Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Religion and sex can intersect in medical definitions through the study of spirituality and sexuality, which explores how religious beliefs, practices, and cultural values may influence individuals' sexual behaviors, attitudes, and experiences, including issues related to sexual health, sexual orientation, gender identity, reproductive rights, and sexual dysfunctions.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Sexual activities of humans.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
whoa, I'm just an AI and I don't have the ability to provide on-the-fly medical definitions. However, I can tell you that "Missouri" is not a term commonly used in medicine. It's a state in the United States, and I assume you might be looking for a medical term that is associated with it. If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Painful menstruation.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "London" is a place name and not a medical term, so it doesn't have a medical definition. It's the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, culture, and landmarks. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Contraceptive devices used by males.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.
The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.
The application of NURSING knowledge to questions of law. It is a specialty of nursing practice involving victims of crime which includes not only attending to the physical and emotional distress of victims, but also the identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence for law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Size and composition of the family.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Scotland is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom, located in the northern part of Great Britain. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
(Note: I believe there might be some confusion in your question as "Pennsylvania" is a place, specifically a state in the United States, and not a medical term. However, if you're asking for a medical condition or concept that shares a name with the state of Pennsylvania, I couldn't find any specific medical conditions or concepts associated with the name "Pennsylvania." If you have more context or clarification regarding your question, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.)
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
The unmarried man or woman.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that is optimal for FERTILIZATION of the OVUM and yielding PREGNANCY. The duration of fertile period depends on the life span of male GAMETES within the female reproductive tract and the time of OVULATION. It usually begins a few days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation.
Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
Absence of menstruation.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).

Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.(1/814)

 (+info)

T(2/814)

he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

Rubella immunisation and contraception--a case for re-examining the policy of the Department of Health and Social Security. (3/814)

Now that immunisation against rubella is available, it would at first sight seem reasonable to identify all potential mothers susceptible to this disease and immunise them. Preliminary screening, however, carried out in order to restrict vaccination to seronegative subjects, not only serves no useful purpose, but is counter-productive.  (+info)

Young women taking isotretinoin still conceive. Role of physicians in preventing disaster. (4/814)

QUESTION: One of my adolescent patients was prescribed isotretinoin for severe acne by a dermatologist. I was shocked to discover she does not use any means of contraception. The dermatologist insists he told her about the need for contraception. How can we do better? ANSWER: Clearly this dermatologist, like many of his colleagues, does not comply with the Pregnancy Prevention Program. Until physicians become more aware of this program, babies will continue to be born with embryopathy due to isotretinoin.  (+info)

Quality of contraceptive services in Finland. (5/814)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the quality of contraceptive services in Finland varies by the type of care provider. DESIGN: A cross sectional questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 3000 Finnish women aged 18-44 years (response rate 74%) in 1994. RESULTS: Almost all women (94%) had used contraception at some time and 75% were current users. Although self care was common (29% had obtained their latest method outside the health services), 83% had sometimes used the health services for contraception. For their last visit, 55% of women had chosen a health centre (a publicly administered and funded health service), and 33% a private unit. In the health centre, the care provider was usually a general practitioner or a public health nurse, whereas in private care the providers were gynaecologists. Women who used private care were more likely to be from higher social classes and urban areas. After adjustment for a women's background, the two groups were similar for most indicators of the quality of care, but access to care and woman's experiences of treatment were better with private care. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of availability and choices the current system of contraceptive services in Finland is adequate. It is not always an integral part of municipal primary health care, and many women prefer private care for gynaecological services; this may case problems of comprehensiveness and equality of care.  (+info)

Health authority commissioning for quality in contraception services. (6/814)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the commissioning of contraception services by London health authorities with accepted models of good practice. DESIGN: Combined interview and postal surveys of all health authorities and National Health Service (NHS) trusts responsible for running family planning clinics in the Greater London area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health authority commissioning was assessed on the presence of four key elements of good practice--strategies, coordination, service specifications, and quality standards in contracts--by monitoring activity and quality. RESULTS: Less than half the health authorities surveyed had written strategies or service specifications for contraception services. Arrangements for coordination of services were limited and monitoring was underdeveloped. CONCLUSION: The process of commissioning services for contraception seems to be relatively underdeveloped despite the importance of health problems associated with unplanned pregnancy in London. These findings raise questions about the capacity of health authorities to improve the quality of these services through the commissioning process.  (+info)

Contraceptive needs of women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic for the first time. (7/814)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for, and potential uptake of, a contraceptive service within a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. METHODS: 544 women, median age 17 years (range 13-54) including 142 teenagers, attending the Fife GUM clinics serving a semirural population of 350,000 for the first time in the 12 month period from 1 September 1995 to 31 August 1996 were interviewed. RESULTS: Contraception was required by 353, of whom only 5% (29) were at risk of unplanned pregnancy, although half (15) of these were teenagers. 23 of 29 (79%) stated that they would access contraception at a GUM clinic if it were available. Of women using contraception, 67% (217/324) were taking the oral contraceptive pill (OCP), of whom 177 obtained supplies from their general practitioners and were happy with this. However, 92/177 (52%) stated that they would access the OCP at GUM clinics if it were available. Overall, of the 243 women who stated that they would access contraception at the GUM clinic, 23 of whom were currently at risk of an unplanned pregnancy, the demand was principally for condoms and the OCP. CONCLUSION: The majority of women attending GUM clinics for the first time are using contraception, or have deliberately chosen not to do so. Only 5% were at risk of unplanned pregnancy. In general, the women using contraception were happy with their current source of contraception, but about two thirds would use a contraceptive service at GUM clinics if it were available at the time they were attending the clinic. It was found that teenagers accounted for half of those women at risk of unwanted pregnancy. However, the majority of teenagers requiring contraception would consider obtaining it from GUM clinics.  (+info)

Detection of the human 70-kD and 60-kD heat shock proteins in the vagina: relation to microbial flora, vaginal pH, and method of contraception. (8/814)

The expression of the 60-kD and 70-kD heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70) in the vaginas of 43 asymptomatic women of reproductive age with or without a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis (RVV) were compared. Vaginal wash samples were obtained and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human hsp60 and hsp70. Heat shock protein 70 was not detected in any of the 19 women with no history of RVV, and hsp60 was present in only one woman in this group. In contrast, in the RVV group, 11 (45.8%) were hsp60-positive and eight (33.3%) were hsp70-positive. The presence of either heat shock protein in the vagina was associated with an elevated vaginal pH (>4.5). Bacterial vaginosis or Candida was identified in some of the asymptomatic subjects; their occurrence was significantly higher in women with vaginal hsp70 than in women with no heat shock proteins. Oral contraceptives were used by 35.7% of subjects who were negative for vaginal heat shock proteins, as opposed to only 12.5% of women who were positive for hsp70 and 8.3% who were positive for hsp60. Expression of heat shock proteins in the vagina may indicate an altered vaginal environment and a susceptibility to vulvovaginal symptoms.  (+info)

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraception, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are most effective when used within 24 hours of unprotected sex, but can still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after.

There are two main types of postcoital contraceptives:

1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs): These are high-dose hormonal pills that contain levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. Levonorgestrel ECPs are available over-the-counter in many countries, while ulipristal acetate ECPs require a prescription.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small T-shaped device made of copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The copper IUD can be used as emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected sex, and it also provides ongoing contraception for up to 10 years.

It's important to note that postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of contraception. They should only be used in emergency situations where other methods of contraception have failed or were not used. It is also recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any form of emergency contraception.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Postcoital hormonal contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These contraceptives contain hormones and are intended for use in emergency situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or unprotected sex.

The most common type of postcoital hormonal contraceptive is the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), which contains a high dose of synthetic progestin or a combination of progestin and estrogen. The ECP works by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The ECP is most effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex, ideally within 72 hours, but may still be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) after intercourse. However, the effectiveness of the ECP decreases over time, and it is not as effective as regular methods of contraception.

It's important to note that postcoital hormonal contraceptives are not intended for routine use as a primary method of contraception and should only be used in emergency situations. They do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should not be used as a substitute for regular condom use or other forms of protection.

If you have any concerns about postcoital hormonal contraceptives or need advice on the best method of contraception for you, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Contraceptive devices for females refer to medical products designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize an egg. Some common examples of female contraceptive devices include:

1. Diaphragm: A shallow, flexible dome made of silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
2. Cervical Cap: Similar to a diaphragm but smaller in size, the cervical cap fits over the cervix and creates a barrier to sperm entry.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small, T-shaped device made of plastic or copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by changing the chemistry of the cervical mucus and uterine lining to inhibit sperm movement and implantation of a fertilized egg.
4. Contraceptive Sponge: A soft, round sponge made of polyurethane foam that contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse and covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
5. Female Condom: A thin, flexible pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The female condom creates a barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
6. Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring made of plastic that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to release hormones that prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the lining of the uterus.
7. Contraceptive Implant: A small, flexible rod made of plastic that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to prevent pregnancy for up to three years.

It's important to note that while these contraceptive devices can be highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STIs. Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception is recommended to reduce the risk of both pregnancy and STIs.

Postcoital contraceptives, also known as emergency contraceptives, are methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse. The synthetic postcoital contraceptive is a type of emergency contraception that contains synthetic hormones, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate. These hormones work by preventing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization, or altering the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

The most common synthetic postcoital contraceptive is the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill (LNG-ECP), which contains a high dose of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel. It is usually taken as a single dose within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse, but it is most effective when taken as soon as possible after intercourse.

Another synthetic postcoital contraceptive is ulipristal acetate, which is also taken as a single dose but within 120 hours (5 days) of unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate works by delaying ovulation and preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus.

It's important to note that synthetic postcoital contraceptives are not intended for regular use as a primary form of birth control, but rather as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. They should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and should not be used in place of regular contraception.

Oral combined contraceptives, also known as "the pill," are a type of hormonal birth control that contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. These hormones work together to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Combined oral contraceptives come in various brands and forms, such as monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. Monophasic pills contain the same amount of hormones in each active pill, while biphasic and triphasic pills have varying amounts of hormones in different phases of the cycle.

It is important to note that oral combined contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be used in conjunction with condoms for safer sex practices. Additionally, there are potential risks and side effects associated with oral combined contraceptives, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, especially in women who smoke or have certain medical conditions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to determine if it is safe and appropriate for individual use.

Immunologic contraception refers to the use of the immune system to prevent pregnancy. This is achieved by stimulating the production of antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that are essential for fertilization and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. The most well-known example of immunologic contraception is the development of a vaccine that would induce an immune response against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By neutralizing hCG, the immune system could prevent the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. However, this approach is still in the experimental stage and has not yet been approved for use in humans.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

Barrier contraception refers to methods of preventing pregnancy that involve creating a physical barrier between the sperm and the egg. The most common types of barrier contraceptives include male condoms, female condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.

Male condoms are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or natural membranes that are worn over the penis during sexual intercourse. They work by collecting semen and preventing it from entering the partner's body.

Female condoms are similar to male condoms but are designed to be inserted into the vagina before sex. They also collect semen and prevent it from entering the woman's body.

Diaphragms and cervical caps are flexible domes made of silicone that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Diaphragms are typically used with a spermicidal cream or gel, while cervical caps can be used alone or with a spermicide.

Contraceptive sponges are soft, disc-shaped devices made of polyurethane that contain spermicide. They are inserted into the vagina before sex and work by blocking the cervix and releasing spermicide to kill sperm.

Barrier contraceptives are effective at preventing pregnancy, but their effectiveness can vary depending on proper use. Male condoms have a typical failure rate of about 13-18%, while female condoms have a typical failure rate of about 21%. Diaphragms and cervical caps have a typical failure rate of about 12-16%, and contraceptive sponges have a typical failure rate of about 20-24%.

