation.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).

A contraceptive peptide vaccine targeting sulfated glycoprotein ZP2 of the mouse zona pellucida. (1/106)

In this study, we have mapped and characterized a B cell epitope of sulfated glycoprotein ZP2 (ZP2) as a step toward the development of a multi-epitope zona pellucida (ZP) vaccine. Recombinant polypeptides expressed by random deoxyribonuclease-digested fragments of ZP2 cDNA were screened for binding to IE-3, a monoclonal antibody to murine ZP2. Positive clones contained cDNA inserts encoding polypeptide corresponding to ZP2(103-134). When normal or ovariectomized female mice were immunized with three overlapping peptides that span this region of ZP2 (101-120, 111-130, 121-140), only ZP2(121-140) elicited IgG antibodies that reacted with mouse ovarian ZP, indicative of the presence of native B epitope and helper T cell epitope in ZP2(121-140). To more finely map the ZP2 B cell epitope, a random peptide display library was screened with the IE-3 antibody, and a consensus tetramer sequence VxYK that matched the ZP2(123-126) sequence VRYK was located. Competitive immunofluorescence analysis with single alanine-substituted VxYK peptides ranked the relative contribution of the three critical B cell epitope residues as Y > V > K. A chimeric peptide was constructed that contained the YRYK motif of ZP2 and a bovine RNase T cell epitope. Although (C57BL/6xA/J) F1 (B6AF1) female mice immunized with the chimeric peptide developed ZP antibody response, this peptide elicited antibody only in mice of the histocompatibility complex (MHC) H-2(k or b) haplotype. In contrast, ZP2(121-140) peptide elicited antibody in inbred mice with three additional mouse MHC haplotypes. Moreover, although ZP2(121-140) contained a T cell epitope, no oophoritis was observed after immunization of B6AF1 mice with ZP2(121-140) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In a preliminary trial, female B6AF1 mice immunized with ZP2(121-140) in CFA had reduced litter sizes as compared with mice injected with CFA alone.  (+info)

Antibodies to human ZP3 induce reversible contraception in transgenic mice with 'humanized' zonae pellucidae. (2/106)

The initial spermatozoon-egg interaction of mammalian fertilization is mediated by the zona pellucida, an extracellular matrix composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3). These proteins are sufficiently conserved between human and mouse to form chimeric zonae pellucidae, and genetically engineered mice in which the endogenous mouse ZP3 has been replaced by human ZP3 have 'humanized' zonae, but normal fertility. Administration of monoclonal antibodies to mouse ZP3 does not affect fertility in these animals, but administration of antibodies to human ZP3 results in long-term, reversible contraception. The antibodies coat the zonae pellucidae surrounding growing oocytes within the ovary and their presence in the zona matrix inhibits, but does not eliminate, sperm binding. The contraceptive effect is attributed to steric hindrance that decreases sperm binding and prevents penetration through the zona pellucida. The resumption of fertility is associated with the disappearance of antibodies from the zona matrix. No adverse effect on mating behaviour, ovarian histology or fetal development (if administered after fertilization) is detected in treated females. These results suggest that transgenic mice expressing human proteins will prove useful in assessing contraceptive efficacy of zona epitopes in the rational design of immunocontraception directed at the human zona pellucida.  (+info)

Design and evaluation of a ZP3 peptide vaccine in a homologous primate model. (3/106)

The concept of a safe, immunocontraceptive vaccine using the zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP3) as an immunogen has been marred by the appearance of ovarian dysfunction in several species. However, careful selection of epitopes on mouse ZP3 have demonstrated that it is possible to segregate contraceptive bone marrow-derived (B)-cell epitopes from the cytotoxic thymus-derived (T)-cell epitopes thought to be responsible for inducing ovarian disease. B-cell epitopes on marmoset ZP3 (mstZP3) were identified by epitope mapping studies. Using a panel of polyclonal antibodies against recombinant mstZP3, an immunodominant epitope mstZP3(301-320) was identified. A chimeric peptide was co-linearly synthesized incorporating this sequence with a promiscuous tetanus toxoid T-helper cell epitope. Using the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as an animal model, we have compared the consequences of active immunization with homologous recombinant mstZP3 and mstZP3(301-320) chimeric peptide vaccine. Long-term infertility was achieved using mstZP3 but at the expense of ovarian function. In contrast, no disruption to ovarian function was observed following mstZP3(301-320) immunization. Antibodies to this peptide immunolocalized to the zona pellucida of both marmoset and human ovarian sections and inhibited human sperm-zona binding by approximately 60% in vitro. However, in-vivo studies indicated that targeting a single ZP3 epitope was insufficient to reliably and consistently achieve a contraceptive effect.  (+info)

Antigenic and immunogenic properties of totally synthetic peptide-based anti-fertility vaccines. (4/106)

In this study we describe the results of experiments in which a variety of totally synthetic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) vaccines were assembled and examined for their abilities to elicit antibody responses and induce sterility in mice. It is shown that totally synthetic vaccines consisting of a 15 residue-defined T cell epitope and the 10 residue LHRH epitope not only induced high titers of antibody but also induced sterility. This effect did not appear to correlate with antibody titer, antibody isotype or comparative antibody affinity, but may be related to the length of time for which antibodies are present to exert their influence.  (+info)

Immunological control of fertility: measurement of affinity of antibodies to human chorionic gonadotrophin. (5/106)

