Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Sexual activities of humans.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Painful menstruation.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
Size and composition of the family.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The application of NURSING knowledge to questions of law. It is a specialty of nursing practice involving victims of crime which includes not only attending to the physical and emotional distress of victims, but also the identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence for law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
The unmarried man or woman.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.
Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.

Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions. (1/8)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods in preventing STI/HIV transmission, to examine recent reviews on microbicide development, and to highlight promising research directions. To discuss challenges in conducting effectiveness research and in translating results to public health intervention. METHODS: Systematic review of articles that examined the disease prevention effectiveness of at least one female controlled barrier method. Review of conference abstracts that presented clinical and preclinical microbicide data. RESULTS: Randomised controlled trials provide evidence that female condoms confer as much protection from STIs as male condoms. Observational studies suggest that the diaphragm protects against STI pathogens. Several microbicide effectiveness studies are under way and new directions, such as adaptation of therapeutic agents as preventive products, are being examined. Substantial attention is now given to product formulation and novel delivery strategies. Combining microbicide products with different mechanisms of action as well as combining chemical and physical barriers will be necessary to maximise prevention effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Increased investment in the development and identification of female controlled barrier methods offers promise that additional products will be available in the years ahead. Generalizing trial results to a community setting, promoting products that may be less effective than male condoms, and bringing an effective product to scale introduce public health challenges that warrant attention. The need for female controlled barrier methods that provide women with the opportunity to take an active role in reducing their STI/HIV risk are urgently needed and constitute an essential tool to prevent continued spread of these infections.  (+info)

Efficacy of the male latex condom and of the female polyurethane condom as barriers to semen during intercourse: a randomized clinical trial. (2/8)

In this 2000-2001 study, the authors compared the effectiveness of the male latex condom and the female polyurethane condom by assessing frequency and types of mechanical failure and by evaluating semen exposure during use. Eligible women from Birmingham, Alabama, were randomly assigned to begin the study with 10 male condoms and then switch to 10 female condoms (n = 55), or vice versa (n = 53), and were trained to use both types. Data collection included questionnaires for each condom use and measurement of prostate-specific antigen in specimens of vaginal fluid taken before and after intercourse. Participants returned 700 male condoms and 678 female condoms, and they reported mechanical problems for 9% and 34%, respectively. Moderate-high postcoital prostate-specific antigen levels (> or = 22 ng/ml) were detected in 3.5% of male condom uses and 4.5% of female condom uses (difference = 1%, 95% confidence interval: -1.6, 3.7). Moderate-high prostate-specific antigen values (> or = 22 ng/ml) were more frequent with mechanical problems (male condom, 9.6%; female condom, 9.4%) but less frequent with other problems (3.0% and 0.9%) or correct use with no problems (2.7% and 2.5%). This study indicates that although mechanical problems are more common with the female condom than with the male condom, these devices may involve a similar risk of semen exposure. Objectively assessed semen exposure is associated with self-reported mechanical problems.  (+info)

Acceptability of microbicidal surrogates among Zambian women. (3/8)

OBJECTIVES AND GOAL: This study assessed the acceptability after the use of vaginal lubricants as surrogates for microbicides among women in Zambia and the role of cultural factors as facilitators or impediments to their potential use for HIV risk reduction within the Zambian context. STUDY DESIGN: HIV seronegative women (N = 301) recruited from the University Teaching Hospital HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center were randomized into group, individual, or enhanced usual care arms. Participants attended pre- and post-HIV test counseling, followed by a 3-session, 2-hour once-a-month intervention introducing them to vaginal lubricants (2 types of gels, suppositories) in addition to male and female condoms. Supplies were offered at months 4 and 5; assessments were at baseline, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: At baseline, the majority of women reported minimal previous exposure to vaginal products and low levels of condom use. Participants' use of products was influenced by product characteristics and perceived partner acceptability; the majority of participants preferred drier products and suppository delivery systems. The basis for decisions regarding vaginal product acceptability changed over time and followed product exposure, and was greatly influenced by perceptions of partner acceptability. CONCLUSION: Results illustrate the influence of male partners on Zambian seronegative women's preferences for microbicidal products, and the change in preferred characteristics over time.  (+info)

Tailored intervention to increase dual-contraceptive method use: a randomized trial to reduce unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. (4/8)


Do women using long-acting reversible contraception reduce condom use? A novel study design incorporating semen biomarkers. (5/8)


Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: a concept analysis. (6/8)


Divergent trends in abortion and birth control practices in belarus, Russia and Ukraine. (7/8)


Effects of contraception on cervical cytology: data from Mardin City. (8/8)


STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.

Some of the most common STDs include:

* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.

It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.

If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.

It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.

In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.

Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:

* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.

It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.

Also known as: Menstrual Disorders, Menstrual Abnormalities, Dysmenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea.

In the medical field, emergencies are situations that require immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm or death. These situations may include:

1. Life-threatening injuries, such as gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or severe head trauma.
2. Severe illnesses, such as heart attacks, strokes, or respiratory distress.
3. Acute and severe pain, such as from a broken bone or severe burns.
4. Mental health emergencies, such as suicidal thoughts or behaviors, or psychosis.
5. Obstetric emergencies, such as preterm labor or placental abruption.
6. Pediatric emergencies, such as respiratory distress or dehydration in infants and children.
7. Trauma, such as from a car accident or fall.
8. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or floods.
9. Environmental emergencies, such as carbon monoxide poisoning or exposure to toxic substances.
10. Mass casualty incidents, such as a terrorist attack or plane crash.

In all of these situations, prompt and appropriate medical care is essential to prevent further harm and save lives. Emergency responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and other healthcare providers, are trained to quickly assess the situation, provide immediate care, and transport patients to a hospital if necessary.

Uterine cervical erosion refers to a condition where the tissue lining the cervix wears away, exposing the underlying tissue. This can cause pain, bleeding, and discomfort during sexual activity. The condition is more common in women who have had multiple vaginal deliveries or who use hormonal contraceptives.