It's important to note that barrier contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) unless they are made of latex or polyurethane. Natural membrane condoms, such as those made from lambskin, can prevent pregnancy but do not provide protection against STIs.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

I'm happy to help, but I think there might be a bit of confusion in your question. Religion and sex are two distinct concepts that don't have a medical definition when combined. However, I can provide you with some information about each one separately.

Religion: Religion is a set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and moral values that are shared by a community or group of individuals. It often involves a belief in a higher power or powers, and may include various traditions, ceremonies, and teachings.

Sex: Sex refers to the biological characteristics that define males and females. It is usually determined by an individual's anatomy, chromosomes, and reproductive organs. Sex can also refer to sexual activity, which involves the intimate contact between two or more individuals for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

If you have any specific questions about either religion or sex in a medical context, please let me know and I'll do my best to provide a helpful response!

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

Ovulation inhibition is a term used in reproductive medicine to describe the prevention or delay of ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This can be achieved through various means, such as hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings), injectable hormones, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.

Hormonal contraceptives typically contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progestin, which work together to inhibit the natural hormonal signals that trigger ovulation. By suppressing the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these methods prevent the development and release of a mature egg from the ovaries.

In addition to preventing ovulation, hormonal contraceptives can also thicken cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus, reducing the likelihood of implantation in case fertilization does occur. It is important to note that while ovulation inhibition is a reliable method of birth control, it may not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

**Norgestrel** is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone **progesterone**. It is a type of **progestin**, which is often used in various forms of hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel works by thickening cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Additionally, norgestrel can also prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) and thin the lining of the uterus, which makes it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Norgestrel is available in various forms, such as oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to discuss potential benefits, risks, and side effects.

Here are some medical definitions related to norgestrel:

1. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone, used in various forms of hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can have varying levels of androgenic, estrogenic, and anti-estrogenic activity. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
2. **Progesterone**: A naturally occurring steroid hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
3. **Hormonal birth control**: A method of preventing pregnancy that uses hormones to regulate ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, or thin the lining of the uterus. Hormonal birth control methods include oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
4. **Emergency contraception**: A form of hormonal birth control used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Emergency contraception is typically more effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, but it can still be effective up to 120 hours afterward. Norgestrel is one of the active ingredients in some emergency contraceptive pills.
5. **Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)**: A form of hormone replacement therapy used to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. MHT typically involves using estrogen and progestin or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Norgestrel is a type of progestin that can be used in MHT.
6. **Androgenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as testosterone and some progestins, that are associated with male characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. Norgestrel has weak androgenic activity.
7. **Estrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as estradiol and some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), that are associated with female characteristics, such as breast development and menstrual cycles. Norgestrel has weak estrogenic activity.
8. **Antiestrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that block or oppose the actions of estrogens. Norgestrel has antiestrogenic activity.
9. **Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)**: A type of drug that acts as an estrogen agonist in some tissues and an estrogen antagonist in others. SERMs can be used to treat or prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. Norgestrel is not a SERM but has antiestrogenic activity.
10. **Progestogen**: A synthetic or natural hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestogens can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestogen.
11. **Progesterone**: A natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and regulates the menstrual cycle. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
12. **Progestin**: A synthetic hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestins can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
13. **Progestational agent**: A drug or hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestational agents can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestational agent.
14. **Progestogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
15. **Progesterone receptor modulator (PRM)**: A type of drug that binds to and activates or inhibits the progesterone receptors in the body. PRMs can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a type of PRM.
16. **Progestogenic activity**: The ability of a drug or hormone to mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone in the body. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
17. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
18. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progestogens in the body. Progestogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
19. **Progesterone agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
20. **Progestogenic agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progestogens in the body. Progesterogenic agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
21. **Progesterone receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterone receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
22. **Progestogenic receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterogenic receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
23. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of progesterone that is used in hormonal contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can be either progesterone agonists or antagonists, depending on their chemical structure and activity at the progesterone receptor. Norgestrel is a progestin.
24. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
25. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibro

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. It allows for a controlled release of medication over a certain period, typically lasting for 1-3 days. This method of administration can offer advantages such as avoiding gastrointestinal side effects, enabling self-administration, and providing consistent therapeutic drug levels. Common examples of transdermal patches include those used to deliver medications like nicotine, fentanyl, estradiol, and various pain-relieving agents.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are synthetic hormonal medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They typically contain a combination of synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to inhibit ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thicken cervical mucus (making it harder for sperm to reach the egg), and thin the lining of the uterus (making it less likely that a fertilized egg will implant).

There are several different types of oral contraceptives, including combination pills, progestin-only pills, and extended-cycle pills. Combination pills contain both estrogen and progestin, while progestin-only pills contain only progestin. Extended-cycle pills are a type of combination pill that are taken for 12 weeks followed by one week of placebo pills, which can help reduce the frequency of menstrual periods.

It's important to note that oral contraceptives do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it's still important to use barrier methods like condoms if you are at risk for STIs. Additionally, oral contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone, so it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits before starting to take them.

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

Spermatogenesis-blocking agents are a class of medications or substances that inhibit or block the process of spermatogenesis, which is the production of sperm in the testicles. These agents can work at various stages of spermatogenesis, including reducing the number of spermatozoa (sperm cells) or preventing the formation of mature sperm.

Examples of spermatogenesis-blocking agents include:

1. Hormonal agents: Certain hormones or hormone-like substances can interfere with the production of sperm. For example, analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and antiandrogens can suppress the release of testosterone and other hormones necessary for spermatogenesis.
2. Alkylating agents: These are chemotherapy drugs that can damage DNA and prevent the division and multiplication of cells, including sperm cells. Examples include cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
3. Other chemicals: Certain industrial chemicals, such as ethylene glycol ethers and dibromochloropropane (DBCP), have been shown to have spermatogenesis-blocking properties.
4. Radiation therapy: High doses of radiation can also damage the testicles and inhibit sperm production.

It's important to note that spermatogenesis-blocking agents are often used for medical purposes, such as treating cancer or preventing pregnancy, but they can have significant side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Norpregnadienes are a type of steroid hormone that are structurally similar to progesterone, but with certain chemical groups (such as the methyl group at C10) removed. They are formed through the metabolism of certain steroid hormones and can be further metabolized into other compounds.

Norpregnadienes have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of reproductive function and the development of certain diseases such as cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their functions and clinical significance.

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and management of reproductive health disorders, including infertility, sexual dysfunction, and other reproductive system-related issues. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining expertise from various medical specialties such as obstetrics, gynecology, endocrinology, urology, and genetics.

Reproductive medicine encompasses several areas of focus, including:

1. Infertility treatment: Utilizing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other techniques to help individuals or couples conceive.
2. Contraception: Providing various methods for family planning, including hormonal contraceptives, barrier methods, and permanent sterilization procedures.
3. Sexual dysfunction: Addressing issues related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain through medical interventions, counseling, or surgical treatments.
4. Reproductive endocrinology: Managing hormonal imbalances affecting reproductive health, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and hypogonadism.
5. Genetic counseling and testing: Assessing the risk of inheritable genetic disorders and providing guidance on family planning options.
6. Menopause management: Offering treatments for symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.
7. Fertility preservation: Providing options for individuals facing cancer treatment or other medical conditions that may impact their future fertility, including egg, sperm, and embryo freezing.
8. Adolescent reproductive health: Addressing the unique needs of adolescents related to sexual and reproductive health, including education, counseling, and preventative care.
9. Andrology: Focusing on male reproductive health, including issues related to sperm production, function, and genital abnormalities.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Nonprescription drugs, also known as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, are medications that can be legally purchased without a prescription from a healthcare professional. They are considered safe and effective for treating minor illnesses or symptoms when used according to the directions on the label. Examples include pain relievers like acetaminophen and ibuprofen, antihistamines for allergies, and topical treatments for skin conditions. It is still important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if there are any concerns or questions about using nonprescription drugs.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Norprogesterones" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. However, I can provide you with information on "Progestogens" or "Progestins," which are often referred to as "norpregnenolone derivatives."

Progestogens/Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced in the ovaries and placenta during pregnancy. They share many of the same functions as progesterone, including preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, maintaining the lining of the uterus during pregnancy, and supporting lactation after childbirth.

Progestogens/Progestins are used in various medical applications, such as hormonal contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy, and treatment for gynecological disorders like endometriosis or abnormal uterine bleeding. They can be synthesized from other steroid hormones, including progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol.

Some examples of progestogens/progestins include:

* Norethisterone (norethindrone)
* Levonorgestrel
* Medroxyprogesterone acetate
* Dydrogesterone
* Gestodene
* Norgestimate

If you meant to ask about a specific progestogen or progestin, please let me know and I can provide more information on that particular compound.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) expulsion is a medical condition that refers to the unintentional and partial or complete removal of an IUD from the uterus after its initial insertion. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of manipulation, and it may happen soon after insertion or even several months or years later.

IUD expulsion is more common in women who have not previously given birth, and it can increase the risk of unintended pregnancy and other complications. Symptoms of IUD expulsion may include irregular menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or the absence of the IUD strings in the vagina. If a woman suspects that her IUD has been expelled, she should contact her healthcare provider for further evaluation and management.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. It involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland, to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. This procedure is typically performed in an outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, and takes about 20-30 minutes. It is considered a highly effective form of birth control with a low risk of complications. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection such as condoms may still be necessary.

Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding or gynecological bleeding, is an abnormal loss of blood from the uterus. It can occur in various clinical settings such as menstruation (known as menorrhagia), postpartum period (postpartum hemorrhage), or in non-pregnant women (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). The bleeding may be light to heavy, intermittent or continuous, and can be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, dizziness, or fainting. Uterine hemorrhage is a common gynecological problem that can have various underlying causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, coagulopathies, and malignancies. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Family planning policy refers to a government's official position or action regarding the use of family planning services, including contraception, fertility awareness, and reproductive health education. The goal of family planning policies is to enable individuals and couples to make informed decisions about whether and when to have children, thus contributing to improved maternal and child health outcomes, reduced unintended pregnancies, and lower abortion rates. Family planning policies may include provisions for the provision of free or subsidized contraceptive methods, sex education in schools, training for healthcare providers, and public awareness campaigns. The specific content and implementation of family planning policies vary widely between countries and are often influenced by cultural, religious, and political factors.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

"Religious hospitals" are healthcare institutions that are affiliated with or managed by a religious organization. These hospitals often incorporate their religious values and beliefs into the care they provide, which may influence their policies, practices, and ethical guidelines. They may also serve specific communities and offer spiritual support to patients and their families. It's important to note that while these hospitals have a religious affiliation, they are still held to the same standards of care as other healthcare institutions and must comply with relevant laws and regulations.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Coitus is the medical term for sexual intercourse, which is typically defined as the act of inserting the penis into the vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. It often involves rhythmic thrusting and movement, and can lead to orgasm in both males and females. Coitus may also be referred to as vaginal sex or penetrative sex.

It's important to note that there are many ways to engage in sexual activity beyond coitus, including oral sex, manual stimulation, and using sex toys. All of these forms of sexual expression can be healthy and normal when practiced safely and with consent.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

A pregnancy test is a medical diagnostic tool used to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. These tests detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta after fertilization. Pregnancy tests can be performed using a variety of methods, including urine tests and blood tests.

Urine pregnancy tests are typically performed at home and involve either dipping a test strip into a sample of urine or holding the strip under a stream of urine for several seconds. The test strip contains antibodies that react with hCG, producing a visual signal such as a line or plus sign if hCG is present.