Four baboons were primed with diazotized beta human chorionic gonadotrophin and boosted with diazotized C-terminal beta human chorionic gonadotrophin peptide, and the changes in antibody amount and affinity determined using a double isotope modified Farr assay, using labelled human chorionic gonadotrophin as the antigen. The degree of cross-reaction with human luteinizing hormone was also determined. Although appreciable reactivity with luteinizing hormone was observed soon after immunization, this declined rapidly during the response. At the time intervals studied, there was a progressive increase in affinity of antibodies to human chorionic gonadotrophin until day 248 after priming. At day 313, in two of the animals, there was a decrease in affinity from 1.04 X 10(11) to 6.80 X 10(10) and 1.05 X 10(11) to 4.93 X 10(10) l/mol, whereas in the other two baboons there was a further increase in antibody affinity. At corresponding time intervals, there was a steady decrease in values of total antibody binding sites. To determine the overall effect of the maturation of affinity with a decrease in antibody amount on biological efficacy, the theoretical amount of chorionic gonadotrophin that would be neutralized was calculated. We computed that in all instances, over 99% of a peak concentration of chorionic gonadotrophin that could be in circulation in a pregnant baboon would be neutralized. This was in excellent agreement with results of mating experiments in these baboons. In over forty cycles studied, none of the matings resulted in a sustained pregnancy.  (+info)

Delineation of a conserved B cell epitope on bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) and human zona pellucida glycoprotein-B by monoclonal antibodies demonstrating inhibition of sperm-egg binding. (6/106)

To circumvent autoimmune oophoritis after immunization with zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins, synthetic peptides encompassing B cell epitope(s) and devoid of oophoritogenic T cell epitopes as immunogens have been proposed. In this study, bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) ZP glycoprotein-B (bmZPB) was expressed as polyhistidine fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against recombinant bmZPB (r-bmZPB) significantly inhibited human sperm-oocyte binding. To map B cell epitopes on ZPB, a panel of 7 murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated against r-bmZPB. All 7 mAbs, when tested in an indirect immunofluorescence assay, reacted with bonnet monkey ZP, and only 6 recognized human zonae. Monoclonal antibodies MA-809, -811, -813, and -825 showed significant inhibition in the binding of human spermatozoa to human ZP in a hemizona assay. Epitope-mapping studies using multipin peptide synthesis strategy revealed that these 4 mAbs recognized a common epitope corresponding to amino acids (aa) 136-147 (DAPDTDWCDSIP). Competitive binding studies revealed that the synthetic peptide corresponding to the identified epitope (aa 136-147) inhibited the binding of MA-809, -811, -813, and -825 to r-bmZPB in an ELISA and to bonnet monkey ZP in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The epitopic domain corresponding to aa 136-147 of bmZPB was completely conserved in human ZPB. These studies will further help in designing ZP-based synthetic peptide immunogens incorporating relevant B cell epitope for fertility regulation in humans.  (+info)

Identification of human sperm peptide sequence involved in egg binding for immunocontraception. (7/106)

Development of a vaccine based on sperm antigens represents a promising approach to contraception. The sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction constitutes the most important event in the fertilization process, and the molecular sequences involved at this site may provide the most attractive candidates for immunocontraception. In the present study, using the phase peptide display technique, a novel dodecamer sequence, designated as YLP(12), was identified that is involved in sperm-ZP recognition/binding. The synthetic 12-mer peptide based on this sequence and its monovalent Fab' antibodies specifically and significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited human sperm-ZP binding. In Western blot and immunoprecipitation procedures, the YLP(12) peptide recognized the ZP3 component of solubilized human ZP proteins. In the Western blot procedure involving 10 different human tissue extracts, the anti-YLP(12) Fab' antibodies recognized a protein band of approximately 72 +/- 2 kDa only in the testis lane. The peptide sequence was localized on the acrosomal region of the human sperm cell. These findings indicate that the novel testis-specific 12-mer YLP(12) that is present in the acrosomal region and is involved in human sperm-ZP interaction may find applications in contraceptive vaccine development, as well as in diagnosis and treatment of male infertility mediated through sperm dysfunction.  (+info)

Immunological block to mammalian fertilization: survival and organ distribution of immunoglobulin which inhibits fertilization in vivo. (8/106)

Fertilization of golden hamster eggs was blocked both in vitro and in vivo by antibodies produced in rabbits against specific hamster ovarian antigens (HOA). Antibodies against HOA bound to surfaces of the hamster egg zona pellucida and prevented spermatozoa from attaching to the zona and entering eggs in vitro. Fertilization in animals could be blocked for four estrous cycles by a single intraperitoneal injection of anti-HOA immunoglobulin, but not by control immunoglobulin. The in vivo fate of anti-HOA immunoglobulin was analyzed by simultaneous injection of 125I-anti-HOA IgG and control 131I-IgG. Both anti-HOA IgG and control IgG appeared in a variety of organs (lung, kidney, spleen, liver, and uterus) shortly after injection, but disappeared rapidly with no detectable differences in organ half lives. However, in the ovary anti-HOA IgG (but not control IgG) persisted at high levels during the period of infertility. Quantitative precipitin analysis of organ homogenates indicated that a high percentage of anti-HOA IgG in the ovary (but not in the other organs tested) was immunologically indistinguishable from IgG indicating lack of radiolabel metabolism and reincorporation. The results are discussed in terms of the development of a specific immunological block to fertility.  (+info)