Causes and risk factors:

* Multiple vaginal deliveries
* Hormonal contraceptives (such as birth control pills, patches, or rings)
* Cervical dysplasia or precancerous changes in the cervix
* Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
* Immune system disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
* Inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis)
* Radiation therapy to the pelvic area


* Pain during sex
* Bleeding after sex
* Vaginal discharge that is light pink or brown in color
* Mild abdominal cramping


* A thorough physical examination and medical history
* A pap smear to check for any abnormal cells in the cervix
* An endocervical curettage, which involves scraping a sample of tissue from the cervix
* Imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI to rule out other conditions


* Medications to reduce inflammation and promote healing, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or corticosteroids
* Surgery to remove any abnormal tissue or repair any damage to the cervix
* Changes to hormonal contraceptives or discontinuation of them if they are suspected to be a contributing factor
* Antibiotics if there is an underlying infection


* Infertility if the condition is left untreated
* Increased risk of cervical cancer if the abnormal tissue is not removed
* Recurrent bleeding or pain
* Asherman's syndrome, a condition where scar tissue forms in the uterus and can cause infertility

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual vaginal bleeding or symptoms to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

There are two main types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by uterine muscle contractions that occur during menstruation, while secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by an underlying medical condition such as endometriosis, fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea may include:

* Cramping pain in the lower abdomen, usually beginning before or at the onset of menstruation and lasting for 1-3 days
* Pain that can be sharp, dull, or throbbing
* Pelvic discomfort or heaviness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Mild fever

While dysmenorrhea is not a life-threatening condition, it can significantly impact a woman's quality of life, particularly during her reproductive years. The exact cause of primary dysmenorrhea is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause uterine muscle contractions and increased blood flow to the pelvis.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea may include over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or naproxen, as well as home remedies such as heat application, exercise, and relaxation techniques. In some cases, prescription medications or surgery may be necessary to address underlying conditions that are contributing to the dysmenorrhea.

It's important for women who experience severe or persistent dysmenorrhea to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may need treatment. With proper diagnosis and management, most women with dysmenorrhea can find relief from their symptoms and lead normal, active lives.

Types of Lipid Metabolism Disorders:

1. Hyperlipidemia: Elevated levels of lipids in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.
2. Hypolipidemia: Low levels of lipids in the blood.
3. Lipoprotein disorders: Abnormalities in the structure or function of lipoproteins, such as chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
4. Cholesteryl ester storage disease: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the body, leading to progressive damage to the liver, heart, and other organs.
5. Familial dyslipidemia: Inherited disorders that affect the metabolism of lipids, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL levels) or familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (low HDL and LDL levels).
6. Glycogen storage disease type III: A rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, leading to the accumulation of fat in the liver and other organs.
7. Lipid-lowering drug therapy: The use of medications, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pediatric lipidemias: Lipid disorders that affect children and adolescents, such as familial hypercholesterolemia in children.
9. Pregnancy-related lipid metabolism disorders: Changes in lipid metabolism during pregnancy, which can lead to the development of gestational diabetes and other complications.
10. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS): A severe inflammatory lung disease that can cause abnormal lipid metabolism and fat accumulation in the lungs.
11. X-linked dystonia-Parkinsonism: A rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and nervous system, leading to movement disorders and other symptoms.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of lipid metabolism disorders that exist. Each type has its own set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options, and it is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

There are different types of uterine perforation, including:

1. Cervical perforation: A tear in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
2. Uterine wall perforation: A tear or hole in the muscular wall of the uterus, which can be caused by instruments used during surgery or delivery.
3. Endometrial perforation: A tear in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which is more common during invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or endometrial ablation.

Symptoms of uterine perforation may include:

* Severe abdominal pain
* Heavy vaginal bleeding
* Fever
* Nausea and vomiting

If you suspect that you have a uterine perforation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the damage. Treatment options may include:

1. Observation: In mild cases, the body may be able to heal on its own without any intervention.
2. Surgery: Depending on the severity of the perforation, surgical repair or removal of the damaged tissue may be necessary.
3. Antibiotics: If there is an infection, antibiotics will be prescribed to treat it.
4. Blood transfusions: In cases where there is significant bleeding, blood transfusions may be required.

Prevention of uterine perforation is crucial, and it involves proper training and use of instruments during surgery or delivery, as well as careful monitoring of the patient's condition during these procedures.

The symptoms of intrauterine device migration can vary depending on the location and size of the migrated IUD. Some common symptoms include:

* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful menstrual cramps
* Difficulty inserting or removing the IUD during routine check-ups
* Fever, chills, or other signs of infection

If intrauterine device migration is suspected, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as an ultrasound or X-ray, to confirm the location and size of the migrated IUD. Treatment options for intrauterine device migration depend on the severity of the complication and can include:

* Removal of the migrated IUD
* Insertion of a new IUD in a different location
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Surgical intervention to repair any damage caused by the migrated IUD.

It is important for women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) as a form of birth control to be aware of the risk of migration and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms that may indicate a problem with their IUD. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help detect any issues early on and prevent complications associated with intrauterine device migration.

1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the bladder, kidneys, or urethra, and can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): This condition is characterized by sudden, intense urges to urinate, often with urgency and frequency.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): This chronic condition causes pain and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area, and can lead to increased urination and frequency.
4. Vaginal Infections: These are infections that occur in the vagina and can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and abnormal discharge.
5. Vulvodynia: This chronic condition is characterized by pain and discomfort in the vulva, and can be caused by a range of factors including infection, inflammation, or nerve damage.
6. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing symptoms such as pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and infertility.
7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that can cause symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
8. Vaginal Prolapse: This occurs when the muscles and tissues in the vagina weaken, causing the vagina to protrude into the vulva or rectum.
9. Menorrhagia: This is a condition characterized by heavy, prolonged menstrual periods that can cause anemia and other complications.
10. Dyspareunia: This is pain during sexual activity, which can be caused by a range of factors including vaginal dryness, cervical narrowing, or nerve damage.

These are just a few examples of the many conditions that can affect the vulva and vagina. It's important to note that many of these conditions can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Causes of Menorrhagia

There are several potential causes of menorrhagia, including:

1. Hormonal imbalance: Hormonal changes can lead to an imbalance in the uterus, causing excessive bleeding.
2. Uterine fibroids: These noncancerous growths in the uterus can cause heavy bleeding during menstruation.
3. Adenomyosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, leading to heavy bleeding.
4. Endometrial polyps: These are growths that can develop on the lining of the uterus and cause heavy bleeding.
5. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause menorrhagia.
6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause scarring and lead to heavy bleeding.
7. IUDs: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) can cause heavy bleeding, especially during the first few months after insertion.
8. Medications: Certain medications such as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs can increase the risk of menorrhagia.
9. Bleeding disorders: Women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease or platelet dysfunction, may experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
10. Cancer: In rare cases, menorrhagia can be a symptom of uterine cancer.

