Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Sexual activities of humans.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Painful menstruation.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Contraceptive devices used by males.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.
The application of NURSING knowledge to questions of law. It is a specialty of nursing practice involving victims of crime which includes not only attending to the physical and emotional distress of victims, but also the identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence for law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Size and composition of the family.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
The unmarried man or woman.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.
Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
Absence of menstruation.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).

Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.(1/814)



he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

Rubella immunisation and contraception--a case for re-examining the policy of the Department of Health and Social Security. (3/814)

Now that immunisation against rubella is available, it would at first sight seem reasonable to identify all potential mothers susceptible to this disease and immunise them. Preliminary screening, however, carried out in order to restrict vaccination to seronegative subjects, not only serves no useful purpose, but is counter-productive.  (+info)

Young women taking isotretinoin still conceive. Role of physicians in preventing disaster. (4/814)

QUESTION: One of my adolescent patients was prescribed isotretinoin for severe acne by a dermatologist. I was shocked to discover she does not use any means of contraception. The dermatologist insists he told her about the need for contraception. How can we do better? ANSWER: Clearly this dermatologist, like many of his colleagues, does not comply with the Pregnancy Prevention Program. Until physicians become more aware of this program, babies will continue to be born with embryopathy due to isotretinoin.  (+info)

Quality of contraceptive services in Finland. (5/814)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the quality of contraceptive services in Finland varies by the type of care provider. DESIGN: A cross sectional questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 3000 Finnish women aged 18-44 years (response rate 74%) in 1994. RESULTS: Almost all women (94%) had used contraception at some time and 75% were current users. Although self care was common (29% had obtained their latest method outside the health services), 83% had sometimes used the health services for contraception. For their last visit, 55% of women had chosen a health centre (a publicly administered and funded health service), and 33% a private unit. In the health centre, the care provider was usually a general practitioner or a public health nurse, whereas in private care the providers were gynaecologists. Women who used private care were more likely to be from higher social classes and urban areas. After adjustment for a women's background, the two groups were similar for most indicators of the quality of care, but access to care and woman's experiences of treatment were better with private care. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of availability and choices the current system of contraceptive services in Finland is adequate. It is not always an integral part of municipal primary health care, and many women prefer private care for gynaecological services; this may case problems of comprehensiveness and equality of care.  (+info)

Health authority commissioning for quality in contraception services. (6/814)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the commissioning of contraception services by London health authorities with accepted models of good practice. DESIGN: Combined interview and postal surveys of all health authorities and National Health Service (NHS) trusts responsible for running family planning clinics in the Greater London area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health authority commissioning was assessed on the presence of four key elements of good practice--strategies, coordination, service specifications, and quality standards in contracts--by monitoring activity and quality. RESULTS: Less than half the health authorities surveyed had written strategies or service specifications for contraception services. Arrangements for coordination of services were limited and monitoring was underdeveloped. CONCLUSION: The process of commissioning services for contraception seems to be relatively underdeveloped despite the importance of health problems associated with unplanned pregnancy in London. These findings raise questions about the capacity of health authorities to improve the quality of these services through the commissioning process.  (+info)

Contraceptive needs of women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic for the first time. (7/814)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for, and potential uptake of, a contraceptive service within a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. METHODS: 544 women, median age 17 years (range 13-54) including 142 teenagers, attending the Fife GUM clinics serving a semirural population of 350,000 for the first time in the 12 month period from 1 September 1995 to 31 August 1996 were interviewed. RESULTS: Contraception was required by 353, of whom only 5% (29) were at risk of unplanned pregnancy, although half (15) of these were teenagers. 23 of 29 (79%) stated that they would access contraception at a GUM clinic if it were available. Of women using contraception, 67% (217/324) were taking the oral contraceptive pill (OCP), of whom 177 obtained supplies from their general practitioners and were happy with this. However, 92/177 (52%) stated that they would access the OCP at GUM clinics if it were available. Overall, of the 243 women who stated that they would access contraception at the GUM clinic, 23 of whom were currently at risk of an unplanned pregnancy, the demand was principally for condoms and the OCP. CONCLUSION: The majority of women attending GUM clinics for the first time are using contraception, or have deliberately chosen not to do so. Only 5% were at risk of unplanned pregnancy. In general, the women using contraception were happy with their current source of contraception, but about two thirds would use a contraceptive service at GUM clinics if it were available at the time they were attending the clinic. It was found that teenagers accounted for half of those women at risk of unwanted pregnancy. However, the majority of teenagers requiring contraception would consider obtaining it from GUM clinics.  (+info)

Detection of the human 70-kD and 60-kD heat shock proteins in the vagina: relation to microbial flora, vaginal pH, and method of contraception. (8/814)

The expression of the 60-kD and 70-kD heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70) in the vaginas of 43 asymptomatic women of reproductive age with or without a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis (RVV) were compared. Vaginal wash samples were obtained and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human hsp60 and hsp70. Heat shock protein 70 was not detected in any of the 19 women with no history of RVV, and hsp60 was present in only one woman in this group. In contrast, in the RVV group, 11 (45.8%) were hsp60-positive and eight (33.3%) were hsp70-positive. The presence of either heat shock protein in the vagina was associated with an elevated vaginal pH (>4.5). Bacterial vaginosis or Candida was identified in some of the asymptomatic subjects; their occurrence was significantly higher in women with vaginal hsp70 than in women with no heat shock proteins. Oral contraceptives were used by 35.7% of subjects who were negative for vaginal heat shock proteins, as opposed to only 12.5% of women who were positive for hsp70 and 8.3% who were positive for hsp60. Expression of heat shock proteins in the vagina may indicate an altered vaginal environment and a susceptibility to vulvovaginal symptoms.  (+info)

The use of implants and Intra-uterine devices (IUD) during the post-partum period is very low in Uganda especially in rural settings. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are known to be the most cost-effective for prevention of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortions. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with long-acting reversible contraceptive use among women in the extended postpartum period in rural Uganda. We conducted a household-based, cross-sectional study among 400 women in two rural communities in Mityana district, central Uganda. Eligible women were aged 15 to 45 years who had childbirth within 12 months of study enrollment in September 2014. The outcome variable was self-reported use of a LARC method, either IUD or implants in the extended postpartum period. The main independent variables were previous childbirths (parity), fertility desire, willingness to use modern contraception, duration of postpartum period and previous pregnancies (gravidity). A logistic
While women are aware of family planning (FP) methods in Nigeria, the unmet need for modern contraception remains high. We assessed the association between male partner opposition to FP and unmet need for modern contraception among women seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART), HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in Cross-River State, Nigeria. This secondary analysis used data from a facility-based FP/HIV integration study. Logistic regression was used to model the association of interest. Unmet need for modern contraception was high among all clients - ART (49%), HCT (75%), and PMTCT (32%). Perceived partner opposition to FP was widespread (≥70%); however, multivariate analysis showed no significant association with unmet need for modern contraception. Significant covariates were woman's age, marital status, parity, and previous use of modern contraception. Efforts to improve modern contraceptive use among women at risk of HIV
Evidence suggests that gender equality positively influences family planning. However, the evidence from urban Africa is sparse. This study aimed to examine the association between changes in gender norms and modern contraceptive use over time among women in urban Nigeria. Data were collected in 2010/2011 from 16,118 women aged 15-49 living in six cities in Nigeria (Abuja, Benin, Ibadan, Ilorin, Kaduna, and Zaria) and again in 2014 from 10,672 of the same women (34% attrition rate). The analytical sample included 9933 women living in 480 neighborhoods. A four-category outcome variable measured their change in modern contraceptive use within the study period. The exposure variables measured the changes in the level of gender-equitable attitudes towards: a) wife beating; b) household decision-making; c) couples family planning decisions; and d) family planning self-efficacy. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models estimated the associations between the exposure variables at the individual and
Evidence suggests that gender equality positively influences family planning. However, the evidence from urban Africa is sparse. This study aimed to examine the association between changes in gender norms and modern contraceptive use over time among women in urban Nigeria. Data were collected in 2010/2011 from 16,118 women aged 15-49 living in six cities in Nigeria (Abuja, Benin, Ibadan, Ilorin, Kaduna, and Zaria) and again in 2014 from 10,672 of the same women (34% attrition rate). The analytical sample included 9933 women living in 480 neighborhoods. A four-category outcome variable measured their change in modern contraceptive use within the study period. The exposure variables measured the changes in the level of gender-equitable attitudes towards: a) wife beating; b) household decision-making; c) couples family planning decisions; and d) family planning self-efficacy. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models estimated the associations between the exposure variables at the individual and
The prevalence of contraceptive use among women attending CWCs in Sunyani Municipal is quite impressive. Educational background and discussing FP during ANC were associated with current contraceptive use, while discussing FP during CWC, desire to space children and current contraceptive use were significant determinants of clients intention to use contraception in the future. Spousal communication on FP and previous contraceptive use were predictive of both current uptake and intention to adopt FP in the future.. The contraceptive prevalence of 50% among women attending CWC in Sunyani Municipality within 24 months of delivery is much higher than the rate of 27% among currently married women reported in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) [5], and 39% of postpartum women within 2-12 months of delivery who had been referred to KATH [7]. The higher contraceptive use in the current study could be attributed to the higher proportion of women in their peak reproductive ages of 20-39 ...
