Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Religion and SexPregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Norprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Great BritainUterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.Uterine Cervical Erosion: Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.Antispermatogenic Agents: Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.MissouriVaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.United StatesMestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.United Arab Emirates: A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.LondonObstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Vulvitis: Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Gynecological Examination: Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Armenia: An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Uterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Blood-Aqueous Barrier: The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Physicians, Primary Care: Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Nursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Intrauterine Device Migration: The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Salivary alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.PennsylvaniaFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Menstruation-Inducing Agents: Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Adolescent Medicine: A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Forensic Nursing: The application of NURSING knowledge to questions of law. It is a specialty of nursing practice involving victims of crime which includes not only attending to the physical and emotional distress of victims, but also the identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence for law enforcement and the criminal justice system.ScotlandAdolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Blood-Nerve Barrier: The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.EnglandFertile Period: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.

Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions. (1/8)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods in preventing STI/HIV transmission, to examine recent reviews on microbicide development, and to highlight promising research directions. To discuss challenges in conducting effectiveness research and in translating results to public health intervention. METHODS: Systematic review of articles that examined the disease prevention effectiveness of at least one female controlled barrier method. Review of conference abstracts that presented clinical and preclinical microbicide data. RESULTS: Randomised controlled trials provide evidence that female condoms confer as much protection from STIs as male condoms. Observational studies suggest that the diaphragm protects against STI pathogens. Several microbicide effectiveness studies are under way and new directions, such as adaptation of therapeutic agents as preventive products, are being examined. Substantial attention is now given to product formulation and novel delivery strategies. Combining microbicide products with different mechanisms of action as well as combining chemical and physical barriers will be necessary to maximise prevention effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Increased investment in the development and identification of female controlled barrier methods offers promise that additional products will be available in the years ahead. Generalizing trial results to a community setting, promoting products that may be less effective than male condoms, and bringing an effective product to scale introduce public health challenges that warrant attention. The need for female controlled barrier methods that provide women with the opportunity to take an active role in reducing their STI/HIV risk are urgently needed and constitute an essential tool to prevent continued spread of these infections.  (+info)

Efficacy of the male latex condom and of the female polyurethane condom as barriers to semen during intercourse: a randomized clinical trial. (2/8)

In this 2000-2001 study, the authors compared the effectiveness of the male latex condom and the female polyurethane condom by assessing frequency and types of mechanical failure and by evaluating semen exposure during use. Eligible women from Birmingham, Alabama, were randomly assigned to begin the study with 10 male condoms and then switch to 10 female condoms (n = 55), or vice versa (n = 53), and were trained to use both types. Data collection included questionnaires for each condom use and measurement of prostate-specific antigen in specimens of vaginal fluid taken before and after intercourse. Participants returned 700 male condoms and 678 female condoms, and they reported mechanical problems for 9% and 34%, respectively. Moderate-high postcoital prostate-specific antigen levels (> or = 22 ng/ml) were detected in 3.5% of male condom uses and 4.5% of female condom uses (difference = 1%, 95% confidence interval: -1.6, 3.7). Moderate-high prostate-specific antigen values (> or = 22 ng/ml) were more frequent with mechanical problems (male condom, 9.6%; female condom, 9.4%) but less frequent with other problems (3.0% and 0.9%) or correct use with no problems (2.7% and 2.5%). This study indicates that although mechanical problems are more common with the female condom than with the male condom, these devices may involve a similar risk of semen exposure. Objectively assessed semen exposure is associated with self-reported mechanical problems.  (+info)

Acceptability of microbicidal surrogates among Zambian women. (3/8)