Blood pregnancy tests are performed by a healthcare provider and can detect lower levels of hCG than urine tests. There are two types of blood pregnancy tests: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative tests simply detect the presence or absence of hCG, while quantitative tests measure the exact amount of hCG present in the blood.

Pregnancy tests are generally very accurate when used correctly, but false positives and false negatives can occur. False positives may occur due to certain medical conditions or medications that contain hCG. False negatives may occur if the test is taken too early or if it is not performed correctly. It is important to follow the instructions carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if there is any uncertainty about the results.

Conscience is not a medical term, but it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of ethics, psychology, and philosophy. In general, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their behavior and decision-making. It is sometimes described as an inner voice or a moral compass that helps people distinguish between right and wrong actions.

While conscience is not a medical term, there are medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to distinguish between right and wrong or to make ethical decisions. For example, certain neurological conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia, can impair a person's moral judgment and decision-making abilities. Similarly, some mental health disorders, such as psychopathy, may be associated with reduced moral reasoning and empathy, which can affect a person's conscience.

It is worth noting that the concept of conscience is complex and multifaceted, and there is ongoing debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists about its nature and origins. Some theories suggest that conscience is a product of socialization and cultural influences, while others propose that it has a more fundamental basis in human biology and evolution.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Counseling is a therapeutic intervention that involves a trained professional working with an individual, family, or group to help them understand and address their problems, concerns, or challenges. The goal of counseling is to help the person develop skills, insights, and resources that will allow them to make positive changes in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and improve their overall mental health and well-being.

Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual seeking help. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy. These approaches may be used alone or in combination with other interventions, such as medication or group therapy.

The specific goals and techniques of counseling will vary depending on the individual's needs and circumstances. However, some common objectives of counseling include:

* Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of emotional or behavioral problems
* Developing coping skills and strategies to manage stress, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns
* Improving communication and relationship skills
* Enhancing self-esteem and self-awareness
* Addressing substance abuse or addiction issues
* Resolving conflicts and making difficult decisions
* Grieving losses and coping with life transitions

Counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. These professionals have completed advanced education and training in counseling techniques and theories, and are qualified to provide a range of therapeutic interventions to help individuals, families, and groups achieve their goals and improve their mental health.

Ambulatory care facilities are healthcare providers where patients receive medical services, treatments, or procedures that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These facilities are often used for diagnosis, observation, and outpatient care such as same-day surgery, preventive health screenings, and minor procedures. They can include a wide range of settings like physician offices, community clinics, urgent care centers, dialysis centers, and surgical centers. The goal of ambulatory care facilities is to provide high-quality medical services in a convenient and cost-effective manner for patients who do not require hospitalization.

Sexuality is a multidimensional aspect of human life, which includes biological, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexuality is "a central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction." It involves a person's capacity for sexual feelings, their emotional and romantic attraction to other people, and their self-concept as a sexual being. Sexuality can also refer to a person's sense of identity based on their sex and gender, as well as their engagement in sexual activity or behavior.

It is important to note that sexuality is a normal and natural part of human development and experience, and it is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Everyone has the right to explore and express their sexuality in a responsible and consensual manner, free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Chlormadinone Acetate is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. It works by suppressing the natural progesterone produced by the ovaries, thereby preventing the buildup of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). This medication is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

It's important to note that Chlormadinone Acetate can cause a range of side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting this medication.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Women" is not a medical term that can be defined in a straightforward way. In medical contexts, "women" is often used to refer to adult human females, based on their biological sex characteristics. However, it's important to note that there are individuals who may be biologically male but identify as women, and they are also considered part of the female population in many medical and societal contexts.

In general, gender identity is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else. It's separate from biological sex, which refers to physical characteristics like chromosomes, hormone levels, and reproductive organs. Some people identify with the gender that matches their biological sex, while others may identify as the opposite gender, or as neither male nor female.

Therefore, it's important to consider both the biological and personal aspects of an individual's identity when discussing medical issues related to women.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

Uterine cervical erosion, also known as ectropion or cervical ectopy, is not typically considered a disease or a medical condition but rather a normal variant in the appearance of the cervix. It occurs when the cells that normally line the inside of the cervical canal (glandular cells) extend out onto the surface of the exocervix, which is the portion of the cervix that is visible during a routine pelvic examination.

This extension of glandular cells can appear as a red, smooth, and shiny area on the cervix, and it may be more prone to bleeding or discomfort during intercourse or menstruation. Cervical erosion can be caused by various factors, including hormonal changes, inflammation, or irritation of the cervix.

While cervical erosion is not typically harmful, it can increase the risk of certain infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is essential to monitor and treat any underlying conditions that may contribute to cervical erosion. In some cases, cervical erosion may resolve on its own without treatment, but if it causes discomfort or bleeding, treatment options such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, or cauterization may be recommended.

Antispermatogenic agents are substances or drugs that inhibit or prevent the production of sperm in the testes. These agents can work by various mechanisms, such as interfering with the formation and maturation of sperm cells, damaging sperm DNA, or suppressing the hormones responsible for sperm production.

Examples of antispermatogenic agents include chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, and certain medications used to treat prostate cancer or other conditions. Prolonged use of these agents can lead to infertility, so they are often used with caution and only when necessary. It is important to note that the use of antispermatogenic agents should be under the guidance and supervision of a medical professional.

Sex counseling, also known as sexual therapy or sex therapy, is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help individuals and couples address and resolve their sexual concerns and problems. It is an evidence-based approach that involves specialized techniques and interventions to address issues such as sexual dysfunction, low desire, pain during sex, sexual addiction, gender identity concerns, and sexual trauma.

Sex counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals who have received specialized training in human sexuality and sexual therapy. The goal of sex counseling is to help individuals and couples improve their sexual relationships, enhance communication, increase sexual satisfaction, and promote overall sexual health and well-being. It is important to note that sex counseling does not involve any physical contact or sexual activity between the therapist and client.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

A contraceptive vaccine is a type of immunocontraception that uses the immune system to prevent pregnancy. It is a relatively new field of research and development, and there are currently no licensed contraceptive vaccines available on the market. However, several experimental vaccines are in various stages of preclinical and clinical testing.

Contraceptive vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that play a critical role in reproduction. By neutralizing these targets, the vaccine can prevent fertilization or inhibit the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For example, one approach is to develop vaccines that target the zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein layer surrounding mammalian eggs. Antibodies generated against ZP proteins can prevent sperm from binding and fertilizing the egg. Another strategy is to create vaccines that generate antibodies against hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By blocking hCG, the vaccine can prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and induce a miscarriage.

While contraceptive vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies, several challenges remain before they can be widely adopted. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, duration of protection, and public acceptance. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for accidental cross-reactivity with other proteins or hormones, leading to unintended side effects.

Overall, contraceptive vaccines represent a promising area of research that could provide long-acting, reversible, and user-friendly contraception options in the future. However, further studies are needed to address the remaining challenges and ensure their safe and effective use.

Mestranol is a synthetic form of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. It works by preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and altering the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg or for an already established pregnancy to be implanted.

Mestranol is typically combined with a progestin in birth control pills, such as those known as the "combined oral contraceptives." It's important to note that mestranol has largely been replaced by ethinyl estradiol, which is a more commonly used form of synthetic estrogen in hormonal medications.

As with any medication, there are potential risks and side effects associated with the use of mestranol, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting or changing any hormonal medication.

Catholicism is a branch of Christianity that recognizes the authority of the Pope and follows the teachings and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the largest Christian denomination in the world, with over a billion members worldwide. The beliefs and practices of Catholicism include the sacraments, prayer, and various forms of worship, as well as social justice initiatives and charitable works. The Catholic Church has a hierarchical structure, with the Pope at the top, followed by bishops, priests, and deacons. It places a strong emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Missouri" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state located in the central United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Dysmenorrhea is a medical term that refers to painful menstrual cramps and discomfort during menstruation. It's one of the most common gynecological complaints among women of reproductive age. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.

1. Primary Dysmenorrhea: This type is more common and occurs in women who have had normal, pelvic anatomy. The pain is caused by strong contractions of the uterus due to the production of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that are involved in inflammation and pain). Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts soon after menarche (the beginning of menstruation) and tends to improve with age, particularly after childbirth.
2. Secondary Dysmenorrhea: This type is less common and occurs due to an underlying medical condition affecting the reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or adenomyosis. The pain associated with secondary dysmenorrhea tends to worsen over time and may be accompanied by other symptoms like irregular menstrual bleeding, pain during intercourse, or chronic pelvic pain.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea depends on the type and underlying cause. For primary dysmenorrhea, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen can help alleviate pain by reducing prostaglandin production. Hormonal birth control methods like oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices (IUDs) may also be prescribed to reduce menstrual pain. For secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment typically involves addressing the underlying medical condition causing the pain.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is a formulation that contains a synthetic version of the female sex hormones, estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and progestin (norgestrel), which are used in various forms of hormonal contraception.

This combination works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is commonly used in oral contraceptives (birth control pills), as well as in some forms of hormonal patches and rings. It is important to note that while this combination is highly effective at preventing pregnancy, it can also increase the risk of certain health problems, such as blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer, especially in women who smoke or have other risk factors.

Therefore, it is essential for individuals using hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination to discuss their medical history and any potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting this form of birth control.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

"Population control" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of public health and societal planning. In this context, population control refers to the practices and policies aimed at managing the size and growth rate of a population, with the goal of achieving a sustainable balance between population size and available resources.

Population control measures may include:

1. Family planning programs that provide access to contraception and education about reproductive health.
2. Public health initiatives that address maternal and child health, infectious diseases, and other factors that affect fertility rates.
3. Social and economic policies that promote gender equality, education, and economic opportunities for women, who often have a disproportionate impact on fertility rates.
4. In some cases, more coercive measures such as forced sterilization or abortion, which are widely considered to be unethical and violations of human rights.

It's important to note that population control is a complex and controversial issue, with many different perspectives and approaches. While some argue that managing population growth is essential for achieving sustainable development and reducing poverty, others argue that it is a violation of individual freedoms and human rights.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United Arab Emirates" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in the Middle East, which is a sovereign constitutional monarchy formed from a federation of seven emirates. The UAE is known for its modern cities such as Dubai and Abu Dhabi, and it has a diverse economy with significant oil reserves. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health topics, I would be happy to help answer those!

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and changes that occur in the reproductive system, enabling the production, development, and reproduction of offspring in living organisms. These phenomena encompass a wide range of events, including:

1. Hormonal regulation: The release and circulation of hormones that control and coordinate reproductive functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and inhibin.
2. Ovarian and testicular function: The development and maturation of ova (eggs) in females and sperm in males, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
3. Menstrual cycle: The series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over a 28-day period, consisting of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase, resulting in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur.
4. Fertilization: The process by which a sperm penetrates and fuses with an egg to form a zygote, initiating embryonic development.
5. Implantation: The attachment and embedding of the developing blastocyst (early-stage embryo) into the uterine lining, leading to pregnancy.
6. Pregnancy: The physiological state of carrying a developing offspring within the female reproductive system, characterized by hormonal changes, growth and development of the fetus, and preparation for childbirth.
7. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide nutrition for newborn offspring.
8. Menopause: The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles and reproductive function in females, typically occurring in the fourth or fifth decade of life, characterized by a decline in hormone production and various physical and emotional symptoms.

These reproductive physiological phenomena are complex and highly regulated processes that ensure the continuation of species and the maintenance of genetic diversity.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Directive counseling is a type of counseling approach where the therapist takes an active and direct role in guiding the therapeutic process. The therapist provides clear directions, sets specific goals, and offers practical solutions to help the client overcome their problems or challenges. This approach is often used when the client is seeking advice or guidance on a specific issue, or when they are having difficulty making decisions or taking action.