In the strictest sense immunocontraception is the use of an animals immune system to prevent it from fertilizing offspring. More generally the field of immunocontraception includes related technologies that prevent embryonic implantation. Typically immunocontraception involves the administration of a vaccine that induces an adaptive immune response which causes an animal to become temporarily infertile. Contraceptive vaccines have been used in numerous settings for the control of wildlife populations. However, experts in the field believe that major innovations are required before immunocontraception can become a practical form of contraception for human beings. Thus far immunocontraception has focused on mammals exclusively. There are several targets in mammalian sexual reproduction for immune inhibition. They can be organized into three categories. Gamete production Organisms that undergo sexual reproduction must first produce gametes, cells which have half the typical number of chromosomes ...
lmmunocontraception technology appears to have viable application in wildlife damage management. However, administration of these vaccines is presently performed by syringe injection or remote delivery by darts or bio-bullets. In order for immunocontraception to be successful for broad scale application to free-roaming animals, the vaccine must be delivered in an oral form. Recent advances in molecular biology, immunology, and pathology of mucosal infection gives us tools to develop effective oral vaccines. Oral immunocontraceptive vaccine encapsulated in adhesive liposomes or non-virulent live vectors holds promise as a practical approach for immunocontraception of free-roaming wildlife. Issues of safety, species specificity, regulatory constraints, and field application of the vaccine will need to be addressed.
Conference Announcement A BODEN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Immunological control of fertility: From gametes to gonads February 9th-11th, 1994 Thredbo Alpine Hotel, NSW, Australia Sponsored by Australian Academy of Science CRC for Biological Control of Vertebrate Pest Populations The Australian Society for Reproductive Biology Australasian Society for Immunology Fertility Society of Australia This meeting will bring together researchers interested in using gamete antigens as targets for immunocontraception. The meeting will discuss the current status of this research and aim to explore the problems associated with vaccine delivery and the targeting of immune responses in order to bring about successful immunocontraception. Organisers: Drs Mark Bradley & Michael Holland Overseas Invited speakers: N. Alexander; M. ORand; E. Goldberg; K. Tung; G. McGhee; J. Herr, J. Dean; B. Dunbar Topics to be discussed: Human immunocontraception; viral vectored Immunocontraception; Sperm and zona antigens as vaccine ...
TCC interviews Devin Kazakoff about non-lethal deer cull alternative Native PZP an immunocontraceptive that could be used in Victoria, B.C. and other region
Links of interest™:. Immunocontraception (Wikipedia): Whenever an immune response is provoked, there is some risk of autoimmunity. Therefore immunocontraception trials typically check for signs of autoimmune disease.[17] One concern with zona pellucida vaccination, in particular, is that in certain cases it appears to be correlated with ovarian pathogenesis.[2] However, ovarian disease has not been observed in every trial of zona pellucida vaccination, and when observed, has not always been irreversible.[18]. Autoimmune disease (Wikipedia): Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity). . .. ZonaStat-H is the EPA restricted-use pesticide-PZP-for wild horses and burros the registrant calls pests: Tule ...
It is not illegal to issue a permit to chemically sterilize or perform an ovariectomy on deer in the State of Michigan. However, the MNDR does not allow either method and will not issue a permit unless accompanied by an accepted research proposal. The MDNR will consider a permit from A2 to perform surgical sterilization of deer or administer Porcine Zona Pallucida (PZP), an immunocontraceptive vaccine, if it is presented as a research proposal. That proposal may be narrower in scope than projects considered by MSU. The possibility of the City partnering with an entity other than a University to submit the permit and was deemed acceptable, if the MDNR agreed with the scope of the proposal. The MDNR was clear that a permit to conduct surgical sterilization or administer PZP would not be approved without a research proposal. The MDNR permit would be issued annually.. Surgical Sterilization/Immunocontraception: ...
The BLMs decision to end its misguided ovariectomy experiments on wild mares in the Warm Springs HMA, and instead employ humane immunocontraceptive vaccines to curb population growth is a welcome outcome for these federally protected horses, said Joanna Grossman, Ph.D., equine program manager for the Animal Welfare Institute. We are heartened that these wild and free-roaming animals will not be subjected to an invasive surgical procedure that would put their lives at risk. The agency should, however, return a significant number of the horses back to their range on public lands. With the proper use of PZP, their population can be kept in check.. The BLM made the right decision to abandon these barbaric experiments and to return wild horses to the Warm Springs HMA, where they have a right to live in their natural habitat, protected under federal law, said Brieanah Schwartz, government relations and policy counsel for AWHC. Its time for the BLM to focus on humane, publicly supported and ...
June 5, 2008-A wildlife preserve in Africa has too many elephants, and theyve got a surprising solution for controlling their population.
GonaCon, a single-shot injectable immunocontraceptive vaccine targeting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), has been tested in key mammal species in
White-tailed deer populations in suburban and urban areas have expanded dramatically in recent years and have produced widespread problems across the United States. Currently there are several methods to control the size and growth of deer populations. I modeled the use of immunocontraception on a hypothetical, urban deer population and found 60% of the does would need to be vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in order to stabilize the herd. I also found that the population would decrease after 70% of the females received the immunocontraceptive. The cost of administering the drug significantly out-weighs the price per dose of PZP, making the use of immunocontraceptives on urban white-tailed deer populations cost-inefficient.. Meredith Millis, 00 Des Moines, ...
OBJECTIVES. Overpopulation of companion animals is a complex societal, ethical, economic and humane problem in both developed as well as developing nations. It is estimated that in Spain each year are abandoned thousands of dogs, and millions are euthanized annually in the U.S. Methods to control overpopulation of companion animals have relied on spay-neuter programs. Alternative programs have focused on immunocontraception and subsequent return to fertility. However, effective immunosterilants will result in a permanent loss of fertility as well as sexual behaviour without adverse side effects related to the animals health and well being. Among others, immunization methods with GnRH and/or purified zona pellucida may be an alternative in order to reach the immunosterilization. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of immunization with porcine zona pellucida (pZP) on gonadal function in the bitch by measuring a) progesterone and estradiol levels, b) antibody titers and, c) sexual ...