OBJECTIVES AND GOAL: This study assessed the acceptability after the use of vaginal lubricants as surrogates for microbicides among women in Zambia and the role of cultural factors as facilitators or impediments to their potential use for HIV risk reduction within the Zambian context. STUDY DESIGN: HIV seronegative women (N = 301) recruited from the University Teaching Hospital HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center were randomized into group, individual, or enhanced usual care arms. Participants attended pre- and post-HIV test counseling, followed by a 3-session, 2-hour once-a-month intervention introducing them to vaginal lubricants (2 types of gels, suppositories) in addition to male and female condoms. Supplies were offered at months 4 and 5; assessments were at baseline, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: At baseline, the majority of women reported minimal previous exposure to vaginal products and low levels of condom use. Participants' use of products was influenced by product characteristics and perceived partner acceptability; the majority of participants preferred drier products and suppository delivery systems. The basis for decisions regarding vaginal product acceptability changed over time and followed product exposure, and was greatly influenced by perceptions of partner acceptability. CONCLUSION: Results illustrate the influence of male partners on Zambian seronegative women's preferences for microbicidal products, and the change in preferred characteristics over time.  (+info)

Tailored intervention to increase dual-contraceptive method use: a randomized trial to reduce unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. (4/8)

 (+info)

Do women using long-acting reversible contraception reduce condom use? A novel study design incorporating semen biomarkers. (5/8)

 (+info)

Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: a concept analysis. (6/8)

 (+info)

Divergent trends in abortion and birth control practices in belarus, Russia and Ukraine. (7/8)

 (+info)

Effects of contraception on cervical cytology: data from Mardin City. (8/8)

 (+info)

*Cervical cap

The cervical cap is a form of barrier contraception. A cervical cap fits over the cervix and blocks sperm from entering the ... In the 1920's Stopes considered the cervical cap to be the bast method of contraception available. Among barrier methods it ... Use of all barrier methods, but especially cervical barriers, dropped dramatically after the 1960s introduction of the combined ... ISBN 0-9664902-6-6. [page needed] "FDA Approves Lea's Shield". The Contraception Report. Contraception Online. June 2002. ...

*FemCap

Cervical cap Barrier contraception Planned Parenthood (2008-05-16). "Cervical Cap (FemCap)". Retrieved 2009-02-03. Mauck, ... Contraception. 73 (1): 59-64. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2005.06.074. PMC 2876188 . PMID 16371297. New Product Review (October ... FemCap is a cervical barrier contraceptive. As of February 2009, FemCap is the only brand of cervical cap available in the ...

*Fertility awareness

Unlike barrier use without FA, practicing FA can allow couples to use barrier contraception only when necessary. FA can be used ... During the fertile portion of the menstrual cycle, the couple may use barrier contraception or abstain from sexual intercourse ... FA can be used with barrier contraception so that intercourse may continue through the fertile period. ... Contraception. 79 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.003. PMC 3638200 . PMID 19041435. "Fertility Awareness Method ...

*Tetracycline antibiotics

Despite these studies, many physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking any tetracyclines to ... It was once believed that tetracycline antibiotics impair the effectiveness of many types of hormonal contraception. Recent ...

*Colonial American bastardy laws

Nor were barrier methods of contraception. Condoms existed, but males used them to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted ...

*Women's reproductive health in the United States

Combined oral contraceptives Progestin-only pill Patch Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring Emergency contraception Barrier ... Contraception is a major issue of women's reproductive health. 86% of sexually active women practice some form of contraception ... Female sterilization Transcervical sterilization Hormonal contraception is the most popular method of contraception among women ... As with contraception in the U.S., a stigma exists which prevents women from learning about all possible STDs and their ...

*Protestant views on contraception

Also see: Natural Family Planning, Barrier contraception and Hormonal contraception Protestants who accept that birth control ... although they later accepted barrier contraception such as diaphragms and condoms. Denny Kenaston of Charity Christian ... Protestant views on contraception are markedly more pluralistic than the views expressed by the Magisterium of the Roman ... The couple later accepted barrier methods and stated, Strict NFP reaches a point where it is more harmful for a marriage than ...

*Womb veil

The womb veil was a 19th-century American form of barrier contraception consisting of an occlusive pessary, i.e. a device ... Inserted sponges have been used as barrier contraception since antiquity, when they were often saturated with a fluid, commonly ... Brodie, Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth-Century America, p. 5. Brodie, Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth- ... See Brodie, Contraception and Abortion, p. 212. "Dr. George W. Dewey of Moberly District, Mo., thus forcibly descants on some ...

*List of MeSH codes (E02)

... contraception, barrier MeSH E02.875.194.300 --- contraception, immunologic MeSH E02.875.194.540 --- contraception, postcoital ...