Introduction. Several studies have highlighted the factors that influence womens use of contraception. Women of lower socioeconomic positions use contraception less and use less effective contraceptive methods, having the highest risk of unintended pregnancy.1,2 It has been observed that different countries in Europe not only have differences in the prevalence of the use of contraception but also in the forms of contraception used.1-3A recent study showed that 70% of sexually active women in Spain aged 15-49 years used contraception during their first intercourse and 78% used it during the four weeks prior to the interview.4 This same study showed that womens characteristics such as age, level of education, country of origin, religiousness and age at first intercourse influence the use of contraception at first intercourse, and that in the case of the use of contraception during the last four weeks characteristics such as living with a partner, having children and having used contraception at ...
Given the 7.8 million births prevented by contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa in 2002 and an HIV prevalence of 7.4%,9 current contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa prevents an estimated 577 200 unplanned births to HIV infected mothers. Assuming a 30% vertical transmission rate in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, we estimate that current contraceptive use prevents over 173 000 unintended HIV infected infants each year in sub-Saharan Africa, or 474 HIV infected infants per day. Current coverage of MTCT programmes would have a minimal effect on this estimated number of infant HIV infections since the weighted coverage of MTCT programmes for Africa is 5%,10 and less than one sixth of HIV positive women with access to MTCT programmes take antiretrovirals.. Approximately 640 000 children were newly infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa during 2003.9 Without any contraceptive use, this number would be 813 000 children. Thus, current contraceptive use is already averting approximately ...
ABSTRACT Background: Globally, IUCD is the second most commonly used contraceptive method (next to female sterilization) among married women of reproductive age. Although it is the safest, very effective, long acting and reversible contraceptive method, in many developing countries including Ethiopia IUCD is used at a very low rate compared to other modern contraceptive methods. Objective: To assess factors affecting IUCD utilization among FP clients attending Sexual and Reproductive Health centers in Addis Ababa. Method: A quantitative facility based unmatched case control study was carried out in Addis Ababa selected SRH centers of MSIE and FGAE from May1 to July 30, 2014. Cases were women of reproductive age who used IUCD during the study, whereas controls were women of reproductive age who used hormonal contraceptives (OCPs and injectable) during the study. The source population for the study was women of reproductive age who came to the selected sexual and reproductive health centers for FP ...
As if women are not already offered contraceptive advice when they present for an abortion! Pregnant young woman are hectored with contraceptive advice the moment they find their way anywhere near the health service. I have come across several disturbing cases recently which could quite properly be described as bullying in which women who have no desire to use contraceptives are hectored by the doctor or practice nurse for being irresponsible. We also know that groups offering help to women in crisis pregnancies report that the majority are already using one or more forms of contraception. Whatever is at the root of this heartbreaking story, it is not unmet contraceptive needs ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the determinants of use of modern contraceptive among married women in Ethiopia. Our study is based on the data taken from a nationally representative survey EDHS of 2011. The sample includes 9,438 married women aged 15-49 years. Cross tabulations were carried out at the bivariate level to assess the association between contraceptive use and each of the explanatory variables and binary multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing modem contraceptive use among married women in Ethiopia. The bivariate analysis reveals statistically significant association between all explanatory variables i.e age of woman, region, religion, place of residence, education level of woman, number of living children, desire for more children, wealth status, and decision maker for modern contraception, educational level of husband, modern contraceptive knowledge and exposure to media. Results for binary multiple logistic regression analysis reveals
FARMINGTON, Conn., Dec. 10, 2012 /PRNewswire-iReach/ -- Over 220 million women have an unmet need for modern contraceptives. In the developing world, while the proportion of women using modern contraceptive methods has undergone little change over the years, the number of women with an unmet need for such contraceptives has remained the same owing to various factors. The turn of the 20th century witnessed a paradigm social transformation in the developing countries from large families to smaller ones. Increased usage of modern contraception methods, and rising participation by Governmental, non-Governmental agencies, private organizations, clinics and pharmacies to increase awareness through family planning programs have all fueled growth in modern contraceptives usage. The group which faces the greatest challenge among such women are those who are poor and with low education and who live in rural and semi-urban areas having low access to services. (Photo: ...
The most common methods for preventing pregnancy, according to a new government report are female sterilization, oral contraception, long-acting reversible contraception such as IUDs and implants and male condoms.To help understand fertility patterns across demographics, researchers combed through the latest data from the National Survey of Family Growth to study contraceptive use among women.
Worldwide, 214 million women have an unmet need for modern contraception (i.e., they do not wish to get pregnant and are using no contraceptive method or a traditional method).6 Access to FP methods varies significantly by region (see Table 1). Unmet need for FP is highest in regions like sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania where contraceptive prevalence is lowest.7 Adolescent fertility rates have declined slowly and remain particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa, where child marriage remains common, and in Latin America and the Caribbean.8 While the percentage of pregnant women receiving the recommended minimum number of four antenatal care visits has been on the rise, it is 52% in developing countries and lower still in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia.9 Each year, approximately 47,000 women die from complications associated with unsafe abortion.10 Access to and use of effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and the incidence of abortion.11. Reasons for the lack of access to and, ...