Symptoms of Menorrhagia

The primary symptom of menorrhagia is heavy menstrual bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeds that are heavier than usual. Other symptoms may include:

1. Soaking through sanitary products every hour or two
2. Using double sanitary products (e.g., a pad and a tampon) to control bleeding
3. Bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days
4. Menstrual blood clots larger than a quarter
5. Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
6. Passing large blood clots during bowel movements or urination
7. Fatigue, dizziness, or fainting due to anemia
8. Weakness or shortness of breath

Diagnosis and Treatment of Menorrhagia

If you experience any of the symptoms of menorrhagia, it is important to see a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. The healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order one or more of the following tests to determine the cause of heavy menstrual bleeding:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC) to check for anemia and other blood abnormalities
2. Blood smear examination to look for abnormal cells or blood clotting disorders
3. Ultrasound to evaluate the uterus and ovaries
4. Endometrial biopsy to examine the lining of the uterus
5. Hysteroscopy to visualize the inside of the uterus
6. Laparoscopy to evaluate the pelvic organs

Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications such as hormonal contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or iron supplements to control bleeding and anemia
2. Surgical procedures such as endometrial ablation or hysterectomy in severe cases that do not respond to other treatments
3. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, as well as taking regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to regulate hormonal imbalances
5. Platelet transfusions or blood transfusions in cases of severe bleeding

It's important to note that menorrhagia can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it's essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

1. Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding (more than 7 days)
2. Bleeding between periods or after sex
3. Painful periods or difficulty using tampons
4. Fever, chills, or vomiting during menstruation
5. Unusual vaginal discharge or odor
6. Abdominal pain or bloating

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications of menorrhagia, such as anemia, fatigue, and infertility.


There are several possible causes of amenorrhea, including:

1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalance of hormones can prevent the uterus from preparing for menstruation.
2. Pregnancy: Pregnancy is one of the most common causes of amenorrhea.
3. Menopause: Women going through menopause may experience amenorrhea due to the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods or amenorrhea.
5. Thyroid Disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause amenorrhea.
6. Obesity: Women who are significantly overweight may experience amenorrhea due to the hormonal imbalance caused by excess body fat.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
8. Surgery or Trauma: Certain surgeries, such as hysterectomy or removal of the ovaries, can cause amenorrhea. Trauma, such as a severe injury or infection, can also cause amenorrhea.
9. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and chemotherapy drugs, can cause amenorrhea as a side effect.
10. Endocrine Disorders: Disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism can cause amenorrhea.


Amenorrhea can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. No menstrual period
2. Difficulty getting pregnant (infertility)
3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
4. Painful intercourse
5. Weight gain or loss
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
7. Fatigue
8. Headaches
9. Insomnia
10. Hot flashes


Amenorrhea is typically diagnosed based on a patient's medical history and physical examination. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of amenorrhea, such as:

1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, to evaluate the ovaries and uterus
3. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to visually examine the ovaries and fallopian tubes
4. Hysteroscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus


The treatment of amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:

1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore hormone balance and promote menstruation
2. Medications to stimulate ovulation, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole
3. Surgery to remove fibroids, cysts, or other structural abnormalities that may be contributing to amenorrhea
4. Infertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the patient is experiencing difficulty getting pregnant
5. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or exercise, to improve overall health and promote menstruation


There is no specific way to prevent amenorrhea, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing any underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some tips for prevention include:

1. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
2. Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve overall health
3. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation
4. Getting enough sleep each night
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
6. Maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI) to reduce the risk of developing hormonal imbalances
7. Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders
8. Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins that can disrupt hormone balance.

There are several types of acne, including:

1. Comedonal acne: characterized by blackheads and whiteheads.
2. Inflammatory acne: characterized by papules, pustules, and nodules.
3. Cystic acne: characterized by large, painful cysts that can cause scarring.
4. Acne rosacea: a type of acne that occurs in adults, characterized by redness, flushing, and telangiectasias (small blood vessels).

There are several treatment options for acne vulgaris, including:

1. Topical treatments: such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and sulfur.
2. Oral antibiotics: such as doxycycline and minocycline.
3. Retinoids: derived from vitamin A, used to unclog pores and reduce inflammation.
4. Hormonal therapies: such as birth control pills, used to regulate hormones that can contribute to acne.
5. Isotretinoin: a powerful oral medication used for severe cases of cystic acne that have not responded to other treatments.
6. Laser and light therapy: such as blue light therapy and photodynamic therapy, used to reduce inflammation and kill bacteria.
7. Lifestyle modifications: such as using non-comedogenic products, wearing sunscreen, and avoiding picking or popping pimples.

It is important to note that acne can be a persistent condition, and it may take time and experimentation to find the right treatment approach. It's best to consult with a dermatologist for personalized advice on treating acne vulgaris.

The three main subtypes of FASD are:

1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): This is the most severe form of FASD and is characterized by a combination of physical, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with FAS often have facial abnormalities, growth retardation, and central nervous system defects.
2. Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS): This subtype is characterized by some, but not all, of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS.
3. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): This subtype includes individuals who have physical birth defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, but do not meet the full criteria for FAS or pFAS.

Other types of FASD include:

1. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): This subtype is characterized by behavioral and cognitive abnormalities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression.
2. Maternal and Child Health Consensus Statement on FASD: This subtype includes individuals who have a history of prenatal alcohol exposure and exhibit a range of physical, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities, but do not meet the full criteria for any of the other subtypes.

The diagnosis of FASD is based on a combination of clinical findings, medical history, and developmental assessments. There is no specific test or biomarker for FASD, so diagnosis can be challenging and requires expertise in pediatrics, neurology, and developmental psychopathology.

Treatment for FASD typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes medical care, behavioral interventions, and supportive services. Management of the condition may involve working with a team of healthcare professionals, such as pediatricians, neurologists, developmental specialists, and social workers.

The prognosis for individuals with FASD varies depending on the severity of their alcohol exposure during pregnancy, the timing and amount of exposure, and the presence of any comorbid conditions. However, early diagnosis and intervention can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

In summary, FASD is a complex and multifactorial condition that results from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Diagnosis can be challenging, but a comprehensive evaluation and multidisciplinary approach to treatment can improve outcomes for individuals with FASD.

HIV seropositivity is typically diagnosed through a blood test called an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test detects the presence of antibodies against HIV in the blood by using specific proteins on the surface of the virus. If the test is positive, it means that the individual has been infected with HIV.

HIV seropositivity is an important diagnostic criterion for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), which is a condition that develops when the immune system is severely damaged by HIV infection. AIDS is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and laboratory tests, including HIV seropositivity.

HIV seropositivity can be either primary (acute) or chronic. Primary HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual is first infected with HIV and their immune system produces antibodies against the virus. Chronic HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual has been living with HIV for a long time and their immune system has produced antibodies that remain in their bloodstream.

HIV seropositivity can have significant implications for an individual's health and quality of life, as well as their social and economic well-being. It is important for individuals who are HIV seropositive to receive appropriate medical care and support to manage their condition and prevent the transmission of HIV to others.

