Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Religion and SexPregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Norprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Great BritainAbortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.United StatesWomen: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Uterine Cervical Erosion: Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Antispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.MissouriHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.United Arab Emirates: A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.LondonDelayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Vulvitis: Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gynecological Examination: Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Armenia: An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Uterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)PennsylvaniaAttention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides. (1/635)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

Pregnancies averted among U.S. teenagers by the use of contraceptives. (2/635)

CONTEXT: The personal and social costs associated with teenage pregnancy in the United States concern many policymakers and researchers, yet the role of contraception in preventing these pregnancies has not been adequately quantified. METHODS: Published estimates of contraceptive effectiveness were applied to 1995 National Survey of Family Growth data on sexual and contraceptive practices in order to estimate the number of pregnancies averted through the use of contraceptives by U.S. teenagers. Four scenarios of contraceptives access--from current levels of access to highly restricted access--and teenagers' sexual and contraceptive practices in response to such restrictions are used to project the potential impact on pregnancies among teenagers. RESULTS: Current levels of contraceptive use averted an estimated 1.65 million pregnancies among 15-19-year-old women in the United States during 1995. If these young women had been denied access to both prescription and over-the-counter contraceptive methods, an estimated one million additional pregnancies (ranging from 750,000 to 1.25 million) would have occurred, assuming some decrease in sexual activity. These pregnancies would have led to 480,000 live births, 390,000 abortions, 120,000 miscarriages, 10,000 ectopic pregnancies and 37 maternal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Contraceptive use by teenage women prevents pregnancies and negative pregnancy-related health consequences that can disrupt the lives of adolescent women and that have substantial societal costs. Continued and expanded access to contraceptives for adolescents is a critically important public health strategy.  (+info)

Complications of unsafe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. (3/635)

The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The literature review findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions. The most common complications of unsafe abortion seen at health facilities were haemorrhage and sepsis. Studies on the use of manual vacuum aspiration for treating abortion complications found shorter lengths of hospital stay (and thus, lower resource costs) and a reduced need for a repeat evacuation. Very few articles focused exclusively on the cost of treating abortion complications, but authors agreed that it consumes a disproportionate amount of hospital resources. Studies on the role of men in supporting a woman's decision to abort or use contraception were similarly lacking. Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation. Research needs that were identified include: community-based epidemiological studies; operations research on decentralization of post-abortion care and integration of treatment with post-abortion family planning services; studies on system-wide resource use for treatment of incomplete abortion; qualitative research on the role of males in the decision to terminate pregnancy and use contraception; clinical studies on pain control medications and procedures; and case studies on the provision of safe abortion services where legally allowed.  (+info)

Factors related to choosing oral contraception at age 15. (4/635)

This report aims to identify factors which are related to use of oral contraceptives at an early age. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at schools in 1988 and 1992 in southern and western Finland (N = 1339). Sexually experienced girls (mean age 15.8 years) who had answered the question concerning their oral contraceptive use were included (N = 389). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare oral contraceptive users (N = 121) with the group of non-users. Total number of coital experiences was associated with oral contraceptive use: the odds ratio for those having at least 10 coital experiences was 6.30 compared with those with only one intercourse. The proportion was 73% among oral contraceptive users and 30% among non-users. Girls using oral contraceptives perceived more often (67%) that parents accept their sexual relationship (30% among non-users). Oral contraceptive users were less afraid of getting pregnant (9% compared with 31% among non-users) and felt more often that sex was very important in their life (31 and 13%, respectively). Other factors that entered the model were age at menarche, having a steady partner and frequency of disco visits. When a young girl asks for oral contraceptives, she is probably at true risk of pregnancy, and regular contraception should be considered both in view of effective prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.  (+info)

Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. (5/635)

CONTEXT: Unintended pregnancy remains a major public health concern in the United States. Information on pregnancy rates among contraceptive users is needed to guide medical professionals' recommendations and individuals' choices of contraceptive methods. METHODS: Data were taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 1994-1995 Abortion Patient Survey (APS). Hazards models were used to estimate method-specific contraceptive failure rates during the first six months and during the first year of contraceptive use for all U.S. women. In addition, rates were corrected to take into account the underreporting of induced abortion in the NSFG. Corrected 12-month failure rates were also estimated for subgroups of women by age, union status, poverty level, race or ethnicity, and religion. RESULTS: When contraceptive methods are ranked by effectiveness over the first 12 months of use (corrected for abortion underreporting), the implant and injectables have the lowest failure rates (2-3%), followed by the pill (8%), the diaphragm and the cervical cap (12%), the male condom (14%), periodic abstinence (21%), withdrawal (24%) and spermicides (26%). In general, failure rates are highest among cohabiting and other unmarried women, among those with an annual family income below 200% of the federal poverty level, among black and Hispanic women, among adolescents and among women in their 20s. For example, adolescent women who are not married but are cohabiting experience a failure rate of about 31% in the first year of contraceptive use, while the 12-month failure rate among married women aged 30 and older is only 7%. Black women have a contraceptive failure rate of about 19%, and this rate does not vary by family income; in contrast, overall 12-month rates are lower among Hispanic women (15%) and white women (10%), but vary by income, with poorer women having substantially greater failure rates than more affluent women. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of contraceptive failure vary widely by method, as well as by personal and background characteristics. Income's strong influence on contraceptive failure suggests that access barriers and the general disadvantage associated with poverty seriously impede effective contraceptive practice in the United States.  (+info)

Contraceptive failure, method-related discontinuation and resumption of use: results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. (6/635)

CONTEXT: Half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Of these, half occur to women who were practicing contraception in the month they conceived, and others occur when couples stop use because they find their method difficult or inconvenient to use. METHODS: Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth were used to compute life-table probabilities of contraceptive failure for reversible methods of contraception, discontinuation of use for a method-related reason and resumption of contraceptive use. RESULTS: Within one year of starting to use a reversible method of contraception, 9% of women experience a contraceptive failure--7% of those using the pill, 9% of those relying on the male condom and 19% of those practicing withdrawal. During a lifetime of use of reversible methods, the typical woman will experience 1.8 contraceptive failures. Overall, 31% of women discontinue use of a reversible contraceptive for a method-related reason within six months of starting use, and 44% do so within 12 months; however, 68% resume use of a method within one month and 76% do so within three months. Multivariate analyses show that the risk of contraceptive failure is elevated among low-income women and Hispanic women. Low-income women are also less likely than other women to resume contraceptive use after discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of pregnancy during typical use of reversible methods of contraception are considerably higher than risks of failure during clinical trials, reflecting imperfect use of these methods rather than lack of inherent efficacy. High rates of method-related discontinuation probably reflect dissatisfaction with available methods.  (+info)

Measuring contraceptive use patterns among teenage and adult women. (7/635)

CONTEXT: Measures of contraceptive use at one point in time do not account for its changing nature. A measure that addresses the pattern of method use over time may better predict the cumulative risk of unintended pregnancy. METHODS: Women at risk of unintended pregnancy were selected from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, and their contraceptive use patterns were compared across age-groups. Survival analysis was used to validate women's long-term use pattern as an indicator of pregnancy risk, and multivariate regression analyses were used to explore potential covariates of current patterns of contraceptive use. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of women aged 15-19 report long-term uninterrupted contraceptive use, but they are more likely to report sporadic use and less likely to report uninterrupted use of a very effective method than are women aged 25-34. Compared with women aged 25-34, women aged 20-24 have higher rates of sporadic use and lower rates of effective uninterrupted use. Among teenagers, nonusers are 12 times as likely as uninterrupted effective users to experience an unintended pregnancy within 12 months at risk. Women in less stable relationships, those having more infrequent intercourse and women who have recently experienced nonvoluntary intercourse for the first time are more likely than others to have a high-risk contraceptive pattern. Women aged 17 and younger whose current partner is more than three years older are significantly less likely to practice contraception than are their peers whose partner is closer in age. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term contraceptive use pattern is a valid predictor of unintended pregnancy risk. Policies aimed at reducing unintended pregnancies should target women who do not practice contraception and those who are sporadic users. Women in unstable relationships, those having infrequent sex and women who experience sexual coercion need access to methods, such as emergency contraception, that can be used sporadically or after unprotected intercourse.  (+info)

Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyurethane condom: results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial. (8/635)

CONTEXT: Condoms made of latex are not comfortable or appropriate for all consumers. Polyurethane condoms may provide a needed alternative. METHODS: In a double-masked study, 805 monogamous couples were randomized to use either the polyurethane condom or the latex condom for six months. Couples recorded the frequency of intercourse, of condom use and of breakage and slippage throughout the trial in coital diaries and in detailed reports on the first five uses. Breakage and slippage rates were determined, and typical-use and consistent-use pregnancy rates were calculated using life-table analysis, adjusted for use of emergency contraception. RESULTS: The six-month pregnancy rate during typical use (adjusted for use of emergency contraception) was 4.8% for the polyurethane condom and 6.3% for the latex condom. Similarly adjusted pregnancy rates during consistent use over six completed menstrual cycles--2.4% for the polyurethane condom and 1.1% for the latex condom--did not differ significantly. Clinical failure rates (including breakage and slippage occurring during either intercourse or withdrawal) were 8.5% for the polyurethane condom and 1.6% for the latex condom. In general, male participants were more satisfied with the latex condom, and users of latex were significantly less likely to drop out of the study for condom-related reasons than were users of polyurethane. CONCLUSIONS: Although polyurethane and latex condoms provide equivalent levels of contraceptive protection, the polyurethane condom's higher frequency of breakage and slippage suggests that this condom may confer less protection from sexually transmitted infections than does the latex condom.  (+info)