QHow soon after a termination of pregnancy is it safe to fit an IUCD?. AThere has been concern that immediate post-abortal IUCD insertion may lead to higher rates of perforation, infection and expulsion. This has led some authors to suggest interval insertion two to six weeks post-abortion, but the potential advantages of immediate IUCD fitting include:. · Immediate contraceptive cover. · Avoids the inconvenience and discomfort of a second fitting procedure. · Provides an opportunity to offer contraceptive advice at a time when most women are highly motivated to sort out effective contraception. · Allows a unique opportunity to address contraceptive needs in users who may have difficulty accessing medical services and may default further follow-up.. Randomised controlled trials have compared the performance of different IUCDs inserted immediately post-abortion. In all these the rates of perforation, infection, expulsion and contraceptive failure have been low and comparable to figures quoted ...
Not using effective contraception once becoming sexually active multiplies up to 6 times the risk for teen pregnancy. The effective use of contraception once becoming sexually active is the best way to avoid unwanted pregnancy during adolescence. This is just one of the conclusions of a study by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the Universidad Complutense in Madrid which additionally reveals that using no contraception or using it well after starting sexual relations increases up to six times the risk for teen pregnancy. In addition, the use of ineffective contraception (methods other than condoms, intrauterine contraceptive device [IUDs], diaphragms, or hormonal methods) quadrupled the risk.. These two conclusions are reflected in the study Teenage motherhood in Spain, led by CSIC researcher Margarita Delgado. Research was based on a survey conducted by the spanish Sociological Research Center on 9,700 women over the age of fifteen and even covered generations of women born ...
The decline among teens specifically is striking: the U.S. pregnancy rate among 15-19-year-olds was at its lowest point in at least 80 years and had dropped to just above one-third of a recent peak rate in 1990. As the lead author of the report Kathryn Kost noted in a news release, These new estimates affirm that long-term declines in adolescent pregnancies, births and abortions have continued. The available evidence suggests that improved contraceptive use continues to be the primary driver of these declines. Indeed, the report discusses recent research showing significant increases in the use of contraceptives in young women, including the use of multiple methods and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods.. Read the full report at Guttmacher.. ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM), the most common of metabolic disorders, is a global public health concern. Numbers are rising with 383 million adults currently diagnosed with DM and another 175 million as yet undiagnosed. The rise in cases includes increasing numbers of women of a reproductive age whose reproductive health and contraception need careful consideration. Unintended pregnancy with poor glycemic control at the time of conception increases the chance of adverse pregnancy outcomes including stillbirth, congenital abnormalities, and perinatal mortality. In order to minimize complications, safe and effective contraception is paramount for all women with DM. This is a challenge as women have been found to be reticent to ask for advice, appear to lack understanding of risks, and are less likely to be using contraception than women without DM. The World Health Organization has developed Medical Eligibility Criteria to guide contraceptive choice. Women with DM without complications can choose from ...
Also known as a vasectomy, this birth control method involves a surgical procedure that prevents sperm from leaving the body. Just like the female version, it is permanent and 99% effective.. Find the Best Contraception for You. The best birth control method will depend on your situation and future family plans. Some questions that are important to think about when determining which contraceptive method is suitable for you:. ...
So, to quote the excellent New South Wales Family Planning Association website, I would like to give a brief overview of available methods of contraception and their assessment of what information we should consider when accessing contraception:. 1) The proven effectiveness of the method. 2) Health issues which the person considering contraception may suffer that may limit particular choices. 3) The ease-of-use. 4) Potential side-effects of the method of contraception decided. 5) All the alternatives available to the person. 6) Reversibility. 7) Protection against sexually transmitted infections.. Contraception is divided into reversible and irreversible techniques. The most effective is the fit and forget long acting, reversible contraceptives which include IUDs and contraceptive implants. They are suitable for any age and have no contraindications to people with other health issues. They are easily removed and promptly reversible but you require a health professional to supervise and ...
This program explains birth control. Birth control is also known as contraception. The program includes the following sections: how does pregnancy happen, what is contraception, what are contraceptive implantable devices, what are hormonal methods of birth control and the birth control pill, what are barrier methods of birth control, what is spermicide and what are methods of sterilization.
New moms have specific contraceptive needs. They want birth control that is effective, simple to use, can be used over a long period of time, and allows for sexual spontaneity.
While female sterilization remains the most common method in Rajasthan, some women are opting to use short-acting forms of contraception, such as birth control pills and male condoms. Of married women who use modern contraception, 9.9 percent report using birth control pills and 19.3 percent report using male condoms. Long-acting methods that are reversible are not widely used. While many public service delivery points have supplies for IUD insertion and removal, acceptance is still low, and only about three percent of married women who are using a modern method have an IUD. Injectable use has increased slightly, most likely due to its recent expansion in the state.. Unwanted and unplanned pregnancies are decreasing across the country which is a positive development. There is a tendency pan India to use modern contraceptives. Despite these gains, disparities remain between the wealthiest and poorest women for access and use. Additionally, access to long-acting methods continues to be a ...
|div id=teaser class=fragment teaser ||div class=p|Everything NICE has said on contraceptive services, long-acting reversible contraception and sterilisation in an interactive flowchart|/div||/div|
Contraception is an important topic for women, men and healthcare professionals. Several methods of contraception are available. It is important for the pharmacist to have a solid understanding of the subject in order to give appropriate advice. When used correctly, modern contraceptives are highly effective in preventing pregnancy. Most women can safely use hormonal contraceptives. This article focuses on the use of hormonal contraception in women who may not necessarily be young or healthy, provides answers to practical questions that are not frequently asked, and addresses a few common misperceptions about hormonal contraception.
In April 2011, the Guttmacher Institute published the results of an analysis finding that 99% of all women of reproductive age who have ever had sex-including 98% of such Catholic women-have used a method of contraception other than natural family planning. These data have been ubiquitous in the recent debate over the requirement that private insurance plans cover
On Aug. 12, young leaders for the #BeThere International Youth Day Twitter chat - a global dialogue led by youth for youth to discuss young peoples contraceptive needs amidst life in pandemic.
Births among adolescents account for 13 percent of all births in the United States. Adolescents most commonly use contraception at the time of first intercourse but then often do not use contraception as sexual activity increases. Davtyan reviews contraception issues in adolescents and discusses some of the misconceptions adolescents may have about contraception.. The author performed a MEDLINE search of the literature from 1980 to 1999 to gather information on contraception. The author notes that misconceptions about the risks of contraception, fear of the pelvic examination and concerns about confidentiality keep many teenagers from seeking advice from their physicians. Better communication with adolescents can help overcome some of these barriers. Most teens would like to discuss contraception and sexually transmitted diseases with their physicians, but most clinicians do not bring up these topics. Physicians are legally protected when providing diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted ...
Looking for Artificial contraception? Find out information about Artificial contraception. practice of contraception for the purpose of limiting reproduction. Male birth control methods include withdrawal of the male before ejaculation and use of... Explanation of Artificial contraception
It was a victorious day for women when the Obama Administration promulgated the contraception mandate, which promised women equal access to free contraception. However, while some women rejoiced upon being able to receive this contraception, many women quickly discovered that they were not so lucky. Although the contraception mandate touts its program as equal and free, the reality is that a womans ability to obtain free contraception depends on who her employer is.. In order to accomplish equal access to contraception, the contraception mandate (one of the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare) requires employers to provide employee health insurance plans with free contraceptive services. Employers that do not provide such plans are fined $100 a day per employee. Although on its face the mandate seems to accomplish the objective of free contraception, it falls short in actuality. This is because certain religious employers, as well as employers ...