Vaccines have been proposed as one of the strategies for population control. Immunocontraceptive vaccines can be designed to inhibit: (1) production of gametes (sperm and egg); (2) functions of gametes, leading to blocking of fertilization; and (3) gamete outcome (pregnancy). Immunization with gonadotropin‐releasing hormone coupled to different carriers has shown curtailment in the production of sperm with concomitant infertility in various species. Immunization of nonhuman primates and men with ovine follicle stimulating hormone has also resulted in reduced sperm output. Various spermatozoa‐specific proteins such as FA1, PH‐20, LDH‐C4, SP‐10, SP‐17, sp56, SPAG9, and Izumo have been proposed as candidate antigens to develop contraceptive vaccines, which have shown efficacy in inhibiting fertility in different animal models. Immunization with zona pellucida glycoproteins‐based immunogens also results in curtailment of fertility in a variety of species. However, ways to overcome the ...
A typical disease vaccine primes the immune system to be on the alert for an infection caused by organisms with properties similar to those of the vaccine. Antibodies to the disease may be few in number or absent until the infection occurs. The infection then serves as a booster that stimulates an immediate immune response, protecting the vaccinated animal. For an immunocontraceptive vaccine to be effective, however, it must continually produce a high contraceptive antibody titer, so the booster effect must come from a different, non-disease mechanism-the adjuvant.. NWRC has modified and tested a USDA-approved Johnes vaccine called Mycopar™. Mycopar™ is approved for use in food animals by APHIS. The new adjuvant, which NWRC scientists have named AdjuVac™, contains a small quantity of M. avium, a common, generally nonpathogenic bacterium found in many species of domesticated and wild animals. NWRC scientists are testing AdjuVac™ in numerous wildlife species and it appears to be an ...
because of the adjuvants and preservative contained in tetanus toxoid, it is unlikely that HCG could remain active in a vial of TT. The KCCBs allegations insinuated that the vaccine caused permanent damage to the reproductive system, effectively rendering the women barren. However, the effects of Prof. Talwars hCG-TT contraceptive vaccine were only temporary and reversible; it required regular booster injections to sustain the contraceptive effect. Indeed, it was specifically designed not to cause hormonal imbalances (as with the progesterone-based contraceptive pill) and to avoid long-term impact on the reproductive system.. If that isnt empirical enough for you, then please note the evidence that the TT vaccine did not affect the pregnancy rate in the women who were vaccinated: Dr. Tabu (Head of Immunization at the Ministry of Health) said the same vaccine has been used for 30 years in Kenya. Moreover, there are women who were vaccinated in October 2013 and March this year who are ...
because of the adjuvants and preservative contained in tetanus toxoid, it is unlikely that HCG could remain active in a vial of TT. The KCCBs allegations insinuated that the vaccine caused permanent damage to the reproductive system, effectively rendering the women barren. However, the effects of Prof. Talwars hCG-TT contraceptive vaccine were only temporary and reversible; it required regular booster injections to sustain the contraceptive effect. Indeed, it was specifically designed not to cause hormonal imbalances (as with the progesterone-based contraceptive pill) and to avoid long-term impact on the reproductive system.. If that isnt empirical enough for you, then please note the evidence that the TT vaccine did not affect the pregnancy rate in the women who were vaccinated: Dr. Tabu (Head of Immunization at the Ministry of Health) said the same vaccine has been used for 30 years in Kenya. Moreover, there are women who were vaccinated in October 2013 and March this year who are ...
Two B-cell epitopes in transmembrane domains of CatSper1 show immunocontraceptive potential in male mice, and induce high titer of specific antibody, which impairs sperm function and causes sperm agglutination.
Researchers are working on a contraceptive vaccine for wild horses, in hopes it will cut down on round-ups and perhaps even eliminate them completely.
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The study is double blind. However the active control vaccine Tritanrix™-HepB/Hiberix™ will be administered in a single-blind manner. Blood samples will be collected for immunogenicity analyses. GSK Biologicals OPV vaccine will be administered concomitantly with the study vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age according to local country regulation. The study will last approximately 5 months per ...
Observations of extended estrus seasons in female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptives have led to speculation that management use of PZP would, perversely, increase the rate of deer-vehicle collisions. To test this hypothesis, we studied PZP-treated female deer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. PZP-treated female deer did not differ from untreated female deer in risk of death by vehicle collision, and the number of deer killed in vehicle collisions was uncorrelated with the number of deer treated with PZP, whether or not population size was controlled for. The reduction in deer population size observed during PZP applications was associated with a reduced frequency of deer-vehicle collisions. Our results suggest that any added collision risk caused by behavioral effects of PZP is unmeasurably small compared to the effects of population management and other mitigation actions.
An important determinant in the selection of any contraceptive agent is the impact on ovarian function, both in the short and longer term. In this study, ovarian activity was monitored in mares immunised with one of the following vaccine formulations; native porcine zona pellucida (pZP), recombinant zona pellucida proteins ZP3 and ZP4 (reZP), pZP and reZP combined or a commercially available anti-GnRH vaccine. The ZP antigens were prepared in an adjuvant formulation consisting of 6% polymeric adjuvant (Montanide™ PetGel A, Seppic, France) and 500 μg polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid - TLR3-agonist (Poly(I:C) HMW VacciGrade™, Invivogen, USA). A vehicle-only control group was administered the adjuvant formulation without antigen. Ovarian activity was monitored using clinical observations (transrectal palpation and ultrasonography of the reproductive tract) in addition to blood sampling for serum progesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations while employing a low sampling ...