Globally, contraceptive technologies have been critical to improving the reproductive lives of women. This thesis examined the decision-making processes among couples in Kwara State, Nigeria. It began with the premise that contraceptive decision-making is a complex process that involves an array of actors and structural forces that operate and intersect at different levels to influence decision-making. Using a mixed method qualitative approach, this thesis used interviews (semi-structured and Key informant), Focus Group Discussions and participant observation as research tools to provide a nuanced exploration of contraceptive decision-making. The promotion of smaller families by the State served as a precondition for contraceptive discussions collectively within the population and individually within the household. Contraceptive knowledge proved insufficient in guaranteeing use, as the decision to use contraception is not a rational process. Decision-making is gendered and this thesis argued ...
A critical element in preventing unwanted and mistimed births, and in reducing the need for induced abortions, is the proportion of couples adopting a contraceptive method who continue to use it or another method.1,2 Analyses of survey data have demonstrated that contraceptive discontinuation is common.2-4 In a comparative analysis of contraceptive histories collected in
AIM: This paper is a report of the findings of a study to examine the effects of application of the Contraceptive Behavior Change model on knowledge, attitudes, perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy (SE), stages of change (SOC) and contracep
Background: Unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection are issues of significant concern to young people. Limited data exists on contraceptive decision-making and practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people in low resource settings with generalized HIV epidemics. Methods: From July 2007 until April 2009, we recruited, and followed up over a one year period, a cohort of 501 HIV-negative and 276 HIV-infected young women and men aged 15-24 years residing in Kampala and Wakiso districts. We compared contraceptive use among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people and assessed factors associated with contraceptive decision-making and use, using multivariate logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Contraceptive use among sexually active HIV-infected young people was 34% while it was 59% among the HIV-negative group. The condom was the most frequently used method of contraception. Only 24% of the HIV-infected used condoms ...
Contraceptive behavior has been an important area of study for many years due to ever increasing rates of unwanted pregnancies. Many variables have been found to be related to contraceptive behaviors. In the area of HIV protective sexual behavior, however, the search for variables predicting these behaviors has just begun in the last twelve to fifteen years. The current study attempted to combine variables important in both areas of study in order to yield a more accurate prediction of HIV protective sexual behaviors. Additionally, the Health Belief Model was used to organize the literature pertaining to contraceptive and HIV protective sexual behavior and the variables which have been associated with these behaviors. It was found that many of these variables, both individually and in combination, are associated with contraceptive and AIDS protective behavior. Support was found for the external modifiers of social network influences, religiosity, and substance use; the internal modifiers of ...
Results 42,210 women used NI-LARC (26.2%), 79,380 women used other contraceptive methods (49.3%), 39,403 women had no method (24.5%); 2,339 women had an abortion (1.5%). The highest proportion of women who had an abortion was reached within first month of exposure: 0.08% of women using NI-LARC, 1.34% of those using other contraceptive methods and 2.63% of those not on contraception. The adjusted hazard ratios for risk of abortions were 17.5 (CI 13.1-23.4) times higher in women who were not on contraception and 12.6 (9.5-16.9) times higher in women using other contraceptive methods, compared to those who used NI- LARC. ...
The early 20th century witnessed a revolution in contraceptive behaviour as the large Victorian family disappeared. This book offers a new perspective on the gender relations, sexual attitudes, and contraceptive practices that accompanied the emergence of the smaller family in modern Britain. It draws on a range of first-hand evidence, including over 190 oral history interviews, in which individuals born between 1900 and 1930 described their marriages and sexual relationships. It challenges many of the key conditions envisaged by demographers and historians as necessary for any significant reduction in average family size to take place. The book demonstrates that a massive expansion in birth control took place in a society in which sexual ignorance was widespread; that effective family limitation was achieved without the mass adoption of new contraceptive technologies; that traditional methods, such as withdrawal, abstinence, and abortion were often seen as preferable to modern appliances, such as
House Republicans refuse to allow even one woman to testify in favor of contraceptive coverage at a hearing on Obamas health care bill this morning.
It is true that many of the bishops in the United States have been slumbering for a while. But things like this tend to wake them up, and lead them to remember their patrimony, the witness (in Greek martyr) of those who have gone before -- Peter and Paul and Stephen and Lawrence and Sebastian and Polycarp and Ignatius and Agnes and Lucy and Cecilia and Perpetua and Felicity and countless others -- of how the Church was born out of persecution, from Herod to Pilate to Nero to Diocletian and onward. The remember as their brother bishops in places like Poland and England and Germany and China and Vietnam and Mexico were arrested, imprisoned, and killed while the governments there sought to impose their will on the Church. They remember the Soviet KGB-arranged shooting of Pope John Paul II ...
It is true that many of the bishops in the United States have been slumbering for a while. But things like this tend to wake them up, and lead them to remember their patrimony, the witness (in Greek martyr) of those who have gone before -- Peter and Paul and Stephen and Lawrence and Sebastian and Polycarp and Ignatius and Agnes and Lucy and Cecilia and Perpetua and Felicity and countless others -- of how the Church was born out of persecution, from Herod to Pilate to Nero to Diocletian and onward. The remember as their brother bishops in places like Poland and England and Germany and China and Vietnam and Mexico were arrested, imprisoned, and killed while the governments there sought to impose their will on the Church. They remember the Soviet KGB-arranged shooting of Pope John Paul II ...
Hi guys, Its been 1 year since my partial vestibulectomy and during that time Ive had another surgery to my anterior vestibule glands. Everything was fine u
Carl Friedrich Bolz ,cfbolz at gmx.de, added the comment: Modified: pypy/trunk/pypy/objspace/descroperation.py pypy/trunk/pypy/objspace/test/test_descroperation.py Log: issue516 resolved (Antoine Pitrou) Fix special method choice algorithm for old-style classes _______________________________________________________ PyPy development tracker ,pypy-dev-issue at codespeak.net, ,https://codespeak.net/issue/pypy-dev/issue516 ...
Im a scientist, so my thoughts on sex and contraception are fairly straightforward. People will have sex because we are animals with the desire to procreate and further the species. Plus it feels good. Therefore, women should be able to choose when and how they want to have children, so everyone (yes, including teenagers) should have access to safe birth control options. This whole debate on contraception and whether it should be covered for everyone in the country is just such ludicrous banter. I just dont understand the Republican rhetoric on government because most of the time it says, "Stay off my lawn and out of my life", but heres a case where they are trying to be in every womans vagina. Honestly, I dont care what you do in your life. Of course, I care about my family and friends, but honestly, what you do with your life, your family and your health is YOUR concern, not mine. If you want to take birth control, like nearly 90% of women will at some point in their lives, then I believe ...
If you miss pills you could get pregnant. If you forget 1 or 2 pills, take 1 pill as soon as you remember. Then take the next pill at the regular time. This may mean that you take 2 pills in one day. If you forget to take 3 pills, 3 days in a row, take 1 pill right away. Then take 1 pill each day at the regular time. If you are using a 28-day packet of pills, take only the hormone pills and skip the sugar pills, then start taking hormone pills from a new packet. If you are using a 21-day packet, start a new packet as soon as you finish the one you are taking now. Use condoms (or do not have sex) until you have taken a pill for 7 days in a row. If you forget to take more than 3 pills, stop taking the pills and wait for your next monthly bleeding. Use condoms (or do not have sex) for the rest of your cycle. Then start a new packet. Late or missed pills may cause some bleeding, like a very light monthly bleeding. ...
This should have been expected. Economic demography can be a most frustrating subject. Itwould seemthat for any theoretical inference, nomatter howinnocuous, there is some set of data from some part of the world over some period that is not consonant with it. 23 Over 40 years of demographic research have uncovered that the factors underlying fertility behaviour include not only the techniques that are available to households for controlling their size, but also the household demand for children. The latter in particular is influenced by a number of factors (e.g. ...
Researchers say progestin-only birth control, as well as other contraceptives, are safe to use and shouldnt cause depression in the women who use them.
The prevalence of contraceptive use among women attending CWCs in Sunyani Municipal is quite impressive. Educational background and discussing FP during ANC were associated with current contraceptive use, while discussing FP during CWC, desire to space children and current contraceptive use were significant determinants of clients intention to use contraception in the future. Spousal communication on FP and previous contraceptive use were predictive of both current uptake and intention to adopt FP in the future.. The contraceptive prevalence of 50% among women attending CWC in Sunyani Municipality within 24 months of delivery is much higher than the rate of 27% among currently married women reported in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) [5], and 39% of postpartum women within 2-12 months of delivery who had been referred to KATH [7]. The higher contraceptive use in the current study could be attributed to the higher proportion of women in their peak reproductive ages of 20-39 ...
Given the 7.8 million births prevented by contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa in 2002 and an HIV prevalence of 7.4%,9 current contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa prevents an estimated 577 200 unplanned births to HIV infected mothers. Assuming a 30% vertical transmission rate in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, we estimate that current contraceptive use prevents over 173 000 unintended HIV infected infants each year in sub-Saharan Africa, or 474 HIV infected infants per day. Current coverage of MTCT programmes would have a minimal effect on this estimated number of infant HIV infections since the weighted coverage of MTCT programmes for Africa is 5%,10 and less than one sixth of HIV positive women with access to MTCT programmes take antiretrovirals.. Approximately 640 000 children were newly infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa during 2003.9 Without any contraceptive use, this number would be 813 000 children. Thus, current contraceptive use is already averting approximately ...
Contraceptive discontinuation-ceasing to use ones current method of contraception-is common, though rates vary widely by country.
Jordan has a higher fertility rate (3.8) than the averages of countries similar in income to Jordan (2.2) and compared to the Middle East and North Africa region as a whole (2.8) (WHO, WB, UNICEF, & DHS, 2011). The findings of the 2009 Jordanian Population and Family Health Survey demonstrated that the total fertility rate (TFR) has stopped declining in the country since 2002 (DOS, 2010b; USAID, 2010). The prevalence of contraceptive use has also shown little change in Jordan over the last decade (DOS, 2010b; USAID, 2010). Given that contraception is one of the proximate determinants of fertility (Rahayu et al., 2009), the main purpose of this study was to investigate which factors are contributing to womens current contraceptive behavior and intention for future contraceptive use. Research questions were developed in a comprehensive framework that considers womens intention and actual behavior as outcomes of various interactive factors within a socio-cultural context. In particular, the ...