Some common examples of drug-induced abnormalities include:

1. Allergic reactions: Some drugs can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
2. Side effects: Many drugs can cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and fatigue, which can be mild or severe.
3. Toxic reactions: Some drugs can cause toxic reactions, which can damage the body's organs and tissues.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Certain drugs can trigger autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause a range of symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, and skin rashes.
5. Gastrointestinal problems: Some drugs can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, or constipation.
6. Neurological disorders: Certain drugs can cause neurological disorders, such as seizures, tremors, and changes in mood or behavior.
7. Cardiovascular problems: Some drugs can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.
8. Metabolic changes: Certain drugs can cause metabolic changes, such as weight gain or loss, and changes in blood sugar levels.
9. Endocrine disorders: Some drugs can affect the body's endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of symptoms including changes in mood, energy levels, and sexual function.
10. Kidney damage: Certain drugs can cause kidney damage or failure, especially in people with pre-existing kidney problems.

It's important to note that not all drugs will cause side effects, and the severity of side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific drug being taken. However, it's important to be aware of the potential risks associated with any medication you are taking, and to discuss any concerns or questions you have with your healthcare provider.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

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... prefer barrier contraception such as the diaphragm over methods that require some action every day. Like all cervical barriers ... Barrier contraception, Vagina, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, World Health Organization essential medicines). ... and Future of Contraception". Contraception Online (Baylor College of Medicine). 10 (6). February 2000. Archived from the ... The diaphragm is a barrier method of birth control. It is moderately effective, with a one-year failure rate of around 12% with ...
O'Connor ML (March-April 2001). "Contraceptive Use Elevates The Odds of Barrier Method Use for Disease Prevention". Family ... For women not using ongoing hormonal contraception, COCPs may be taken after intercourse as emergency contraception: this is ... Speroff L, Darney PD (2011). "Oral contraception". A clinical guide for contraception (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott ... Contraception. 80 (2): 113-118. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.02.008. PMID 19631785. Implanon:Riney S, O'Shea B, Forde A ( ...
The barriers impeding universal access to sexual and reproductive health must be overcome. Choice: The ability of all who seek ... It covers a broad range of health areas, including malaria, HIV/AIDS, nutrition, contraception, neonatal and child health, ... An individual's need for contraception evolves throughout his or her life cycle. Accessing the "right" contraceptive increases ... who wish to protect themselves from unintended and potentially unsafe pregnancy do not have access to modern contraception. In ...
Contraception. 98 (4): 266-269. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.06.006. PMID 29944875. S2CID 49434157. Obedin-Maliver J, ... Berger AP, Potter EM, Shutters CM, Imborek KL (2015). "Pregnant transmen and barriers to high quality healthcare". Proceedings ... Light A, Wang LF, Zeymo A, Gomez-Lobo V (October 2018). "Family planning and contraception use in transgender men". ... Testosterone therapy is not a sufficient method of contraception, and trans men may experience unintended pregnancy, especially ...
With threatening sexually transmitted infections, not least HIV, use of barrier contraception has become imperative. The ... invention of hormonal contraception, and the normalization of abortion and homosexuality in many countries. Family planning has ...
Their goals were to protest the idealization of mothers and eliminate barriers to contraception and abortion. On Mother's Day, ... Manifesto of the Movement for Contraception and Free and Abortion, MCALG), demanding free distribution of contraception and ... Their first public action in 1976 was to protest the lack of access to contraception. As the country had just emerged from ... For the Dolle Minas and the Marie Mineurs, the main issues were initially free contraception and free abortion. The law ...
Unlike barrier use without FA, practicing FA can allow couples to use barrier contraception only when necessary. FA can be used ... During the fertile portion of the menstrual cycle, the couple may use barrier contraception or abstain from sexual intercourse ... FA can be used with barrier contraception so that intercourse may continue through the fertile period. ... Contraception. 99 (1): 52-55. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.10.002. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 30316782. Health, Center for ...
Potasse MA, Yaya S (February 2021). "Understanding perceived access barriers to contraception through an African feminist lens ... Sitruk-Ware R, Nath A, Mishell DR (March 2013). "Contraception technology: past, present and future". Contraception. 87 (3): ... ISBN 978-0-19-928564-8. Quarini CA (September 2005). "History of contraception". Women's Health Medicine. Contraception. 2 (5 ... of married couples have used some for of contraception in Western Europe. Some barriers to access to contraceptives include ...
Also known as a contraceptive cap, they work similar to a diaphragm as a barrier form of contraception. It is inserted into the ... It is recommended for anyone attempting this form of contraception to be fitted for the correct size by a trained health care ... It can also be used to administer medications locally in the vagina or as a method of contraception. Pessaries come in ... Occlusive pessaries are most commonly used for contraception. ... ". "The different types of contraception". ...
... and contraception. A barrier that gets in the way of becoming parents is the cost involved with fertility preservation options ... "World Contraception Day". Archived from the original on 2014-08-18. "Contraception Is Not Abortion: The Strategic Campaign of ... Emergency contraception has been available since the 1970s, a product was specifically licensed for emergency contraception in ... September 26 is designated as World Contraception Day, devoted to raising awareness of contraception and improving education ...
Mothers are disadvantaged and in many rural areas there is a lack of abortion services and contraception methods. Public ... Both social and financial inequality results in barriers of access to healthcare services in India. Services aren't accessible ... barriers of access to services and medicines, lack of public health knowledge, and low cost factor. These drawbacks push ...
Although some safe sex practices (like condoms) can also be used as birth control (contraception), most forms of contraception ... Barriers, such as condoms, dental dams, and medical gloves can prevent contact with body fluids (such as blood, vaginal fluid, ... Most methods of contraception are not effective at preventing the spread of STIs. This includes birth control pills, vasectomy ... It is typically used as a barrier between the mouth and the vulva during cunnilingus or between the mouth and the anus during ...
Contraception, 69:481-487. Bender, S.S., Geirsson, R.T. og Kosunen, E. (2003). Trends in teenage fertility, abortion and ... A review of perceived barriers to sexual and reproductive health services by young people. The European Journal of ... Contraception, 69:481-487. Félag íslenskra hjúkrunarfræðinga. (2019). Þróun skimunartækisins HEILUNG. Retrieved March 8, 2020. ... Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 18, 159-167. Sóley S. Bender (2006). Kynlífsheilbrigði: Þörf fyrir stefnumótun. ...
Some barrier forms of contraception such as condoms, also reduce the risk of STIs and HIV infection. Access to contraception ... There remain significant barriers to accessing contraception for many women in both developing and developed regions. These ... Where access to contraception is limited, women turn to abortion. Consequently, abortion rates may be used to estimate unmet ... The ability to determine if and when to become pregnant, is vital to a woman's autonomy and well-being, and contraception can ...