EXPANDED SUMMARY OF PZPS ADVERSE EFFECTS, INCLUDING REFERENCES. PZP - The Pesticide. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP aka ZonaStat-H or Native PZP) is an EPA-registered pesticide derived from the ovaries of slaughtered pigs. PZP is approved for use on wild horses in areas where they have become a nuisance …. [20]. Some persons argue that, because PZP does not kill the mare, it is not really a pesticide. Actually, PZP does kill. As will be documented in this report, its use is associated with stillborn foals. In the long term, PZP will weaken a herd immunologically, which could swiftly lead to its extinction. So, yes, PZP is a real pesticide.. PZP - an Anti-Vaccine. While touted as a vaccine, PZP is actually a perversion of what a true vaccine is supposed to be. Instead of preventing disease, PZP causes disease - auto-immune disease. Thus, PZP is an anti-vaccine.. PZPs Mode of Action as Stated in the Pesticide Registration Is a Disproved Hypothesis. The registrant of PZP advised the ...
This image is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions). You can copy, modify, and distribute this work without contacting the Smithsonian. For more information, visit the Smithsonians Open Access page ...
The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (AJRI) is the official journal of the American Society for Reproductive Immunology. Its aim is the accurate and fast presentation of new data in reproductive immunology. The journal covers a variety of subspecialty topics, including fertility immunology, pregnancy immunology, immunogenetics, mucosal immunology, immunocontraception, endometriosis, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and autoantibodies.. 5 Year Impact Factor: 3.013 - Now Ranked in the Top 10 in Reproductive Biology ...
Una simple búsqueda en PUBMED revela que se ya desde 1977 se han estado estudiando maneras de crear un vacuna anticonceptiva. Su funcionamiento consistiría en inducir anticuerpos de larga duración que atacasen ciertos órganos reproductivos femeninos. Por ejemplo: Contraceptive vaccines - PUBMED ...To date, three major targets have been researched. The zona pellucida (ZP) plays…
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A lécoute des nouvelles compositions, une chose reste certaine : Bonnet reste un excellent vocaliste et un compositeur de Hard Rock de tout premier plan. La musique est typiquement classic rock, et sonne comme au meilleur des années 80. Les titres déménagent, sommes de mélodies mordantes, de riffs de guitare inspirés et de chœurs taillés au ciseau, toutes choses qui portent définitivement la marque de Graham Bonnet. Les meilleurs exemples sentendent sur Strangest Day, Rider, Earths Child ou encore le très juste Welcome to my Home. On pourra regretter que ma majorité de lalbum tape plutôt fort et que cela nous prive de la qualité du travail de Bonnet quand il sattaque à des tempos plus modérés. ...
Early cancer of the vulva is usually managed solely by surgery and therefore has no impact on a womans chance of conceiving. If chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are required, this may affect fertility in some circumstances. If you are premenopausal and feel concerned about how these treatments will affect your fertility, talk to your doctor. Radiotherapy can make sexual
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During reproductive life, only a selected few ovarian follicles mature and ovulate, while the vast majority of follicles undergo a degenerative process called atresia. Recent studies have indicated that follicular atresia is mediated through apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells. The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of onset of apoptosis in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles and to evaluate the consequences of gonadotropin withdrawal on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities. Bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation cycles were utilized for stimulation of multiple follicles, and granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after stopping gonadotropin treatment. Serum and follicular fluid estradiol concentrations were highest at 24 h but declined precipitously (P , 0.05) to reach the lowest concentrations at 96 h; however, progesterone concentrations during this period did not ...
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A change in the elasticity and the resistance to dissolution of the mouse zona pellucida (ZP) was quantitatively evaluated at immature germinal vesicle (GV), mature metaphase II (MII) and fertilized pronuclear (PN) stages. Youngs modulus of the ZP was measured using a micro tactile sensor (MTS), a highly sensitive resonator-based sensor for a micro scale elasticity measurement. 0.25% alpha-chymotrypsin was used for the ZP dissolution assay. The results of measuring the ZP elasticity and the dissolution time clearly showed that the ZP softened during oocyte maturation and the ZP hardened after fertilization. The results indicate that the amount of the zona softening can be a criterion to evaluate oocyte quality for the selection of top quality mature oocyte before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.. ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the contraceptive efficacy of the ENG-E2 vaginal ring in women between 18 and 35 years of age based on the number of
Mukku, VR and Murty, GSRC and Srinath, BR and Ramasharma, K and Kotagi, SG and Moudgal, NR (1981) Regulation of Testosterone Rhythmicity by Gonadotropins in Bonnet Monkeys (Macaca radiata). In: Biology Of Reproduction, 24 (4). pp. 814-819. Rani, Sheela CS and Murty, GSRC and Moudgal, NR (1978) Effect of Chronic Neutralization of Endogenous FSH on Testicular Function in the Adult Male Bonnet Monkey - Assessment Using Biochemical Parameters. In: International Journal of Andrology, 1 (6). 489-500 . ...
Anti-Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein 2, Sperm Receptor Protein (Recombinant) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Zp2 ELISA Kit (Rat) (GWB-KBBUU3) | Alias: Zona pellucida glycoprotein 2, Zona pellucida protein A, Zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 2, Zp-2, Zpa
Read about the current research on coronavirus and its effects on fertility and pregnancy amidst the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.
ZP1 - ZP1 (untagged)-Human zona pellucida glycoprotein 1 (sperm receptor) (ZP1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Photography: all images copyright and courtesy of the artist and Kimberly-Klark, New York. The BLM is planning on gathering an estimated 262 wild horses from the Swasey HMA with up to 100 being released back onto the range following the gather. Approximately 49 mares will be treated with the fertility control drug Porcine Zona Pellucida (PZP-22); the remainder of the released horses will be studs. Approximately 162 excess wild horses, including wild horses gathered that are residing outside the HMA boundary, will be removed. 1. To save [them] from [an] alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation, the General Government kindly offers [them] a new home, and proposes to pay the whole expense of [their] removal and settlement. 2. -----. A: can you describe where your fear is coming from ...