Births among adolescents account for 13 percent of all births in the United States. Adolescents most commonly use contraception at the time of first intercourse but then often do not use contraception as sexual activity increases. Davtyan reviews contraception issues in adolescents and discusses some of the misconceptions adolescents may have about contraception.. The author performed a MEDLINE search of the literature from 1980 to 1999 to gather information on contraception. The author notes that misconceptions about the risks of contraception, fear of the pelvic examination and concerns about confidentiality keep many teenagers from seeking advice from their physicians. Better communication with adolescents can help overcome some of these barriers. Most teens would like to discuss contraception and sexually transmitted diseases with their physicians, but most clinicians do not bring up these topics. Physicians are legally protected when providing diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted ...
Question - Had an abortion, on contraceptives. Started bleeding after intercourse, heavy with pain. Anything wrong ?. Ask a Doctor about Abortion, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
This is a prospective cohort study to evaluate a) the effectiveness of the referral system from Family Medicine to the CTIS Pregnancy Health Information Line, and b) the impact of specialized counseling on contraceptive behavior change among the subset of women who accept the counseling and enroll in the follow-up study.. If a woman of reproductive age is seen by a Family Medicine clinician and she is currently taking or is newly prescribed one of the target medications, an EMR electronic alert will be generated for the clinician. The alert will say This patient may benefit from a referral to the CTIS Pregnancy Health Information Line for counseling, click Accept or Decline. If the Family Medicine clinician clicks Decline then a reason must be given for declining. If the clinician decides a referral is appropriate, he/she clicks Accept and informs the patient that she will be contacted by CTIS. The referral is also included in the patient instructions. Within one week, a CTIS counselor ...
In sub-Saharan Africa, large-scale measurements (for an entire country or region) show that the use of modern contraceptive methods is increasing, but slowly, giving the impression that change in this field will inevitably take time. To gain a better understanding of the reasons why the spread is so slow, particularly in rural areas, we made a detailed study of the history of contraception in a rural community in Bandafassi, Senegal. Using several information sources we were able to track the increase in contraceptive use year by year and examine the factors at work. The study presented here shows that, contrary to received wisdom, contraceptive use can spread rapidly in a rural area of Africa with few socioeconomic advantages, but that its diffusion is difficult to measure due to considerable under-reporting, and is by no means guaranteed over the long term ...
The overall aim of this thesis was to study knowledge, attitudes and experience of emergency contraceptive pills among women and providers.. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Focus-group interviews were conducted with teenage-girls (I) and with women who had purchased ECP without prescription (IV). Self-administered waiting-room questionnaires were administered to women presenting for induced abortion in three large hospitals (II, III), and after the deregulation of ECP, a postal questionnaire was sent to pharmacy staff and nurse-midwives in three counties in mid-Sweden (V).. Overall, women showed high basic awareness of ECP although specific knowledge such as the level of effectiveness, time-frames and how the method works was lacking. Approval of the method was high and most women were positive to use the method if they needed. Contradictory views as to whether ECP undermines contraceptive behavior were expressed. As many as 43% of women requesting induced abortion had a ...
St. Charles, Missouri (CNN) -- Rick Santorum opened a new front Tuesday in his battle to paint Mitt Romney as moderate who sided with Democrats on key issues, accusing the former Massachusetts governor of mandating that hospitals provide emergency contraception to rape victims.
St. Charles, Missouri (CNN) -- Rick Santorum opened a new front Tuesday in his battle to paint Mitt Romney as moderate who sided with Democrats on key issues, accusing the former Massachusetts governor of mandating that hospitals provide emergency contraception to rape victims.
About 40 per cent of women surveyed cited health concerns and fear of side effects as the primary reason behind their decision not to use contraception, the study, based on 10 years of data from the Cambodian Demographic and Health surveys, found. Meanwhile, close to 47 per cent of women cited infrequent sex, lack of fertility, or a desire to get pregnant as the reasons behind their decision ...
ANU MANCHIKANTI GÓMEZ is assistant professor at the School of Social Welfare and director of the Sexual Health and Reproductive Equity (SHARE) Program.. For more than 15 years, Dr. Gómez has worked as a health equity researcher with a focus on reproduction and sexuality throughout the life course. She has conducted research both in the US and globally on diverse topics, including contraceptive use, abortion, HIV prevention, gender equity, transgender health and violence against women and children. Dr. Gómezs current research focuses on three areas: (1) the measurement and meaning of pregnancy planning; (2) understanding contraceptive decision-making within social, relational and structural contexts; and (3) evaluating the impact of and evidence base for policies related to reproductive health. She also serves as a co-PI on SOLARS, a prospective, longitudinal cohort study funded by UCSFs Preterm Birth Initiative. SOLARS aims to describe the relationship between psychosocial stress and ...
Contraception Why Not by Dr. Janet E Smith. My topic for tonight is the Churchs teaching on contraception and various sexual issues. As you know, we live in a culture that thinks that contraception is one of the greatest inventions in the history of mankind. If you were to ask people if they wanted to…
Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/. STEVE INSKEEP, HOST: On a Friday morning, it's MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. I'm
The difference between contraception and birth control lies in usage. The major difference is that contraception refers to the devices used to prevent unwanted preganncies and birth control is the process by which unwanted pregnancies are controlled.
Although the drugs you are taking are intended to help you, they can be harmful to those around you. Make sure that a professional who oversees your treatment has given you all the necessary precautions. Taking this medication during pregnancy may be harmful for the baby. Women of childbearing potential should use an effective contraceptive method. Pregnant women should not use this product. If youre planning a pregnancy or become pregnant, contact your family doctor. This medication may interact with other medications or supplements, sometimes significantly. Many interactions, however, may be dealt with by a dosage adjustment or a change in medication schedule. Check with your pharmacist before using this medication in combination with any other medications (including non-prescription products), vitamins or natural products. This information handout only provides an overview of your treatment. Given the complex nature of your treatment, you will receive information that is much more ...
Taking this medication during pregnancy may be harmful for the baby. Women of childbearing potential and men who are taking the medication should use an effective contraceptive method during treatment and for several months after the end of it. Ask your healthcare professional for details. This medication may interact with other medications or supplements, sometimes significantly. Many interactions, however, may be dealt with by a dosage adjustment or a change in medication schedule. Check with your pharmacist before using this medication in combination with any other medications (including non-prescription products), vitamins or natural products. Although the drugs you are taking are intended to help you, they can be harmful to those around you. Make sure that a professional who oversees your treatment has given you all the necessary precautions. Blood donation is usually refused during this treatment. This information handout only provides an overview of your treatment. Given the complex ...
Taking this medication during pregnancy may be harmful for the baby. Women of childbearing potential and men who are taking the medication should use an effective contraceptive method during treatment and for several months after the end of it. Ask your healthcare professional for details. Although the drugs you are taking are intended to help you, they can be harmful to those around you. Make sure that a professional who oversees your treatment has given you all the necessary precautions. This information handout only provides an overview of your treatment. Given the complex nature of your treatment, you will receive information that is much more comprehensive and that deals specifically with your needs. Make sure that you have all the relevant information regarding your medication. ...
Taking this medication during pregnancy may be harmful for the baby. Women of childbearing potential and men who are taking the medication should use an effective contraceptive method. Although the drugs you are taking are intended to help you, they can be harmful to those around you. Make sure that a professional who oversees your treatment has given you all the necessary precautions. This medication may interact with other medications or supplements, sometimes significantly. Many interactions, however, may be dealt with by a dosage adjustment or a change in medication schedule. Check with your pharmacist before using this medication in combination with any other medications (including non-prescription products), vitamins or natural products. This information handout only provides an overview of your treatment. Given the complex nature of your treatment, you will receive information that is much more comprehensive and that deals specifically with your needs. Make sure that you have all the ...
MHRP researchers examined contraceptive use in women who were enrolled in a phase I/IIa HIV clinical trial in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. The results were recently published on PLoS One, an open-access online journal.
Two years ago, a letter was sent to every US bishop with the latest research findings on Plan B, Dr. Kahlenborn said, ". . . and I didnt hear from anybody. I was frustrated. Whats wrong? Whats the problem? Are they just all afraid?". Planned Parenthood and other womens abortion centers dispense Plan B at no cost and encourage women to "have some on hand in case you need it." The Catholic Health Association, which has taken positions contrary to Church teaching on issues such as the Health and Human Services mandate on contraception coverage in Obamacare health insurance plans has stated that it does not consider Plan B an abortifacient but emergency contraception.. "Plan B should be challenged, especially given the pro-life stance of the current administration, since abortion pills should not be sold over the counter to anyone, especially teenagers," Dr. Kahlenborn said.. Dr. Kahlenborn remains convinced that the influential National Catholic Bioethics Center based in Philadelphia has the ...
There is a growing need for data on contraceptive efficacy in obese women. This article details the current state of knowledge in this regard.
A female subject of childbearing potential who is sexually active agrees to use adequate contraception from Screening throughout the duration of the study, and for 30 days after the last dose of study drug. Male subjects should agree to use contraception for the duration of the study, and for 30 days after the last dose of study drug ...