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All females of childbearing potential (FCBP) must use one of the approved contraceptive options as described below while on investigational product and for at least 28 days after administration of the last dose of the investigational product.. At the time of study entry, and at any time during the study when a female subject of childbearing potentials contraceptive measures or ability to become pregnant changes, the investigator will educate the subject regarding contraception options and the correct and consistent use of effective contraceptive methods in order to successfully prevent pregnancy.. Females of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test at Screening and Baseline. All FCBP subjects who engage in activity in which conception is possible must use one of the approved contraceptive options described below:. Option 1: Any one of the following highly effective methods: hormonal contraception (oral, injection, implant, transdermal patch, vaginal ring); intrauterine device ...
Kevin summarises recommendations from the Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare to help support women with contraceptive requirements as primary care cuts back on non-essential face-to-face contact to reduce viral transmission.
This new guideline brings together evidence and expert opinion on the provision of contraception to women who are overweight and women with obesity. This guidance is most relevant to women of reproductive age who require contraception and have a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or higher. The guidance is intended for use by health professionals who provide contraceptive advice or contraceptive supplies for women in community and hospital settings ...
|div id=teaser class=fragment teaser ||div class=p|Everything NICE has said on contraceptive services for under 25s in an interactive flowchart|/div||/div|
This book analyses the reasons for relying on behavioural contraception methods among urban elites in India and examines their efficacy in controlling fertility. It also traces variations in contraception choice over the reproductive cycle of women. Although researchers and policy makers
The difference between contraception and birth control lies in usage. The major difference is that contraception refers to the devices used to prevent unwanted preganncies and birth control is the process by which unwanted pregnancies are controlled.
The following topic concerning the contraception may be found in the AMS Information Sheets. Contraception While fertility declines with age, women are at risk of an unintended pregnancy until 12 months after the last menstrual period if over 50 years (24 months if below 50 years) Women should be provided with evidence-based information about all contraceptive options in order to support informed decision making Oestrogen containing methods (combined oral contraception and the vaginal ring
In sub-Saharan Africa, large-scale measurements (for an entire country or region) show that the use of modern contraceptive methods is increasing, but slowly, giving the impression that change in this field will inevitably take time. To gain a better understanding of the reasons why the spread is so slow, particularly in rural areas, we made a detailed study of the history of contraception in a rural community in Bandafassi, Senegal. Using several information sources we were able to track the increase in contraceptive use year by year and examine the factors at work. The study presented here shows that, contrary to received wisdom, contraceptive use can spread rapidly in a rural area of Africa with few socioeconomic advantages, but that its diffusion is difficult to measure due to considerable under-reporting, and is by no means guaranteed over the long term ...
Ive been on the Nuvaring for years and I love it. Its so easy and I really havent experienced any side affects. In my time Ive tried birth control pills (cant stomach them), Depo Provera shot (loved it but gained alot of wait), the Patch (loved it until I started having a really bad skin reaction to it) and now the Nuva Ring. My FI has a vasectomy so its not really an issue of not TTC but just that I have Adenomyosis and my cycles are brutal. My doctor told me I could keep changing my Nuva Ring out every month and not have a cycle until I was ready for my hysterectomy.. ...
How to switch contraception pills properly in what way to change contraception pills appropriately finding that contraception pill works best for discrete desires an organized tactic, as all of them interacting or else.. Learn a lot of concerning switch contraception pills here. Read now alternative strategies of contraception other contraception strategies besides the pill square measure on the market.. Examples of these strategies embrace the contraception implant, associate degree contraceptive (IUD), or a contraception channel ring. There square measure secretion and nonhormonal IUDs, the trade names of that embrace Mirena, ska, Kaleena, Aletta.. If you have any query related to How To Lose Birth Control Weight Gain, Feel free to comment on your query Below.. ...
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Visit LloydsPharmacy Online Doctor contraception clinic today. We have a range of contraception methods for you to order. Start an online consultation today.
All birth control pills are very similar and work the same way to prevent ovulation. As a new start patient, the first month of hormone needs to be completed in order to rely on it for birth control. Also when starting for the first time, you may experience minor side effects like nausea, breast tenderness or irregular bleeding. These symptoms usually resolve after 3 months of usage; however if they continue please call the office to discuss switching to a different type that may work better for you. Often times, we can discuss this at your follow-up as well.. If you are taking the minipill or progesterone only pill keep in mind it needs to be taken the same time everyday within 3 hours. If you miss the 3 hour limit , take it as soon as you remember. If its the next day take 2 pills and finish the pack. In either case, use back-up contraception for 48 hours.. If more than 1 pill is missed stop taking them , discard the pack. Use emergency contraception if you need to. Your period should begin ...
A large percentage of US women reporting postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) are either not using contraception or using less effective user-dependent methods, a recent study found. Data were evaluated from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2009-2011, and included 16,357 postpartum women. Contraceptive use was categorized as permanent, long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), user-dependent hormonal, and user-dependent non-hormonal. Researchers found:
This website is made possible by the support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Breakthrough ACTION is supported by USAIDs Office of Population and Reproductive Health, Bureau for Global Health, under Cooperative Agreement: #AID-OAA-A-17-00017. Breakthrough ACTION is based at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Healths Center for Communication Programs. The contents of this website are the sole responsibility of Breakthrough ACTION. The information provided on this website is not official U.S. Government information and does not necessarily represent the views or positions of USAID, the United States Government, or Johns Hopkins University.. ...
Many topics that pertain to the sanctity of the human life are very controversial issues in religions all over the world. It is often debated whether or not humans should have the authority to control the rate of birth of our own species, based on our ability to stop fertilization from happening without abstaining from sexual conduct. Contraception is defined as the prevention of fertilization, during or after sexual activity. It refers to the use of contraceptives including (but not limited to) birth control, condoms, cervical caps, spermicide, IUD, diaphragm, oral contraceptive pills and the morning after pill. These methods of contraception are used for various reasons, for example, limiting the number of children a married couple has, for purposes of not damaging their living standards. Another reason for contraception may apply to couples who have a sexual relationship, but have no desire for children at that stage in their lives. A more severe and legitimate reason is when the physical ...
According to the National Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2013, only 9.8 per cent of married women use modern contraception. This figure has remained static in the last five years.. The NDHS listed some reasons women eschew contraception as: concerns about health risks or side effects, opposition to use, either by the woman or her partner, for personal or religious reasons; perception that they would not get pregnant because they had sex infrequently, had postpartum amenorrhea, or were breastfeeding; lack of knowledge about methods of contraception or where they could get them and inability to obtain or afford contraceptives.. Fourth mother. Ruth Chijioke, a 33-year- old mother of three boys told THISDAY that more awareness is needed if Lagos intends to reach the 2018 target of 74 per cent. I had mixed feelings about using any of the methods. But Im not done with childbearing. I love to have one more children.. Ruth had her first child at age 25. Her children are aged eight, seven and ...