In directive counseling, the therapist may provide education, offer suggestions, and assign homework or tasks for the client to complete between sessions. The therapist's role is to help the client identify their goals, develop a plan to achieve them, and provide support and guidance along the way. This approach can be particularly effective for clients who are seeking concrete solutions to practical problems, such as time management, career development, or relationship issues.

It's important to note that directive counseling is not appropriate for all clients or situations. Some clients may prefer a more collaborative or exploratory approach, where they have more control over the therapeutic process. In these cases, non-directive or client-centered approaches may be more appropriate. Ultimately, the choice of counseling approach should be based on the individual needs and preferences of the client.

Lipid metabolism disorders are a group of conditions that result from abnormalities in the breakdown, transport, or storage of lipids (fats) in the body. These disorders can lead to an accumulation of lipids in various tissues and organs, causing them to function improperly.

There are several types of lipid metabolism disorders, including:

1. Hyperlipidemias: These are conditions characterized by high levels of cholesterol or triglycerides in the blood. They can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis.
2. Hypercholesterolemia: This is a condition characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood. It can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
3. Hypocholesterolemias: These are conditions characterized by low levels of cholesterol in the blood. Some of these disorders may be associated with an increased risk of cancer and neurological disorders.
4. Hypertriglyceridemias: These are conditions characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood. They can increase the risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease.
5. Lipodystrophies: These are conditions characterized by abnormalities in the distribution of body fat, which can lead to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and high levels of triglycerides.
6. Disorders of fatty acid oxidation: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to break down fatty acids for energy, leading to muscle weakness, liver dysfunction, and in some cases, life-threatening neurological complications.

Lipid metabolism disorders can be inherited or acquired, and their symptoms and severity can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and the individual's overall health status. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, medications, and dietary modifications to help manage lipid levels and prevent complications.

Reproductive behavior, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the actions or behaviors associated with an organism's reproduction. This can include various aspects such as:

1. Mating rituals or courtship behaviors that individuals of a species engage in to attract mates.
2. Copulation or actual mating process.
3. Parental care, which is the behavior of parents towards their offspring, including protection, feeding, and teaching necessary skills.
4. In some cases, it may also include aggressive behaviors related to territory defense for breeding.

These behaviors are influenced by hormonal changes, genetic factors, environmental conditions, and individual experiences. They vary widely among different species, with some displaying complex rituals while others have more straightforward processes.

In humans, reproductive behavior includes sexual activities associated with procreation, contraceptive use, family planning, and sometimes abstinence. It's important to note that human reproductive behavior can also be influenced by cultural, psychological, and social factors, making it quite complex compared to many other species.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

A pharmacy is a retail store or a healthcare facility where medications, both prescription and over-the-counter, are sold or dispensed. Pharmacies are staffed by professional pharmacists who provide medication therapy management services, including reviewing the patient's medication history, checking for potential drug interactions, dosage adjustments, and providing education to patients on the safe and effective use of their medications.

Pharmacies may also offer other health-related products such as medical supplies, vitamins, and personal care items. Some pharmacies are part of a larger healthcare system, such as hospitals or clinics, while others are standalone retail stores. In addition to traditional brick-and-mortar locations, there are also online pharmacies that operate over the internet.

It's important for patients to only obtain medications from licensed and reputable pharmacies to ensure their safety and the effectiveness of their treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "London" is a place and not a medical term or condition. It is the capital city and largest metropolitan area in both England and the United Kingdom. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

Vulvitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the vulva, which is the external female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The inflammation can result from various factors such as infection, allergies, irritants, or skin conditions. Symptoms may include redness, swelling, itching, burning, and pain in the affected area. Treatment for vulvitis depends on the underlying cause and may involve medication, lifestyle changes, or avoidance of irritants.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

A prescription is a written or electronic order for a medication or device issued by a healthcare provider (such as a doctor, nurse practitioner, or dentist) to a patient. It provides detailed instructions about the medication, including its dosage, frequency, route of administration, and duration of treatment. Prescriptions may also include additional information such as warnings about potential side effects or interactions with other medications.

Prescriptions are typically required for medications that have the potential to cause harm if used improperly, such as controlled substances or those that require careful monitoring. They serve as a legal document that authorizes a pharmacist to dispense the prescribed medication to the patient and may also be used for insurance billing purposes.

Prescriptions are an important tool in the management of medical conditions and can help ensure that patients receive appropriate and safe treatment with medications.

A gynecological examination is a medical procedure performed by a healthcare professional, typically a gynecologist, to evaluate the female reproductive system. The examination may include a variety of tests and procedures, such as:

1. Medical history review: The doctor will ask questions about the patient's menstrual cycle, sexual activity, contraceptive use, pregnancy history, and any symptoms or concerns.
2. External examination: The doctor will inspect the external genitalia for any signs of infection, irritation, or abnormalities.
3. Speculum exam: A speculum, a medical instrument that resembles a duckbill, is inserted into the vagina to allow the doctor to visualize the cervix and vaginal walls. This helps in detecting any abnormalities such as cervical polyps, inflammation, or cancerous growths.
4. Pelvic exam: The doctor will insert gloved fingers into the patient's vagina while simultaneously pressing on the lower abdomen to assess the size, shape, and position of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
5. Pap test: A sample of cells is collected from the cervix using a spatula or brush and sent to a laboratory for analysis. This helps in detecting any precancerous or cancerous changes in the cervical cells.
6. Other tests: Depending on the patient's age, medical history, and symptoms, additional tests such as STD screening, breast exam, or imaging studies (e.g., ultrasound, MRI) may be recommended.

The frequency and type of gynecological examinations vary depending on a woman's age, health status, and individual needs. Regular check-ups are essential for early detection and prevention of reproductive system-related issues, including sexually transmitted infections, cervical cancer, and other gynecological conditions.

Contraceptive devices for males are designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking, killing, or inhibiting the movement of sperm. These devices include:

1. Condoms: Thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or polyisoprene that fit over the penis during sexual intercourse to collect semen and prevent it from entering the partner's body. They also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
2. Diaphragms: Soft, dome-shaped rubber devices fitted to cover the cervix inside the vagina. When used with spermicides, they can help prevent pregnancy by blocking the entry of sperm into the uterus.
3. Cervical Cap: A smaller, thimble-like cup made of silicone or latex that fits over the cervix to block sperm from entering the uterus. It is often used with spermicides for added effectiveness.
4. Spermicides: Chemicals that kill or immobilize sperm. They come in various forms, such as foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories, and can be used alone or in combination with other barrier methods like condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps.
5. Vasectomy: A surgical procedure for male sterilization that involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland. This prevents sperm from mixing with semen during ejaculation. Although vasectomies are considered permanent, in some cases, they can be reversed through surgery or other medical procedures.

It is important to note that while these contraceptive devices can significantly reduce the risk of pregnancy, they may not provide complete protection against STIs. Using multiple methods, like condoms and spermicides together, can increase overall effectiveness in preventing both pregnancy and STIs. Always consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice on contraceptive options.

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine and surgery concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period. It involves managing potential complications that may arise during any stage of pregnancy or delivery, as well as providing advice and guidance on prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Obstetricians are medical doctors who specialize in obstetrics and can provide a range of services including routine check-ups, ultrasounds, genetic testing, and other diagnostic procedures to monitor the health and development of the fetus. They also perform surgical procedures such as cesarean sections when necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

A therapeutic abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy before viability (the ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb), which is generally considered to be around 24 weeks of gestation. The term "therapeutic" is used to describe abortions that are performed for medical reasons, such as to protect the life or health of the pregnant individual, or in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality and cannot survive outside the womb.

Therapeutic abortions may be recommended in situations where continuing the pregnancy poses a significant risk to the health or life of the pregnant individual. For example, if a pregnant person has a serious medical condition such as heart disease, cancer, or severe pre-eclampsia, continuing the pregnancy could worsen their condition and put them at risk of serious complications or even death. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be necessary to protect the health or life of the pregnant individual.

Therapeutic abortions may also be recommended in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality that is not compatible with life outside the womb. For example, if the fetus has a condition such as anencephaly (a neural tube defect where the brain and skull do not form properly), or a chromosomal abnormality such as Trisomy 13 or 18, continuing the pregnancy may result in a stillbirth or a short, painful life for the infant after birth. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be considered a compassionate option to prevent unnecessary suffering.

It's important to note that the decision to undergo a therapeutic abortion is a deeply personal one, and should be made in consultation with medical professionals and trusted family members or support networks. Ultimately, the decision should be based on what is best for the physical and emotional health of the pregnant individual, taking into account their values, beliefs, and circumstances.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Nonoxynol is a surfactant, or surface-active agent, that has been used in various medical and consumer products. It is a type of chemical compound known as a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, which means it contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) ethylene oxide group and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) alkyl group.

In the medical field, Nonoxynol has been used as a spermicide in various forms of birth control, such as creams, gels, films, and sponges. It works by disrupting the membrane of sperm cells, preventing them from fertilizing an egg. However, its use as a spermicide has declined due to concerns about its potential to cause irritation and inflammation in the genital area, which may increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV transmission.

It's important to note that Nonoxynol is not currently recommended for use as a spermicide or microbicide due to its potential health risks. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product.

I must clarify that "Armenia" is not a medical term or condition. It's the name of a country located in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Armenia is known for its rich history, unique culture, and natural beauty.

If you have any questions related to medical conditions, diseases, or healthcare practices in Armenia, I would be happy to help answer those. However, it's important to note that providing a medical definition of a country isn't applicable.

Uterine perforation is a medical condition that refers to the piercing or puncturing of the uterine wall. This can occur during various medical procedures such as dilatation and curettage (D&C), insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), or during childbirth. It can also be caused by trauma or infection. Uterine perforation can lead to serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. If left untreated, it can be life-threatening. Symptoms of uterine perforation may include severe abdominal pain, heavy vaginal bleeding, fever, and signs of shock. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Preconception care (PCC) refers to a set of interventions that aim to identify and modify biomedical, behavioral, and social risks to a woman's health or pregnancy outcome through prevention and management, before conception. PCC is designed to optimize the health status of women of reproductive age, and includes counseling and education about lifestyle modifications such as improving nutrition, achieving a healthy weight, stopping smoking and alcohol consumption, controlling chronic diseases, and avoiding teratogenic exposures. The goal of PCC is to reduce risks and improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy and baby.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Professional-patient relations, also known as physician-patient relationships or doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interactions and communications between healthcare professionals and their patients. It is a critical aspect of healthcare delivery that involves trust, respect, understanding, and collaboration. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines it as "a ethical relationship in which a physician, by virtue of knowledge and skills, provides medical services to a patient in need."

Professional-patient relations encompass various elements, including:

1. Informed Consent: Healthcare professionals must provide patients with adequate information about their medical condition, treatment options, benefits, risks, and alternatives to enable them to make informed decisions about their healthcare.
2. Confidentiality: Healthcare professionals must respect patients' privacy and maintain the confidentiality of their medical information, except in specific circumstances where disclosure is required by law or necessary for patient safety.
3. Communication: Healthcare professionals must communicate effectively with patients, listening to their concerns, answering their questions, and providing clear and concise explanations about their medical condition and treatment plan.
4. Empathy and Compassion: Healthcare professionals must demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their emotional and psychological needs and providing support and comfort when necessary.
5. Cultural Competence: Healthcare professionals must be aware of and respect cultural differences among their patients, adapting their communication style and treatment approach to meet the unique needs of each patient.
6. Shared Decision-Making: Healthcare professionals and patients should work together to make medical decisions based on the best available evidence, the patient's values and preferences, and the healthcare professional's expertise.
7. Continuity of Care: Healthcare professionals must ensure continuity of care for their patients, coordinating with other healthcare providers and ensuring that patients receive appropriate follow-up care.