As shown in Diagram B, the uterine lining is at an "optimal state for implantation" when the glands and arteries are at their maximum size. This makes intuitive sense since, at this point, the blood supply and glycogen and lipid levels that the preborn child needs to survive are at their maximal state. Researchers who study the histology of the endometrium find that the BCP causes a number of changes to the endometrium. First, the spiral arteries regress significantly to the point where they are much smaller and may even be difficult to find under a microscope.21-24 This is important, since an adequate blood supply is critical to the existence of the implanting preborn child. A loss of blood flow means a drastic curtailment in the food and oxygen supply needed for the childs survival. The blood flow to the endometrium is so important that in 1996 Kupesic wrote directly about its relationship to a preborn childs likelihood of implantation.25 She found that the blood flow through the spiral ...
I need help . I tried having sex on the 21st of january and did not use contraception. I dont know if my boyfriend went in and broke my virginity but i felt that his penis was in.
(HealthDay)-The U.S. Supreme Courts ruling on contraception coverage-as mandated under the Affordable Care Act-could lead to a legal quagmire that might allow companies to deny insurance coverage for any medical practice ...
Condoms remain the best contraceptive for people concerned about contracting AIDS, says a Geneva-based expert on the spread of the disease.Compared with other contraceptives such as the diaphragm,
What is contraception? Birth control and contraception are terms used to refer to ways to prevent pregnancy. There are many ways to prevent pregnancy...
My wife and I had unprotected sex about 1-2 weeks ago. It was unprotected but I pulled out. The day after around 4pm she took a plan b pill. She took the second the next morning at 4:00 am. (12 hour pe...
Many Catholic colleges are pushing back against a ruling by the Obama administration that the new health care law requires insurance plans at Catholic institutions to cover birth control.
Question posted in: lutera, birth control, contraception, side effect - Additional details: I have a feeling it wont, but I thought I would ask just ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the determinants of use of modern contraceptive among married women in Ethiopia. Our study is based on the data taken from a nationally representative survey EDHS of 2011. The sample includes 9,438 married women aged 15-49 years. Cross tabulations were carried out at the bivariate level to assess the association between contraceptive use and each of the explanatory variables and binary multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing modem contraceptive use among married women in Ethiopia. The bivariate analysis reveals statistically significant association between all explanatory variables i.e age of woman, region, religion, place of residence, education level of woman, number of living children, desire for more children, wealth status, and decision maker for modern contraception, educational level of husband, modern contraceptive knowledge and exposure to media. Results for binary multiple logistic regression analysis reveals
Early childbearing and unintended or mistimed pregnancy have been linked to negative outcomes for maternal-child health, education, and family well-being. In the Dominican Republic, contraceptive use varies by province, ranging from 59.7% to 81.8% of women in unions. This study explores the importance of spatial effects on contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in the Dominican Republic. Using spatial analytic techniques with two recent national-level datasets (2007 DHS and 2006 SIGpas3), I examine whether access to health services and educational resources explain province-level variation in modern contraceptive use. I conduct exploratory spatial analysis and estimate geographically weighed regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation. Independent variables include socioeconomic conditions, female workforce participation, distance to health care facilities, and proximity to primary and secondary schools. Preliminary results suggest coefficients for the association of ...
Background Although social norms are thought to play an important role in couples reproductive decisions, only limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. Using the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB), through a mixed-method design, we investigated the role played by injunctive norms and interpersonal discussion in the relationship between descriptive norms and use of modern contraceptive methods among the urban poor in India. Methods Data from a household survey (N = 11,811) were used to test the underlying theoretical propositions, and focus group interviews among men and women were then conducted to obtain more in-depth knowledge about decision-making processes related to modern contraceptive use. Results Spousal influence and interpersonal communication emerged as key factors in decision-making, waning in the later years of marriage, and they also moderated the influence of descriptive norms on behaviors. Norms around contraceptive use, which
|div id=teaser class=fragment teaser ||div class=p|Everything NICE has said on contraceptive services, long-acting reversible contraception and sterilisation in an interactive flowchart|/div||/div|
This program explains birth control. Birth control is also known as contraception. The program includes the following sections: how does pregnancy happen, what is contraception, what are contraceptive implantable devices, what are hormonal methods of birth control and the birth control pill, what are barrier methods of birth control, what is spermicide and what are methods of sterilization.
SkidRow is the kinda person who said Bob McDonnell was not going to get all crazy conservative on social issues last time too; yet he did with the ultrasound bill and his support of medically unnecessary rules, spoken against by all major doctors association, on womens clinics that are nothing more than a backdoor abortion ban attempt. Dont be fooled again. Cuccinellis whole focus as AG has been social issues mostly limiting abortion, forms of contraception, and suppressing gay equality. The personhood bill would in fact ban most forms of the pill and the day after pill because they prevent a fertilized egg from attaching tot he uterine wall. Under his bill that egg has the rights though it is nothing more than a clump of cells. Not to mention it would ban all forms of currently legal abortion even is stages before the fetus has formed a brain or other organs. All based in his personal religious belief; that would make this religious based law. We dont need the state wasting money on this ...
Sex education, awso cawwed "Sexuawity Education" or informawwy "Sex Ed" is education about human sexuaw anatomy, sexuaw reproduction, sexuaw intercourse, human sexuaw behavior, and oder aspects of sexuawity, such as body image, sexuaw orientation, dating, and rewationships. Common avenues for sex education are parents, caregivers, friends, schoow programs, rewigious groups, popuwar media, and pubwic heawf campaigns.. Sexuaw education is not awways taught de same in every country. For exampwe, in France sex education has been part of schoow curricuwa since 1973. Schoows are expected to provide 30 to 40 hours of sex education, and pass out condoms to students in grades eight and nine. In January, 2000, de French government waunched an information campaign on contraception wif TV and radio spots and de distribution of five miwwion weafwets on contraception to high schoow students.[60]. In Germany, sex education has been part of schoow curricuwa since 1970. Since 1992 sex education is by waw a ...
Sex education, awso cawwed "Sexuawity Education" or informawwy "Sex Ed" is education about human sexuaw anatomy, sexuaw reproduction, sexuaw intercourse, human sexuaw behavior, and oder aspects of sexuawity, such as body image, sexuaw orientation, dating, and rewationships. Common avenues for sex education are parents, caregivers, friends, schoow programs, rewigious groups, popuwar media, and pubwic heawf campaigns.. Sexuaw education is not awways taught de same in every country. For exampwe, in France sex education has been part of schoow curricuwa since 1973. Schoows are expected to provide 30 to 40 hours of sex education, and pass out condoms to students in grades eight and nine. In January, 2000, de French government waunched an information campaign on contraception wif TV and radio spots and de distribution of five miwwion weafwets on contraception to high schoow students.[60]. In Germany, sex education has been part of schoow curricuwa since 1970. Since 1992 sex education is by waw a ...
Refers to hormonal methods of birth control including the birth control pill, implant/">the implant, and IUDs. See hormonal contraceptives ...
Looking for Artificial contraception? Find out information about Artificial contraception. practice of contraception for the purpose of limiting reproduction. Male birth control methods include withdrawal of the male before ejaculation and use of... Explanation of Artificial contraception
Washington, DC - In new guidance out today, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) underscored the importance of beginning the conversation between provider and patient about contraception during adolescence. Contraception plays a vital role in womens health care, from preventing pregnancy to management of chronic conditions. Most women will use contraception off and on for over 30 years.. By the 12th grade, more than half of young women report having had sex. In an effort to provide anticipatory guidance, discussions about contraception, sexually transmitted disease prevention, and other sexual health issues should begin before a girl has become sexually active, ideally during the first reproductive health visit between ages 13-15. However, regardless of a patients age or previous sexual activity, contraceptive counseling should be a routine part of every visit.. "Contraception should be a conversation with patients as early as appropriate," said Committee Opinion ...
Special consideration: Adolescents In general, adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and must have access to a variety of contraceptive choices. Age alone does not constitute a medical reason for denying any method to adolescents. While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents. For example, in some settings, adolescents are also at increased risk for STIs, ...
The justices are considering challenges to a part of the health care law from the owners of Hobby Lobby and Conestoga Wood Specialties, who say they try to run their businesses on religious principles.
Many topics that pertain to the sanctity of the human life are very controversial issues in religions all over the world. It is often debated whether or not humans should have the authority to control the rate of birth of our own species, based on our ability to stop fertilization from happening without abstaining from sexual conduct. Contraception is defined as the prevention of fertilization, during or after sexual activity. It refers to the use of contraceptives including (but not limited to) birth control, condoms, cervical caps, spermicide, IUD, diaphragm, oral contraceptive pills and the "morning after" pill. These methods of contraception are used for various reasons, for example, limiting the number of children a married couple has, for purposes of not damaging their living standards. Another reason for contraception may apply to couples who have a sexual relationship, but have no desire for children at that stage in their lives. A more severe and legitimate reason is when the physical ...
A group of pro-choice Catholics is urging Prime Minister Stephen Harper to include abortion and contraception in his controversial G8 maternal health policy.. The American-based organization Catholics for Choice, which has about 100 members in its Canadian branch, has penned a letter to Harper that says Catholics around the world support access to family planning as a matter of personal choice and that millions of good Catholics use contraception.. We urge the Canadian government to return to its leading role in advocating for family planning, including in the G8 agreement on maternal health, the letter reads. In so doing, the government will have the support of Catholics domestically and internationally in your efforts to help reduce maternal mortality.. Rosemary Ganley, coordinator of Catholics for Choice Canada, signed the letter jointly with the groups American president. She said members of Catholics for Choice use theological principles of Catholicism - such as primacy of ...
ABSTRACT: Unintended pregnancy remains a major public health problem in the United States. Access and cost issues are common reasons why women either do not use contraception or have gaps in use. A potential way to improve contraceptive access and use, and possibly decrease unintended pregnancy rates, is to allow over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives (OCs). Screening for cervical cancer or sexually transmitted infections is not medically required to provide hormonal contraception. Concerns include payment for pharmacist services, payment for over-the-counter OCs by insurers, and the ... ...