Other contraceptive devices include Lea's Shield barrier device, and the FemCap barrier device. CONRAD was a collaborator in ... Contraception. 78 (6): 465-473. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.07.020. PMID 19014792. "Lea's Shield: a study of the safety ... A movement by researchers and funders toward combining contraception with HIV and STI prevention has resulted in the ... and efficacy of a new vaginal barrier contraceptive used with and without spermicide. -". Allen ...
The only case where the federal government mandates access to abortion and emergency contraception is in the case of rape. ... However, many women face barriers to receiving this care including: inaccurate information, undue delays, and intimidation by ... Beutelspacher, Austreberta Nazar; Martelo, Emma Zapata; GarcÍa, VerÓnica Vázquez (2003-01-01). "Does Contraception Benefit ...
Wolfson is concerned about new methods of hormonal contraception and advocates use of barrier methods over oral or injectable ...
The bill allowed married couples who needed barrier contraception in place of hormonal contraception, which was already ... Couples would be able to obtain a prescription for barrier contraception from their doctor, and purchase it at a pharmacy. The ... As a result of this barrier, only three women sat on a jury in Ireland between 1963 and 1973. In December 1975 the Supreme ... Robinson's first term as a senator was largely marked by repeated attempts to legalise the sale of contraception. The first ...
The risk of TSS associated with cervical caps used for contraception in the female barrier method is also very low. Cervical ... doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.12.002. PMID 22464406. "Tampons and Asbestos, Dioxin, & Toxic Shock Syndrome". FDA U.S. Food ... Wiebe ER, Trouton KJ (August 2012). "Does using tampons or menstrual cups increase early IUD expulsion rates?". Contraception. ... Faculty of Family Planning & Reproductive Health Care (2007). Female Barrier Methods. Archived 2015-11-26 at the Wayback ...
An International Reproductive Health Journal Contraception. 97 (2): 177-183. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.09.003. PMC ... "Barriers to accessing abortion services and perspectives on using mifepristone and misoprostol at home in Great Britain". ... The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 22 (5): 360-362. doi:10.1080/13625187.2017.1397112. PMID ... on Web has also researched data from women in countries where abortion is not legally restricted to highlight the barriers in ...
"A review of barriers and myths preventing the more widespread use of intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women". The ... the prescription of contraception and all care related to this contraception". From August 2022 onwards contraception for women ... doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.08.029. PMID 23040137. Darney L, Speroff PD (2010). A clinical guide for contraception (5th ed ... In the United Kingdom contraception can be obtained free of charge via contraception clinics, sexual health or GUM ( ...
Despite these studies, many physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking any tetracyclines to ... It was once believed that tetracycline antibiotics impair the effectiveness of many types of hormonal contraception. Recent ...
It is hard to get an abortion due to legal and policy barriers, social and cultural barriers (gender discrimination, poverty, ... Support for contraception is based on views such as reproductive rights, women's rights, and the necessity to prevent child ... One type of contraceptive includes barrier methods. One barrier method includes condoms for males and females. Both types stop ... States parties should not introduce new barriers and should remove existing barriers [11] that deny effective access by women ...
Research reveals that there are several major barriers that young people face to accessing contraception, primarily with ... The legal status of oral contraception in Latin America varies by country. In 2009 Honduras banned the free distribution and ... These court decisions have been responsible for the extreme restrictions on access to emergency contraception within the region ... Most of these improvements can be attributed to modern contraception, emergency care, as well as education. Similarly, advocacy ...
In those cases, the most "natural" method is preferred; as the use of a condom or pessary creates a physical barrier, "the pill ... However, liberal figures and authorities encourage male contraception when the use of contraception is important for the safety ... The option of contraception is raised by the Talmud (Tractate Yevamot 12b), where the use of a pessary is discussed for women ... Regulations regarding contraception affect the traditional streams of Judaism (including the Haredi and Modern Orthodox ...
Also see: Natural Family Planning, Barrier contraception and Hormonal contraception Protestants who accept that birth control ... No Room For Contraception Lambeth Conferences of the Anglican Church "History of Contraception in the Protestant Church". ... although they later accepted barrier contraception such as diaphragms and condoms. Denny Kenaston of Charity Christian ... Protestant views on contraception are markedly more pluralistic than the doctrine expressed by the Magisterium of the Roman ...
... checks and other public health measures educating prostitutes and their clients to encourage the use of barrier contraception ... "such laws constitute major barriers to reaching key populations with HIV services". In 2012, the Global Commission on HIV and ...
The topic of sexuality and contraception ceased to be taboo and specialized shops of modern hygiene were frequently established ... to facilitate trade relations threatened by the rising economic barriers between Czechoslovakia and Germany. The following year ... Contraception for males, Companies established in 1909, Companies based in Prague). ...
July 21 The House votes to codify federal access to contraception, with eight Republicans supporting the measure. In the ... "Frontier supercomputer debuts as world's fastest, breaking exascale barrier". Oak Ridge National Laboratory. May 30, 2022. ... Chandelis Duster; Kristin Wilson; Kit Maher (July 21, 2022). "House votes to pass bill guaranteeing access to contraception". ...
Women Help Women is an online non-profit organization that provides medical abortion, contraception and emergency contraception ... Cost is a common barrier to obtaining an abortion in the United States. The cost of an abortion varies by facility, type of ... Women Help Women - an organization providing medical abortion, contraception, emergency contraception, and information and ...
Because of the limited use of contraception, the Dominican Republic has one of the highest HIV/AIDS rates outside of Africa. ... are also set policies that help youth improve their creative and innovative skills for the workforce and reducing barriers that ... Fewer than half of the female population that were sexually active used contraception. ...
The risk of depression is tripled for teenage girls who use non-oral forms of hormonal contraception. Lucia O'Sullivan and her ... Abalkhail, BA (1995). "Adolescent pregnancy: Are there biological barriers for pregnancy outcomes?". The Journal of the ... In January, 2000, the French government launched an information campaign on contraception with TV and radio spots and the ... Among those who were sexually active, the majority (82.3%) had used contraception at last intercourse. A nationally ...
Contraception. 21 (5): 445-459. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(80)90010-4. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 7428356. TʼSjoen, Guy; Van Caenegem, Eva ... informed consent model that does not require any routine formal psychiatric evaluation but instead focuses on reducing barriers ...
Stamp, Gavin (1 May 2005). "Barriers still exist in larger EU". BBC News. Retrieved 7 September 2015. "EU free movement of ... Pioneer in Contraception, London : The Bodley Head, ISBN 0-370-30504-3 "ZARNECKI, Prof. Jan Charles, (John)". Who's Who online ... missionary and pioneer of Contraception John Zarnecki (born 1949) - astronomer, past President of the Royal Astronomical ...
The violence varied from physical barriers into entrances of abortion clinic to arson and bombings of those clinics. The ... NOW supports safe and legal abortion, affordable birth control and other contraception, and reproductive health education. NOW ...