Washout period from prior treatment of at least 3 months.. Participants with CD(4) cell counts greater than or equal to 100 cells/mm(3). Capacity to understand and sign or thumbprint the Informed Consent document, as well as willingness to comply with the study requirements and clinic policies.. Absolute neutrophil count , 1,000 cells/mm3.. Platelets , 50,000/mm3.. Hemoglobin , 10.5 mg/dL.. Not pregnant or breast-feeding. Serum pregnancy test must be negative 2 weeks prior to Day -28 and to Day 0 prior to dosing with study medications for female participants.. If the participant is able to become pregnant, then she must use 2 effective methods of contraception during the study. Effective contraceptive methods include abstinence, surgical sterilization of either partner, barrier methods such as diaphragm, condom, cap, or sponge, or use of hormonal contraception with an anti-HIV regimen that will not alter metabolism of hormonal contraception. This is advised on the basis of using ribavirin, which ...
About 40 per cent of women surveyed cited health concerns and fear of side effects as the primary reason behind their decision not to use contraception, the study, based on 10 years of data from the Cambodian Demographic and Health surveys, found. Meanwhile, close to 47 per cent of women cited infrequent sex, lack of fertility, or a desire to get pregnant as the reasons behind their decision ...
The use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) has increased from 1.3 to 5.5 percent over the past decade. There are three LARCs available in the United States: the etonogestrel single-rod implant and two types of intrauterine devices (IUDs; copper T380A and levonorgestrel intrauterine system [Mirena]). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has released a practice bulletin to guide physicians on the use of LARCs.
Despite recent increases of American women using reversible contraception, only about nine percent use intrauterine devices (IUDs), a highly effective method of contraception. One factor appears to be negative information about IUDs received from friends and family. This grant would support research to test whether women in an online social network who receive positive information from other women who currently have IUDs will be more likely to use the method.. ...
Prevention includes comprehensive sexual education, availability of family planning services, abstinence and increased access to a range of effective birth control methods. Most unintended pregnancies result from not using contraception, and many result from using contraceptives inconsistently or incorrectly. Though, increased rates of sexual activity are also a factor.[41]. Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (such as IUD and contraceptive implants) decreases the chance of unintended pregnancy by decreasing the chance of incorrect use. Method failure is relatively rare with modern, highly effective contraceptives, and is much more of an issue when such methods are unavailable or not used. (See comparison of contraceptive methods).. In the United States, women who have an unintended pregnancy are more likely to have subsequent unplanned pregnancies.[16] Providing family planning and contraceptive services as part of prenatal, postpartum and post abortion care can help reduce ...
We conduct translational research to bring evidence to the forefront of clinical practice and policy change. Our research, which has ranged from large randomized trials and pharmacokinetic evaluation to in-depth interviews and policy analysis, has helped to transform contraceptive practice and policy in the US and globally, especially for long-acting reversible contraception and emergency contraception.. Our research on long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has focused on enhanced service delivery for women presenting for contraceptive care. We conducted a series of studies, including in-depth interviews and national probability surveys with contraceptive providers, to identify gaps in evidence-based care and to inform development of a clinic-based intervention to improve contraceptive education and counseling to reduce pregnancy among women seeking contraception. We developed an intervention to train clinicians and educators on high-efficacy contraceptives, IUDs and implants. We tested ...
Prevention includes comprehensive sexual education, availability of family planning services, abstinence and increased access to a range of effective birth control methods. Most unintended pregnancies result from not using contraception, and many result from using contraceptives inconsistently or incorrectly. Though, increased rates of sexual activity are also a factor.[41]. Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) (such as IUD and contraceptive implants) decreases the chance of unintended pregnancy by decreasing the chance of incorrect use. Method failure is relatively rare with modern, highly effective contraceptives, and is much more of an issue when such methods are unavailable or not used. (See comparison of contraceptive methods). Introduction of effective LARCs for men could have a positive effect on unintended pregnancies.[42]. In the United States, women who have an unintended pregnancy are more likely to have subsequent unplanned pregnancies.[16] Providing family ...
Best Practices for IUD • Provide IUD the same day as requested, whenever possible, if pregnancy can reasonably be excluded. • Offer IUD at the time of natural vaginal delivery, abortion, or dilation and curettage for miscarriage. (Insertion of an IUD immediately after abortion or immediate post-partum is both safe and practical. IUD expulsion rates appear higher than after interval insertions) • Screen for sexually transmitted infections at the time of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion; if screening test result is positive, treat infection without removal of IUD. • Offer the copper IUD as the most effective method of emergency contraception. When inserted within five days( 120 hours) of unprotected intercourse, a copper-bearing IUD is the most effective form of emergency contraception available.. LARC (Long-Acting Reversible Contraception) Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are long-acting reversible contraception. ACOGs LARC Program works to reduce unintended pregnancy. Ob-gyns, physicians ...
Lancet - Liu et al in an article on male contraception - Hormonal methods for safe, reliable, and reversible contraception based on the suppression of spermatogenesis could soon become available. We have investigated the rate, extent, and predictors of reversibility of hormonal male contraception.
Corrected May 30, 2019. See note below. Access to modern contraceptives and maternal and newborn health care is essential for promoting the well-being of Nepali women and their children, but a new report published by the Guttmacher Institute and the Center for Research on Environment, Health and Population Activities (CREHPA) in Nepal shows that many women are not receiving
According to a retrospective cohort study of more than 1.7 million women between the ages of 14 and 40 years who were enrolled in the military health care insurance program, more than __________________ of all pregnancies among active-duty service women are unintended. ...
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
By Ramadhani Chambuso. The risk of breast cancer was elevated among women who used hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used them before, a study suggests, published in December, 2017 on the top journal in human Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine.. The study was done in Denmark, followed up 1.8 million women for 10.9 years who used hormonal birth control methods and only 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. Furthermore, when compared with women who have never used any hormonal control pills, the risk of breast cancer increased up to 38% depending on duration of use from less than 1 year to more than 10 years in all forms of hormonal contraception methods such as the pills, injections or hormone releasing-Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs).. However, the overall absolute increased risk in breast cancers diagnosed among current and recent users of any hormonal contraceptive was 13%, approximately 1 extra breast cancer for every 7690 women using hormonal contraception for 1 ...
STANFORD -- Combining vasectomy with existing technologies of cryogenic sperm preservation and artificial insemination could produce a reliable system for reversible male contraception. Because this is the only new approach to male contraception likely to become available in the foreseeable future, the military services should set up a large-scale sperm cryopreservation program in order to create public confidence in the approach, and to work out its technical, legal and ethical aspects, a Stanford chemist says. Would it not be a dramatic gesture if the military were the vehicle whereby the responsibility for birth control would be more equitably shared by both males and females, says Carl Djerassi, professor of chemistry at Stanford University, widely known as the father of the birth control pill. Djerassi and Stanley P. Leibo, research professor at the University of Guelph, propose this new approach to birth control in the July 7 issue of the British science journal Nature. The absence of ...