We are proud to partner with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Population Services International to fund a new approach to adolescent reproductive health. We are making this commitment to help improve the lives and health of thousands of young women. Adolescents 360 is a $30 million joint-investment to fund modern contraceptive use and reduce unplanned pregnancy among young girls aged between 15-19 in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Nigeria. It will fund programs developed by young people, for young people that respond to adolescents specific needs in obtaining contraceptives. Pregnancy at such a young age, robs girls of the chance to live her healthiest and most productive life. In low- and middle-income countries, pregnancy complications is a leading cause of death for teenage girls. Read more.
The background to the study is given. It aimed to identify the characteristics of the women most likely to use/not use modern methods of contraception in Malawi. The study used information from 9074 women who were interviewed as part of the 2000 Malawi demographic and health survey. Results, conclusions and policy implications are briefly presented. ...
Contraception is once again up for serious public debate in the United States. How much fun is that?. Yes, fun. For years, feminists have been warning that, underneath all the attacks on womens reproductive rights-the multiplying restrictions on abortion, the attempts to defund Planned Parenthoods health services, the "conscience clauses" that let pharmacists choose which pills theyll dispense-lies a determined opposition to contraception and to womens independence generally. The mainstream media rolled their eyes at feminist paranoia and moved on. Care to question those warnings now? Not after Senator Rick Santorum announced that states should be free to ban birth control, decrying "the dangers of contraception in this country, the whole sexual libertine idea." Or after Representative Darrell Issa convened a congressional panel on contraception coverage (er, "religious liberty") with no women on it. Or after Rush Limbaugh spent three days vilifying a buttoned-up Georgetown law student-who ...
In particular, young women who could become pregnant, pregnant women and couples considering pregnancy need to be cautious because Zika virus can cause severe birth defects. Couples planning pregnancy when either partner has been exposed to Zika virus should speak with a health care provider about a safe time to try to get pregnant. A health care provider can also provide information on the most effective contraceptive methods. Pregnant women are urged to avoid travel to areas with known Zika transmission if at all possible. If travel is necessary, it is extremely important to take steps to prevent mosquito bites ...
On the day we talked about contraception, the second professor started by saying, "So its clear where the tradition stands on contraception. But I think its ok." When the few Catholic students in the class and I asked her why, she said, "I dont have a theological reason why, I just dont think theres anything wrong with it from my experience." She said she was concerned that the Pill was sometimes abortifacient and so was against its use, but she recommended the use of barrier methods. She said she thought sex did have the dual purpose of unity of the couple and the procreation of children, but that the procreative aspect didnt have to be present every time. I pointed out that any barrier method would be putting a physical separation between the spouses and thus disrupting the unitive aspect as well (its called the "barrier" method after all). Since throughout the course she had repeatedly said that we needed to take our human physicality seriously in our theology, I thought this would be ...
Buy Birth Control Pill or contraception at the best price from Pharmacy online. We offer great-value generics, without ever compromising on quality.
The birth control ring NuvaRing is a hormonal method of birth control, like birth control pills or the Evra patch. The ring contains synthetic forms of the female hormones progesterone and estrogen. Each month, a new ring is placed in the vagina, where it releases a continuous low dose of hormones that prevent ovulation. It is left in place for three weeks, then removed. Seven days later, a new ring is inserted.. The ring is as effective as the birth control pill: about 99 per cent effective with perfect use. Some women may find it easier to insert and remove a ring once a month than to take a pill every day. The ring does not protect you and your partner from sexually transmitted infections.. Using the ring. The ring is about two inches in diameter and flexible. The woman inserts a ring into her vagina and leaves it in place for three weeks. After three weeks, the woman removes the ring on the same day of the week and at the same time it was inserted. For example, if the ring was inserted on a ...
Teens who are in abusive relationships are at increased risk of long-term consequences, including poor academic performance, binge drinking and suicide attempts. The emotional impact of unhealthy relationships may also be lasting, increasing the likelihood of future unhappy, violent relationships.. The lessons teens learn today about respect, healthy relationships, and what is right or wrong will carry over into their future relationships. Its important to talk with your teen now about what does and doesnt constitute a healthy relationship.. If your teen becomes sexually active - whether you think he or she is ready or not - it may be more important than ever to keep the conversation going. State your feelings openly and honestly. Remind your teen that you expect him or her to take sex and the associated responsibilities seriously.. Stress the importance of safe sex, and make sure your teen understands how to get and use contraception. You might talk about keeping a sexual relationship ...
Donald Trump opened the floodgates to discrimination in the name of religion with his so-called "religious freedom" executive order. The first wave has arrived - and its a direct attack on contraception access.. Trumps new rules threaten to gut the benefit ensuring that all insurance plans cover birth control at no cost - all under the guise of religious "liberty." No one should have to pay for their bosses religious beliefs. Thats why the ACLU is suing the Trump administration - and why we need you to take action now.. The rule must go through a public comment process - which means that we have a key moment to raise our voices and make this rule so toxic that they have to drop it.. The Affordable Care Act contraceptive benefit was meant to advance womens health and equality. But the new rule proves once again that womens health and equality are not on the Trump administrations agenda. Here are some lowlights:. ...
Donald Trump opened the floodgates to discrimination in the name of religion with his so-called "religious freedom" executive order. The first wave has arrived - and its a direct attack on contraception access.. Trumps new rules threaten to gut the benefit ensuring that all insurance plans cover birth control at no cost - all under the guise of religious "liberty." No one should have to pay for their bosses religious beliefs. Thats why the ACLU is suing the Trump administration - and why we need you to take action now.. The rule must go through a public comment process - which means that we have a key moment to raise our voices and make this rule so toxic that they have to drop it.. The Affordable Care Act contraceptive benefit was meant to advance womens health and equality. But the new rule proves once again that womens health and equality are not on the Trump administrations agenda. Here are some lowlights:. ...
​The terms post-partum and post-natal refer to the period of time immediately after giving birth, and for the next six weeks. Even if sex is the last thing on your mind at this time, contraception should be discussed - until your baby is 21 days old you cannot become pregnant but after that contraception is needed and fortunately there are now many choices available. The types of contraceptives can be divided into short-acting, long-acting and permanent. If you are planning on having another baby in the next year or so then you should consider a short-acting contraceptive.
There are many forms of contraception for women. For information on the different types of contraception and to buy discreetly online visit 121.doc.
However, if you are pregnant woman it is strongly recommended that you do not go. If you have a male partner who goes to the Olympics, it is also advised that you use condoms during sex for the remainder of your pregnancy.. If you are a woman thinking about becoming pregnant in the near future, you should speak to a doctor before travelling. Whilst in Brazil, you should use contraception to avoid getting pregnant.. Once you return home from Rio, you should wait eight weeks before you start trying for a baby, provided you have no symptoms. If you have any symptoms, you should wait eight weeks until after they have passed to try for a baby. Male partners, meanwhile, should wait six months if they have symptoms.. ...
Female participants of child-bearing potential must agree to use dual methods of contraception and have a negative serum pregnancy test at screening, and male participants must use an effective barrier method of contraception if sexually active with a female of child-bearing potential. For both male and female participants, effective methods of contraception must be used throughout the study and for four months following the last dose ...
If youre due to travel to a place where malaria is present, you should delay trying for a baby while youre taking anti-malaria medication.. Women of childbearing age are advised to use contraception to avoid becoming pregnant in countries that have malaria. This is because pregnant women have an increased risk of developing severe malaria and a higher risk of fatality compared with non-pregnant women.. The risk to pregnant women is increased even when taking malaria pills because:. ...
If youre due to travel to a place where malaria is present, you should delay trying for a baby while youre taking anti-malaria medication.. Women of childbearing age are advised to use contraception to avoid becoming pregnant in countries that have malaria. This is because pregnant women have an increased risk of developing severe malaria and a higher risk of fatality compared with non-pregnant women.. The risk to pregnant women is increased even when taking malaria pills because:. ...
If youre due to travel to a place where malaria is present, you should delay trying for a baby while youre taking anti-malaria medication.. Women of childbearing age are advised to use contraception to avoid becoming pregnant in countries that have malaria. This is because pregnant women have an increased risk of developing severe malaria and a higher risk of fatality compared with non-pregnant women.. The risk to pregnant women is increased even when taking malaria pills because:. ...
Learn extra about being 4 weeks pregnant. Please be aware that were unable to respond back on to your questions or present medical recommendation. Born two Birth Film Trailer. The strange earliest signs of pregnancy before a home test will work is my boobs are so sore, I only have trouble with painful breasts just before im due on so its a bit unusual. Another search was in relation to infants born at 24 weeks. I am not on contraception and my boyfriend and i do not use any contriceptives. Pregnancy causes an influx of hormones, which can result in your jumping from sad to indignant and again to blissful within the house of an hour. Schneider recommends that patients take a look at once they have missed their interval. However some girls report that this leaves them with an uncomfortable full feeling after intercourse ends. Thats 4 weeks, 30 syay, one-twelfth of a year. One thing that may take a while to gauge is greater than traditional physique temperature. Different causes include sperm ...
Pasha O, Goudar SS, Patel A, Garces A, Esamai F, Chomba E, Moore JL, Kodkany BS, Saleem S, Derman RJ, Liechty EA, Hibberd PL, Hambidge K, Krebs NF, Carlo WA, McClure EM, Koso-Thomas M, Goldenberg RL. Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning in five low-income countries. Reprod Health. 2015; 12 Suppl 2:S11 ...
