Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Sexual activities of humans.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Sexual activities of animals.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
Painful menstruation.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Size and composition of the family.
Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The interactions between parent and child.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides. (1/635)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

Pregnancies averted among U.S. teenagers by the use of contraceptives. (2/635)

CONTEXT: The personal and social costs associated with teenage pregnancy in the United States concern many policymakers and researchers, yet the role of contraception in preventing these pregnancies has not been adequately quantified. METHODS: Published estimates of contraceptive effectiveness were applied to 1995 National Survey of Family Growth data on sexual and contraceptive practices in order to estimate the number of pregnancies averted through the use of contraceptives by U.S. teenagers. Four scenarios of contraceptives access--from current levels of access to highly restricted access--and teenagers' sexual and contraceptive practices in response to such restrictions are used to project the potential impact on pregnancies among teenagers. RESULTS: Current levels of contraceptive use averted an estimated 1.65 million pregnancies among 15-19-year-old women in the United States during 1995. If these young women had been denied access to both prescription and over-the-counter contraceptive methods, an estimated one million additional pregnancies (ranging from 750,000 to 1.25 million) would have occurred, assuming some decrease in sexual activity. These pregnancies would have led to 480,000 live births, 390,000 abortions, 120,000 miscarriages, 10,000 ectopic pregnancies and 37 maternal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Contraceptive use by teenage women prevents pregnancies and negative pregnancy-related health consequences that can disrupt the lives of adolescent women and that have substantial societal costs. Continued and expanded access to contraceptives for adolescents is a critically important public health strategy.  (+info)

Complications of unsafe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. (3/635)

The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The literature review findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions. The most common complications of unsafe abortion seen at health facilities were haemorrhage and sepsis. Studies on the use of manual vacuum aspiration for treating abortion complications found shorter lengths of hospital stay (and thus, lower resource costs) and a reduced need for a repeat evacuation. Very few articles focused exclusively on the cost of treating abortion complications, but authors agreed that it consumes a disproportionate amount of hospital resources. Studies on the role of men in supporting a woman's decision to abort or use contraception were similarly lacking. Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation. Research needs that were identified include: community-based epidemiological studies; operations research on decentralization of post-abortion care and integration of treatment with post-abortion family planning services; studies on system-wide resource use for treatment of incomplete abortion; qualitative research on the role of males in the decision to terminate pregnancy and use contraception; clinical studies on pain control medications and procedures; and case studies on the provision of safe abortion services where legally allowed.  (+info)

Factors related to choosing oral contraception at age 15. (4/635)

This report aims to identify factors which are related to use of oral contraceptives at an early age. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at schools in 1988 and 1992 in southern and western Finland (N = 1339). Sexually experienced girls (mean age 15.8 years) who had answered the question concerning their oral contraceptive use were included (N = 389). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare oral contraceptive users (N = 121) with the group of non-users. Total number of coital experiences was associated with oral contraceptive use: the odds ratio for those having at least 10 coital experiences was 6.30 compared with those with only one intercourse. The proportion was 73% among oral contraceptive users and 30% among non-users. Girls using oral contraceptives perceived more often (67%) that parents accept their sexual relationship (30% among non-users). Oral contraceptive users were less afraid of getting pregnant (9% compared with 31% among non-users) and felt more often that sex was very important in their life (31 and 13%, respectively). Other factors that entered the model were age at menarche, having a steady partner and frequency of disco visits. When a young girl asks for oral contraceptives, she is probably at true risk of pregnancy, and regular contraception should be considered both in view of effective prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.  (+info)

Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. (5/635)

CONTEXT: Unintended pregnancy remains a major public health concern in the United States. Information on pregnancy rates among contraceptive users is needed to guide medical professionals' recommendations and individuals' choices of contraceptive methods. METHODS: Data were taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 1994-1995 Abortion Patient Survey (APS). Hazards models were used to estimate method-specific contraceptive failure rates during the first six months and during the first year of contraceptive use for all U.S. women. In addition, rates were corrected to take into account the underreporting of induced abortion in the NSFG. Corrected 12-month failure rates were also estimated for subgroups of women by age, union status, poverty level, race or ethnicity, and religion. RESULTS: When contraceptive methods are ranked by effectiveness over the first 12 months of use (corrected for abortion underreporting), the implant and injectables have the lowest failure rates (2-3%), followed by the pill (8%), the diaphragm and the cervical cap (12%), the male condom (14%), periodic abstinence (21%), withdrawal (24%) and spermicides (26%). In general, failure rates are highest among cohabiting and other unmarried women, among those with an annual family income below 200% of the federal poverty level, among black and Hispanic women, among adolescents and among women in their 20s. For example, adolescent women who are not married but are cohabiting experience a failure rate of about 31% in the first year of contraceptive use, while the 12-month failure rate among married women aged 30 and older is only 7%. Black women have a contraceptive failure rate of about 19%, and this rate does not vary by family income; in contrast, overall 12-month rates are lower among Hispanic women (15%) and white women (10%), but vary by income, with poorer women having substantially greater failure rates than more affluent women. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of contraceptive failure vary widely by method, as well as by personal and background characteristics. Income's strong influence on contraceptive failure suggests that access barriers and the general disadvantage associated with poverty seriously impede effective contraceptive practice in the United States.  (+info)

Contraceptive failure, method-related discontinuation and resumption of use: results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. (6/635)

CONTEXT: Half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Of these, half occur to women who were practicing contraception in the month they conceived, and others occur when couples stop use because they find their method difficult or inconvenient to use. METHODS: Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth were used to compute life-table probabilities of contraceptive failure for reversible methods of contraception, discontinuation of use for a method-related reason and resumption of contraceptive use. RESULTS: Within one year of starting to use a reversible method of contraception, 9% of women experience a contraceptive failure--7% of those using the pill, 9% of those relying on the male condom and 19% of those practicing withdrawal. During a lifetime of use of reversible methods, the typical woman will experience 1.8 contraceptive failures. Overall, 31% of women discontinue use of a reversible contraceptive for a method-related reason within six months of starting use, and 44% do so within 12 months; however, 68% resume use of a method within one month and 76% do so within three months. Multivariate analyses show that the risk of contraceptive failure is elevated among low-income women and Hispanic women. Low-income women are also less likely than other women to resume contraceptive use after discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of pregnancy during typical use of reversible methods of contraception are considerably higher than risks of failure during clinical trials, reflecting imperfect use of these methods rather than lack of inherent efficacy. High rates of method-related discontinuation probably reflect dissatisfaction with available methods.  (+info)

Measuring contraceptive use patterns among teenage and adult women. (7/635)