*Doxycycline

... although many physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking the drug to prevent unwanted ... Previously, doxycycline was believed to impair the effectiveness of many types of hormonal contraception due to CYP450 ...

*Progesterone (medication)

... or when barrier contraception methods are used. Intramuscular injection of progesterone may achieve much higher levels of ...

*Open marriage

... or extramarital sex without the use of barrier contraception.[citation needed] Some open marriages are one-sided. Some ...

*Adultery

In addition, dealing with the issue of barrier contraception in marriage in cultures where women have very few rights is ... Since most married couples do not routinely use barrier contraceptives, STDs can be introduced to a marriage partner by a ... Modern advances such as reliable contraception and paternity testing have changed the situation (in Western countries). Most ... but addressing this issue is very difficult due to legal and social barriers - to openly talk about this situation would mean ...

*Marvin J. Garbis

... stating that they do not provide abortion and do not provide chemical or barrier contraception methods of birth control. ...

*Women's health

Some barrier forms of contraception such as condoms, also reduce the risk of STIs and HIV infection. Access to contraception ... There remain significant barriers to accessing contraception for many women in both developing and developed regions. These ... Where access to contraception is limited, women turn to abortion. Consequently, abortion rates may be used to estimate unmet ... The ability to determine if and when to become pregnant, is vital to a woman's autonomy and well being, and contraception can ...

*Theology of Pope Benedict XVI

The Church in 1968 had already stated in Humanae Vitae that chemical and barrier methods of contraception went against Church ...

*Christian views on contraception

... nor barrier contraception should be practiced. See http://www.hausvater.org/faqs.php See "Archived copy". Archived from the ... Critique of Christian views on contraception The religious agenda to BAN contraception Catholic Contraception. ... Roman Catholic "Contraception: Why Not?" by Janet E. Smith Website for Catholics Against Contraception Document from the United ... Church Teaching on Contraception by William Saunders Catholic Answers article on contraception including commentary by the ...

*Menstrual cup

The risk of TSS associated with cervical caps used for contraception in the female barrier method is also very low. Cervical ... Faculty of Family Planning & Reproductive Health Care (2007). Female Barrier Methods. Archived 2015-11-26 at the Wayback ...

*Secular Pro-Life

SPL is in favor of barrier-based contraception, along with any other form of contraception that prevents fertilization but does ... "Contraception". secularprolife.org. Retrieved 17 July 2014. "New Generation Grapples With Roe V. Wade". NPR. 23 January 2012. ...

*Texas Policy Evaluation Project

Barriers to postpartum contraception in Texas and pregnancy within 2 years of delivery. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 127(2), 289- ... Contraception, 89(2), 73-4. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2013.10.012 Hopkins, K., White, K., Linkin, F., Hubert, C., ... Contraception, 90(5), 488-95. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2014.06.039 Potter, J. E., Hubert, C., Stevenson, A. J., ... Contraception, 90(5), 502-507. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.007 Stevenson, A. J., Flores-Vazquez, I. M., ...

*Reproductive rights in Latin America

Research reveals that there are several major barriers that young people face to accessing contraception, primarily with ... The legal status of oral contraception in Latin America varies by country. In 2009 Honduras banned the free distribution and ... "Improving Youth's Access to Contraception in Latin America". Advocates for Youth. Advocates for Youth. "Access to EC in Latin ... These court decisions have been responsible for the extreme restrictions on access to emergency contraception within the region ...

*Contraceptive mandate

The theory behind offering contraceptives in schools is that by offering barrier-free methods of obtaining contraception, ... emergency contraception (Plan B/morning-after pill), and emergency contraception (a different pill called Ella). All forms of ... Contraception. 79 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.08.003. PMC 3638200 . PMID 19041435. Cleland K, Peipert JF, ... Male contraception is not eligible. Regulations made under the act rely on the recommendations of the independent Institute of ...

*Comparison of birth control methods

Immediate contraception, like physical barriers, include diaphragms, caps, the contraceptive sponge, and female condoms may be ... Barrier methods have a risk of allergic reaction. Users sensitive to latex may use barriers made of less allergenic materials ... Shelton JD (July 2002). "Repeat emergency contraception: facing our fears". Contraception. 66 (1): 15-7. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824 ... "FDA Approves Combined Monthly Injectable Contraceptive". The Contraception Report. Contraception Online. June 2001. Archived ...