The caregiver should be prepared to support the woman in the initiation and practice of breastfeeding (sections 6.3, 6.4), but also in many other problems that arise in the first week after birth, especially if the mother is primipara. The special problems of HIV positive women are discussed in section 8; they include the decisions on HIV testing and on infant feeding. Counselling on contraception should be offered in combination with the advice on breastfeeding (sections 7.2, 7.3, 7.5). Too often these two issues are dealt with separately by different persons, who dont know about the others advice. In case of anaemia, an iron preparation is prescribed to the mother. Rhesus negative women with a Rh positive infant should receive anti Rh-D (section 9.4). If the mother is known to be non-immune to rubella, immunization may be offered (section 9.5).. Nutritional advice and supplementation of pregnant and lactating women is a subject of special importance for those countries and regions with a ...
Generally it occurs in case you are on contraception. Girls may really feel worse when their stomach is empty, so it is a good pregnanfy to eat a number of small meals all through the day, and to maintain issues like crackers readily available to eat even before getting out of bed in the morning. This means that many women in India are already deficient in iron before they become pregnant. Have been having cramps just like period cramps and feeling very drained. You may discover relief from Safest asthma medication during pregnancy contractions in case you change positions. Your babys actions have gone from flutters to full-on kicks and jabs in opposition to the walls of your womb. Stags make their predictions, the group use an algorithm they developed by analysing eeek from 121 girls who were between 6 and 10 weeks pregnant. Because folks assume I am exposing slidrshow Pro-Selection movement for what they already assume it is all about. Gas and intestinal cramping can also accompany the deek. ...
Why, for instance, was the organisation of the piss up given to someone who charges 300 times the average going rate for media-based-booze-event-choreography than most firms? Is it just a co-incidence that the media and events management firm who specialise in huge piss ups is so close to the Blairs, when both the former Prime Minister and his barking wife have been so open in their dissent of Church teaching on contraception, the sanctity of marriage and even abortion? Why cant ordinary Catholics attend the event and have a serious word with the Successors of the Apostles about their apparent shameless lack of reverence for the Successor of St Peter, his Teaching Authority in matters of Faith and Morals and desire for liturgical renewal? Why is it that the majority of the tickets have been snapped up by the editorial team of The Tablet and the Bishops Conferences administrative team based in Eccleston Square ...
Hi guys, I have been with my partner for 8+ years, we havent been on contraception for pretty much all of it and never had any pregnancies unfortuna
ScienceDaily (Sep. 16, 2012) ? Chemists at UC San Diego have developed a method that for the first time provides scientists the ability to attach chemical probes onto proteins and subsequently remove them in a repeatable cycle. Their achievement, detailed in a paper that appears online this week in the...
ScienceDaily (Sep. 16, 2012) ? Chemists at UC San Diego have developed a method that for the first time provides scientists the ability to attach chemical probes onto proteins and subsequently remove them in a repeatable cycle. Their achievement, detailed in a paper that appears online this week in the...
On January 10th, 2020, Drs. Emily Godfrey and Jackie Yeh discussed contraception options for women with CF and dispelled contraception myths. When Emily worked for the CDC, she realized research assessing contraception in CF was lacking. Therefore, she has spent the past three years working with CFReSHC to help women with CF answer the questions important to them, such as: Does malabsorption affect my birth control pill? Do IV medications lessen the effectiveness of my birth control pill? Emily pointed out that CF clinics tend to focus on the lungs and not reproductive choices, so she is excited that CFReSHC is making an impact in the CF community. During the presentation, Emily and Jackie stressed the importance of birth control for women with CF and planning pregnancies to ensure optimal outcomes. They also discussed the different types of birth control options available. The pair suggested "Bedsider" as a resource as it details available types of contraception. Interestingly, studies indicate ...
The paper describes the second wave of the study Familienleitbilder in Germany. The aim of this study is to analyse how these cultural influences and normative notions shape the fertility behavior, partnerships, notions about the role of a mother or a father and other phenomena of family life.
Side effects of the contraceptive pill include depression, bloating, headaches and mood swings. Meet 4 women who stopped taking the pill and swapped to hormone-free contraception
Birth control is also known as contraception. It refers to the prevention of a pregnancy following sexual intercourse, and may involve physical barriers, hormonal manipulation, or surgical intervention. (Some people also include abortion and abstinence.)Contraception can be a controversial issue in terms of politics, religion and ethics.
There are many types of contraception available based on preference, goals, medical history, lifestyle and other factors. Discuss birth control with Jill Gibson, MD.
Long before there were condoms, birth control pills, and our modern contraceptives, our ancestors created their own ways to help prevent pregnancy.
You have a lot of options when it comes to birth control. Some methods dont require a doctors visit, but others, like oral contraceptives, are available only by prescription.
You have a lot of options when it comes to birth control. Some methods dont require a doctors visit, but others, like oral contraceptives, are available only by prescription.
Pope Francis has suggested women threatened with the Zika virus could use artificial contraception, saying avoiding pregnancy is not an absolute evil in light of the global epidemic.
Following the birth of your baby, it may take some time before you want to have sex again, or it may take no time at all. Every woman is different and there is no right or wrong way to feel.
According to a study, more women in there 40s are opting to delay motherhood. Has the emergence of contraception played a part in allowing such flexibility?
Marriage & Family: sexual behavior, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among married and unmarried people ... Education: children's academic achievement (K-12) and behavior in school and how families, communities, and schools help ... Teen Sex & Pregnancy: factors associated with risky adolescent sexual behavior and teenage pregnancy ... http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/early_years/2014/06/parenting_program_aimed_at_latinos_helps_boost_literacy_behaviors.html ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... a b c d e Bartol, Curt & Bartol, Anne (2009). Juvenile Delinquency and Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Perspective, 3rd ed ... a b c d Longo, R. E., Prescott, D. S. (2006). Introduction: A brief history of treating youth with sexual behavior problems. ... VIDING, E. 2004, "On the Nature and Nurture of Antisocial Behavior and Violence", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... Maternal oxytocin circulation is said to predispose women to bond and show bonding behavior, although this has been disputed. ... Kost K, Landry D, Darroch J (Mar-Apr 1998). "Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: Does intention status matter?". ...
"Contraception. 90 (2): 154-161. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.02.001. PMID 24835827. Retrieved 29 September 2015.. ... Gender and Behavior (1 ed.). 10. Retrieved 2 November 2015.. *^ a b Chireshe, Regis (2011). "Teaching as a Profession in ... "Trend in the use of modern contraception in sub-Saharan Africa: does women's education matter?". ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... "Contraception. 97 (1): 62-69. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.08.015.. *^ a b James Trussell; Anjana Lalla; Quan Doan; Eileen ... "Contraception. 79 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.003. PMC 3638200 . PMID 19041435.. ... doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.001. PMID 18692608.. *^ a b c Sharing Responsibility:Women, Society and Abortion Worldwide ...
Homosexual behavior[edit]. The Catholic Church teaches that all Catholics must practice chastity according to their states of ... Contraception[edit]. The Roman Catholic Church maintains its opposition to birth control. Some Roman Catholic Church members ... The Church requires members to eschew homosexual practices,[72] artificial contraception,[73] and sex out of wedlock, as well ... He writes that contraception "contradicts the will of the Author of life [God]. Hence to use this divine gift [sexual ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... Aggressive behavior has been associated with abnormalities in three principal regulatory systems in the body: serotonin systems ... Kost K, Landry D, Darroch J (Mar-Apr 1998). "Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: Does intention status matter?". ... Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both ...
... prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 (3): 194-8. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.09.009. PMID 19185672. Kost ... Contraception. 79 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.003. PMC 3638200 . PMID 19041435. Hatcher, Robert D. (2011). ... Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Chao, Maria T.; Flórez, Karen R. (2005). "Do healthy behaviors decline with greater acculturation?: ... Women, regardless of demographics, are similarly affected by certain health behaviors, stressful events, environmental stress, ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... prompting the undifferentiated behavior that associates with a risk of promoting delinquent behavior. The studies of gender ... The habitual crime behavior found among juveniles is similar to that of adults. As stated before most life-course persistent ... Thus, delinquent behavior is expressed as an outlet especially to those of lower socioeconomic backgrounds that cannot gain ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... "Contraception. 79 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.003. PMC 3638200 . PMID 19041435.. ... doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.001. PMID 18692608.. *^ a b c Sharing Responsibility:Women, Society and Abortion Worldwide ... doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2006.11.009. PMID 17303484.. *^ "The High Cost of Unintended Pregnancy". The Brookings Institution. ...
... contraceptive and STI-preventive behavior; attitudes and beliefs regarding sexual behavior and methods of contraception and STI ... Studies address a variety of topics including: the incidence and prevalence of specific sexual behaviors; ... and high-risk behavior, including alcohol/drug use and prostitution. These data sets permit analyses on topics such as: the ... prophylaxis; AIDS/HIV knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and serostatus; current and past episodes of gonorrhea, syphilis, ...
Abortion behavior in the North, South, East and Center regions of Ukraine are relatively homogeneous while the Western region ... 2009). Declining Fertility in UKraine: What is the role of abortion and contraception? Max Planck Institute for Demographic ... 1999). Suicidal behavior in the Ukraine, 1988-1998.. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. Vol 20( ...
For an odour to be exclusively result in sexual behavior, it must not only be perceived and preferred, but when absent there ... and Oral Contraception The Congruency Hypothesis". Psychological Science. 25 (7): 1497-1503. doi:10.1177/0956797614532295. PMID ... p. 1. Kliewer, J. W.; Miura, T.; Husbands, R. C.; Hurst, C. H. (1 May 1966). "Sex Pheromones and Mating Behavior of Culiseta ... There is vast evidence for the use of pheromones in mating behaviors. For example, when boars become sexually aroused, they ...
... the most frequently reported reason for contraception non-use is simply lack of knowledge regarding contraception. Young people ... However, several internal problems greatly affect schools' ability to change attitudes and sexual behaviors. These include lack ... These unequal power dynamics prohibit Bathoso women from adopting HIV-preventative behaviors, thereby increasing their ... especially when engaging in risky sexual behaviors such as pregnancy attempts. HIV transmission between heterosexual ...
Contraception. 77 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2007.09.001. PMID 18082659. Speidel, J. J.; Harper, C. C.; Shields, W. ... If so, it is unknown if the drugs themselves directly influence teenagers to engage in riskier behavior, or whether teenagers ... Contraception. 78 (3): 197-200. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.001. PMID 18692608. Biggs, M. A.; Karasek, D; Foster, D. G ... Contraception for teenagers presents a huge challenge for the clinician. In 1998, the government of the United Kingdom set a ...