CONTEXT: Measures of contraceptive use at one point in time do not account for its changing nature. A measure that addresses the pattern of method use over time may better predict the cumulative risk of unintended pregnancy. METHODS: Women at risk of unintended pregnancy were selected from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, and their contraceptive use patterns were compared across age-groups. Survival analysis was used to validate women's long-term use pattern as an indicator of pregnancy risk, and multivariate regression analyses were used to explore potential covariates of current patterns of contraceptive use. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of women aged 15-19 report long-term uninterrupted contraceptive use, but they are more likely to report sporadic use and less likely to report uninterrupted use of a very effective method than are women aged 25-34. Compared with women aged 25-34, women aged 20-24 have higher rates of sporadic use and lower rates of effective uninterrupted use. Among teenagers, nonusers are 12 times as likely as uninterrupted effective users to experience an unintended pregnancy within 12 months at risk. Women in less stable relationships, those having more infrequent intercourse and women who have recently experienced nonvoluntary intercourse for the first time are more likely than others to have a high-risk contraceptive pattern. Women aged 17 and younger whose current partner is more than three years older are significantly less likely to practice contraception than are their peers whose partner is closer in age. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term contraceptive use pattern is a valid predictor of unintended pregnancy risk. Policies aimed at reducing unintended pregnancies should target women who do not practice contraception and those who are sporadic users. Women in unstable relationships, those having infrequent sex and women who experience sexual coercion need access to methods, such as emergency contraception, that can be used sporadically or after unprotected intercourse.  (+info)

Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyurethane condom: results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial. (8/635)

CONTEXT: Condoms made of latex are not comfortable or appropriate for all consumers. Polyurethane condoms may provide a needed alternative. METHODS: In a double-masked study, 805 monogamous couples were randomized to use either the polyurethane condom or the latex condom for six months. Couples recorded the frequency of intercourse, of condom use and of breakage and slippage throughout the trial in coital diaries and in detailed reports on the first five uses. Breakage and slippage rates were determined, and typical-use and consistent-use pregnancy rates were calculated using life-table analysis, adjusted for use of emergency contraception. RESULTS: The six-month pregnancy rate during typical use (adjusted for use of emergency contraception) was 4.8% for the polyurethane condom and 6.3% for the latex condom. Similarly adjusted pregnancy rates during consistent use over six completed menstrual cycles--2.4% for the polyurethane condom and 1.1% for the latex condom--did not differ significantly. Clinical failure rates (including breakage and slippage occurring during either intercourse or withdrawal) were 8.5% for the polyurethane condom and 1.6% for the latex condom. In general, male participants were more satisfied with the latex condom, and users of latex were significantly less likely to drop out of the study for condom-related reasons than were users of polyurethane. CONCLUSIONS: Although polyurethane and latex condoms provide equivalent levels of contraceptive protection, the polyurethane condom's higher frequency of breakage and slippage suggests that this condom may confer less protection from sexually transmitted infections than does the latex condom.  (+info)

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.

These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.

Some of the most common STDs include:

* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.

It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.

If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.

It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.

In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.

Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:

* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.

It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.

Also known as: Menstrual Disorders, Menstrual Abnormalities, Dysmenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea.

In the medical field, emergencies are situations that require immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm or death. These situations may include:

1. Life-threatening injuries, such as gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or severe head trauma.
2. Severe illnesses, such as heart attacks, strokes, or respiratory distress.
3. Acute and severe pain, such as from a broken bone or severe burns.
4. Mental health emergencies, such as suicidal thoughts or behaviors, or psychosis.
5. Obstetric emergencies, such as preterm labor or placental abruption.
6. Pediatric emergencies, such as respiratory distress or dehydration in infants and children.
7. Trauma, such as from a car accident or fall.
8. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or floods.
9. Environmental emergencies, such as carbon monoxide poisoning or exposure to toxic substances.
10. Mass casualty incidents, such as a terrorist attack or plane crash.

In all of these situations, prompt and appropriate medical care is essential to prevent further harm and save lives. Emergency responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and other healthcare providers, are trained to quickly assess the situation, provide immediate care, and transport patients to a hospital if necessary.

Uterine cervical erosion refers to a condition where the tissue lining the cervix wears away, exposing the underlying tissue. This can cause pain, bleeding, and discomfort during sexual activity. The condition is more common in women who have had multiple vaginal deliveries or who use hormonal contraceptives.

Causes and risk factors:

* Multiple vaginal deliveries
* Hormonal contraceptives (such as birth control pills, patches, or rings)
* Cervical dysplasia or precancerous changes in the cervix
* Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
* Immune system disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
* Inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis)
* Radiation therapy to the pelvic area

Symptoms:

* Pain during sex
* Bleeding after sex
* Vaginal discharge that is light pink or brown in color
* Mild abdominal cramping

Diagnosis:

* A thorough physical examination and medical history
* A pap smear to check for any abnormal cells in the cervix
* An endocervical curettage, which involves scraping a sample of tissue from the cervix
* Imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI to rule out other conditions

Treatment:

* Medications to reduce inflammation and promote healing, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or corticosteroids
* Surgery to remove any abnormal tissue or repair any damage to the cervix
* Changes to hormonal contraceptives or discontinuation of them if they are suspected to be a contributing factor
* Antibiotics if there is an underlying infection

Complications:

* Infertility if the condition is left untreated
* Increased risk of cervical cancer if the abnormal tissue is not removed
* Recurrent bleeding or pain
* Asherman's syndrome, a condition where scar tissue forms in the uterus and can cause infertility

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual vaginal bleeding or symptoms to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

There are two main types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by uterine muscle contractions that occur during menstruation, while secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by an underlying medical condition such as endometriosis, fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea may include:

* Cramping pain in the lower abdomen, usually beginning before or at the onset of menstruation and lasting for 1-3 days
* Pain that can be sharp, dull, or throbbing
* Pelvic discomfort or heaviness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Mild fever

While dysmenorrhea is not a life-threatening condition, it can significantly impact a woman's quality of life, particularly during her reproductive years. The exact cause of primary dysmenorrhea is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause uterine muscle contractions and increased blood flow to the pelvis.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea may include over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or naproxen, as well as home remedies such as heat application, exercise, and relaxation techniques. In some cases, prescription medications or surgery may be necessary to address underlying conditions that are contributing to the dysmenorrhea.

It's important for women who experience severe or persistent dysmenorrhea to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may need treatment. With proper diagnosis and management, most women with dysmenorrhea can find relief from their symptoms and lead normal, active lives.

Types of Lipid Metabolism Disorders:

1. Hyperlipidemia: Elevated levels of lipids in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.
2. Hypolipidemia: Low levels of lipids in the blood.
3. Lipoprotein disorders: Abnormalities in the structure or function of lipoproteins, such as chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
4. Cholesteryl ester storage disease: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the body, leading to progressive damage to the liver, heart, and other organs.
5. Familial dyslipidemia: Inherited disorders that affect the metabolism of lipids, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL levels) or familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (low HDL and LDL levels).
6. Glycogen storage disease type III: A rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, leading to the accumulation of fat in the liver and other organs.
7. Lipid-lowering drug therapy: The use of medications, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pediatric lipidemias: Lipid disorders that affect children and adolescents, such as familial hypercholesterolemia in children.
9. Pregnancy-related lipid metabolism disorders: Changes in lipid metabolism during pregnancy, which can lead to the development of gestational diabetes and other complications.
10. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS): A severe inflammatory lung disease that can cause abnormal lipid metabolism and fat accumulation in the lungs.
11. X-linked dystonia-Parkinsonism: A rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and nervous system, leading to movement disorders and other symptoms.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of lipid metabolism disorders that exist. Each type has its own set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options, and it is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case.