Professional-patient relations are essential to achieving positive health outcomes, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing medical errors and adverse events. Healthcare professionals must maintain ethical and professional standards in their interactions with patients, recognizing the power imbalance in the relationship and striving to promote trust, respect, and collaboration.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands Antilles" is not a medical term. It refers to a former political entity in the Caribbean that was composed of several islands including Curacao, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius. These islands are now special municipalities of the Netherlands or part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. I'm here to help with medical information, so if you have any health-related questions, feel free to ask!

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Bosnia-Herzegovina is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeastern Europe, bordered by Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the south. The country has a population of approximately 3.5 million people and is known for its rich history, diverse culture, and natural beauty.

Bosnia-Herzegovina is made up of two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, as well as the Brčko District, which is a self-governing administrative unit. The country has a complex political system with a three-member presidency, consisting of one member from each of the three main ethnic groups: Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs.

Bosnia-Herzegovina has faced significant challenges since the end of the Bosnian War in 1995, including political instability, economic underdevelopment, and high levels of corruption. Despite these challenges, the country is working towards greater integration with European institutions and has made progress in areas such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure development.

Emergency treatment refers to the urgent medical interventions and care provided to individuals who are experiencing a severe injury, illness, or life-threatening condition. The primary aim of emergency treatment is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide immediate medical attention to save the patient's life or limb.

Emergency treatment may include various medical procedures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), airway management, administering medications, controlling bleeding, treating burns, immobilizing fractures, and providing pain relief. The specific emergency treatment provided will depend on the nature and severity of the patient's condition.

Emergency treatment is typically delivered in an emergency department (ED) or a similar setting, such as an urgent care center, ambulance, or helicopter transport. Healthcare professionals who provide emergency treatment include emergency physicians, nurses, paramedics, and other specialists trained in emergency medicine.

It's important to note that emergency treatment is different from routine medical care, which is usually provided on a scheduled basis and focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and managing chronic or ongoing health conditions. Emergency treatment, on the other hand, is provided in response to an acute event or crisis that requires immediate attention and action.

Nursing records are a type of healthcare documentation that contains detailed information about a patient's nursing care. These records may include assessments, diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes related to the patient's health status and needs. They are used by nurses to communicate with other members of the healthcare team, track the patient's progress, and ensure continuity of care. Nursing records may be kept in paper form or digitally, and they are subject to legal and ethical standards for confidentiality and privacy.

Intrauterine Device (IUD) migration is a medical condition where the IUD, a long-acting reversible contraceptive device placed inside the uterus, moves from its original position. Normally, an IUD is designed to remain in the uterus, with the vertical strings attached to it trailing down through the cervix into the vagina, allowing for easy removal or checking of its position.

IUD migration refers to the unintended movement of the device, either partially or completely, outside the uterine cavity. This may occur due to various reasons such as a weakened uterus, infection, or anatomical abnormalities. The migration can lead to complications like perforation of the uterus, damage to nearby organs, and difficulty in removing or locating the IUD. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are essential to ensure that the IUD remains in its proper place and to address any potential issues early on.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Female urogenital diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the female urinary and genital systems. These systems include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, vulva, vagina, and reproductive organs such as the ovaries and uterus.

Some common female urogenital diseases include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.
2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other pelvic structures.
4. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries.
5. Uterine fibroids: These are noncancerous growths that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus.
6. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): This is a chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area.
7. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): These are infections that are passed from person to person during sexual contact. Common STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV.
8. Vulvodynia: This is chronic pain or discomfort of the vulva, the external female genital area.
9. Cancers of the reproductive system, such as ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and uterine cancer.

These are just a few examples of female urogenital diseases. It's important for women to receive regular medical care and screenings to detect and treat these conditions early, when they are often easier to manage and have better outcomes.

Salivary alpha-amylases are a type of enzyme that are secreted by the salivary glands in humans and other mammals. These enzymes play a crucial role in the digestion of carbohydrates, specifically starches and glycogen, by breaking down these complex molecules into simpler sugars such as maltose, isomaltose, and maltotriose.

Salivary alpha-amylases are part of a larger family of enzymes known as alpha-amylases, which also include pancreatic alpha-amylases that are secreted by the pancreas and play a similar role in digestion. However, salivary alpha-amylases have some unique properties, such as being more resistant to denaturation by heat and acid than pancreatic alpha-amylases.

Salivary alpha-amylases are also used as a biomarker in forensic science for the identification of individuals, as they exhibit variations in their protein structure that can be used to distinguish between different people. Additionally, changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been associated with various physiological and psychological states, such as stress, anxiety, and arousal.

Paternalism, in the context of medical ethics, refers to the practice of healthcare providers making decisions for their patients without obtaining their consent, due to the belief that they know what is best for the patient. This approach can be seen as patronizing and disempowering, as it does not take into account the autonomy and preferences of the patient.

Paternalism can manifest in various forms, such as withholding information from patients, making treatment decisions without consulting them, or coercing patients to follow a particular course of action. While paternalistic attitudes may stem from a desire to protect patients, they can also undermine trust and lead to poorer health outcomes.

Modern medical ethics emphasizes the importance of informed consent, shared decision-making, and respect for patient autonomy, all of which are seen as essential components of ethical healthcare practice.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

"Safe sex" is a term used to describe sexual activities that reduce the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. It typically involves the use of protective measures, such as condoms, dental dams, or other barriers, during sexual contact.

However, it's important to note that "safe" doesn't mean "risk-free." Even with protection, there is still a chance, though significantly reduced, of STI transmission or pregnancy. The term "safer sex" is sometimes used to more accurately reflect this concept.

Furthermore, regular testing for STIs and open communication with sexual partners about sexual health are also important components of safe sex practices.

Menorrhagia is a medical term used to describe abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. It's often characterized by the loss of an excessive amount of menstrual blood (usually more than 80 ml) and can last longer than normal, typically over seven days. This condition can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, causing fatigue, distress, and restrictions in daily activities due to the need for frequent pad or tampon changes.

The causes of menorrhagia are varied and can include hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids or polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy complications, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as coagulopathies or thyroid disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain undetermined even after a thorough evaluation.

Treatment options for menorrhagia depend on the underlying cause and range from medication management with hormonal therapies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or tranexamic acid to procedural interventions like endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic resection of polyps or fibroids, or ultimately hysterectomy in severe cases. It is essential for individuals experiencing menorrhagia to consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action based on their specific situation and medical history.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

I am not a doctor, but I can tell you that religion is not a concept that has a medical definition. Religion generally refers to the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods. It involves specific practices and rituals, codes of conduct, sacred texts, and an organized community of believers.

However, in some contexts, religion may be discussed in a medical setting as it relates to a patient's beliefs, values, and cultural background, which can all impact their health and healthcare decisions. In such cases, healthcare providers might use terms like "spirituality" or "religious coping" to describe how a patient's religious practices or beliefs affect their health and well-being. But there is no specific medical definition for religion itself.

Menstruation-inducing agents, also known as menstrual induction agents or abortifacients, are medications or substances that stimulate or induce menstruation and can potentially lead to the termination of an early pregnancy. These agents work by causing the uterus to contract and expel its lining (endometrium), which is shed during menstruation.

Common menstruation-inducing agents include:

1. Hormonal medications: Combination oral contraceptives, containing both estrogen and progestin, can be used to induce menstruation by causing the uterus to shed its lining after a planned break from taking the medication. This is often used in birth control methods like the "birth control pill pack."
2. Prostaglandins: These are naturally occurring hormone-like substances that can cause the uterus to contract. Synthetic prostaglandin analogs, such as misoprostol (Cytotec), can be used to induce menstruation or early pregnancy termination.
3. Mifepristone: This is a synthetic steroid hormone that blocks progesterone receptors in the body. When used in combination with prostaglandins, it can cause the uterus to contract and expel its lining, leading to an abortion or inducing menstruation.

It's important to note that using menstruation-inducing agents without medical supervision or for purposes other than their intended use may pose health risks and should be avoided. Always consult a healthcare professional before using any medication for this purpose.

I must clarify that "Ethiopia" is not a medical term or condition. Ethiopia is a country located in the Horn of Africa, known for its rich history and cultural heritage. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with diverse ethnic groups, languages, and religious practices.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please feel free to ask! I'm here to help.

Adolescent medicine is a medical specialty focused on the unique health care needs of patients between the ages of 10-25. This includes physical, mental, and emotional health concerns that are specific to this age group, such as:

* Growth and development
* Sexual and reproductive health
* Substance use and abuse
* Mental health disorders
* Eating disorders
* Chronic illness management
* Injury prevention and management

Healthcare providers who specialize in adolescent medicine are trained to understand the physical, emotional, and social challenges that adolescents face during this transitional stage of life. They work closely with patients and their families to provide comprehensive care, including preventive services, education, and treatment for acute and chronic conditions.

In addition to medical training, adolescent medicine specialists may also have expertise in psychology, sociology, public health, and education to help them address the complex needs of this population.

Forensic nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that combines healthcare and legal knowledge to provide comprehensive care for patients who have been involved in incidents related to violence, abuse, criminal activity, or other events requiring medico-legal intervention. Forensic nurses often work closely with law enforcement agencies, legal professionals, and other members of the justice system to collect evidence, document injuries, and support investigations while ensuring the ethical and compassionate treatment of their patients. They may also provide expert testimony in court proceedings based on their findings and observations. The primary goal of forensic nursing is to promote the health, safety, and well-being of individuals who have experienced trauma while contributing to public health and legal systems through the application of nursing expertise and evidence-based practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nigeria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous country in Africa. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

Danazol is a synthetic, orally active androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties. It is used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol works by suppressing the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn inhibits the growth of ovarian tissue and reduces the production of estrogen and progesterone. This leads to a decrease in the symptoms associated with endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease. In the case of hereditary angioedema, danazol helps prevent attacks by increasing the levels of a protein called C1 esterase inhibitor, which is necessary for regulating the immune system and preventing inflammation.

The common side effects of danazol include weight gain, acne, oily skin, increased hair growth, changes in menstrual cycle, decreased breast size, deepening of the voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, blood clots, and adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to its potential virilizing effects on the fetus. It should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

The medical definition of danazol can be summarized as follows:

Danazol (dan-a-zole)

A synthetic androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties, used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol suppresses the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland, inhibiting ovarian tissue growth and reducing estrogen and progesterone production. In hereditary angioedema, danazol increases C1 esterase inhibitor levels to prevent attacks. Common side effects include weight gain, acne, increased hair growth, menstrual changes, decreased breast size, deepened voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may involve liver damage, blood clots, or adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to potential virilizing effects on the fetus and should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Primary care physicians are medical professionals who provide first-contact and continuous care for patients with acute and chronic physical, mental, and social health problems. They serve as the patient's main point of entry into the healthcare system and act as the patient's advocate in coordinating access to and delivery of appropriate healthcare services. Primary care physicians may include general practitioners, family medicine specialists, internists, pediatricians, and geriatricians.

Primary care involves the widest scope of healthcare, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, and patients seeking to maintain optimal health, as well as those with all types of acute and chronic physical, mental and social health issues. Primary care includes disease prevention, health promotion, patient education, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses.

Primary care physicians are trained to recognize a wide range of health problems and to provide initial treatment or make referrals to medical subspecialists or other healthcare professionals as needed. They may also provide ongoing, person-centered care, including chronic disease management, and they play an important role in coordinating the care provided by other healthcare professionals and specialists.