Mouse zona pellucida. This image shows a zona pellucida surrounding a mouse oocyte. The sample has been labeled with an antibody to ZP3, one of the th...
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immunocytochemistry and for alkaline phosphatase activity using nitroblue tetrazolium chloride/5-bromo- 4-chloro- 3- indolyl phosphate toluidine solution. The cancer cell-lines were then inoculated with recombinant myxoma virus expressing a red fluorescent protein and collected after 48-hours. Cytopathic effects were assessed at 24-hour and 48- hour time points via fluorescent microscopy. Ability of the virus to replicate within the cancer cells was confirmed via Western immunoblot detection of late MYXV protein production. The findings of this study suggest that canine osteosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma primary cell cultures are lacking antiviral mechanisms and susceptible to MYXV infection leading to oncolysis. Viral-mediated oncolysis of cancer cells isolated from canine tumorsKirsha B Fredrickson and Amy L MacNeillDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State UniversityThe three classic arms of cancer therapy are surgical resection, chemotherapeutics, andradiation. ...
National Institute of Advanced Studies. Indian Institute of Science Campus. Bangalore-12. OPEN DEFENCE OF THESIS. Title: Other Voices: Gestural Communication of Wild Bonnet Macaques Macaca radiata in the Bandipur National Park, Southern India. Candidate: Ms.Shreejata Gupta. School of Natural & Engineering Sciences. Adviser: Prof. Anindya Sinha. Date: Thursday, 14 January, 2016. Time: 11: 30 am. Venue: Lecture Hall, NIAS. Abstract: Human language is probably one of the most mysterious and intriguing of all behavioural expressions that one encounters in the living world. Although language is mostly viewed as expressed through spoken words alone, a crucial component of human language comprises gestural acts. It has been hypothesised that gestural communication is an evolutionarily older phenomenon, which developed much earlier than did speech in the modern human lineage. This evokes several important questions pertaining to the phylogeny of gestures in nonhuman primate species as well as the ...
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Ballouard, J. M., Provost, G., Barre, D., & Bonnet, X. (2012). Influence of a Field Trip on the Attitude of Schoolchildren toward Unpopular Organisms An Experience with Snakes. Journal of Herpetology, 46, 423-428.
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The study done on rats that found Polysorbate 80 had effects on fertility involved giving 100 mg of Polysorbate 80 to rats that were 4-7 days old. I cant find an exact weight on rats of this age, but I can find that newborn rats weigh 6-8 g. If we even assume that the rats double their birthweight to 12-16 g by 4-7 days old, we are then looking at dosing that is at best 6 mg per GRAM of body weight.. That would be 6000 mg per kg (6g/kg). So dosing that is approximately 2000 times higher than what is given in the Vitamin K injection. I think it is a pretty far stretch to think that these two doses have the same effects. In the particular video I was recently watching, the speaker made a distinction between injected vs injested administration…which is a fair point. But Ill also point out that in the rat study on fertility I linked to above, the Polysorbate 80 was injected into the rats. As far as oral dosing goes, Polysorbate 80 has been used in food products for over 50 years, and was ...
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A4 PASPARAKISpublications Kumari S, Bonnet MC, Ulvmar MH, Wolk K, Karagianni N, Witte E, Uthoff-Hachenberg C, Renauld JC, Kollias G, Toftgard R, Sabat R, Pasparakis M, Haase I; Immunity. 2013 Nov 14;39(5):899-911. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2013.10.009. Epub 2013 Nov 7. ...
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Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, ...
... contraception, barrier MeSH E02.875.194.300 - contraception, immunologic MeSH E02.875.194.540 - contraception, postcoital MeSH ... immunologic MeSH E02.095.520.450.440 - graft enhancement, immunologic MeSH E02.095.520.450.521 - lymphocyte depletion MeSH ...
Acquired angioedema (AAE) can be immunologic, nonimmunologic, or idiopathic. It is usually caused by allergy and occurs ... it can be exacerbated by pregnancy and use of hormonal contraception (exact frequency uncertain). It has been linked with ...
Immunologic disorder: Positive anti-Smith, anti-ds DNA, antiphospholipid antibody, or false positive serological test for ... Contraception and other reliable forms of pregnancy prevention is routinely advised for women with SLE, since getting pregnant ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ... established a list of clinical and immunologic criteria that, in any combination, point to SLE. The criteria include symptoms ...
This has been used as natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if ... growth factors and immunologic substances to effectively defend against infectious diseases for the infant. The breast milk ...
Immunologic allergy[edit]. Adverse reactions to local anesthetics (especially the esters) are not uncommon, but legitimate ...
Due to the exceedingly high impact on public health of widely used medications, such as hormonal contraception and hormone ... "Silicone Breast Implants in Relation to Connective Tissue Diseases and Immunologic Dysfunction". Archived from the original on ... Melasma and thrombosis associated with use of estrogen-containing hormonal contraception, such as the combined oral ...
Commonly used tests include chromatography, immunologic assay, and mass spectrometry.[129] See also[edit]. *Antipsychotics ...
Acquired angioedema (AAE) can be immunologic, nonimmunologic, or idiopathic.[5] It is usually caused by allergy and occurs ... it can be exacerbated by pregnancy and use of hormonal contraception (exact frequency uncertain).[10] It has been linked with ...
This has been used as natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if ... growth factors and immunologic substances to effectively defend against infectious diseases for the infant. The breast milk ...
Immunologic Infertility and Contraception. In: Talwar G.P. (eds) Immunological Approaches to Contraception and Promotion of ... Immunological Approaches to Contraception and Promotion of Fertility pp 151-154 , Cite as ... However, this study definitely showed the iso-antigenicity of human sperm in women and that the concept of an immunologic ... As early as the 1920s speculation arose concerning the possible role of immunologic reactions involving sperm in human ...
Highly effective contraception is defined as either:. *True Abstinence: When this is in line with the preferred and usual ... Barrier methods of contraception: Condom or Occlusive cap (diaphragm or cervical/vault caps) with spermicidal foam/gel/film/ ... Male subjects must agree to use adequate method of contraception starting with the first dose of study therapy through 120 days ... A Pilot Surgical Trial To Evaluate Early Immunologic Pharmacodynamic Parameters For The PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitor, ...