There are different types of uterine perforation, including:

1. Cervical perforation: A tear in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
2. Uterine wall perforation: A tear or hole in the muscular wall of the uterus, which can be caused by instruments used during surgery or delivery.
3. Endometrial perforation: A tear in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is more common during invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or endometrial ablation.

Symptoms of uterine perforation may include:

* Severe abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal bleeding
* Fever
* Nausea and vomiting

If you suspect that you have a uterine perforation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the damage. Treatment options may include:

1. Observation: In mild cases, the body may be able to heal on its own without any intervention.
2. Surgery: Depending on the severity of the perforation, surgical repair or removal of the damaged tissue may be necessary.
3. Antibiotics: If there is an infection, antibiotics will be prescribed to treat it.
4. Blood transfusions: In cases where there is significant bleeding, blood transfusions may be required.

Prevention of uterine perforation is crucial, and it involves proper training and use of instruments during surgery or delivery, as well as careful monitoring of the patient's condition during these procedures.

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The most common symptoms of ADHD include difficulty paying attention, forgetfulness, fidgeting, interrupting others, and acting impulsively.

ODD is a disorder that is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures. Symptoms of ODD may include arguing with adults, refusing to comply with rules, deliberately annoying others, and blaming others for one's own mistakes.

CD is a disorder that is characterized by a pattern of aggressive and destructive behavior towards others. Symptoms of CD may include physical fights, property damage, and cruelty to animals.

The causes of AD/DBD are not yet fully understood, but research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development. These disorders often run in families, and individuals with AD/DBD are more likely to have a family history of these conditions. Additionally, certain environmental stressors, such as trauma or exposure to toxins, may increase the risk of developing AD/DBD.

There is no cure for AD/DBD, but they can be effectively managed with a combination of medication and behavioral therapy. Medications such as stimulants and non-stimulants are commonly used to treat ADHD, while behavioral therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) can help individuals with AD/DBD learn skills to manage their symptoms and behaviors.

In conclusion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that affect both children and adults. While they share some similarities, they also have distinct differences in terms of their symptoms and underlying causes. Effective management of these conditions requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD and DBD can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