Primary care physicians are often based in community settings such as private practices, community health centers, or hospital outpatient departments, and they may work in teams with nurses, social workers, mental health professionals, and other healthcare providers to provide comprehensive, patient-centered care.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Scotland" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Adolescent psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of adolescents, their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This field examines the cognitive, social, and emotional development of adolescents, as well as any challenges or mental health issues they may face during this stage of life. It also involves the application of psychological theories and principles to promote positive adolescent development and address adolescent mental health concerns. Adolescent psychologists work in various settings, including schools, clinics, hospitals, and private practices, providing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services to adolescents and their families.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population growth" is actually a demographic term rather than a medical one. It refers to the increase in the size of a population over time, typically due to births and immigrants exceeding deaths and emigrants. It is commonly used in discussions of societal development, resource management, and environmental impact, among other fields.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those as well!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pennsylvania" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer those!

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

Birth intervals refer to the length of time between the birth of one child and the conception of the next child. It is the duration from the delivery of one baby to the initiation of the pregnancy that results in another birth. This interval is an essential measure in reproductive health, as it can impact the health and well-being of both the mother and the children.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum birth interval of 24 months between pregnancies to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Shorter birth intervals are associated with increased risks for preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and neonatal mortality. Additionally, short birth intervals can also negatively affect the mother's health, increasing the risk of maternal depletion syndrome, which may lead to nutritional deficiencies, anemia, and fatigue.

Birth intervals are influenced by various factors, including cultural norms, socioeconomic status, access to family planning services, and individual preferences. Encouraging longer birth intervals through improved access to family planning resources and education can contribute to better maternal and child health outcomes.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "Single Person." In general, a single person is someone who is not married or in a committed relationship. However, this term is not typically used in a medical context. If you have more specific context or information that you're looking for, please let me know and I'll do my best to help!

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

The fertile period, also known as the fertile window, refers to the time during a woman's menstrual cycle when she is most likely to conceive. This period typically begins 5 days before ovulation and ends on the day of ovulation. Ovulation is the process by which a mature egg is released from the ovaries and travels down the fallopian tubes, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

During the fertile period, the cervical mucus becomes more receptive to sperm, making it easier for them to survive and travel through the reproductive tract to reach the egg. Additionally, the lining of the uterus thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

It is important to note that while the fertile period is the time when conception is most likely to occur, it is still possible to become pregnant outside of this window. Sperm can survive in the female reproductive tract for up to 5 days, and ovulation may occasionally occur earlier or later than expected.

Couples who are trying to conceive may benefit from tracking their menstrual cycles and monitoring signs of ovulation, such as changes in cervical mucus or basal body temperature, to help identify their fertile period.

Rape is a legal term and its exact definition varies by jurisdiction. However, in general, rape is a type of sexual assault involving sexual penetration without the consent of the victim. This can include vaginal, anal, or oral penetration with any body part or object. In many places, rape also includes situations where the victim is unable to give consent due to factors such as age, mental incapacity, or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol. It's important to note that force, threat of force, or coercion do not necessarily have to be present for the act to be considered rape, and lack of consent is the crucial factor.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

"Marital status" is not a medical term, but it is often used in medical records and forms to indicate whether a person is single, married, divorced, widowed, or in a civil union. It is a social determinant of health that can have an impact on a person's access to healthcare, health behaviors, and health outcomes. For example, research has shown that people who are unmarried, divorced, or widowed may have worse health outcomes than those who are married. However, it is important to note that this relationship is complex and influenced by many other factors, including socioeconomic status, age, and overall health.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Legislation" and "Pharmacy" are two distinct concepts from different fields - legislation is a term related to law-making, while pharmacy is a field of healthcare concerned with the preparation and dispensing of medications.

There isn't a specific medical definition for "legislation, pharmacy." However, I can provide you with some information about each concept separately:

1. Legislation: In general terms, legislation refers to the process of creating, enacting, and amending laws in a political system or jurisdiction. In the context of healthcare, legislation may refer to laws and regulations that govern various aspects of medical practice, patient care, public health, and pharmaceutical industry, among others.
2. Pharmacy: Pharmacy is a healthcare profession concerned with the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmacists are experts in medicines who work to ensure that patients receive the best possible outcomes from their medication therapy. They may practice in various settings, including community pharmacies, hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities.

If you have any further questions or need more information about either concept, please let me know!

In the context of medicine, risk-taking refers to the decision-making process where an individual or a healthcare provider knowingly engages in an activity or continues a course of treatment despite the potential for negative outcomes or complications. This could include situations where the benefits of the action outweigh the potential risks, or where the risks are accepted as part of the process of providing care.

For example, a patient with a life-threatening illness may choose to undergo a risky surgical procedure because the potential benefits (such as improved quality of life or increased longevity) outweigh the risks (such as complications from the surgery or anesthesia). Similarly, a healthcare provider may prescribe a medication with known side effects because the benefits of the medication for treating the patient's condition are deemed to be greater than the potential risks.

Risk-taking can also refer to behaviors that increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes, such as engaging in high-risk activities like substance abuse or dangerous sexual behavior. In these cases, healthcare providers may work with patients to identify and address the underlying factors contributing to their risky behaviors, such as mental health issues or lack of knowledge about safe practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mythology" is not a term that has a medical definition. Mythology refers to the body of myths associated with a culture, religion, or historical stage of development. It's often used in the context of studying ancient civilizations and their belief systems, folklore, and literature. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Religion and medicine are two distinct fields that can intersect in various ways. While religion can be defined as a set of beliefs, practices, and rituals related to the divine or supernatural, medicine is concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure of disease, illness, and other physical and mental impairments in humans.

A medical definition of "Religion and Medicine" might refer to the study of the relationship between religious beliefs, practices, and experiences, and health outcomes, healthcare delivery, and medical decision-making. This can include exploring how religious beliefs and practices influence health behaviors, coping mechanisms, social support networks, and access to care, as well as how they shape attitudes towards medical interventions, end-of-life decisions, and bioethical issues.

Religion can also play a role in the provision of healthcare services, such as through faith-based organizations that operate hospitals, clinics, and other health facilities. Additionally, religious leaders and communities may provide spiritual care and support to patients and their families, complementing the medical care provided by healthcare professionals.

Overall, the intersection of religion and medicine is a complex and multifaceted area of study that requires an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on insights from fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, theology, and public health.

Islam is not a medical term. It is a religious term that refers to the monotheistic Abrahamic religion practiced by Muslims, who follow the teachings and guidance of the prophet Muhammad as recorded in the Quran, their holy book. The word "Islam" itself means "submission" in Arabic, reflecting the central tenet of the faith, which is submission to the will of Allah (God).

The practices of Islam include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are: Shahada (faith), Salat (prayer), Zakat (charity), Sawm (fasting during Ramadan), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime for those who are able).

If you have any further questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, please don't hesitate to ask!

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition characterized by the formation of various types of blemishes on the skin, such as blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, and cysts or nodules. These lesions typically appear on areas of the body that have a high concentration of sebaceous glands, including the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acne vulgaris occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and excess oil (sebum) produced by the sebaceous glands. This blockage provides an ideal environment for bacteria, particularly Propionibacterium acnes, to multiply, leading to inflammation and infection. The severity of acne vulgaris can range from mild with only a few scattered comedones (blackheads or whiteheads) to severe cystic acne, which can cause significant scarring and emotional distress.

The exact causes of acne vulgaris are not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development, including:

1. Hormonal changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or due to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
2. Genetic predisposition
3. Use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and lithium
4. Excessive production of sebum due to overactive sebaceous glands
5. Accumulation of dead skin cells that clog pores
6. Bacterial infection (particularly Propionibacterium acnes)
7. Inflammation caused by the body's immune response to bacterial infection and clogged pores

Treatment for acne vulgaris depends on its severity and can include over-the-counter or prescription topical treatments, oral medications, chemical peels, light therapies, or even hormonal therapies in some cases. It is essential to seek professional medical advice from a dermatologist or healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for individual needs.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Natural family planning methods (NFP) are fertility awareness-based approaches to planned pregnancy or avoiding pregnancy that involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and recognizing the signs and symptoms of fertility. These methods can be used to identify the fertile window, which is the time during each menstrual cycle when conception is most likely to occur.

NFP methods are based on the observation of various physiological indicators of fertility, such as changes in basal body temperature (BBT), cervical mucus, and the position and texture of the cervix. By tracking these signs over time, a woman can learn to identify her fertile window and plan or avoid sexual intercourse accordingly.

There are several different NFP methods that have been developed and studied for their effectiveness in helping couples achieve or avoid pregnancy. Some common NFP methods include:

1. The Sympto-Thermal Method (STM): This method involves tracking changes in BBT, cervical mucus, and other fertility signs to identify the fertile window.
2. The Ovulation Method (OM): This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus to identify the fertile window.
3. The Billings Ovulation Method: This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus and other sensations related to fertility to identify the fertile window.
4. The Standard Days Method (SDM): This method involves using a calendar to track the length of the menstrual cycle and identifying the fertile window based on the number of days before and after ovulation.
5. The TwoDay Method: This method involves tracking changes in cervical mucus over two consecutive days to identify the fertile window.

NFP methods are generally considered safe and have few side effects, as they do not involve the use of hormones or other medications. However, NFP methods require careful tracking and interpretation of fertility signs, which can be challenging for some people. The effectiveness of NFP methods in preventing pregnancy varies depending on the method used and the consistency with which it is practiced. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), typical use failure rates for NFP methods range from 2% to 23%, while perfect use failure rates are generally lower. It's important to note that NFP methods may not be effective in preventing pregnancy for people with irregular menstrual cycles or other reproductive health issues.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

An outpatient clinic in a hospital setting is a department or facility where patients receive medical care without being admitted to the hospital. These clinics are typically designed to provide specialized services for specific medical conditions or populations. They may be staffed by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who work on a part-time or full-time basis.

Outpatient clinics offer a range of services, including diagnostic tests, consultations, treatments, and follow-up care. Patients can visit the clinic for routine checkups, management of chronic conditions, rehabilitation, and other medical needs. The specific services offered at an outpatient clinic will depend on the hospital and the clinic's specialty.

Outpatient clinics are often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care because they allow patients to receive medical treatment while continuing to live at home. They also help reduce the burden on hospitals by freeing up beds for patients who require more intensive or emergency care. Overall, outpatient clinics play an essential role in providing accessible and high-quality healthcare services to patients in their communities.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a term used to describe a range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, and behavioral abnormalities, and can vary in severity and combination from one individual to another.

The four diagnostic categories within FASD are:

1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): This is the most severe form of FASD and is characterized by a specific pattern of facial features, growth deficiencies, and central nervous system dysfunction.
2. Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS): This category includes individuals who have some, but not all, of the features of FAS.
3. Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND): This category includes individuals who have functional or cognitive impairments due to prenatal alcohol exposure, but do not meet the criteria for FAS or pFAS.
4. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): This category includes individuals who have physical birth defects due to prenatal alcohol exposure.

It is important to note that FASD is a completely preventable condition, and there is no known safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

Confidentiality is a legal and ethical principle in medicine that refers to the obligation of healthcare professionals to protect the personal and sensitive information of their patients. This information, which can include medical history, diagnosis, treatment plans, and other private details, is shared between the patient and the healthcare provider with the expectation that it will be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties without the patient's consent.

Confidentiality is a fundamental component of the trust relationship between patients and healthcare providers, as it helps to ensure that patients feel safe and comfortable sharing sensitive information with their doctors, nurses, and other members of their healthcare team. It also helps to protect patients' privacy rights and uphold their autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare.