*Hormonal contraception

O'Connor, M.L. (March-April 2001). "Contraceptive Use Elevates The Odds of Barrier Method Use for Disease Prevention". Family ... For women not using ongoing hormonal contraception, COCPs may be taken after intercourse as emergency contraception: this is ... Speroff, Leon; Darney, Philip D. (2011). "Oral contraception". A clinical guide for contraception (5th ed.). Philadelphia: ... Contraception. 80 (2): 113-8. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.02.008. PMID 19631785. Implanon:Riney S, O'Shea B, Forde A ( ...

*History of intersex surgery

... the lessening of many social barriers and inhibitions related to sexual behavior, and social acknowledgment of women's ... the separation of sexuality from reproduction by increasing availability of contraception, ...

*Jewish views on contraception

In those cases, the most "natural" method is preferred; as the use of a condom or pessary creates a physical barrier, "the pill ... The option of contraception is raised by the Talmud (tractate Yevamot 12b), where the use of a pessary is discussed for women ... Regulations regarding contraception affect the traditional streams of Judaism (including the Haredi and Modern Orthodox ... Many Modern Orthodox authorities are inclined to permit contraception for a broad array of reasons, with some arguing that a ...
Considering the embryofetal toxicity of the nivolumab shown on animals models, the following recommendations for contraception must be followed:. a. If not surgically sterile, female patients of childbearing potential age must use highly effective barrier contraception from signing the Informed Consent Form (ICF) through 6 months after the last treatment dose administered. Highly effective barrier and non barrier contraception included: i. Combined (estrogen and progesterone containing) hormonal contraception associated with inhibition of ovulation: Oral Intravaginal Transdermal ii. Progestogen-only hormonal contraception associated with inhibition of ovulation: Oral Injectable Implantable iii. Intrauterine device iv. Intrauterine hormone-releasing system v. Bilateral tubal occlusion vi. Sexual abstinence. In each case of delayed menstrual period (over 1 month between menstruations), confirmation of absence of pregnancy is strongly recommended. This recommendation also applies to women of ...
Women of child-bearing potential and men must agree to use 2 forms of adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) for the duration of study participation, and for four months following completion of study therapy; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately; women who become pregnant must immediately discontinue Rx with any study therapy; male pts. should avoid impregnating a female partner; male pts., even if surgically sterilized, (i.e. post-vasectomy) must agree to one of the following: practice effective barrier contraception during the entire study Rx period and through 4 months after the last dose of study drug, or completely abstain from sexual ...
Agreement for complete abstinence from intercourse from 2 weeks prior to administration of study drugs, throughout the study and for 2 weeks after discontinuation of all study medications. Should a female subject of childbearing potential decide to become sexually active during the course of the study, she must be counseled and be willing to use one of the contraception methods listed below:. Double barrier contraception (male condom/spermicide, male condom/diaphragm, diaphragm/spermicide) Any intrauterine device (IUD) with published data showing that the expected failure rate is less than 1% per year (not all IUDs meet this criterion) Any other method with published data showing that the lowest expected failure rate for that method is less than 1% per year.. Hormonal contraception is not recommended, due to decreased efficacy of contraception as well as increased risk of hepatic transaminase elevation (see Section 8.2).. All subjects of childbearing potential or developing child-bearing ...
* Follows Common Core Standards * This 25-page booklet-style Novel Study is designed to follow students throughout the entire book. The questions are based on reading comprehension, strategies and skills. The novel study is designed to be enjoyable and keep the students engaged.
* Follows Common Core Standards * This 19-page booklet-style Novel Study is designed to follow students throughout the entire book. The questions are based on reading comprehension, strategies and skills. The novel study is designed to be enjoyable and keep the students engaged.