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Nieschlag E (November 2010). "Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception" (PDF). Contraception. 82 (5): 457-470. doi: ... Archives of Sexual Behavior. 18 (1): 49-57. doi:10.1007/BF01579291. PMID 2540730. S2CID 22802329. Prior JC, Vigna YM, Watson D ... Wang C, Yeung KK (March 1980). "Use of low-dosage oral cyproterone acetate as a male contraceptive". Contraception. 21 (3): 245 ... Mishell DR, Davajan V (1979). Reproductive endocrinology, infertility, and contraception. F. A. Davis Co. p. 224. ISBN 978-0- ...
ISBN 978-0-7216-9315-6. "Canine and feline reproduction and contraception". Michelson Prize and Grants. Archived from the ... It is believed that this behavior, which is most common in puppies, is training for important behaviors later in life. Play ... Serpell J, Duffy D. Dog Breeds and Their Behavior. In: Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014 ... Pet Behavior articles from the ASPCA Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dog behavior. (Pages with reference errors, Pages ...
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"How much does contraception cost?". Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and weight-based efficacy (PDF) (Report). p. 6. " ... AIDS and Behavior. 22 (S1): 121-124. doi:10.1007/s10461-018-2056-y. PMC 6045959. PMID 29435794. "Bolivia". International ... "COUNTING WHAT COUNTS:TRACKING ACCESS TO EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION" (PDF). International Consortium for Emergency Contraception ( ... "Burundi". International Consortium for Emergency Contraception. Retrieved 11 May 2019. "Emergency Contraception - Sex & U". www ...
... prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 (3): 194-198. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.09.009. PMID 19185672. ... Aggressive behavior has been associated with abnormalities in three principal regulatory systems in the body: serotonin systems ... Mears, Daniel P.; Cochran, Joshua C. (November 2013). "What is the effect of IQ on offending?". Criminal Justice and Behavior. ... Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... The habitual crime behavior found among juveniles is similar to that of adults. As stated before most life-course persistent ... Sex crimes are defined as sexually abusive behavior committed by a person under the age of 18 that is perpetrated "against the ... When the family is disrupted, females are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior than males. Boys, however, tend to be ...
March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... Maternal oxytocin circulation is said to predispose women to bond and show bonding behavior, although this has been disputed. ... Kost K, Landry D, Darroch J (Mar-Apr 1998). "Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: Does intention status matter?". ...
Contraception and abortions can be illegal or difficult to obtain depending on location or socioeconomic status. Women's ... Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 52 (4): 493-509. doi:10.1177/0022146511418236. PMID 22031500. S2CID 14925772. Inhorn, M ... 250). Sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that can be used to give women reproductive control; ... Stratified reproduction also extends beyond the aspect of reproduction to the extent of conception, contraception, prenatal ...
Lastly, it would be necessary for repeated longitudinal studies on the sexual behaviors of adolescents as behaviors are ... The risk of depression is tripled for teenage girls who use non-oral forms of hormonal contraception. Lucia O'Sullivan and her ... "Oral sex: Varied behaviors and perceptions in a college population. Journal of Sex Research". The Journal of Sex Research. 44 ( ... Subsequent sexual behavior starts with the secretion of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland. These ...
Constanze Weigl-Jäger (2016). "Islam and Contraception in Urban North India - Muslim Women's Reproductive Health Behavior and ...
p. 1. Kliewer, J. W.; Miura, T.; Husbands, R. C.; Hurst, C. H. (1 May 1966). "Sex Pheromones and Mating Behavior of Culiseta ... and Oral Contraception The Congruency Hypothesis" (PDF). Psychological Science. 25 (7): 1497-1503. doi:10.1177/0956797614532295 ... The two types of pheromones include signal and primer, each playing a distinct role in human behavior. Signal pheromones act as ... For an odour to stimulate sexual behavior exclusively, it must not only be perceived and preferred, but when absent there ...
The hymen can stretch or tear as a result of various behaviors, by the use of tampons or menstrual cups, pelvic examinations ... The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 13 (2): 111-113. doi:10.1080/13625180802106045. ISSN 1362- ... Trauma to the hymen is hypothesized to occur as a result of various other behaviors, such as tampon or menstrual cup use, ... Archives of Sexual Behavior. 14 (5): 421-438. doi:10.1007/BF01542003. PMID 4062539. S2CID 6427129. White, C., & McLean, I. (May ...
... and unambiguous relationship between knowledge and behavior. Proponents of this approach argue that sexual behavior after ... "Are higher unintended pregnancy rates among minorities a result of disparate access to contraception?". Contraception and ... The study also found that students who took part in the abstinence-only programs were just as likely to use contraception when ... Disparities also exist by sexual behavior or orientation. Young men who have sex with men are less likely to receive ...
Contraception. 78 (3): 197-200. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.001. PMID 18692608. Archived from the original on 2012-07- ... Although premarital sex is considered normal behavior for males, particularly with prostitutes, it is not always regarded as ... Most Thai youth reported that their first sexual experience, whether within or outside of marriage, was without contraception. ... method of using both a hormonal contraception method and a condom[citation needed]). Nordic countries, such as Denmark and ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 549-57. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.009. PMID 22078182. Vessey, M.P.; Mears, Eleanor; Andolšek, ... Bonnie V. G. Beaver (1 January 2009). Canine Behavior: Insights and Answers. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 128-. ISBN 978-1- ... Bagade O, Pawar V, Patel R, Patel B, Awasarkar V, Diwate S (2014). "Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception: ... Runnebaum BC, Rabe T, Kiesel L (6 December 2012). Female Contraception: Update and Trends. Springer Science & Business Media. ...
In the twenties he closed his practice and focused on sexual research and contraception and other public health education. In ... This society addressed problems of infertility, birth control, and sexual behavior. Dickinson was particularly interested in ... Over the years Dickinson changed his assumptions about what constituted perverse sexual behavior. By 1934 he would write that ...
Contraception. 78 (3): 197-200. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.001. PMID 18692608. Biggs, M. A.; Karasek, D; Foster, D. G ... If so, it is unknown if the drugs themselves directly influence teenagers to engage in riskier behavior, or whether teenagers ... Contraception. 77 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2007.09.001. PMID 18082659. Archived from the original on 2018-08-19. ... began implementing adjustments to the Protocole de contraception du Québec (Québec Contraception Protocol). The new protocol ...
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.08.015. PMC 5732079. PMID 28887053. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Contraception for ... Pulling out is a popular contraceptive behavior that many couples use because of convenience, dissatisfaction with other ... Contraception masculine : l'avenir est dans le slip... chauffant" [Toulouse. Male contraception: the future is in the ... In domestic animals, castration is commonly used for contraception. Other forms of male contraception are in various stages of ...
... efficacy in relation to sexual behavior: a German prospective long-term study". Advances in Contraception. 13 (2-3): 179-189. ... Contraception. 99 (1): 52-55. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.10.002. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 30316782. Health, Center for ... Contraception. 79 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.003. PMC 3638200. PMID 19041435. "Fertility Awareness Method ... Reproduction and Contraception (English edition), in press 2000. Frank-Herrmann P, Freundl G, Baur S, et al. (December 1991). " ...
... that curricula providing accurate information about condoms and contraception can lead to reductions in the risky behaviors ... "National Youth Risk Behavior Survey: 1991-2005" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Control and ... Education about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases are included in the programme as a way of encouraging good ... Most schools offer courses on the correct usage of contraception. A sex survey by the World Health Organization concerning the ...
Assessing parental behavior and skills and promotes smooth transition to role changes. Assessing, diagnosing, and treating ... contraception, sexually transmitted infections, infertility, perimenopause/menopause/postmenopause and other gender-specific ... selected reproductive health needs or problems in male partners, such as sexually transmitted infections, contraception, and ...