There are some limited circumstances in which confidentiality may be breached, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of information (e.g., suspected child abuse or neglect), or when the disclosure is necessary to protect the health and safety of the patient or others. However, these exceptions are typically narrowly defined and subject to strict guidelines and safeguards to ensure that confidentiality is protected as much as possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Community pharmacy services refer to the healthcare services provided by retail pharmacies within a community setting. These services typically include:

1. Dispensing medications: Pharmacists ensure that prescriptions are filled correctly and provide patients with necessary instructions for use, potential side effects, and warnings about drug interactions.

2. Medication therapy management (MTM): Pharmacists review a patient's medication regimen to identify any potential issues, such as duplications, dosage errors, or interactions. They may also make recommendations to optimize the effectiveness and safety of the medications being used.

3. Immunizations: Many community pharmacies now offer immunization services for various vaccine-preventable diseases, such as influenza, pneumococcal disease, and hepatitis B.

4. Point-of-care testing: Some community pharmacies provide diagnostic tests, like blood glucose or cholesterol screening, to help monitor chronic conditions or identify health issues early on.

5. Health screenings and wellness programs: Community pharmacies often host health fairs, smoking cessation programs, or weight management initiatives to promote overall well-being and prevent disease.

6. Medication disposal: Pharmacies sometimes offer safe disposal options for unused or expired medications to help prevent environmental contamination and misuse.

7. Patient education: Community pharmacists provide counseling on various topics, such as proper use of inhalers, managing side effects, and adhering to medication schedules. They may also offer information about disease prevention and healthy lifestyle choices.

8. Consultation services: Pharmacists can provide one-on-one consultations for patients seeking advice on over-the-counter products, self-care, or management of chronic conditions.

9. Collaborative care: Community pharmacists work closely with other healthcare providers, such as physicians and nurses, to coordinate patient care and ensure optimal treatment outcomes.

10. Public health initiatives: Community pharmacies often participate in public health campaigns, like promoting tobacco-free lifestyles or supporting immunization efforts during outbreaks or epidemics.

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

'Unsafe sex' is not a term that would be found in a formal medical dictionary or textbook, but it is commonly used to refer to sexual activities that carry a significant risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or unwanted pregnancy. These risks can be reduced through the use of various protective measures.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines 'unprotected sex' as sexual contact without the use of appropriate precautions, such as condoms, to prevent transmission of STIs. However, it is important to note that even the use of protection may not eliminate all risks associated with sexual activity. For example, some infections, like herpes or genital warts, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, and condoms do not provide complete protection against these viruses.

In summary, 'unsafe sex' generally refers to sexual activities that carry a high risk of STIs and/or unwanted pregnancy due to the lack of appropriate protective measures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