One particularly disturbing effect of the pandemic, which has also been observed during other social and economic shocks, is a dramatic increase in cases of GBV, including domestic and intimate-partner violence.3Some projections estimate a worldwide increase of up to 31 million additional cases of GBV during a six-month lockdown period.4. As women face increased risk of violence during times of instability and crisis, they also face setbacks to reproductive health that can have long-lasting effects. The latest evidence, compiled before the spread of the pandemic, indicates that 218 million women ages 15 to 49 in low- and middle-income countries have an unmet need for modern contraception.. In addition, nearly half (49 percent) of pregnancies in low- and middle-income countries (some 111 million total) are unintended.5 Early projections of the pandemics toll warned that an additional 47 million women and girls from low- and middle-income countries could have unmet need for modern contraception, ...
Teenage pregnancies are often not intended, and there is a high risk that unintended pregnancies will lead to abortion. The wide-spread availability of Youth Clinics, the subsidizing of contraceptives and the introduction of new and effective contraceptives have failed to lower the abortion rates. The aim of this thesis was to study possible risk groups and to highlight underlying reasons for contraceptive failure.. Methods: Study I and II were quantitative studies with the aims of investigating whether teenagers who sought emergency contraception (Paper I) and teenage mothers (Paper II) were at risk for new unintended pregnancies during a 12-month follow-up period.. Study III and IV were qualitative studies. The aim in study III was to see how contraceptive use was documented in medical records (MRs) concerning teenagers who had attended for induced abortion. In study IV the aim was to find out reasons for non- use or inconsistent use of contraceptives among teenagers attending for ...
First of all, contraception IS healthcare! We had that debate last year, when contraception became a mandated minimum standard for coverage by health insurance. Its ludicrous and obtuse to continue denying what is already established. You cant begin with a premise that has already been established as false.. Secondly, there doesnt have to be a RASH of employees. Jehovahs Witness do not believe in blood transfusion or transplant. They are a small, but significant minority, with over 12,000 congregations and one million members in the USA. Ife we make a religious exception for contraception, what is to stop people from making religious exceptions to covering vaccinations, blood transfusion organ transplants or pacemakers? Where do we draw the line? And if its just with contraception, why is the Catholic Church being given special religious privilege?. Third, Ms. Fluke was NOT comparing contraception and leukemia treatments. She was just saying that if we allow employers to opt out of standard ...
Birth controls that make you lose weight. Contraceptive tablets are the most demanded and reliable contraception means, providing almost 100% of birth control. In clinical practice contraceptives have been used for over 50 years. Large number of birth control pills are represented at the pharmaceutical market today. What kind of birth control pills to choose with minimal side effects and maximum efficiency?. Women, taking contraceptive tablets for birth control believe that hormonal contraceptives increase a risk of weight gain. However, specialists say that last generation of birth control pills contain a minimum amount of hormones and have a high degree of safety.. Moreover, modern contraceptive tablets provide birth control, stabilize menstrual cycle, reduce bleeding during heavy menstruation and degree of pain. In addition, use of modern oral contraceptives prevents some diseases. For example, contraceptive tablets reduce the frequency of pelvic organs inflammation and reduce the risk of ...
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires most private plans to provide coverage for womens preventive health care, including all prescribed FDA-approved contraceptive services, without cost sharing. To better understand how this provision is being implemented by health plans, Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) staff, with the Lewin Group, reviewed the insurance plan coverage policies for 12 prescribed contraceptive methods (excluding oral contraceptives). This report presents information from 20 different insurance carriers in five states (California, Georgia, Michigan, New Jersey, and Texas) about how they are applying reasonable medical management (RMM) techniques in their coverage of womens contraceptive services. The different forms of female birth control reviewed in this report include the contraceptive ring, the patch, injections, implants, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and sterilization.. ...
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and ...
Background Although social norms are thought to play an important role in couples reproductive decisions, only limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. Using the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB), through a mixed-method design, we investigated the role played by injunctive norms and interpersonal discussion in the relationship between descriptive norms and use of modern contraceptive methods among the urban poor in India. Methods Data from a household survey (N = 11,811) were used to test the underlying theoretical propositions, and focus group interviews among men and women were then conducted to obtain more in-depth knowledge about decision-making processes related to modern contraceptive use. Results Spousal influence and interpersonal communication emerged as key factors in decision-making, waning in the later years of marriage, and they also moderated the influence of descriptive norms on behaviors. Norms around contraceptive use, which
Early childbearing and unintended or mistimed pregnancy have been linked to negative outcomes for maternal-child health, education, and family well-being. In the Dominican Republic, contraceptive use varies by province, ranging from 59.7% to 81.8% of women in unions. This study explores the importance of spatial effects on contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in the Dominican Republic. Using spatial analytic techniques with two recent national-level datasets (2007 DHS and 2006 SIGpas3), I examine whether access to health services and educational resources explain province-level variation in modern contraceptive use. I conduct exploratory spatial analysis and estimate geographically weighed regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation. Independent variables include socioeconomic conditions, female workforce participation, distance to health care facilities, and proximity to primary and secondary schools. Preliminary results suggest coefficients for the association of ...
Vas-occlusive contraception is a form of male contraception that blocks sperm transport in the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts. Various vas-occlusive contraceptive methods have been researched for human-use, with interest in both reversible and irreversible methods, with the purpose of finding a suitable alternative to vasectomy and possible hormonal contraceptive treatments that are currently being researched. Potential methods include clips, plugs, valves, and other devices. There are numerous vas-occlusive contraceptive methods and devices that have been researched. Outlined here are a few main categories and descriptions. An intravasal control valve is a reversible valve implanted in the vas deferens with the ability to either inhibit or permit sperm passage depending on the position of the device. Bionyx has developed a T-shaped intravasal control valve composed of gold and stainless steel for use in humans. Through rotation, a ...
The Connection between Contraception and Abortion. by JANET SMITH. EXCERPT. Many in the pro-life movement are reluctant to make a connection between contraception and abortion. They insist that these are two very different acts that there is all the difference in the world between contraception, which prevents a life from coming to be and abortion, which takes a life that has already begun. With some contraceptives there is not only a link with abortion there is an identity. Some contraceptives are abortifacients; they work by causing early term abortions. The IUD seems to prevent a fertilized egg a new little human being from implanting in the uterine wall. The pill does not always stop ovulation but sometimes prevents implantation of the growing embryo. And, of course, the new RU 486 pill works altogether by aborting a new fetus, a new baby. Although some in the pro-life movement occasional speak out against the contraceptives that are abortifacients most generally steer clear of the issue of ...
Q: I was previously on birth control for almost 2 years and in the middle of April I stopped taking birth control pills. At the begining of June I started back on birth control again. Is it safe to have protected sex now with just the pill and without using another form of birth control, or do I have to wait an entire month after starting on birth control?. A: You will be protected from getting pregnant after 7 days of consistent use of birth control pills. Consistent use means that youre taking the pill every day at the same time (plus or minus 2 hours). So basically, one week of birth control pills is enough to put the ovaries to sleep and keep you from getting pregnant.. However, having the phrases protected sex and without using another form of birth control in the same sentence makes us a little nervous. We can not stress enough that birth control pills (or patches or shots or IUDs) only protect you from getting pregnant. They do NOT protect you from contracting sexually transmitted ...