ISBN 978-0-7360-6850-5. Barrows EM (2011). Animal Behavior Desk Reference: A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and ... is the most common and effective way of reversible contraception. Conception and contraception are additionally a life-and- ... heterosexual romantic and sexual behavior". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 33 (4): 381-394. doi:10.1023/B:ASEB.0000028891.16654. ... This behavior is characterized by a fixation on sexual intercourse and disinhibition. It was proposed that this 'addictive ...
Keller is a signatory of the Manhattan Declaration and is opposed to abortion, but is not opposed to contraception. While at ... elaborates on the biblical view of sex and marriage in his book The Meaning of Marriage and believes homosexual sexual behavior ...
One media analysis found that sex was usually between unmarried couples and examples of using condoms or other contraception ... "Declines in sexual frequency among American adults, 1989-2014." Archives of sexual behavior 46.8 (2017): 2389-2401. In US, More ... "Sexual fantasy and masturbation among asexual individuals: An in-depth exploration[dead link]." Archives of sexual behavior ... "Differences between biological and sociolegal incest offenders: A meta-analysis." Aggression and violent behavior 34 (2017): ...
Coitus interruptus is an example of a contraceptive behavior utilized in Medieval times. This is the case with onanism, which ... Medieval contraception is a debated topic among historians, though methods of contraception have been developed not just in ... John Riddle: Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, inter alia, ... This type of contraception is currently regaining attention in some scientific and historian circles. Plant-based ...
Although some safe sex practices (like condoms) can also be used as birth control (contraception), most forms of contraception ... When anal-oral contact occurs, protection is required since this is a risky sexual behavior in which illnesses as hepatitis A ... Most methods of contraception are not effective at preventing the spread of STIs. This includes birth control pills, vasectomy ... Likewise, some safe sex practices, such as partner selection and low-risk sex behavior,[example needed] might not be effective ...
It is speculated that alleles influencing sexual behavior would be subject to strong selection, though the details of how genes ... Things like access to contraception and the freedom from predators do not stop natural selection. Among developed countries, ... can affect said behavior remain unclear. Historically, as a by-product of the ability to walk upright, humans evolved to have ...
"Reproductive Health of Urban American Indian and Alaska Native Women: Examining Unintended Pregnancy, Contraception, Sexual ... History and Behavior, and Non-Voluntary Sexual Intercourse" (PDF). Urban Indian Health Institute. Urban Indian Health Institute ... sterilization was seen as the ideal form of contraception for Native American patients during the 1960s and 1970s. IHS doctors ... the Urban Indian Health Institute found that among women using contraception, the most common methods used by urban American ...
This division funded women's contraception and the human reproductive system in general, but also was involved in funding ... and the studies of human sexual behavior by Dr. Alfred Kinsey. In the interwar years, the foundation funded public health, ...
... women's behavior. Guttmacher viewed the IUD as an effective method of contraception for individuals in "underdeveloped areas ...
Contraception (published January 2018). 97 (1): 2-13. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.09.014. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 28987293. " ... Fossard Ed, Bailey M (2016). Communication for Behavior Change: Volume lll: Using Entertainment-Education for Distance ... This is also an optimal time for uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), such as the contraceptive implant or ... "Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception". www.acog.org. Retrieved 20 April 2020. "Postpartum Assessment". ATI ...
"The more the commercial sex industry normalizes this behavior, the more of this behavior you get". Prostitutes have long plied ... checks and other public health measures educating prostitutes and their clients to encourage the use of barrier contraception ... Deviant Behavior. 41 (2): 160-185. doi:10.1080/01639625.2018.1556863. S2CID 150273170. "Adult Industry Terms and Acronyms". ...
Emergency contraception can be used after sex without contraception in order to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. In the United ... is a collection of behaviors that interfere with decision-making related to reproductive health. These behaviors are meant to ... Haeger KO, Lamme J, Cleland K (2018). "State of emergency contraception in the U.S., 2018". Contraception and Reproductive ... Birth control sabotage involves tampering with contraception or interfering with the use of contraception. Birth control ...
Away from humans, over time, these animals' patterns of behavior revert to behavior more closely resembling that of wild horses ... Bomford, M., & O'Brien, P. (1993). "Potential use of contraception for managing wildlife pests in Australia" Archived 20 August ... If a feral population lives close to civilization, their behavior can lead them to damage human-built livestock fencing and ... Horse behavior List of BLM Herd Management Areas "American Wild Horse Preservation Campaign". wildhorsepreservation.com. ...
"The evolution of contraception with Amy Parish - World Vasectomy Day". Vimeo. Retrieved 2018-02-03. David, Ariane (2016-06-21 ... Darwinian Feminism began when Parish and her then supervisor, Sarah Hrdy, began to reevaluate animal behavior. Their goal has ... Hare, Brian; Yamamoto, Shinya (2017). Bonobos : unique in mind, brain and behavior. [Oxford, United Kingdom]. ISBN 978- ... In 2013 Parish spoke at World Vasectomy Day about the Evolution of Contraception. In 2016 she gave a keynote talk at the In2In ...
Rosenbaum, J. E. (2009). "Patient Teenagers? A Comparison of the Sexual Behavior of Virginity Pledgers and Matched Nonpledgers ... they are less likely to use contraception than non-pledgers. This study found, however, that virginity pledges are only ... at least one study found no difference in the sexual behavior of pledgers and non-pledgers after controlling for pre-existing ... found no difference in sexual behavior of pledgers and similar non-pledgers five years after pledging, but found pledgers were ...
With feelings of invulnerability, it can be said that an adolescent is more likely to participate in risk behavior. A study was ... which involved sexual intercourse at a younger age and not using contraception). This finding is somewhat incongruent with the ... If young adults do not cope with the inner conflicts, they will be likely to involve in risk-behaviors. Current research ... The persistence of the personal fable could contribute to continued risk-taking behavior even though that age group physically ...
Because of the limited use of contraception, the Dominican Republic has one of the highest HIV/AIDS rates outside of Africa. ... positive civic participation and reduce negative and illegal behaviors. Other programs are available to help youth obtain birth ... Fewer than half of the female population that were sexually active used contraception. ...
"We're deeply saddened by the behavior of those in the course of history who have caused the children of God to suffer, and ... which the pope often used to describe the societal embrace of contraception, abortion, euthanasia, suicide, capital punishment ... which rejected the use of contraception, including sterilization, claiming these work against the intimate relationship and ...
More recently, his group has conducted a prospective study of hormonal contraception in relation to HIV seroconversion, a study ... He holds joint appointments with the school's departments of Health Policy and Management, Health Behavior and Society, and ... "HIV rates and risk behaviors are low in the general population of men in Southern India but high in alcohol venues: results ... "Hormonal contraception and the risk of HIV acquisition". AIDS. 21 (1): 85-95. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280117c8b. ISSN 0269-9370 ...
In 2003, the Supreme Court, in the case of Lawrence v. Texas overturned laws banning homosexual behavior in the 12 states where ... The Supreme Court ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird made contraception available to unmarried people, and effectively legalized ...
Arnold AP, Pfaff DW, Etgen AM, Fahrbach SE, Rubin RT (10 June 2002). Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Five-Volume Set. Academic ... Contraception for males, Ketones, Testosterone esters, Undecanoate esters). ...
Contraception and certain other sexual practices are not permitted, although natural family planning methods are permitted to ... by other prophylactic means and appropriate behavior, becoming vehicles for the transmission of the infectious agent. In ... "Church teaching about contraception". Roman Catholic Diocese of Helena. Retrieved 19 December 2014. "Humanae Vitae". vatican.va ... Catholics for a Choice (1998). "A Matter of Conscience: Catholics on Contraception" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on ...
Morali G, Oropeza MV, Lemus AE, Perez-Palacios G (September 1994). "Mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the rat: role ... 157, 433-. ISBN 978-92-832-1291-1. Casey PM, MacLaughlin KL, Faubion SS (March 2017). "Impact of Contraception on Female Sexual ... Ziegler T. E. (2007). "Female sexual motivation during non-fertile periods: a primate phenomenon". Hormones and Behavior. 51 (1 ... Wallen K (2001). "Sex and context: hormones and primate sexual motivation". Hormones and Behavior. 40 (2): 339-57. CiteSeerX ...