As a result, hormonal contraception is not considered adequate.. Exclusion Criteria:. *Patient with active AIDS-defining ... Study of the 48-Week Virologic and Immunologic Response to Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) in HIV Positive Adult Patients. The ... Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune System Diseases. Ritonavir. Lopinavir. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. ... A Phase II, Open Label, Single Arm Study of the 48-Week Virologic and Immunologic Response to Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) as ...
A more specific method of contraception is needed. Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired ... Current methods of contraception lack specificity and are accompanied with serious side effects. ... Contraception, Immunologic / methods*. Contraceptive Agents / immunology. Cytokines / immunology. Databases, Genetic. Embryo ... Current methods of contraception lack specificity and are accompanied with serious side effects. A more specific method of ...
The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the harm racism causes to infants, children, adolescents, and their families. View the collection.. ...
Fertile males and females must agree to the use of an adequate form of contraception. Hormonal contraceptives should be ... Adequate immunologic function, defined as:. Serum IgG , 5g/L T cell subsets within normal limits ...
Fertile patients must use effective contraception. PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY:. Biologic therapy. - No concurrent immunologic or ...
Data from follow-up of PACTG 076 infants from birth through age 18-36 months do not indicate any differences in immunologic, ... services that continue after pregnancy for their own medical care and for assistance with family planning and contraception. ... Such considerations include gestational age of the fetus; the womans clinical, immunologic, and virologic status; and the ... HIV-1-infected pregnant women must receive standard clinical, immunologic, and virologic evaluation. Recommendations for ...
Fertile patients must use effective contraception during and for 4 months after study. participation. - More than 8 weeks since ... No other concurrent biologic or immunologic agents. - No other concurrent bevacizumab. - No prior chemotherapy for metastatic ...
Free Long-acting Contraception and Teen Pregnancy AAP Grand Rounds, Feb 2015, 33 (2) 15 ...
Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, ...
Shulman, S., Zappi, E., Ahmed, U. and Davis, J.E. (1972) Immunologic Consequences of Vasectomy. Contraception, 5, 269-278. http ...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Tubulin Modulators. Antimitotic Agents. Mitosis Modulators. ... Fertile patients must use effective contraception. *No other serious underlying pathology that would preclude study treatment ...
Pregnancy or women of childbearing age not on contraception *Any disorder resulting in immunologic dysfunction such as cancer ...
... contraception, barrier MeSH E02.875.194.300 - contraception, immunologic MeSH E02.875.194.540 - contraception, postcoital MeSH ... immunologic MeSH E02.095.520.450.440 - graft enhancement, immunologic MeSH E02.095.520.450.521 - lymphocyte depletion MeSH ...
Contraception. 1987;36:55-84.. 22. White MK, Ory HW, Rooks JB, Rochat RW. Intrauterine device termination rates and the ... enabling them to bypass the immunologic barrier provided by the endocervix. This design flaw caused a fivefold increase in ... Two recent studies on contraception have shed new light on the IUD. One report compared the economic value of 15 different ... Cost Comparison of Six Methods of Contraception*. Methods. Managed payment model. Public payment model. ...
History of immunologic failure. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol. * Current treatment for an ... Agree to use two appropriate forms of contraception. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol. * Parent ... Agree to use two appropriate forms of contraception. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol. * Ability ...
Advise women of childbearing potential to use adequate contraception and to avoid breast feeding during and for at least 4 mos ... Result is ↓ disease activity with lessened damage/improvement in mucocutaneous, musculoskeletal and immunologic manifestations ... Improvement in mucocutaneous, musculoskeletal, and immunologic disease activity in patients with SLE. ... women with childbearing potential should use adequate contraception during and for 4 mo following treatment. ...
It has been recommended that women of childbearing potential use effective contraception during therapy and for 18 months after ... B-cell counts may be depleted and immunologic function may be affected in the neonate after birth. Administration of live ...
Barrier contraception should always be used in combination with other methods of contraception. Hormonal methods that contain ... The safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and virologic and immunologic responses of SUSTIVA were evaluated in antiretroviral-naive ... Contraception. Females of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during treatment with SUSTIVA and for 12 ... A reliable method of barrier contraception should be used in addition to hormonal contraceptives.. A reliable method of barrier ...
Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, ...
Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, ...
The researchers examined immunologic factors in the female genital tract, the site where HIV infection is established in most ... Comments Off on HIV Risk and Hormonal Contraception in sub-Saharan Africa Comments ... IPCs are the most common form of contraception used in sub-Saharan Africa and are common in some areas of high HIV incidence. ... but also examines the immunologic mechanism for this observation. ... HIV Risk and Hormonal Contraception in sub-Saharan Africa *Home ...
Immunologic infertility Thomas J. Walsh and Paul J. Turek; 17. The effect of genital tract infection and inflammation on male ... Male contraception and vasectomy Stanton C. Honig and Jay I. Sandlow; 28. Intrauterine insemination from the urologists ...
Immunologic. Immunologic side effects include cases of oral contraceptive-induced systemic lupus erythematosus which have been ... Mishell DR "Contraception." N Engl J Med 320 (1989): 777-85. 28. Thomas DB "Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: review of ... Lidegaard O "Oral contraception and risk of a cerebral thromboembolic attack: results of a case-control study." BMJ 306 (1993 ... Hannaford PC, Croft PR, Kay CR "Oral contraception and stroke. Evidence from the Royal College of General Practitioners Oral ...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Growth Substances ... Fertile patients must use effective contraception during and for 6 months after completion of study treatment ...
S44: Reproductive hormones and HIV: Immunologic insights from the largest hormonal contraception and HIV study ... S30: Androgen and PCOS: dysregulation at the reproductive-metabolic-immunologic interphase. 11:50-12:15 PM Oral Presentation ...