Contraception. 78 (3): 197-200. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.001. PMID 18692608. Strasburger, Victor C. (2007) Teen ... Although premarital sex is considered normal behavior for males, particularly with prostitutes, it is not always regarded as ... Most Thai youth reported that their first sexual experience, whether within or outside of marriage, was without contraception. ... said they did not use a form of contraception (Citation needed), although a half of those under 16, and one-third of those ...
While cognitive behavior therapy may be the treatment of choice, medications are sometimes used. The use of therapy rather than ... This has been used as natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if ... Social marketing is a marketing approach intended to change people's behavior to benefit both individuals and society.[219] ... between mother and baby stimulates breastfeeding behavior in the baby.[32] Newborns who are immediately placed on their ...
He is best known for writing Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), also ... Although some safe sex practices (like condoms) can also be used as birth control (contraception), most forms of contraception ... Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a ... Homosexual behavior has also been documented in many non-human animal species. Read more... ...
In the twenties he closed his practice and focused on sexual research and contraception and other public health education. In ... This society addressed problems of infertility, birth control, and sexual behavior. Dickinson was particularly interested in ...
... efficacy in relation to sexual behavior: a German prospective long-term study". Advances in Contraception. 13 (2-3): 179-189. ... Contraception. 79 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.003. PMC 3638200 . PMID 19041435. "Fertility Awareness Method ... Reproduction and Contraception (English edition), in press 2000. Frank-Herrmann P, Freundl G, Baur S, et al. (December 1991). " ... Unlike barrier use without FA, practicing FA can allow couples to use barrier contraception only when necessary. FA can be used ...
"Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 17 (10): 633-38. doi:10.1089/cyber.2013.0585. PMID 25226054.. ... most widely applied to questions of contraception ... Video, of aptly named graphic, or intimate, acts, behaviors or ... Altman, Irwin (1975). The Environment and Social Behavior: Privacy, Personal Space, Territory, and Crowding. Monterey: Brooks/ ... Although several studies have shown this inconsistency between privacy attitudes and behavior among online users, the reason ...
Assessing parental behavior and skills and promotes smooth transition to role changes. Assessing, diagnosing, and treating ... contraception, sexually transmitted infections, infertility, perimenopause/menopause/postmenopause and other gender-specific ... selected reproductive health needs or problems in male partners, such as sexually transmitted infections, contraception, and ...
Sexually suggestive behaviors include things such as "showing more skin" and flirting. Both of these examples are behaviors ... the luteal phase or women using hormonal contraception. This is because women who are in the luteal phase or women using a ... and therefore exhibit certain behaviors that facilitate maximum reproduction. Men perceive sexually suggestive behavior and ... Hormones and Behavior, 51, 40 - 45 Gallup Jr, G. G., & Frederick, D. A. (2010). The science of sex appeal: An evolutionary ...
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2010.05.003. PMID 21074020.. *^ a b Köhler TS, Fazili AA, Brannigan RE (August 2009). "Putative ... Because the procedure is minimally invasive, many vasectomy patients find that they can resume their typical sexual behavior ... Another method of contraception must be relied upon until a sperm count is performed either two months after the vasectomy or ... "Male Contraception Update for the public - August 2008, 3(8)". Imccoalition.org. Archived from the original on 2012-03-27. ...
Although some safe sex practices (like condoms) can also be used as birth control (contraception), most forms of contraception ... "AIDS and Behavior. 12 (6): 860-866. doi:10.1007/s10461-007-9301-0. ISSN 1090-7165. PMC 2953367. PMID 17705033.. ... Likewise, some safe sex practices, such as partner selection and low-risk sex behavior,[example needed] might not be effective ... Most methods of contraception are not effective at preventing the spread of STIs. This includes birth control pills, vasectomy ...
Kuhl H (1999). "Hormonal Contraception". Estrogens and Antiestrogens II. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 135 / 2. pp. ... The effectiveness of the iPledge program is controversial due to continued instances of contraception nonadherence.[88][89] ... women who are sexually active and who can or may become pregnant should use an effective method of contraception to prevent ... including desired contraception, known or suspected hyperandrogenism, acne during adulthood, acne that flares premenstrually, ...
... Melissa S. Kearney and Phillip B. Levine Sunday, April 15, 2007. ... On its face it might seem obvious that providing contraception to women will reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and ... Women may choose not to take advantage of the services and many who do would have obtained contraception privately otherwise. ... Women may also increase their level of sexual activity, canceling out the effectiveness of any increased use of contraception. ...
Kearney, Melissa S. and Levine, Phillip B., Subsidized Contraception, Fertility, and Sexual Behavior (April 2007). NBER Working ... to examine the impact of these policies on sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Evidence from this analysis suggests that the ... in fertility associated with raising income thresholds for eligibility was accomplished via greater use of contraception. Our ...
Postdelivery contraception and womens reproductive health in the Russian Federation : Final report  ... Browsing Technical documents by Subject "Contraception Behavior". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ...
... and behaviors related to HIV/AIDS amongst female adolescents who are accessing the primary health services for contraception ( ... Specific objectives were to describe the knowledge of female adolescents who are accessing the PHC services for contraception ... Sample: All female adolescents who are accessing PHC services for contraception selected from multistage simple random sampling ... PHC services for contraception in the district. Setting: The study was conducted in Andara district, North East of Namibia. ...
Reproductive behavior : Central and Eastern European experience / Henry P. David, Robert J. McIntyre.. by David, Henry Philip ... Factors related to non-use of contraception among couples with an unmet need for family planning in Nepal : final report of an ... Psychosocial determinants of fertility and contraception in Venezuela / Snehendu B. Kar and Ramon Gonzalez-Cerrutti.. by Kar ... Sexualité des adolescents et Sida : processus et négociations autour des relations sexuelles et du choix de la contraception / ...
Variations in Sexual Behavior 11. Contraception and Birth Control 12. Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth 13. The Sexual Body ...
Mental Health and Behavior. 01/23/2019 Mental Health and Behavior Panic attacks tackled in one-week intensive online therapy ... "The best contraception today is injectable hormonal contraception because you dont need a doctor, its long-lasting, it ... The observational study of nearly 3,800 couples in Africa finds that women using hormonal contraception -such as a birth ... Moreover, HIV-infected women who use hormonal contraception have twice the risk of transmitting the virus to their HIV- ...
Contraception. 2011 Sep 28.. * Health Behavior and Risk * Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection, and indoor tanning behaviors ... Health Behavior and Risk * A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV ...
Source for information on Self-Care Behavior: Encyclopedia of Public Health dictionary. ... SELF-CARE BEHAVIOR Self-care behavior, a key concept in health promotion, refers to decisions and actions that an individual ... Contraception; Enabling Factors; Folk Medicine; Foods and Diets; Health Belief Model; Internet; Predisposing Factors; Self-Help ... SELF-CARE BEHAVIOR. Self-care behavior, a key concept in health promotion, refers to decisions and actions that an individual ...
... yet large-scale studies exploring gender-specific HIV risk behaviors in the CJ population are lacking. This analysis uses ... HIV/AIDS Sexual risk behaviors Injection drug use risk behaviors Criminal justice system Women and gender differences ... Contraception. 2015;91(6):438-55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar. *. 51. ... Male and female rural probationers: HIV risk behaviors and knowledge. AIDS care. 2006;18(4):339-44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Contraception. 1999;59(3):195-201.Google Scholar. *. 61.. Hobbs MM, Steiner MJ, Rich KD, Gallo MF, Alam A, Rahman M, et al. ... Women with Sexual GBV had higher scores for disordered alcohol use than women with Low GBV, but similar sexual risk behavior. ... HIV sexual risk behavior among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence: the role of posttraumatic stress ... Gaffoor Z, Wand H, Daniels B, Ramjee G. High risk sexual behaviors are associated with sexual violence among a cohort of women ...
Results of search for su:{Contraception behavior} and location:READING-RM Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to ... Psychosocial determinants of fertility and contraception in Venezuela / Snehendu B. Kar and Ramon Gonzalez-Cerrutti.. by Kar ... Beyond acceptability : users perspectives on contraception / edited by T. K. Sundari Ravindran, Marge Berer and Jane ... Eléments de la technologie de la contraception : manuel à l intention du personnel clinique.Online access: Full text now in ...
Changes in Sexual Risk Behavior as Young Men Transition to Adulthood. Jacinda K. Dariotis,Freya L. Sonenstein,Gary J. Gates, ... Implementing an Advance Emergency Contraception Policy: What Happens in the Real World?. Paul G. Whittaker,Kay A. Armstrongand ... The Link Between Couples Pregnancy Intentions And Behavior: Does It Matter Who Is Asked?. Maureen R. WallerandMarianne P. ... The Opposite of Sex? Adolescents Thoughts About Abstinence and Sex, and Their Sexual Behavior. N. Tatiana Masters,Blair A. ...
CDC Report shows improved usage of contraception and birth control for American teens According to a new report (PDF) from the ... Sexting linked to sexual behavior in early adolescence A study from USC researchers provides new understanding of the ... Access to long-term contraception lowers teen pregnancy rates, study says The study counseled young women on the benefits of ... Heartening is the trend of improved usage of contraception or birth control says the report. ...
see also: Addiction and Habituation; Alcohol Use and Abuse; Behavior, Health-Related; Contraception; Counseling; Drug Abuse ... Rationales for such behavior seem to have moved from "sex with commitment" (as in the case of historic betrothal practices or ... Given the data on adolescent behavior, the media seems to ignore or discount a view of abstinence or celibacy subscribed to ... Miller, B. C., and Olson, T. D. (1988). "Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of High School Students in Relation to Background and ...
... and more than half of those pregnancies occurred in a month when the woman was using contraception. Contraception is a topic ... Behavior-based birth control methods, also referred to as natural family planning, such as "rhythm" and withdrawal, have ... Long-term contraception should be initiated immediately after emergency contraception, as a woman can become pregnant later in ... An estimated 95% of women have used this form of contraception at some point [14,60]. Among women currently using contraception ...
Use of postpartum contraception decreased significantly with age in only one state, Hawaii (Table 8). In five states (Alaska, ... These behaviors and experiences can occur before pregnancy (e.g., insufficient intake of folic acid), during pregnancy (e.g., ... Contraception 1997;56:223--32. *DAngelo D, Colley Gilbert B. From data to action: using surveillance to promote public health ... Various behaviors and experiences are associated with adverse health outcomes for both the mother and infant. These experiences ...
Results of search for su:{Contraception behavior} and se:Demographic and health surveys ...