Brotto, Lori A. (November 2015). "Flibanserin". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 44 (8): 2103-2105. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0643-9. ... Therefore, patients at childbearing ages are recommended to use contraception continuously during treatment and should ...
Support for contraception is based on views such as reproductive rights, women's rights, and the necessity to prevent child ... Sexual behavior and prostitution also play a part in the increased rate of transmission of HIV/AIDS in Africa. Due to the high ... Another type of contraception is the birth control pill, which stops ovulation from occurring by combining the chemicals ... The availability of contraception, sterilization, and abortion is dependent on laws, as well as social, cultural, and religious ...
Folbre notes how this may have led to rent-seeking behavior among the elderly, and as a consequence, transfers from the young ... and Francis Place actively promoted contraception. These dissenters, advocates of "improper arts," deserve more recognition ...
Adler is known for her research on health behaviors, health disparities, and social determinants of health. Adler has been the ... The award cited her "research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, ...
... reiterates support for contraception coverage as new Trump administration rule rolls back mandate". MassLive.com ... for that kind of language or that kind of behavior." In August 2017, after the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that ...
Reimers, E.; Eftestøl, S. (2012). "Response Behaviors of Svalbard Reindeer Towards Humans and Humans Disguised as Polar Bears ... Shafik, Ahmed (May 1992). "Contraceptive efficacy of polyester-induced azoospermia in normal men". Contraception. 45 (5): 439- ... antisocial behavior, drug use, and profanity in the movie the audience is watching. Economics: Pavlo Blavatskyy, for ... Evolution and Human Behavior. 28 (6): 375-381. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.154.8176. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.06.002. Sims, D. ( ...
DeCesare JZ, Hannah D, Amin R. Postpartum contraception use rates of patients participating in the Centering Pregnancy model of ... The effect of Centering Pregnancy versus traditional prenatal care models on improved adolescent health behaviors in the ...
Coakley's ad featured a male voice that said, "Brown even favors letting hospitals deny emergency contraception to rape victims ... behavior due to their involvement in Congress. The bill was verbally supported by President Barack Obama during his third State ... Brown remains in favor of allowing religious hospitals to refuse to provide emergency contraception on moral or religious ... Regarding other reproductive issues, Brown says that he supports a woman's ability to access contraception and use birth ...
Over time, through emulation of the behavior of fauna, a medicinal knowledge base developed and passed between generations. ... With threatening sexually transmitted infections, not least HIV, use of barrier contraception has become imperative. The ... invention of hormonal contraception, and the normalization of abortion and homosexuality in many countries. Family planning has ... which eventually came into psychiatric usage despite their basis in behavior rather than pathology or underlying cause. Shell ...
Morali G, Oropeza MV, Lemus AE, Perez-Palacios G (September 1994). "Mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the rat: role ... "Combined Oral Contraception and Bicalutamide in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Severe Hirsutism: A Double-Blind Randomized ... King SR (2008). "Emerging roles for neurosteroids in sexual behavior and function". Journal of Andrology. 29 (5): 524-33. doi: ... by a variety of findings including animal studies showing that estrogen deficiency results in diminished sexual behavior, ...
Birth location often determines the amount and type of supportive behavior. Women who give birth in hospitals are generally ... Female sterilization constitutes two-thirds of contraception use in Southern India, and is popular throughout the country. In ... Poor women typically experience more unwanted pregnancies, and therefore worse birth outcomes, due to lack of contraception ... 2014). PLoS ONE: Dominancy of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the ...
The survey found that members of the Catholic Church are deeply divided over abortion, artificial contraception, divorce, the ... which showed a wide gap between church teaching and the behavior of ordinary Catholics. In a column he wrote for the Vatican's ...
Smart RISUG is a newer version of the male contraception that was published in 2009. The polymer adds iron oxide and copper ... The polymer has magnetoelastic behavior that allows it to stretch and elongate to better line the vas deferens. The iron oxide ... Men may also choose not to use alternative methods of contraception because there are fewer options for birth control for them ... India, however, decided that the population problem would be better served by developing more effective contraception. So Guha ...
Epilepsy & Behavior, 14, 3, 2009. Capodieci S. et al., (1999) SESAMO: una nuova metodica per l'assessment sessuorelazionale. In ... contraception, relational attitude; additional areas are intended only for subjects with a partner: couple interaction, ... Topics are grouped in two section: the first one collects data on former sexuality, health history, and social behavior; the ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Contraception Behavior ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Contraception Behavior ... Contraception Behavior. Adolescent Behavior. Program Evaluation. United States. AIM 4 Teen Moms Program. 3. Final impacts of ... Contraception Behavior. Adolescent Behavior. Program Evaluation. United States. AIM 4 Teen Moms Program. 4. Reducing the Risk ... Contraception Behavior. Adolescent Behavior. Program Evaluation. Health Surveys. United States. Reducing the Risk (Program) 5. ...
Reproductive behavior : Central and Eastern European experience / Henry P. David, Robert J. McIntyre. by David, Henry Philip , ... Factors related to non-use of contraception among couples with an unmet need for family planning in Nepal : final report of an ... Psychosocial determinants of fertility and contraception in Venezuela / Snehendu B. Kar and Ramon Gonzalez-Cerrutti. by Kar, ... Sexualité des adolescents et Sida : processus et négociations autour des relations sexuelles et du choix de la contraception / ...
STEPHANOU, André T.; DELATORRE, Marina Z. y DIAS, Ana Cristina G.. Opinions about contraception and sexual behavior in southern ... Palabras clave : sexual behavior; contraception; youth; pregnancy; college students. · resumen en Español , Portugués · texto ... Contraception support interventions must take into account the different barriers that affect mens and womens contraceptive ... Around 253 sexually active young students answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and sexual behavior data and a scale on ...
Social and behavior change considerations for areas transitioning from high and moderate to low, very low and zero malaria ... When the Evidence Is Not Enough: Hormonal Contraception and HIV. You are here: Home / Events / Events / When the Evidence Is ... When the Evidence Is Not Enough: Hormonal Contraception and HIV. May 17, 2016 @ 9:00 am - 10:00 am. ... Uncertainty remains around hormonal contraception and its link to HIV acquisition. Given WHOs recommendation that women should ...
Use of postpartum contraception decreased significantly with age in only one state, Hawaii (Table 8). In five states (Alaska, ... These behaviors and experiences can occur before pregnancy (e.g., insufficient intake of folic acid), during pregnancy (e.g., ... Contraception 1997;56:223--32. *DAngelo D, Colley Gilbert B. From data to action: using surveillance to promote public health ... Various behaviors and experiences are associated with adverse health outcomes for both the mother and infant. These experiences ...
Contraception Stimulates Women Engage in More Risky Sexual Behavior A+ A- Print Email ... Home » Health-Medical-News » Contraception Stimulates Women Engage in More Risky Sexual Behavior ... Its not the contraception that pushes their sexual behavior.". Although the research dimensions was significant, one ... Contraception Stimulates Women Engage in More Risky Sexual Behavior. Experts of free contraceptive programs previously advised ...
Child Development and Behavior Branch. *Contraception Research Branch. *Developmental Biology and Congenital Anomalies Branch ... establish contraception research centers to improve methods of contraception; establish infertility research centers to improve ... reveal no association between oral contraception use and an increased risk of breast cancer. The study, which focuses on women ... influences the health-related behaviors of young people, and that understanding this context is essential to guide efforts to ...
Notice of NICHDs Interest in Supporting Research on Contraception, Long-Term Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technologies, ... Behavior/use. Rebecca L. Clark, PhD. Population Dynamics Branch. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and ... Contraception: research on contraceptive development and use. *Long term implications of assisted reproductive technologies ( ... Contraception. Product development. Trent MacKay, MD, MPH. Contraceptive Discovery and Development Branch. Eunice Kennedy ...