In the developing world, 74 million unintended pregnancies occur annually, of which a sizable share, 30%, are due to contraceptive failure among women using some type of contraceptive method. Detailed information on contraceptive failure rates is critical to inform improvements in provision of contraceptive information, supplies and services, which can help women and couples to use methods correctly and consistently. We undertook a study to update contraceptive failure rates and provide a more comprehensive global picture. We provide new estimates of contraceptive failure in 43 counties across seven subregions using recent data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS ...
Drug Safety Update June 2015: Intrauterine contraception: uterine perforation-updated information on risk factors NICE Guidance CG30: Long-acting reversible contraception, updated September 2014 The intra-uterine device (IUD) is a suitable c...
The differences between Armenias capital, Yerevan, and the rest of the country are vast. While Yerevan has most of the modern-day conveniences you could ask for, the villages I visited in the Armavir region have populations between 300 and 1,000, mostly comprised of women. Their husbands have gone -- off to neighboring countries, especially Russia, to find work. They usually stay away for 10 months out of the year. Some men have even started new families in their work countries. It was not uncommon to meet women who needed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because their husbands are having extra marital affairs while abroad. They are upfront about this, though it surprised me how openly they talked about it. I heard so many of them say, They are men. They have needs. What can we do? This has created a huge problem and is one of the reasons why STIs, including HIV, are on the rise in Armenia. There is limited access to effective contraception, so the rate of abortion, ...
Bioceptive aims to expand access to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for the estimated 222 million women around the world with an unmet need for modern family planning resources. The discreet intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the most applicable LARC methods for global use due to its long term of use, high efficacy, and minimal user effort. However, IUD access is frequently limited because the insertion procedure is complicated and only carried out by highly trained physicians. Bioceptive has developed a novel, reusable, sterilizable IUD inserter that makes the procedure simpler and intuitive and allows any healthcare worker to confidently insert an IUD with minimal training, thus using improved technology to overcome existing barriers to service delivery.. ...
As women of color, our rights to safe and voluntary sex, birth control and motherhood are increasingly restricted, controlled and criminalized. Punitive welfare policies dictate families lives. Coercive programs target low income and women of color for high risk contraceptives. New laws and policies make abortion access more difficult and costly. These developments devalue our human rights and harm our ability to sustain our families, our communities, and our lives. Attacks on womens health constitute unethical attempts to control womens lives and dictate who among us can have, keep, and raise children. We strongly oppose demographically driven population policies that do not ensure safe and secure environments for all women. In the 1990s many health care providers and reproductive rights activists in the US embraced Norplant and Depo-Provera as highly effective, long lasting birth control methods that expand womens contraceptive choices. Supporters, however, have ignored the crucial fact ...
Hormonal contraception (HC) is used widely -- an estimated 14 million women in sub-Saharan Africa use either injectable or oral hormonal contraception -- ...
Once the program began, participants were less likely to have sex with any more than one man. The report also said that although participants engaged in sexual activity slightly more often, they were not any more likely to be diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease.. The study, which involved 9, 256 girls and women in the St. Louis area, is part of the Contraceptive CHOICE project, an ongoing research initiative at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The university has been tracking close to 10,000 low-income women, who are of reproductive age, over the past several years. The women who participated in the project were provided with an FDA-approved contraceptive of their choice, which was given to them at no additional cost.. The findings are available amidst a heated debate over the Affordable Care Act, which requires that insurers pay the entire cost of birth control. This would allow products from birth control pills to intrauterine devices to be free for ...
15.Female subjects of childbearing potential without using highly effective contraception (female of childbearing potential is defined as one who has not been postmenopausal for at least one year, or has not been surgically sterilised, or has not had a hysterectomy at least three months prior to the start of this study). Females taking oral contraceptives should have been on therapy for at least three months. Adequate contraceptives include: Combined (estrogen and progestogen containing) oral, intravaginal, transdermal, hormonal contraception associated with inhibition of ovulation; intrauterine device (IUD); intrauterine hormone-releasing system (IUS); bilateral tubal occlusion; vasectomized partner; sexual abstinence ...
A group of pro-choice Catholics is urging Prime Minister Stephen Harper to include abortion and contraception in his controversial G8 maternal health policy.. The American-based organization Catholics for Choice, which has about 100 members in its Canadian branch, has penned a letter to Harper that says Catholics around the world support access to family planning as a matter of personal choice and that millions of good Catholics use contraception.. We urge the Canadian government to return to its leading role in advocating for family planning, including in the G8 agreement on maternal health, the letter reads. In so doing, the government will have the support of Catholics domestically and internationally in your efforts to help reduce maternal mortality.. Rosemary Ganley, coordinator of Catholics for Choice Canada, signed the letter jointly with the groups American president. She said members of Catholics for Choice use theological principles of Catholicism - such as primacy of ...
Male contraception specialists at Spire Gatwick Park Hospital - Find experienced specialists at our state of the art facilities. Expert care for everyone.
Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception are safe and effective, but only a small fraction of women in the United States use them.. Now, a national survey of family physicians conducted by researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, has found that family physicians typically have gaps in knowledge about IUDs, are often uncomfortable discussing them with patients, and frequently believe that their patients would not be receptive to talking about IUDs. The findings are published in the December 3 online issue of Contraception.. IUDs have a notable advantage over some other, more commonly used contraceptives. They are user-independent meaning once inserted, they dont require action by the user to be effective. By removing the chance for human error (for example, forgetting to take a birth control pill or incorrectly using a barrier method), IUDs are often more effective in real-world conditions than more popular alternatives.. IUDs only account for 5 percent ...
Weight gain is a common concern for many women who are looking to start hormonal forms of birth control. Most studies oppose the theory that hormonal birth control causes weight gain. Still, some women do report gaining a few pounds in the weeks and months after they start taking the pill. This is often temporary and the result of water retention, not actual weight gain. Decades ago, hormonal contraception used hormones at levels much higher than we use today.. Changes in hormonal birth control and advances in combination forms of the pill have addressed this issue. Most, if not all, pills birth control pills that help acne and lose weight high enough estrogen levels to cause weight gain. The vast majority of these studies have found no reasonable evidence to support the claim. Any weight snd that may occur in the first weeks or months after beginning birth control is typically due to water retention.. Shortly after you begin taking birth control, you may notice other side effects in addition to ...
Women with pregestational diabetes mellitus (DM) who recognize benefits in contraception and preconception care are much more likely to use contraception postpartum, according to a survey in the Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing.
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Contraception. 84 (6): 549-57. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.009. PMID 22078182. Gregory Pincus (3 September 2013). The ... Unlike other progestins, allylestrenol has not been used in hormonal contraception or in menopausal hormone therapy. In one ...
Contraception. 98 (4): 352. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.07.072. S2CID 81873762. Morgen, Sandra (2002). Into Our Own Hands ...
Contraception. 21 (5): 445-459. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(80)90010-4. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 7428356. TʼSjoen, Guy; Van Caenegem, Eva ...
Contraception. 92 (3): 194-196. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.06.011. PMID 26093187. Retrieved 31 October 2015. "Medscape: ...
Contraception. 77 (3): 186-190. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2007.11.014. PMID 18279689. Pluchino N, Santoro AN, Casarosa E, ... Contraception. 103 (4): 213-221. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2021.01.001. PMID 33428907. S2CID 231585130. Gérard C, Jost M, ... Contraception. 87 (6): 706-727. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.12.011. PMID 23375353. "Nexstellis Label" (PDF). FDA. ... Fruzzetti F, Fidecicchi T, Montt Guevara MM, Simoncini T (November 2021). "Estetrol: A New Choice for Contraception". Journal ...