Each year, approximately 19 million STD cases occur in the United States. The male latex condom is the contraceptive method most commonly used to prevent ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular check ups. Discuss any new symptoms with your doctor. You will need to have important blood work done while on this medicine.. HIV is spread to others through sexual or blood contact. Talk to your doctor about how to stop the spread of HIV.. Birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections may not work properly while you are taking this medicine. Talk to your doctor about using an extra method of birth control. Women who can still have children must use a reliable form of barrier contraception, like a condom or diaphragm.. This medicine contains large amounts of vitamin E. Do not take vitamin supplements that have vitamin E while you are taking this medicine.. This medicine may affect blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, check with your doctor or health care professional before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetic medicine.. ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular check ups. Discuss any new symptoms with your doctor. You will need to have important blood work done while on this medicine.. HIV is spread to others through sexual or blood contact. Talk to your doctor about how to stop the spread of HIV.. Birth control pills may not work properly while you are taking this medicine. Talk to your doctor about using an extra method of birth control. Women who can still have children must use a reliable form of barrier contraception, like a condom or diaphragm.. This medicine may affect blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, check with your doctor or health care professional before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetic medicine.. This medicine may cause kidney stones. To help avoid kidney stones, drink plenty of fluids while taking this medicine. Adults should drink at least six 8-ounce glasses of liquids (preferably water) throughout the day, every day. Call your doctor if you notice pain ...
While the oral contraceptive birth control method is over 99% effective when taken correctly, it is still wise to use barrier protection such as a condom. The pill does not prevent the contraction and spreading of STDs. If you and your partner have not both been tested since entering your relationship, it would not be possible to know whether either of you have contracted an STD in the past. Using barrier contraception in addition to the oral pill will help to prevent the spread of a possible STD. Additionally, variation in the time of day the oral contraceptive is taken, as well as the use of other medications, can reduce its efficiency. By using a backup form of contraception, you are increasing your chances of preventing unwanted pregnancy and the spread of infections ...
The womb veil was a 19th-century American form of barrier contraception consisting of an occlusive pessary, i.e. a device inserted into the vagina to block access of the sperm into the uterus. Made of rubber, it was a forerunner to the modern diaphragm and cervical cap. The name was first used by Edward Bliss Foote in 1863 for the device he designed and marketed. "Womb veil" became the most common 19th-century American term for similar devices, and continued to be used into the early 20th century. Womb veils were among a "range of contraceptive technology of questionable efficacy" available to American women of the 19th century, forms of which began to be advertised in the 1830s and 1840s. They could be bought widely through mail-order catalogues; when induced abortion was criminalized during the 1870s, reliance on birth control increased. Womb veils were touted as a discreet form of contraception, with one catalogue of erotic products from the 1860s promising that they could be "used by the ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular check ups. Discuss any new symptoms with your doctor. You will need to have important blood work done while on this medicine. If you have a CMV eye infection have your eyes checked every 4 to 6 weeks.. Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water or fluids daily while taking this medicine to help prevent side effects.. This medicine may cause birth defects to the unborn child if taken during pregnancy. Use contraception while taking this medicine. Males must use barrier contraception during therapy and for 90 days after stopping this medicine. If you think you may have become pregnant and are taking this medicine, contact your doctor right away.. You may get drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. Do not stand or sit up quickly, especially if you are an older patient. This reduces the risk of dizzy or fainting spells.. ...
Increased risk of cardiovascular events (eg, MI, stroke, DVT, VTE) esp. smokers ,35 years of age. Discontinue if thrombotic event, unexplained visual changes, persistently elevated BP, or jaundice occurs, and at least 4 weeks before through 2 weeks after surgery associated with increased risk of thromboembolism, and during and after prolonged immobilization. Cardio- or cerebrovascular diseases. Increased risk of breast cancer or hepatic neoplasia. Hypertriglyceridemia. Obesity. Diabetes. Prediabetes. Gallbladder disease. Depression. Evaluate significant changes in headaches, abnormal vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea. Conditions aggravated by fluid retention; monitor. Do regular complete physical exams (eg, Pap smear, mammogram, BP). May need barrier contraception with Sunday starts or postpartum use (see full labeling). Postmenopausal women or nursing mothers: not recommended.. ...