... in part because of heterogeneity in sexual behaviors (19).. §Assuming 50% of no contraception users, 60% of less-effective ... We also assume that new contraception users have the same contraception method distribution as contraception users as reported ... contraception users, and 100% of moderately effective contraception users will visit a healthcare provider for contraception ... receiving emergency contraception, or receiving counseling about emergency contraception. We assume the intervention will ...
Contraception. EN. dc.subject. Contraception. EN. dc.subject. Contraception Behavior. EN. dc.subject. Cross-Sectional Studies. ...
Sexual Behavior and Drug Use - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... The National Center for Health Statistics released its first ever study of the sexual behavior and drug use in American adults ... Sexual Behavior and Drug Use. Posted on June 26, 2007. by NCHS ... contraception (13) *COPD (3) *Coronary atherosclerosis (1) * ... Categories Drug use (illegal), National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES, sexual behavior ...
Contraception Behavior* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Contraception for the older woman J Guillebaud. J Obstet Gynaecol (Lahore). 1985 Jan. ... Contraception for the transitional years of women older than 40 years of age. Upton GV, Corbin A. Upton GV, et al. Clin Obstet ... Contraception for women over 40]. Erny R, Mathet M. Erny R, et al. Contracept Fertil Sex (Paris). 1984 Dec;12(12):1323-34. ...
doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2013.11.013. Epub 2013 Nov 26. Contraception. 2014. PMID: 24388695 Clinical Trial. ... Sexual Behavior Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Interventions for emergency contraception. Shen J, Che Y, Showell E, Chen K, Cheng L. Shen J, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ... State of emergency contraception in the U.S., 2018. Haeger KO, Lamme J, Cleland K. Haeger KO, et al. Contracept Reprod Med. ...
MeSH Terms: Adolescent; Adult; Contraception Behavior/statistics & numerical data*; Contraception/methods; Contraception/ ... Published In Contraception, (2019 09). Abstract: To examine contraceptive methods used across sexual orientation groups.We ... or bisexual were generally more likely to use any method of contraception. Use of LARCs was especially striking across sexual ...
AM:STARs continued to publish 2-3 issues per year until the end of the decade with the final issue on contraception. However, ... The identification of HIV and the AIDS epidemic in this decade prompted increased attention to adolescent sexual behaviors. The ... The Academy also played a lead role in advocacy to expand access to emergency contraception. In 2011, HHS overruled a Food and ... A new statement was published on sexuality, contraception, and the media. Towards the end of this decade, the Section on ...
Sexual behavior, contraception and unintended pregnancy among young females.. Wielandt H; Hansen UM. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ... Contraception survey: Denmark 1988.. Osler M; Riphagen FE. Contraception; 1990 Nov; 42(5):507-21. PubMed ID: 2272181. [TBL] ... Barrier methods of contraception and the risk of cervical neoplasia.. Parazzini F; Negri E; La Vecchia C; Fedele L. ... 6. [Choice of contraception in relation to sexual activity among younger women in Nuuk/Godthåb (Grönland) and in Nykøbing ...
Factors affecting contraceptive use and behavior in Kocaeli, Turkey. Advances in contraception, 1999, 15(4):325-36. ... Health education and behavior, 2004, 31(2):143-64.. *Grembowski D. Self-efficacy and health behavior among older adults. ... Advances in contraception, 1997, 13(4):429-38.. *Herold ES, Goodwin MS, Lero DS. Self-esteem, locus of control, and adolescent ... The Steps to Behavior Change (SBC) model [8] posits that behaviour change among individuals and groups occurs in 5 stages: ...
Consenting to these technologies will allow us to process data such as browsing behavior or unique IDs on this site. Not ... WASHINGTON (CN) - The U.S. Supreme Court on Friday took up a new series of religious challenges to the contraception-based ... Consenting to these technologies will allow us to process data such as browsing behavior or unique IDs on this site. Not ... The dissent emphasized that religious orders could still be deemed responsible for providing their employees with contraception ...
Contraception Advise women to use effective non-hormonal contraception during treatment with ORILISSA and for 28 days after ... 5.3 Suicidal Ideation, Suicidal Behavior, and Exacerbation of Mood Disorders Suicidal ideation and behavior, including one ... Suicidal Ideation, Suicidal Behavior and Exacerbation of Mood Disorders In the placebo-controlled trials (Studies EM-1 and EM-2 ... Table 4. Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behavior in Studies EM-1 and EM-2 ORILISSA. ...
1) "Outlawing contraception such as BC…" You just said "contraception such as contraception." "Birth control" is just a less ... Additional objectionable behavior attributable to this corrupt organization also includes: accepting donations to fund race ... We used contraception, and it failed us. We owe more to our future family than to have a child when we arent ready for it. ... Hence the contraception and abortion as back-up birth control.. You deny what is an integral part of yourself Caitlin. And that ...
Contraception. 2018;97(1):14-21.. *Shoupe D. LARC method: entering a new age of contraception and reproductive health. ... This finding suggests that there is not a significant change in sexual risk behaviors among service women overall from before ... Contraception. 2018;97(1):70-75.. *McNicholas C, Madden T, Secura G, Peipert JF. The contraceptive CHOICE project round up: ... Contraception. 1994;49(1):56-72.. *Petersen I, Douglas I, Whitaker H. Self controlled case series methods: an alternative to ...
Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms [F01] * Behavior [F01.145] * Reproductive Behavior [F01.145.688] * Contraception Behavior [ ... Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.. Terms. Contraception Behavior Preferred Term Term UI T009538. Date01/01/ ... Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.. Entry Term(s). Contraceptive Behavior Contraceptive Method Switching ... Contraception Behavior. Tree Number(s). F01.145.688.500. G08.686.784.891.500. Unique ID. D003268. RDF Unique Identifier. http ...
  • As a result, there is concern that the increased use of LARCs could lead to increased risk for STIs through sexual risk behaviors such as reduced condom use. (health.mil)
  • HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors of Female Sex Workers in Khartoum, North Sudan. (whatworksforwomen.org)
  • Given WHO's recommendation that women should receive correct and full information to enable an informed choice regarding their method of contraception, the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3) developed the Strategic Communication Framework for Hormonal Contraceptive Methods and Potential HIV-Related Risks . (healthcommcapacity.org)
  • Compared to the reference group of completely heterosexual participants with no same-sex partners, those who identified as completely heterosexual with same-sex partners, mostly heterosexual, or bisexual were generally more likely to use any method of contraception. (nih.gov)
  • In the United States, approximately 4.3% of women aged 15-19 years who are currently using a method of contraception use a highly-effective LARC method (eg, intrauterine devices and the implant) 6 . (acog.org)
  • DELATORRE, Marina Z. y DIAS, Ana Cristina G. . Opinions about contraception and sexual behavior in southern Brazil's college youth . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to analyze differences in opinions about contraception based on self-reported sexual and contraceptive behavior. (bvsalud.org)
  • Around 253 sexually active young students answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and sexual behavior data and a scale on contraceptive opinions. (bvsalud.org)
  • If sexual actions would change right after women received free birth control, you realized to find out that change just after they were given the contraception. (clinicme.com)
  • Contraception does not generate sexual behavior, For that research, the women had been questioned regarding their sexual actions Six months and Twelve months soon after receiving the free contraception. (clinicme.com)
  • Whilst 5.2% claimed having sexual intercourse with more than one male sexual partner at the start of the research, only 3.5% claimed this at 6 months, and 3.3% claimed this at 12 months soon after getting no cost contraception. (clinicme.com)
  • Supplying no-cost birth control could not lead to more risky sexual behavior. (clinicme.com)
  • Dr. Peipert indicates that rising usage of no cost birth control methods doesn't lead to more risky sexual behavior. (clinicme.com)
  • It's not the contraception that pushes their sexual behavior. (clinicme.com)
  • The National Center for Health Statistics released its first ever study of the sexual behavior and drug use in American adults with the release of Drug Use and Sexual Behaviors Reported by Adults: United States, 1999-2002 , based on the extremely rich data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's personal interview modules on sexual behavior and drug use . (cdc.gov)
  • 6. [Choice of contraception in relation to sexual activity among younger women in Nuuk/Godthåb (Grönland) and in Nykøbing Falster (Danmark). (nih.gov)