Shafik, Ahmed (May 1992). "Contraceptive efficacy of polyester-induced azoospermia in normal men". Contraception. 45 (5): 439- ...
Access family planning; contraception; safe and accessible post-abortion care; access to abortion in cases of rape, sexual ... Seek and receive information about sexuality and reproduction and access related health services and contraception. Decide ...
Donna Shoupe; Florence P. Haseltine (6 December 2012). Contraception. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 21-. ISBN 978-1- ... Stanczyk FZ (2002). "Pharmacokinetics and potency of progestins used for hormone replacement therapy and contraception". Rev ... 1516-. ISBN 978-0-8155-1856-3. Benno Clemens Runnebaum; Thomas Rabe; Ludwig Kiesel (6 December 2012). Female Contraception: ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 615-621. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.08.010. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 22078191. Mansi Vijay, IndiaSpend ... while addressing the issue of regulating emergency contraception under the MTP Act, ruled that "emergency contraception does ... The module also elaborates on surgical and medical abortion, post-abortion care and post-abortion contraception. ASHA training ... Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India suspended essential contraception services a week before the ...
Contraception. 91 (6): 520. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.02.027. PMID 25779602. Gonsalves G, Zuckerman D (2015). " ...
Aitken RJ, Baker MA, Doncel GF, Matzuk MM, Mauck CK, Harper MJ (April 2008). "As the world grows: contraception in the 21st ... Lohiya, N. K.; Alam, Imtiyaz; Ansari, A. S. (2017). "Male Contraception". Basics of Human Andrology. Springer Singapore. pp. ... Homonnai ZT, Shilon M, Paz GF (May 1984). "Phenoxybenzamine-an effective male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 29 (5): 479- ...
Contraception. 73 (2): 205-210. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2005.08.006. PMID 16413851. Chi, I. C.; Jones, D. B. (October 1994 ... Of the 64% of married or in-union women worldwide using some form of contraception, approximately one third (19% of all women) ... Slightly more than 8.2 million women in the US use tubal ligation as their main form of contraception, and approximately ... These rates are significantly higher than other forms of modern contraception that require regular active engagement by the ...
Contraception. 73 (5): 470-487. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2005.12.010. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 16627031. Sarfati, Julie; de ... Contraception. 84 (6): 549-57. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.009. PMID 22078182. Neumann F, Kalmus J (1991). "Cyproterone ... However, a German woman who had been taking Diane-35 (containing 2 mg/day CPA) for contraception for 14 years died of liver ... Curtis, Kathryn M.; Martins, Summer L. (2006). "Progestogen-only contraception and bone mineral density: a systematic review". ...
The least common reason, at a maximum of 4% between 1970 and 1983, was failed contraception. Between April 1984 and December ... failed contraception, or certain eugenics cases. Following this change, the rate of illegal abortions was still high. This ... Contraception. 66 (1): 41-46. doi:10.1016/s0010-7824(02)00317-7. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 12169380. "Singapore Religions - ...
In more recent years, Aitken has been focusing on translational research in male contraception and male infertility. Since 2016 ... He also proposed new techniques in contraception that had helped prevent sexually transmitted diseases and treat male ... He and his colleagues continued to research safe and reliable contraception vaccinations for controlling human fertility. Their ... Aitken RJ, Harper MJ (September 1977). "New methods for the regulation of implantation". Contraception. 16 (3): 227-41. doi: ...
Contraception. 70 (2): 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2004.03.004. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 15288212. Kuhl, Herbert (1972). ... 1st edition published in 1981) Herbert Kuhl; Claudia Jung-Hoffman (1999). Kontrazeption [Contraception] (in German) (2 ed.). ... Kuhl, H. (1999). "Hormonal Contraception". In Oettel, M.; Schillinger, E. (eds.). Estrogens and Antiestrogens II: Pharmacology ... hormonal contraception, and menopausal hormone therapy. His works include numerous original and review articles and several ...
While effective as a form of contraception and for decreasing menstrual bleeding and discomfort, long-lived IUDs can ... Whitaker A, Gilliam M (2014). Contraception for Adolescent and Young Adult Women. Springer. p. 98. ISBN 9781461465799. ... Fotherby K (August 1996). "Bioavailability of orally administered sex steroids used in oral contraception and hormone ... or when barrier contraception methods are used. A number of studies have assessed progesterone by the rectal route. Levels of ...
Bagade O, Pawar V, Patel R, Patel B, Awasarkar V, Diwate S (2014). "Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception: ... 381-. ISBN 978-81-85790-03-9. Karim M, El-mahgoub S (September 1970). "Injectable steroids as a method of contraception". Ain ... Runnebaum BC, Rabe T, Kiesel L (6 December 2012). Female Contraception: Update and Trends. Springer Science & Business Media. ... Toppozada MK (April 1994). "Existing once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives". Contraception. 49 (4): 293-301. doi: ...
Contraception. 49 (5): 441-453. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(94)90003-5. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 8045131. v t e v t e (CS1 Spanish- ... Hormonal contraception, Norpregnanes, Progestogens, All stub articles, Genito-urinary system drug stubs, Steroid stubs). ...
Contraception. 87 (6): 706-27. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.12.011. PMID 23375353. Portal: Medicine (CS1: long volume value ... Garza-Flores J (April 1994). "Pharmacokinetics of once-a-month injectable contraceptives". Contraception. 49 (4): 347-59. doi: ...
Contraception. 101 (5): 286-292. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2020.01.002. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 32007418. Strusovskaya, O.G.; ...
Contraception. 52 (3): 195-202. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(95)00151-y. PMID 7587192. v t e v t e (Articles with short description, ... Contraception. 39 (3): 291-7. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(89)90061-9. PMID 2714089. Peters AJ, Wentz AC, Kazer RR, Jeyendran RS, ...
Contraception. 93 (3): 244-8. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.10.006. PMC 4766033. PMID 26480890. Altshuler AL, Whaley NS ( ...
Contraception. 8 (1): 53-65. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(73)90159-5. ISSN 0010-7824. v t e v t e (CS1: long volume value, Articles ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 549-57. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.009. PMID 22078182. Schindler AE, Campagnoli C, Druckmann R ...
Contraception. 95 (5): 442-448. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2016.12.004. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 28041991. Lynd, Kelsey; Blum, ... Contraception. 98 (1): 30-35. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.03.013. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 29534996. S2CID 206967147. Raymond ... Museum of Contraception and Abortion". Retrieved 29 March 2018. Bleavins MR, Carini C, Malle JR, Rahbari R (2010 ...
Contraception. 81 (6): 457-459. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2010.02.023. PMC 2872678. PMID 20472110. Bawah, Ayaga Agula; ...
Shafik, Ahmed (1992). "Contraceptive efficacy of polyester-induced azoospermia in normal men". Contraception. 45 (5): 439-51. ...
Contraception. 97 (6): 471-477. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.01.014. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 29407363. "Dilation and curettage ...
Contraception. 74 (5): 414-8. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2006.06.004. PMID 17046384. Bayés M, Rabasseda X, Prous JR (September ...

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