Teaching was not quite as easy to break into, but the low salaries were less of the barrier to the single woman then to the ... especially as the membership disregarded the bishops teaching that contraception was sinful. From 2007 to 2015, Harriet Harman ... the accommodations that would allow women to overcome barriers to fulfillment (known in later years as the "equality vs. ...
Crossing the Barriers: The Autobiography of Allan H. Spear (Foreword by Barney Frank) (2010) On the Brink: Inside the Race to ... "emergency contraception for rape victims". In 2007 he co-sponsored the "Compassionate Care for Servicewomen Act" (S.1800 & HR. ... 2064) (07-HR2064) to "providing emergency contraception at military facilities"; the "Prevention First Act" (S.21&H.R.463 2009- ...
It crosses the blood-brain barrier and exerts effects in the central nervous system. Bicalutamide is metabolized in the liver ... "Combined Oral Contraception and Bicalutamide in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Severe Hirsutism: A Double-Blind Randomized ... Based on animal research, it was initially thought that bicalutamide was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier into the ... Schinkel AH (April 1999). "P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier". Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 36 (2-3): 179-194. doi ...
I mean it does put a little barrier between myself and the guest, but on the other hand it can be very useful for a formal ... contraception and a number of areas hitherto unspoken. Much of the populace, especially in the south and west of Ireland, had ... carried bags of condoms from Belfast on a train in protest at Ireland's strict anti-contraception laws in 1971, The Late Late ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 615-621. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.08.010. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 22078191. Mansi Vijay, IndiaSpend ... As the act fails to differentiate between offense and consent, it poses a huge barrier to access to sexual and reproductive ... while addressing the issue of regulating emergency contraception under the MTP Act, ruled that "emergency contraception does ... Increasing access to legal abortion services for women: The Act in its current form imposes some operational barriers that ...
In 2002, 96% of Costa Rican women used some form of contraception, and antenatal care services were provided to 87% of all ... There are no significant trade barriers that would affect imports and the country has been lowering its tariffs by other ...
Copyright 2002 Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary > Breakthrough bleeding Retrieved on Feb 28, 2010 "Prophylaxis: Barriers ... such as Depo Provera Change in oral contraception Overdose of anticoagulant medication or Aspirine abuse Traumatic causes: ...
Scholars also identified language barriers in informed consent processes as the absence of interpreters for Native American ... Part 1: USA, Japan, Canada and Mexico" (PDF). The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 23 (2): 121-129 ... failing to provide alternative information about methods of contraception, family planning, or pregnancy termination that are ...
... most notably on abortion and artificial contraception) without consulting the Vatican and punishing outspoken dissenters. In ... of Christianity's existence in China between the 3rd century and the 7th century can likely be attributed to the barriers ...
While needs are being addressed gradually, more than 225 million women have an unmet need for contraception. There is a slight ... Investing in multi-stakeholder partnerships to remove barriers to equitable health services which are responsive to ... Percentage of married women ages 15-49 years whose need for family planning is satisfied with modern methods of contraception. ... Investing in multi-stakeholder partnerships to remove barriers to equitable health services which are responsive to ...
Make using contraception and committing adultery disappear as crimes. - Promulgation of a law regulating divorce. - Right to ... During the mid-1970s, the Catholic Church preached that no physical barrier should be present during sex, and that even post- ... 1978 was the year that contraception became a driving issue among Spanish feminists. Their goal going into the year was to see ... They advocated for a number of causes including making contraception and abortion legal, ending adultery as a criminal offense ...
Luciani said there were no barriers to sainthood and discussed this theme of the council in a homily on 6 January 1962: "We are ... Luciani had mixed feelings regarding the traditional stance on contraception. In 1968, as Bishop of Vittorio Veneto, he ... who through intellectual pride and disobedience paid no attention to the Church's prohibition of contraception, though while ...
Contraception use is low: 21.2% of women, as of 2010/11. Arranged marriages and forced marriages are reported in Afghanistan. ... The report also detailed everyday barriers which women and girls face in one of the world's poorest countries. On 14 August ...
... or when barrier contraception methods are used. A number of studies have assessed progesterone by the rectal route. Levels of ... or when barrier contraception methods are used. Intramuscular injection of progesterone may achieve much higher levels of ... Progesterone crosses the blood-brain barrier. In terms of plasma protein binding, progesterone is 98 to 99% protein-bound in ... While effective as a form of contraception and for decreasing menstrual bleeding and discomfort, long-lived IUDs can ...
Expanding boundaries, overcoming barriers". Hastings Center Report. Suppl: S3-7, S9-13, S15-21 passim. ISSN 0093-0334. PMID ... Her research considered the motivational factors that are associated with the acceptance of contraception postpartum. D'Onofrio ...
In Uganda, many rural women give birth at home with the help of traditional birth attendants, barriers to maternal services at ... Now more than 500 women a month access their contraception through this network. The Hospital integrates family planning into ... proportion of women of child-bearing age using some form of contraception) is 28%. The target is 40%. Bwindi Community Hospital ...
Jones, Kevin J. (8 February 2013). "Knights of Columbus celebrate history of breaking down racial barriers". Catholic News ... "Knights of Columbus rallying against 'immoral' Philippines contraception campaign". Catholic News Agency. 21 March 2010. Alley ...
... two-thirds chose long-acting reversible methods of contraception. ... Once financial barriers were removed and long-acting reversible ... methods of contraception were introduced to all potential participants as a first-line contraceptive option, ... The Contraceptive CHOICE Project: reducing barriers to long-acting reversible contraception Gina M Secura 1 , Jenifer E ... The Contraceptive CHOICE Project: reducing barriers to long-acting reversible contraception Gina M Secura et al. Am J Obstet ...
If you do not want to get pregnant, you do not have sex on the days you are fertile, or you use a barrier method of birth ... Emergency Contraception. Emergency contraception is NOT a regular method of birth control. Emergency contraception can be used ... Contraceptionplus icon *CDC Contraceptive Guidance for Health Care Providersplus icon *Medical Eligibility Criteria ... Emergency Contraception (emergency birth control) fact sheet. Anticoncepción de emergencia hoja de datos ...
There are many different types of contraception, but not all types are appropriate for all situations. The most appropriate ... Barrier Methods Designed to prevent sperm from entering the uterus, barrier methods are removable and may be an option for ... Failure rates for barrier methods differ depending on the method.7. Types of barrier methods that do not require a health care ... Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Intrauterine Methods. An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as an intrauterine ...
5.19 Effects on Barrier Contraception 5.20 Laboratory Tests 5.21 Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 ... 5.19 Effects on Barrier Contraception. PREMARIN Vaginal Cream exposure has been reported to weaken latex condoms. The potential ...
... or contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Read about the different options, and their risks and benefits. ... About Implantable Contraception (Nemours Foundation) * Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm ... Reproductive Health: Contraception (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * What Are the Different Types of Contraception ... What is emergency contraception? Emergency contraception is not a regular method of birth control. But it can be used to ...