  • 16. Seventeen-year review of sexual and contraceptive behavior on a college campus. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Sexual behavior, contraception and unintended pregnancy among young females. (nih.gov)
  • The initial encounter and follow-up visits should include continual reassessment of sexual concerns, behavior, relationships, prevention strategies, and testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines. (acog.org)
  • When comparing the United States with Europe, adolescents have similar rates of sexual activity, but European adolescents are more likely to have access to sexuality education and contraception and are more likely to use the most effective methods, resulting in lower pregnancy rates 5 . (acog.org)
  • Among never-married teens, nearly 8 in 10 females (79 percent) and nearly 9 in 10 males (87 percent) used some form of contraception during their first sexual intercourse. (cdc.gov)
  • Because current medical practice does not always facilitate discussion of sexual behaviors, this group of men may face barriers to receiving culturally competent, comprehensive health care, including preventive services. (aafp.org)
  • Uncertainty remains around hormonal contraception and its link to HIV acquisition. (healthcommcapacity.org)
  • This strategic framework was designed to assist governments in developing a communication strategy and to guide the development of social and behavior change communication (SBCC) materials and activities focused on hormonal contraception and HIV. (healthcommcapacity.org)
  • Use non-hormonal contraception during treatment and for 28 days after discontinuing ORILISSA. (nih.gov)
  • DAT1-Genotype and Menstrual Cycle, but Not Hormonal Contraception, Modulate Reinforcement Learning: Preliminary Evidence. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Factors related to non-use of contraception among couples with an unmet need for family planning in Nepal : final report of an in-depth study conducted by New ERA, Kathmandu, Nepal / Ashoke Shrestha, John Stoeckel, Jayanti Man Tuladhar. (who.int)
  • Psychosocial determinants of fertility and contraception in Venezuela / Snehendu B. Kar and Ram'on Gonz'alez-Cerrutti. (who.int)
  • With a population of about 77 million in mid 2007, accessibility to contraception are important conditions for Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Sub- fertility transition (10,11). (who.int)
  • Using DHS data, Demographic research has shown that socio-economic Westoff and Bankole (1995) demonstrated that fertility and cultural factors influence fertility through biological intentions of women vary with the age of women, and behavioral mechanisms such as the use of number of living children, place of residence, education contraception, which has a direct effect on fertility (4). (who.int)
  • promoting family planning, is important in influencing fertility related behaviors of women (7,11,12). (who.int)
  • The women were being given totally free contraception of their independent option, including intrauterine equipment, implants, oral contraceptives, patches and rings. (clinicme.com)
  • Then please explain to me just what exactly was the nature of the student loan forgiveness, the Obamaphones, the DREAM Act by executive fiat, and the free contraception if NOT to pay off groups who strongly supported Obama in 2008 and to secure their continued support in 2012. (ethicsalarms.com)
  • Public Health Action: State maternal and child health programs can use these population-based data to monitor progress toward Healthy People 2010 objectives, evaluate adherence to guidelines for care, and assess changes in prevalence of other health behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • Reproductive behavior : Central and Eastern European experience / Henry P. David, Robert J. McIntyre. (who.int)
  • Institute-sponsored behavioral and social science research in the population field strives to understand the causes and consequences of reproductive behavior and population change. (nih.gov)
  • The transition to university is a delicate moment in development, in which individuals may be exposed to many stressors and also exhibit risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex. (bvsalud.org)
  • Contraception support interventions must take into account the different barriers that affect men's and women's contraceptive behaviors. (bvsalud.org)
  • What role does religion play in men's contraceptive behavior? (emory.edu)
  • Description of System: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing, state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors and experiences that occur before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver a live-born infant in 31 states and New York City. (cdc.gov)
  • Problem/Condition: Various maternal behaviors and experiences are associated with adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the infant. (cdc.gov)
  • By providing data on maternal behaviors and experiences that are associated with adverse outcomes, PRAMS supports the activities of two CDC initiatives---to promote safe motherhood and to reduce infant mortality and low birthweight. (cdc.gov)
  • Through this Notice, the NICHD announces that eligible applicant institutions and applicants are welcome to submit applications to the NIH Parent Program Announcements PA-13-302 (Parent R01), PA-13-304 (Parent R03), PA-13-303 (Parent R21), and PA-13-313 (Parent R15) that request support for research studies on contraception, long-term implications of ART, and intrauterine assessment of placental and fetal function. (nih.gov)
  • Depression projects pertain to Contraception/Reproduction. (nih.gov)
  • PRAMS data can be used to produce statewide estimates of various perinatal health behaviors and experiences among women delivering a live infant. (cdc.gov)
  • Consenting to these technologies will allow us to process data such as browsing behavior or unique IDs on this site. (courthousenews.com)
  • WASHINGTON (CN) - The U.S. Supreme Court on Friday took up a new series of religious challenges to the contraception-based provisions of federal health care reform. (courthousenews.com)
  • Healthcare covering contraception is supported by both health care professionals and health care insurers for both medical and monetary reasons. (ethicsalarms.com)
  • Sex became a frivolous plaything and promiscuity became widespread, since the most obvious consequences of sinful, frivolous and out of control behavior, now seemed to be to largely preventable. (adw.org)
  • 2011. "Contraception Use and Unplanned Pregnancies among Injection Drug-using Women in St. Petersburg, Russia. (whatworksforwomen.org)
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that obstetrician-gynecologists write advance prescriptions for oral emergency contraception for their patients. (acog.org)
  • 14. Contraception survey: Denmark 1988. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Barrier methods of contraception and the risk of cervical neoplasia. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Barrier methods of contraception and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (nih.gov)
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that discussions about contraception begin with information on the most effective methods first. (acog.org)
  • Discussions about contraception should begin with information on the most effective methods first. (acog.org)
  • Project director of the CHOICE project, (Very first analysis author Gina Secura) states: "Having several partners is really a well-known risk behavior. (clinicme.com)
  • Les résultats ont montré que ces deux mesures indépendantes, si elles sont considérées ensemble, permettent de mieux prédire les intentions comportementales relatives à l'utilisation effective de la contraception orale, l'auto-efficacité en matière de planification familiale étant l'élément qui joue le rôle le plus important Il semble que les techniques d'intervention fondées sur l'auto-efficacité permettent aux femmes sous contraception orale de mieux éviter les grossesses non désirées. (who.int)
  • But if you're healthy and have regular periods, the most effective way to get pregnant is to simply stop using contraception (and have sex). (utah.edu)
  • It is hard to imagine that any Republican strategist who seriously wanted to elect Santorum would suggest that Santorum stress, or even mention, his views on contraception and link contraception to the abortion debate, as Republicans have begun to either do or allow Democrats to do. (huffpost.com)
  • The decision to direct prosecutorial dollars away from prosecuting technically illegal, but non-dangerous for society behavior is sound and should be respected. (ethicsalarms.com)
  • Emergency contraception routinely should be included in discussions about contraception, including access issues. (acog.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Contraception behavior. (who.int)
  • Anger explains, for example, Santorum's views on contraception, and the place those views have come to take in his campaign. (huffpost.com)
  • Other studies have identified knowledge, contraception (1). (who.int)
  • In contrast, Robertson's summer camp lesson plan includes subjects like bodily autonomy, active listening and communication, the characteristics of healthy and unhealthy relationships, and how to identify coercive behavior. (wfyi.org)
  • The dissent emphasized that religious orders could still be deemed responsible for providing their employees with contraception since Obamacare requires the insurer to pay for such services itself when the employer claims religious exemption. (courthousenews.com)