Vaccination seems to be the key to curtailing the HIV epidemic but all efforts to make a clinically effective vaccine have failed to date. Eliciting high titres of neutralising antibodies at the mucosal portals of viral entry is a key goal in HIV vaccine research. Thus, this thesis specifically focuses at the strategic development and evaluation of women-controlled mucosal vaccine delivery systems for HIV envelope based constructs, H4A, gp140 and FP-A for the purpose of eliciting high antibody titres at the vaginal mucosa. Sustained release rod-insert vaginal rings (RiRs) loaded with gp140, quick release rods containing H4A, FP-A loaded liposomal gels and microneedles in conjunction with mucosal inoculations were evaluated for induction of specific antibodies in animal models (sheep/mice/rabbits). The formulations were evaluated mainly using vaginal delivery with nasal route being used as an auxiliary. However, we found that the nasal route was extremely potent compared to the vaginal route for ...
Mardin is a historical city in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. A city situated on the top of a hill, it is known for its fascinating architecture consisting of heavily decorated stonework cascading from the hilltop, although occasionally pierced by new, ugly construction.
Care guide for Barrier Methods Of Contraception (Discharge Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
The major focus of my research is the development and application of statistics, dynamic models and novel study designs to better understand and control infectious disease. In particular, I am interested in creating synergies between infection ...
DALLAS, TX--Concerns about inappropriate contact or causing injury may help explain why bystanders are less likely to perform CPR on women - even
Obesity, a prevalent threat among one-third of the adult population in the United States, is associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. A major contributor to this danger is inflamed adipose tissue, or body fat. A recent study by a team at the Texas A&M Co
And is not a reliable indicator of disease stauffer group study. The birthplace of Mennonites, such as drusen. Paid sleep study houston Genetics Clincal Study Group, a Pennsylvania farmer who
Some people wrongly believe that if they take birth control pills, they are protecting themselves not only from getting pregnant but also from infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Birth control pills or other types of birth control, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs), Depo-Provera, or tubal ligation will NOT protect you from HIV and other STDs.. The male latex condom is the only birth control method that is proven to help protect you from HIV and other STDs. If you are allergic to latex, there are condoms made of polyurethane that you can use. Condoms come lubricated (which can make sexual intercourse more comfortable and pleasurable) and non-lubricated (which can be used for oral sex).. It is important to only use latex or polyurethane condoms to protect against HIV and other STDs. Natural" or "lambskin" condoms have tiny pores that may allow for the passage of viruses like HIV, hepatitis B and herpes. If you use non-lubricated condoms for vaginal or anal sex, ...
The risks of seroconversion after contact with an HIV-infected source have been estimated for various adult populations and circumstances. The estimates have a number of failings, and may not be current or even reflective of pediatric transmission and seroconversion. Nevertheless, for the most common modes of exposure, they suggest a 5-30/1000 risk for unprotected receptive anal intercourse per sexual contact, a 0.5-1.5/1000 risk for receptive vaginal intercourse per sexual contact, and a 3.2/1000 risk per injury for occupational needle sticks.59,,66,67 Several factors may increase the rate of HIV transmission, such as multiple episodes of intercourse, failure to use barrier contraception methods, intercourse with an uncircumcised male insertive partner, the presence of other infections, an elevated HIV viral load, sexual assault, the lack of use of antiretroviral medications by the HIV source, etc.6,,8,20,68. Maternal to child HIV transmission, through pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding, ...
Increased risk of cardiovascular events (eg, stroke, MI) esp. in cigarette smokers ,35yrs of age; not recommended. Discontinue if thrombotic event, unexplained visual changes, jaundice, migraine or other severe headaches occur, and at least 4 weeks before through 2 weeks after surgery associated with increased risk of thromboembolism. Uncontrolled hypertension. Gallbladder disease. Diabetes. Prediabetes. Uncontrolled dyslipidemias. Hypertriglyceridemia. Depression. Fluid rentention. Monitor blood pressure. Do regular complete physical exams. May need barrier contraception with Sunday starts or postpartum use (see full labeling). Nursing mothers: not recommended.. ...
Obter este item de uma biblioteca Sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems : summary of literature survey and concept analysis, task 3 report. [W H Bennethum; L T Sherwood; GE Aircraft Engines (Firm); Lewis Research Center.]
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