Oral Contraception. *. Study the long-term consequences of OCs, and determine the mechanism of action of mellatonin in women. ... Barrier Methods. *. Select candidate compounds from results of previous screening tests on sperm and sexually transmitted ... Male Contraception. *. Determine whether luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists or antagonists are the optimal ... Provide contraception for some underserved groups including men, lactating mothers, teenagers, and premenopausal women. ...
... or contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Read about the different options, and their risks and benefits. ... About Implantable Contraception (Nemours Foundation) * Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm ... Reproductive Health: Contraception (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * What Are the Different Types of Contraception ... What is emergency contraception? Emergency contraception is not a regular method of birth control. But it can be used to ...
Barriers to use and discontinuation of contraception. The present study explored the various types of reported barriers for ... We found that cultural barriers were the most significant barriers to future use of contraception, followed by reproductive and ... Concerning barriers related to the method itself, more than half of the women who had discontinued using contraception had a ... Barriers related to the method were cited by 35.8% of the women who had discontinued, and demographic barriers by 39.4% of the ...
Some examples of contraception without estrogen include:. *Intrauterine devices (including those with progestin) ...
The entry of gossypol across the blood-testis barrier in rats.. Wang, J M; Wen, G Y; Zhang, Z R; Wu, X L; Jiang, D H; Tao, L; ... It was found that gossypol encapsulated by liposomes crossed the blood-testis barrier more readily than free gossypol, without ... This paper presents the experimental data about how different formulations of gossypol enter the blood-testis barrier following ...
Ukraines New Health Rules Spotlight Barriers to Emergency Contraception Most Viewed * March 22, 2023. News Release ...
... which puts the state at the forefront of efforts to reduce insurance-plan barriers to accessing multiple forms of contraception ... The cost-sharing changes alone are saving individual women hundreds of dollars each year on their choice of contraception. So ... In a 7-2 decision, the Court ruled in their favor, finding that Connecticuts law prohibiting contraception violated the right ... In wake of Affordable Care Act, dramatic declines in out-of-pocket spending on contraception. ...
High-deductible Health Plans and Financial Barriers to Medical Care: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health ... RC: Among adults with private health insurance, those who have HDHPs are more likely to experience cost-related barriers to ... Questions for Robin Cohen, Ph.D., Health Statistician and Lead Author on "High-deductible Health Plans and Financial Barriers ... High-deductible Health Plans and Financial Barriers to Medical Care: Early Release of Estimates from the National Health ...
Barrier Protection Against HIV Infection and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases ... Contraception 1992;45:11-9.. *Jones EF, Forrest JD. Contraceptive failure rates based on the. 1988 NSFG. Fam Plann Perspect ... Update: Barrier Protection Against HIV Infection and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases MMWR 42(30);589-591,597 Publication ... Effectiveness of latex condoms as a barrier to human immunodeficiency virus-sized particles under conditions of simulated use. ...
Barrier (condoms and diaphragm) Although barrier methods have the benefit of protecting you against sexually transmitted ... Emergency contraception Morning-after pill. Oral emergency contraception, or the morning after pill, is best used up to 48 ... Heart disease and contraception/pregnancy Produced jointly by the ACHD and high-risk obstetric teams at Royal Brompton & ... It is, however, important that all women, whether with or without heart disease, are offered the most effective contraception ...
Agrees to use barrier contraception method for the duration of the study ...
In total, 98.4% of women had never used barrier contraception. These findings will inform efforts to improve reproductive ... Although condoms are available, their use is limited by gender disparities, stigma, and financial barriers (23). Improved ... of women had never used a modern method of contraception; only 11 (1.6%) women had ever used a condom for men or women. ... had never used a modern method of contraception, or had abnormal vaginal discharge at any time in their current pregnancy were ...
The effectiveness of barrier methods of contraception with and without spermicide.. Craig S; Hepburn S. Contraception; 1982 Oct ... 8. Barrier methods of contraception and the risk of cervical neoplasia.. Parazzini F; Negri E; La Vecchia C; Fedele L. ... Barrier contraception.. Mills A. Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 1984 Dec; 11(3):641-60. PubMed ID: 6150780. [TBL] ... 2. Barrier methods of contraception and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.. Coker AL; Hulka BS; McCann MF; Walton LA. ...
Program on Contraception and Reproductive Health Research NOT-HD-05-005. NICHD ... Barrier methods for contraception and sexually transmitted disease prevention; * Microbicide and spermicide research; ... Immuno-contraception; * Basic, applied, and clinical research, including the development and use of transgenic animal models ... Indo-U.S. Program on Contraception and Reproductive Health Research Notice Number: NOT-HD-05-005 ...
Previously, emergency contraception was provided only to survivors of rape.. Some social barriers adversely affected access to ... There were some barriers to accessing contraception. The COVID-19 pandemic especially affected vulnerable populations access ... On May 5, health authorities announced that the public health system included emergency contraception as a method of family ... Fund reported the country may have regressed by as much as five years with respect to access to short-term contraception caused ...
Thalidomide is also contraindicated in sexually active men not using latex condom as barrier contraception. The drug is ... It is also contraindicated in women of childbearing potential unless using 2 forms of reliable contraception and complying with ...
Adequate methods of contraception include: use of oral contraceptives; use of barrier method of contraceptive; use of an ...
Indo-US Program on Contraception and Reproductive Health Research (CRHR) [R01] PAR-11-091. NICHD ... Female barrier methods for dual protection, i.e. for contraception and HIV/STI prevention ... to use contraception and, Development of interventions to overcome these barriers. ... Does the project address an important problem or a critical barrier to progress in the field? If the aims of the project are ...
Barrier methods of contraception, such as condoms, are widely available, as are vaginal spermicides. Condoms are available over ... Contraception options should be discussed before the mother leaves the hospital. Although she may not be ready to decide about ... Hormonal methods of contraception are numerous. Combined estrogen-progestin agents are taken daily by mouth or monthly by ... The US MEC should be utilized for patients in the postpartum period in order to select the safest contraception option at time ...
New York Eliminates Prescription Barrier for Emergency Contraception Access for. External Source. January 23, 2007 Dear ...
Use of barrier contraception, sterilization or sexual abstinence. Exclusion Criteria:. *Women actively trying for pregnancy, ...
Barrier contraception. Probable. Low. New or change in partner. Probable. Low. Duration sexual relationship ,12 ...
Barriers include a lack of a welcoming clinical environment, lack of adequate health insurance, and sexual minority stress. ... this group of men may face barriers to receiving culturally competent, comprehensive health care, including preventive services ... Lack of perceived need for barrier contraception. Lack of awareness of consequences of HIV infection. ... Barriers include a lack of a welcoming clinical environment, lack of adequate health insurance, and sexual minority stress. ...
  • What is emergency contraception? (
  • Emergency contraception is not a regular method of birth control. (
  • For some patients, an intrauterine device may be a good choice for emergency contraception. (
  • Emergency contraception is also included in this report. (
  • Emergency contraception routinely should be included in discussions about contraception, including access issues. (