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception/trends , Contraception , Contraception, Immunologic/methods , Uganda , Vaccines/ ... Contraception/methods , Contraception, Immunologic/methods , Female , Hormone Antagonists/pharmacology , Humans , India , Male ... Antigens , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , Contraception/methods , Contraception, Immunologic/methods , Humans , Immunization , ... Animals , Contraception, Immunologic/methods , Egg Proteins/immunology , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Receptors ...
The subjects for this analysis participated in a longitudinal study to assess the impact of LEEP on the immunologic properties ... Additionally, 18/19 cases and 15/19 controls were using hormonal contraception at study entry and continued to do so throughout ... used emergency contraception in the past 30 days; douched within the past 48 hours; engaged in vaginal intercourse within the ...
Immunologic. - No history of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. - No evidence of anti-heparin antibodies. - No history of ... Fertile patients must use effective contraception. PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY:. Biologic therapy. - Not specified. Chemotherapy. ...
  • The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. (
  • Results: The results are mainly revealing the regimens that are administered in male hormonal contraception and substances that are used in immunocontraception. (
  • In male hormonal contraception, the mechanism was depends on negative feedback in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by regimens to impair the spermatogenesis into severe-oligozoospermia or azoospermia. (
  • Adequate forms of contraception to be used include hormonal contraceptives (oral, patch, depot), intrauterine devices (IUD), barrier contraceptive methods, such as diaphragm, cervical cap/shield, male condoms and female condoms.Sexually active subjects must use contraception while on study drug from admission to the Follow-up Visit. (
  • Female subjects of childbearing potential - not surgically sterile or at least 2 years postmenopausal - must agree to utilize one of the following forms of contraception from screening through completion of the study: abstinence, hormonal (oral, implant, transdermal, or injection) for at least 3 months prior to the first dose of the study, barrier (condom with spermicide, diaphragm with spermicide), IUD, or vasectomized partner (6 months minimum). (
  • As early as the 1920's speculation arose concerning the possible role of immunologic reactions involving sperm in human infertility. (
  • Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, are dependent on the identification and characterization of relevant sperm antigens. (
  • A more specific method of contraception is needed. (
  • Subjects and their partners must agree to use of an effective method of contraception, to avoid impregnation of females throughout the course of the study. (
  • Each method of contraception has its specific benefits and risks. (
  • 3. During the course of the study, from study screen until study exit - including the washout period, women of childbearing potential must use a spermicide containing barrier method of contraception in addition to their current contraceptive device. (
  • However, this study definitely showed the iso-antigenicity of human sperm in women and that the concept of an immunologic contraceptive based on sperm antigens is plausible. (
  • Throughout the world, the most common form of reversible contraception is the intrauterine device (IUD), used by 85 million to 100 million women. (
  • Injectable contraception provides highly effective contraception without the need for daily pill taking, an important factor to consider for individuals already taking regular medication. (
  • And this is successful in approximately 1 : 4990 to 1 :, table 7.15 injectable progestogen-only contraception is required. (
  • Current methods of contraception lack specificity and are accompanied with serious side effects. (
  • The economic value of contraception: a comparison of 15 methods. (
  • There are a few methods in male contraception, but all is still not proven optimally. (
  • One study gathered data from a variety of sources which have estimated the mortality rate associated with different methods of contraception at different ages Table IV. (
  • 3. Female subject of childbearing potential must agree to use two reliable methods of contraception until study completion and for at least four weeks following their final study visit. (
  • The huge reductions in HIV-related mortality and morbidity associated with the use of effective combination antiretroviral therapy have led to a shift in focus to longer term issues, including reproductive health and contraception. (
  • 4 , 5 This multifilament tail provided a pathway for bacteria, enabling them to bypass the immunologic barrier provided by the endocervix. (
  • The paper, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases by co-lead authors Elizabeth Byrne and Melis Anahtar, is unique in that it not only identifies an epidemiologic risk of HIV acquisition in IPC users, but also examines the immunologic mechanism for this observation. (
  • Therefore, it is intend to understand more about the cellular mechanism of male contraception. (
  • Furthermore, this reviews also reveales the cellular mechanism of both types of male contraception. (
  • Conclusion: It is necessary to understand the cellular mechanism, thus the development of male contraception increases. (
  • The activity of peritoneal natural killer and T lymphocytes is suppressed in women with endometriosis, but whether these immunologic deviations are the cause or the result of endometriosis is still unclear. (
  • Have not been on hormone therapy for endometriosis or contraception in the past 4 weeks before surgery. (
  • Currently on hormone therapy for endometriosis or contraception. (
  • The researchers examined immunologic factors in the female genital tract, the site where HIV infection is established in most of the women. (
  • Immunologic and biochemical factors in hyperemesis gravidarum with or without hyperthyroxinemia. (
  • A study of 59 women on DMPA contraception plus an unboosted PI (nelfinavir) or an NNRTI (efavirenz or nevirapine) measured DMPA levels and compared them with 16 women on either no therapy or NRTIs only (no potential for drug interaction). (
  • Uniquely, Advaxis Lm-LLO technology also inhibits Treg and MDSC cells within the tumor microenvironment that promote immunologic tolerance of the prostate cancer cells of the tumor. (
  • The study by Byrne and Anahtar focused on women between 18-23 years of age in which those who used IPCs were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral risk for HIV infection from those using no long term contraception. (
  • The results warrant further study and support a role for ASA-influenced mechanisms, perhaps immunologic, in the generation of MS-related chronic fatigue. (
  • immunologic tolerance specific nonreactivity of lymphoid tissues to a particular antigen capable under other conditions of inducing immunity. (
  • We now report contraception of male nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) immunized with Eppin, a testis/epididymis-specific protein. (