Scientists: Hormonal Contraceptives May Alter Behavior; Widespread Use Could Lead to Significant Consequences for Society. by ... Contraception - Chemical Methods / Hormonal Contraception / Emergency / Morning After Pill. *Contraception - Adverse Effects: ... Contraception - Adverse Effects: Cancer / Stroke / Abortion. *Contraception - Chemical Methods / Hormonal Contraception / ... Foremost Expert on Contraception Says the Pill is Not Working - Its Outdated (7/08). by APFLI , Jul 12, 2008 , Contraception ...
Learn about menstrual cycle phases and how hormonal changes influence a womans behavior. ... Contraception Speak: What Is Perfect Use of Birth Control?. Experts describe effectiveness of birth control in terms of a ... How Your Menstrual Cycle Affects Your Behavior. Feeling moody? It could be your menstrual cycle. Find out how your hormones can ... Access to Birth Control, Sex Ed, and Womens Health Services Is at Risk: The Politics of Contraception in Modern America. ...
Sexual behavior in Germany. A sexual history and consultation in the practice setting can contribute to counteracting the ... In common usage, term "contraception" is often used for both contraception and contragestion. ... Why these sperm are the key to the future of fertility - and contraception. Despite the huge global demand for both fertility ... treatment and contraception, there are surprisingly few options to boost male fertility, or for male contraception. To have ...
Contraception Behavior. *Behavioral: Education Arm. Interventional. *Washington University School of Medicine. Other. * ...
The journal emphasizes abortion; contraception; fertility; sexual behavior; family planning policies and programs; sexually ... A New Perspective on the Definition and Measurement of Unmet Need for Contraception. Deborah S. DeGraffandVictor de Silva ... Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Introducing Emergency Contraception in the Philippines. Elizabeth T. Robinsonand ...
The journal emphasizes abortion; contraception; fertility; sexual behavior; family planning policies and programs; sexually ... Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Jamaican Adolescents. Kanako Ishida,Paul StuppandOlivia McDonald ...
  • Public Health Action: State maternal and child health programs can use these population-based data to monitor progress toward Healthy People 2010 objectives, evaluate adherence to guidelines for care, and assess changes in prevalence of other health behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • To estimate the prevalence and attitudes of these behaviors in young women, Malacad and her team administered an anonymous questionnaire, to 181 women aged 18-25 years. (psychcentral.com)
  • However, a relationship between self-care behaviors and positive physiological outcomes has not been proven. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Problem/Condition: Various maternal behaviors and experiences are associated with adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the infant. (cdc.gov)
  • By providing data on maternal behaviors and experiences that are associated with adverse outcomes, PRAMS supports the activities of two CDC initiatives---to promote safe motherhood and to reduce infant mortality and low birthweight. (cdc.gov)
  • All 15 studies examined contraception-related outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Secondary outcomes measured will be pregnancies, abortions, repeat Plan B use, presence of gonorrhea or Chlamydia infection at the time of presentation for EC, number of days to first bleeding episode and duration of that bleeding episode, further bleeding patterns, frequency of unprotected intercourse, use of a barrier method for prevention of sexually transmitted infections, patient satisfaction with the chosen method and symptoms possibly related to contraception use. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Secondary outcomes include use of an effective method of contraception over the next year, abortions, repeat use of EC, number of days to first bleeding episode and duration of that bleeding episode, use of a barrier method to prevent sexually transmitted infections, patient satisfaction with the chosen method of EC and contraception. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Scientists and laypersons are interested in this question because it has implications for human social behavior, and could theoretically offer biological explanations for some human sexual behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of this physical and social evolution, dogs, more than any other species, have acquired the ability to understand and communicate with humans and they are uniquely attuned to their behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Away from humans, over time, these animals' patterns of behavior revert to behavior more closely resembling that of wild horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, this tradition postulates that the chemical compounds humans seek out increase brain dopamine levels and thereby effectively usurp the mesolimbic pathway, a system originally intended to motivate/reward fitness enhancing behaviors such as those that increase access to food and sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erotophiles are also more likely to engage in breast self-examinations, schedule regular gynecological visits and engage in preventative behaviors regarding sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., more frequent condom use). (wikipedia.org)
  • Postcoital contraception, or the morning-after pill, depending on when the woman takes it, either prevents fertilization altogether or stops the fertilized egg from implanting. (nytimes.com)
  • The present study tested associations between common developmental contexts (relationship involvement, independent living, college attendance, work) and risky sexual behavior (casual sex, inconsistent condom use, high-risk sex) across the 2 years following high school. (springer.com)
  • The U.S. government has invested $1.4 billion in HIV prevention programs that promote sexual abstinence and marital fidelity, but there is no evidence that these programs have been effective at changing sexual behavior and reducing HIV risk, according to a new Stanford University School of Medicine study. (news-medical.net)
  • Although we might hope that parents and schools would be galvanized to action by such trends, studies show that parents rarely talk in a timely and comprehensive way with their children about sex, and schools are increasingly limited in what they can say, mandated by federal money to promote only abstinence until marriage and to discuss the failure rates of contraception. (aappublications.org)
  • Of the states that, in 1995, required abstinence education, fourteen also included the use of contraception within the curriculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the views of the Catholic Church include that premarital sex and masturbation are immoral behaviors, and that homosexuality - similar to the form of Catholicism introduced by the Spanish missionaries - is an abnormal human conduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tendency, termed sociosexual orientation is divided into three facets measured by the inventory: behavior (in terms of number of casual and changing sex partners), attitude (towards uncommitted sex) and desire (for people not in a romantic relationship). (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant sex differences have been found between men and women on the scale, with a significantly larger correlation between the attitude and behavior facets of the SOI-R in women compared to men (proposed to be due to lower opportunity for behavior). (wikipedia.org)
  • There were pronounced sex differences in desire, mediocre differences for attitude (with men scoring higher than women) no differences in behavior in heterosexual test-takers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-care behavior, a key concept in health promotion, refers to decisions and actions that an individual can take to cope with a health problem or to improve his or her health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Generally, health care practitioners encourage and support patients to practice self-care behaviors because patients then actively participate in their own care. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other experts define self-care in terms of individual behavior when a person functions on his or her own behalf in health promotion and prevention or in disease detection and treatment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some authors discuss self-care as a kind of social movement and not in terms of specific health-related behaviors and activities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Contraception is a topic with which any provider that sees women in a primary care environment must be familiar, but it can be challenging to stay up-to-date with all possible methods and to answer patients' questions about side effects and health risks. (netce.com)
  • PRAMS data can be used to produce statewide estimates of various perinatal health behaviors and experiences among women delivering a live infant. (cdc.gov)
  • Health centers that provide quality contraceptive services can facilitate use of LARC among teens seeking contraception. (cdc.gov)
  • An analytical descriptive study using a questionnaire about sexual behaviors, adapted from the World Health Organization. (scielo.br)
  • to Personal Health Health, disease, influence of family & community 3 levels of health promotion/disease prevention Beliefs, attitudes, bias, stereotyping, and behavior of individual & community toward health disorders and aging process. (merlot.org)
  • Assess health behavior choices, apply that information to everyday life for the improvement of individual, family, and community well-being (Lumen, 2012). (merlot.org)
  • 2. Identify preconceived ideas about knowledge, values, and behavior that affect health and compare with established research and accepted scientific evidence (Lumen, 2012). (merlot.org)
  • A study by Mullany, Becker and Hindin (2007) provided evidence that educating pregnant women and their male partners yields a greater net impact on maternal health behaviors compared with education of women alone. (jhu.edu)
  • The rapidly increasing burden of chronic diseases linked to adequacy of healthcare services and individual health behaviors is a key determinant of global public health. (rrh.org.au)
  • The objective of this article was to report on efforts in surveillance of health conditions and behaviors in underserved rural Dominican communities. (rrh.org.au)
  • Descriptive analyses of select health conditions and behavior variables from all completed surveys were tabulated. (rrh.org.au)
  • Identify the most common health and behavior risks affecting students' academic performance. (ryerson.ca)
  • A few schools, after the passage of Obamacare, indicated similar concerns about their health insurance policies covering things like contraception. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • Many of these schools, like Hobby Lobby , discovered that their health care shouldn't cover contraception only after the passage of Obamacare, having cheerfully covered such drugs for years without concern, but it doesn't really matter here. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • The Obama administration also announced a new final rule on student health plans that effectively applies the contraception accommodation to religiously affiliated universities. (cnn.com)
  • The new regulation prohibits lifetime limits on contraception and covers preventive services without cost-sharing for students on a college or university health plan. (cnn.com)
  • In the twenties he closed his practice and focused on sexual research and contraception and other public health education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on a National Family Health Survey conducted in 1992-1993, 7.1% of married women (aged 15-19) use contraception, compared to 21% among women (aged 20-24). (wikipedia.org)
  • His expertise encompasses several fields: sexology, history, community health and public policy, contraception and population issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • He holds joint appointments with the school's departments of Health Policy and Management, Health Behavior and Society, and International Health, and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine's Division of Infectious Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goals of this paper were to document patterns of sexual behaviors ranging from kissing to penetrative sex, and to examine how latent classes of behaviors, gender, and partner type (romantic versus nonromantic) predict intra- and interpersonal consequences of sexual behaviors. (springer.com)
  • In recent years [ vague ] a higher proportion of youth have experienced arrests by their early 20s than in the past, although some scholars have concluded this may reflect more aggressive criminal justice and zero-tolerance policies rather than changes in youth behavior. (wikipedia.org)