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that obstetrician-gynecologists write advance prescriptions for oral emergency contraception for their patients. (
  • Emergency contraception is somewhat a difficult subject because from what I've seen no one really knows exactly what it does. (
  • sixty-two percent of young women ages 20-29 are using a contraceptive method, and young women ages 20-29 are the most likely to be using long-acting reversible contraception. (
  • The project aims to address eight key barriers, both demand- and supply-side, that may limit adolescents' contraceptive uptake. (
  • Diaphragm or cervical cap -Each of these barrier methods are placed inside the vagina to cover the cervix to block sperm. (
  • They involve tracking the woman's fertility cycle and avoiding sex or using barrier methods on the days when she is most likely to get pregnant. (
  • Barrier methods of contraception, such as condoms, are recommended. (
  • When having regular sex with NO contraception, on average 85/100 women will become pregnant in a year Non-LARC Methods Condoms Condoms are commonly known to be 98% effective at preventing pregnancy, but with typical use they are only about 85% effective, meaning that 15 women in 100 who rely on condoms as their sole form of contraception are likely to become pregnant in a year. (
  • Infographic explaining major methods of contraception and how effective they are, including failure rates for both perfect use and typical use. (
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that discussions about contraception begin with information on the most effective methods first. (
  • Discussions about contraception should begin with information on the most effective methods first. (
  • When comparing the United States with Europe, adolescents have similar rates of sexual activity, but European adolescents are more likely to have access to sexuality education and contraception and are more likely to use the most effective methods, resulting in lower pregnancy rates 5 . (
  • Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM. (
  • The cost of contraception can pose an economic barrier for adolescents. (
  • 1] And, the teen unintended pregnancy rate has declined 36 percent since 2008 and is at its lowest point in 30 years (due to contraception use by adolescents). (
  • In the United States, approximately 4.3% of women aged 15-19 years who are currently using a method of contraception use a highly-effective LARC method (eg, intrauterine devices and the implant) 6 . (
  • The AMA supported removing the prescription barrier to contraception by urging the FDA to approve over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives without an age restriction. (
  • Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. (
  • Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing of pregnancy. (
  • Dr. Berry-Bibee is a practicing OB-GYN and a guest researcher at the CDC, currently serving on CDC's Zika Virus Emergency Response on the Pregnancy and Birth Defects Task Force Contraception Access Team. (
  • In addition, intact latex condoms provide a continuous mechanical barrier to HIV, HSV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2). (
  • A recent laboratory study (6) indicated that latex condoms are an effective mechanical barrier to fluid containing HIV-sized particles. (
  • Laboratory studies indicate that the female condom (Reality (trademark) **) -- a lubricated polyurethane sheath with a ring on each end that is inserted into the vagina -- is an effective mechanical barrier to viruses, including HIV. (
  • The condom then lines the walls of the vagina, creating a barrier between the sperm and the cervix. (
  • Cognitive barriers were cited by more than 55% of the participants in both groups and cultural barriers by 40% of both groups. (
  • Teens also face important cognitive barriers in that they lack knowledge and understanding of conception and contraception. (
  • ABSTRACT Access to family planning (FP), quality of care and exploring barriers to utilization of services are key factors in the adoption and continuation of contraception in Egypt. (
  • Emotional and interpersonal barriers to the uptake of family planning services also stem from the attitudes and desires of husbands/partners and other family members regarding girls' fertility. (
  • 4] Even so, fertility is at is peak during the late teens and twenties, and access to contraception varies, with young people facing barriers including cost, lack of information, and lower access to health care. (
  • Expanding access and use of effective contraception is important in achieving universal access to reproductive healthcare services, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). (
  • Where teens are stigmatised for their sexuality, barriers relating to quality of care , especially the attitudes of providers, are significant. (
  • We conducted this study to explore the barriers affecting utilization of FP as well as the characteristics of women who discontinue using FP and non-users of the FP services. (
  • Barriers related to the method were cited by 35.8% of the women who had discontinued, and demographic barriers by 39.4% of the non-users. (
  • In total, 98.4% of women had never used barrier contraception. (
  • Women of childbearing potential should use effective contraception during and 1 month after therapy. (
  • Better insurance coverage of contraception and policies targeting younger women and the uninsured in particular would help overcome barriers to OCP access. (
  • In addition to introducing a "recovery plan" for the nation's physicians, the American Medical Association's leadership weighed in on several issues s during its annual meeting last week, from ensuring people maintain access to Medicare and Medicaid following the end of the COVID-19 pandemic emergency to getting over-the-counter availability of oral contraception. (
  • In choosing a method of contraception, dual protection from the simultaneous risk for HIV and other STDs also should be considered. (
  • Non-barrier method use was associated with age, home language, religion, and duration of union. (
  • and discuss strategies for increasing access and availability to highly effective contraception. (
  • Administrative barriers can limit the access of unmarried teens. (
  • Yet young people face many barriers to reproductive health care, including inadequate sex education and lack of access to contraception. (
  • Girls need to be empowered with practical knowledge--beginning with age-appropriate, school-based sex education in late primary school--and including full access to family planning information and affordable contraception in the community. (
  • Because current medical practice does not always facilitate discussion of sexual behaviors, this group of men may face barriers to receiving culturally competent, comprehensive health care, including preventive services. (
  • RÉSUMÉ L'accès à la planification familiale, la qualité des soins et l'étude des obstacles à l'utilisation des services sont des facteurs clés pour l'adoption durable de la contraception en Égypte. (
  • Nous avons mené une étude pour passer en revue les obstacles influant sur l'utilisation de la planification familiale ainsi que sur les caractéristiques des femmes qui cessent d'avoir recours à ces services ou ne les utilisent pas. (
  • Barriers include a lack of a welcoming clinical environment, lack of adequate health insurance, and sexual minority stress. (
  • Unless the existing barriers are addressed, MSM will continue to face health disparities and a disproportionate burden of disease. (
  • Immigrants and people of color face even greater barriers. (
  • Men should use barrier contraception during and 3 months after therapy. (
  • The entry of gossypol across the blood-testis barrier in rats. (
  • It was found that gossypol encapsulated by liposomes crossed the blood-testis barrier more readily than free gossypol, without affecting its pharmacokinetic pattern in the circulating blood, suggesting that liposomes may be useful as drug carriers and may facilitate the entry of encapsulated gossypol into the seminiferous tubule from the blood. (
  • Geographic barriers are particularly significant for rural teens and those with restricted mobility. (
  • Shortage of trained healthcare providers is an important contributor to increased unmet need for contraception in SSA. (
  • Nous avons sélectionné un échantillon par choix raisonné de 500 femmes mariées en âge de procréer, vivant en milieu rural et répondant aux critères requis (109 non-utilisatrices, 391 anciennes utilisatrices). (