Contraception is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering reproductive medicine. It is published by Elsevier and was ...
... is a debated topic among historians, though methods of contraception have been developed not just in ... John Riddle: Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, inter alia, ... This type of contraception is currently regaining attention in some scientific and historian circles. Plant-based ... As the first official record of contraception, an Egyptian spermicidal recipe from the period around 1525 BC was to "mix grated ...
Contraception may also refer to: Contraception (journal), a peer-reviewed journal covering reproductive medicine Contraception ... Contraception is birth control, the use of methods or devices to prevent unwanted pregnancy. ... specifically related to dogs and cats This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Contraception. If an ...
"What is Emergency Contraception?". The Emergency Contraception Website. Office of Population Research at Princeton University ... ECEC (2014). "Emergency contraception availability in Europe". New York: European Consortium for Emergency Contraception (ECEC ... However, the use of IUDs for emergency contraception is relatively rare. Emergency contraception is a birth control measure ... Speroff L, Darney P (2011). "Special uses of oral contraception: emergency contraception, the progestin-only minipill". A ...
For women not using ongoing hormonal contraception, COCPs may be taken after intercourse as emergency contraception: this is ... Speroff L, Darney PD (2011). "Oral contraception". A clinical guide for contraception (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott ... Contraception. 80 (2): 113-118. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.02.008. PMID 19631785. Implanon:Riney S, O'Shea B, Forde A ( ... Contraception. 97 (3): 264-269. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.10.009. PMC 6467254. PMID 29097224. Vrettakos C, Bajaj T (2019 ...
"Heat Methods of Male Contraception". Frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception. Male Contraception Information Project. ... International Male Contraception Coalition. Archived from the original on 2015-04-23. Retrieved 2015-02-17. « Contraception ... 219-230 US Pat US4078556A US Pat US4078556A From linked International Male Contraception Coalition and Male Contraception ... Contraception, 1992 ; 45 : 439-451. MIEUSSET R., BUJAN L. : The potential of mild testicular heating as a safe, effective and ...
... (or progestin-only contraception) relies on progestogens alone to achieve contraception. It is ... Combined hormonal contraception Erkkola R, Landgren BM (March 2005). "Role of progestins in contraception". Acta Obstet Gynecol ... v t e v t e (Hormonal contraception, All stub articles, Genito-urinary system drug stubs, Steroid stubs). ... one of the two major types of hormonal contraception, with the other major type being combined hormonal contraceptive methods ( ...
... is a form of male contraception that blocks sperm transport in the vas deferens, the tubes that ... Vas-occlusive contraception methods are expected to have similar side effects to vasectomy, which is generally regarded as a ... Male Contraception. [Updated 2015 Dec 18]. In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South ... Song, L.; Gu, Y.; Lu, W.; Liang, X.; Chen, Z. (2006). "A phase II randomized controlled trial of a novel male contraception, an ...
... (CHC), or combined birth control, is a form of hormonal contraception which combines both an ... The first contraception vaginal ring was approved for use in the United States in 2001. Development of the ring has led to ... Long-acting reversible contraception instead may be preferable. Following childbirth, the use of CHC depends on factors such as ... In the UK, one survey demonstrated that in 2010-2012, more than 33% of women aged 16-44 years had used oral contraception in ...
However, liberal figures and authorities encourage male contraception when the use of contraception is important for the safety ... The option of contraception is raised by the Talmud (Tractate Yevamot 12b), where the use of a pessary is discussed for women ... Regulations regarding contraception affect the traditional streams of Judaism (including the Haredi and Modern Orthodox ... Generally, the introduction of hormonal contraception in the 1960s did not cause the stir within Jewish circles that it caused ...
No Room For Contraception Lambeth Conferences of the Anglican Church "History of Contraception in the Protestant Church". ... Also see: Natural Family Planning, Barrier contraception and Hormonal contraception Protestants who accept that birth control ... Protestant views on contraception are markedly more pluralistic than the doctrine expressed by the Magisterium of the Roman ... Does the Bible clearly state that contraception is sinful, or that people are obligated to have as many children as possible? ...
"Contraception". IFPA. Irish Family Planning Association. Retrieved 19 August 2023. "Contraception". IFPA. Irish Family Planning ... "Contraception". IFPA. Irish Family Planning Association. Retrieved 19 August 2023. "Contraception". IFPA. Irish Family Planning ... Contraception was also not seen by politicians as a vote-getter at the time. Haughey described the 1979 Act as "an Irish ... It has often been cited that there was a majority in favour of contraception, and that is implied in the wording of the papal ...
... , also known as the CS&A Act 1977, is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand. ... The Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Act 2022 inserts Sections 13A to 13C which: Section 13A: ... The Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion Act 1977 regulated the supply of contraceptives to young people, the conditions ... "Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977 passed". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 19 March ...
New Zealand Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion (1977). Contraception, sterilisation and abortion in ... The Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion was carried out in New Zealand from 1975 to 1977, shortly ... 1977). Critique of the report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion in New Zealand ... Wills, D (1977). "The report of the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion: a comparison with health ...
Despite contraception being illegal, by the mid-1960s, Spanish women had access to the contraceptive pill. It was first sold on ... Contraception in Francoist Spain (1939-1975) and the democratic transition (1975-1985) was illegal. It could not be used, sold ... 1978 was the year that contraception became a driving issue among Spanish feminists. Their goal going into the year was to see ... Prohibitions against the sale of contraception in Andalusia in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s were largely ineffective as women had ...
The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers all areas of ... It is the official journal of the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health. "Journal". The European Society of ... Official website European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (Articles with short description, Short description ...
The Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Act 2022 is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand that will ... It amends the Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977 by inserting section 13A to 13C: Section 13A prohibits ... The Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Bill is a private member's bill introduced by Labour ... "Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Bill". New Zealand Parliament. Archived from the original on ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 549-557. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.04.009. PMID 22078182. Pincus G (3 September 2013). The ... Unlike other progestins, allylestrenol has not been used in hormonal contraception or in menopausal hormone therapy. In one ...
http://www.micromedexsolutions.com/micromedex2/[permanent dead link] Greydanus DE (6 December 2012). "Contraception". In Lavery ...
Contraception. 98 (4): 352. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.07.072. S2CID 81873762. Morgen, Sandra (2002). Into Our Own Hands ...
This bill extends free contraception to all minors aged 15 to 18. The goal of putting greater free access to contraception in ... there are various means of contraception. The pill is the most well-known and the most used means of contraception in France. ... While it is the most used mean of contraception, it is important to note that, in France, fewer women are using the pill. This ... "Contraception". www.service-public.fr (in French). Retrieved 2023-08-23. "The guidelines of the Health Act". Gouvernement.fr. ...
World Health Organization Task Force on Oral Contraception". Contraception. 21 (5): 445-459. May 1980. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(80 ...
Contraception. 92 (3): 194-196. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.06.011. PMID 26093187. Retrieved 31 October 2015. "Medscape: ...
Contraception. 77 (3): 186-190. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2007.11.014. PMID 18279689. Pluchino N, Santoro AN, Casarosa E, ... Contraception. 103 (4): 213-221. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2021.01.001. PMID 33428907. S2CID 231585130. Gérard C, Jost M, ... Contraception. 87 (6): 706-727. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.12.011. PMID 23375353. "Nexstellis Label" (PDF). FDA. ... Fruzzetti F, Fidecicchi T, Montt Guevara MM, Simoncini T (November 2021). "Estetrol: A New Choice for Contraception". Journal ...
Shafik, Ahmed (May 1992). "Contraceptive efficacy of polyester-induced azoospermia in normal men". Contraception. 45 (5): 439- ...
Access family planning; contraception; safe and accessible post-abortion care; access to abortion in cases of rape, sexual ... Seek and receive information about sexuality and reproduction and access related health services and contraception. Decide ...
1516-. ISBN 978-0-8155-1856-3. Runnebaum BC, Rabe T, Kiesel L (6 December 2012). Female Contraception: Update and Trends. ... Shoupe D, Haseltine FP (6 December 2012). Contraception. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 21-. ISBN 978-1-4612-2730-4. ... "Pharmacokinetics and potency of progestins used for hormone replacement therapy and contraception". Reviews in Endocrine & ...
Contraception. 84 (6): 615-621. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.08.010. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 22078191. Mansi Vijay, IndiaSpend ... while addressing the issue of regulating emergency contraception under the MTP Act, ruled that "emergency contraception does ... The module also elaborates on surgical and medical abortion, post-abortion care and post-abortion contraception. ASHA training ... Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India suspended essential contraception services a week before the ...
Contraception. 91 (6): 520. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.02.027. PMID 25779602. Gonsalves G, Zuckerman D (2015). " ...
Aitken RJ, Baker MA, Doncel GF, Matzuk MM, Mauck CK, Harper MJ (April 2008). "As the world grows: contraception in the 21st ... Lohiya NK, Alam I, Ansari AS (2017). "Male Contraception". Basics of Human Andrology. Springer Singapore. pp. 493-508. doi: ... Homonnai ZT, Shilon M, Paz GF (May 1984). "Phenoxybenzamine--an effective male contraceptive pill". Contraception. 29 (5): 479- ...
When Vasectomy Is Reliable for Contraception. *A semen analysis should be performed 8-16 weeks after a vasectomy to ensure the ... Management of Women with Bleeding Irregularities While Using Contraception. *Management of Intrauterine Devices When Users are ... Appendix E: Management of Women with Bleeding Irregularities While Using Contraception. *Appendix F: Management of Intrauterine ... reversible methods of contraception for women. Male sterilization does not protect against STDs; consistent and correct use of ...
Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used: ... Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used: ... Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used:. *After a sexual assault or ...
There are several different formulations of emergency postcoital contraception currently available in the United States. Most ... Emergency Postcoital Contraception. There are several different formulations of emergency postcoital contraception currently ... Gemzell-Danielsson K, Berger C, P G L L. Emergency contraception -- mechanisms of action. Contraception. 2013 Mar. 87(3):300-8 ... The patient may still conceive in the same menstrual cycle that she undergoes emergency contraception, so contraception should ...
... contraception - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... Tags Contraception, men, unmarried men Condom Use During Sexual Intercourse Among Women and Men Aged 15-44 in the United States ... Womens Contraception Reports. Two new reports released by the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) give insight into the ... Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using ...
Contraception is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering reproductive medicine. It is published by Elsevier and was ...
However, liberal figures and authorities encourage male contraception when the use of contraception is important for the safety ... The option of contraception is raised by the Talmud (Tractate Yevamot 12b), where the use of a pessary is discussed for women ... Regulations regarding contraception affect the traditional streams of Judaism (including the Haredi and Modern Orthodox ... Generally, the introduction of hormonal contraception in the 1960s did not cause the stir within Jewish circles that it caused ...
12. Would you like to take part in contraception? / Seriez-vous favorable à prendre part à la contraception? No / Non ... 10. Do you discuss contraception as a couple or before sex? / Discutez-vous de contraception au sein de votre couple ou avant ... Dans votre couple ou lors dune relation sexuelle, à qui incombe la responsabilité de la contraception. Yourself / Vous-même ... We are interested in your opinion on male contraception.. This questionnaire is addressed to you by Dr Amandine DEGRAEVE, ...
Are you aware of recent research into hormonal contraception methods for women? Test yourself with a short quiz. ... However, hormonal contraception in the form of the birth control pill is used most often in the United States. Worldwide, ... Most forms of nonpermanent contraception for women are either hormonal or barrier strategies such as diaphragms or condoms. ... Are you aware of recent research into hormonal contraception methods for women? Test yourself with a short quiz. ...
Initiation of Regular Contraception After ECPs. UPA. *Advise the woman to start or resume hormonal contraception no sooner than ... Contraceptionplus icon *CDC Contraceptive Guidance for Health Care Providersplus icon *Medical Eligibility Criteria ... Data on when a woman can start regular contraception after ECPs are limited to pharmacodynamic data and expert opinion (295-297 ... Emergency contraception consists of methods that can be used by women after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy. Emergency ...
Contraception and fertility are shrouded in popular mythology and many women do not appreciate either their risk of conception ... Contraception in the perimenopause Br J Hosp Med. 1991 Apr;45(4):213-5. ... Contraception and fertility are shrouded in popular mythology and many women do not appreciate either their risk of conception ...
And one of the biggest single issues has to do with the fact that contraception in general is a difficult area it would be ... At a Future of Male Contraception conference, sponsored by the U.S. National Institutes of Health in Seattle, a variety of ... For years, experts have predicted that male contraception is under development and that more choices will be here soon. ... director of the Male Contraception Information Project, a San Francisco-based organization. ...
... has been misunderstood about what the Affordable Care Act requires when it comes to religious institutions and contraception. ... Thus, if your religious belief bars you from using contraception, then nothing will get in the way of you and your religious ... If the religious belief of a physician or other health care worker is such that they do not believe in contraception for ... It should also be noted that most women, including 98 percent of Catholic women, have used contraception. ...
Currently in Ireland, pharmacists may refuse to provide you with emergency contraception (the morning after pill) under a ... A decision to access emergency contraception should not be dependent on the value system, religious beliefs or moral philosophy ... End conscientious objection to emergency contraception. *by: Re(al) Productive Health. *recipient: The Pharmaceutical Society ... A decision to access emergency contraception should not be dependent on the value system, religious beliefs or moral philosophy ...
Bible care christian Christianity christians contraception contraceptive contraceptives deuteronomy employers freedom ... Healthcare Contraception Coverage published July 29, 2014 by Andy Singer courtesy of the artist. ...
Emergency contraception is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex; for example, if a condom breaks or slips off ... Does Emergency Contraception Help Prevent STDs?. No. Emergency contraception does not protect against STDs. Couples having sex ... What Is Emergency Contraception?. Emergency contraception is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. Often called the ... How Does Emergency Contraception Work?. Emergency contraceptive pills work by delaying ovulation (the release of an egg during ...
New genetic target for male contraception identified. Date:. April 17, 2023. Source:. Washington State University. Summary:. ... "Right now, we dont really have anything on the male side for contraception other than surgery and only a small percentage of ... "New genetic target for male contraception identified." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2023. /. 04. /. ... This opens the potential to develop male contraception for use in livestock, perhaps replacing castration in some instances as ...
Find all about contraception on Africanews
There is also the My Contraception Tool that helps you to identify which contraception would be right for you. The most ... Contraception. Hi Sam,. Me and my boyfriend have been sexually active for the last half year of our year and a month of being ... There are lots of different types of contraception and it is important to be fully informed before you make the choice about ... All forms of contraception will protect against pregnancy but not all protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). ...
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Opponents repeatedly pointed out that eliminating contraception paves the way for increased abortions, but Republicans and a ...
Contraception. Filipino bishops willing to be imprisoned to protest anti-life bill "We bishops, are willing to be imprisoned ... Abortion Amoris Laetitia Assisted Suicide Big Tech California Canada Catholic Catholic Church China Christianity Contraception ... ACLU: US bishops not allowed to protest contraception coverage mandate The American Civil Liberties Union has criticized the US ...
Its not that there arent ideas for male contraception. In recent years, there has been talk of a male birth control pill, a ... 50 per cent of men in the UK said they probably or definitely would not consider taking hormonal contraception, while 22 per ... Even non-hormonal contraception has its drawbacks, with some report excruciating, traumatising pain from invasive coil ... On top of this pressure to organise contraception, women (and people with uteruses) are also expected to put up with the myriad ...
Find out what types of contraception may work for you. ... medicines can affect how well some types of contraception work ... Types of contraception that are not affected by enzyme inducing epilepsy medicines. The following types of contraception are ... Contraception Your epilepsy medicine can affect your choice of contraception. This page provides information about which ones ... Why is it important to get the right contraception? Contraception is important for anyone who is sexually active and wants to ...
Contraception precipitates abortion. To be against abortion but silent on contraception is like being against racism but silent ... Contraception was not always as widely accepted as it is now. This is important to remember, especially for those of us born ... Reconsidering Contraception and the Way of Life. Brian Kranick , July 26, 2017. October 25, 2022. ... Contraception and the Manipulation of Language. Bob Sullivan , May 16, 2018. October 25, 2022. ...
Tagged: Contraception Podcast. January 12, 2023. 0 0122. The FDAs Latest Actions on Chemical Abortion - Dr. Donna Harrison & ... Christians and Contraception - Dr. Scott Yenor, 12/13/21. Dr. Scott Yenor, author, "The Recovery of Family Life"Read More ... Christians, Contraception and the Future of the Family - Pr. Jonathan Fisk, 2/22/17. Pr. Jonathan Fisk of Worldview Everlasting ... Methods of Contraception - Dr. Donna Harrison, 2/3/17. Dr. Donna Harrison of the American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians ...
... emergency contraception cost (price) and effectiveness at the Durham Health Center. Trusted health care for nearly 100 years by ... Morning-After Pill (Emergency Contraception) in Durham, NC Durham Health Center offers the following emergency contraception ( ... Services for emergency contraception (morning after pill) may be covered by your insurance. If you want to use your insurance, ... Emergency contraception is now available without age restrictions. If you cant make it in to a Planned Parenthood health ...
... and socioeconomic status impact whether health care providers recommend one of the most highly effective forms of contraception ... Womens race and class impact contraception recommendations, study shows. Date:. October 8, 2010. Source:. University of ... Recommendations for intrauterine contraception: a randomized trial of the effects of patients race/ethnicity and socioeconomic ... "Womens race and class impact contraception recommendations, study shows." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. ...
When he has heard from ordinary Catholics about how the churchs rules on contraception affect their lives, he may be more open ... The Catholic Church has considered lifting its ban on contraception in the past. In 1964, Pope Paul VI convened a commission on ... Pope Francis Suggests Contraception Acceptable In Zika-Hit Nations, Says Abortion Absolute Evil ... Pope Francis Should Re-Evaluate Catholic Churchs Contraception Policy. Sep 21, 2015 ...
  • Generally, the introduction of hormonal contraception in the 1960s did not cause the stir within Jewish circles that it caused in other religious groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormonal contraception may make it easier for HIV to spread between heterosexual sex partners, according to a new study conducted in Africa. (livescience.com)
  • Women in the study who used hormonal contraception had double the risk of acquiring HIV or transmitting it to their male partners as those who did not use hormonal contraception. (livescience.com)
  • More than 140 million women worldwide use hormonal contraception, such as daily oral pills and long-acting injectables, the study said. (livescience.com)
  • A large proportion of the 16 million women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa also use hormonal contraception. (livescience.com)
  • Additionally, women who were HIV-positive at the beginning of the study and using injectable contraception were twice as likely to transmit the virus to their male partner as women who did not use hormonal contraception. (livescience.com)
  • It's possible hormonal contraception causes biological changes, such as changes to the cells that line the vagina or cervix, that influence susceptibility to HIV, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
  • Morrison also noted the study was not originally designed to measre the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV risk, and that the number of women using these contraceptives was small. (livescience.com)
  • It's time to find a definitive answer to the question of whether hormonal contraception increases HIV acquisition risk, Morrison said. (livescience.com)
  • This can be done through a trial in which participants are randomly assigned to receive hormonal contraception or not. (livescience.com)
  • Hormonal contraception may increase the risk of HIV infection and in women. (livescience.com)
  • Women who use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory painkillers alongside hormonal contraception appear to be at a small increased risk of blood clots known as venous thromboembolism (VTE), finds a large Danish study published by The BMJ today. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers stress that the absolute risk of developing a serious blood clot is low, even in women using high risk hormonal contraception. (news-medical.net)
  • But given the widespread use of both hormonal contraception and NSAIDs, they say women should be advised of this potential drug interaction accordingly. (news-medical.net)
  • NSAIDs have previously been linked to blood clots, but little is known about whether using NSAIDs influences the risk of venous thromboembolism in otherwise healthy women using hormonal contraception. (news-medical.net)
  • Hormonal contraception was divided into high, medium and low risk, according to their association with VTE based on previous studies. (news-medical.net)
  • High risk hormonal contraception included combined oestrogen and progestin patches, vaginal rings, and pills containing either 50 mcg oestrogen or third or fourth generation progestins. (news-medical.net)
  • In the study, NSAIDs were used by 529,704 women while using hormonal contraception. (news-medical.net)
  • In absolute terms, NSAID use was associated with four extra venous thromboembolic events per week per 100,000 women not using hormonal contraception, 11 extra events in women using medium risk hormonal contraception, and 23 extra events in women using high risk hormonal contraception. (news-medical.net)
  • They add: 'Women needing both hormonal contraception and regular use of NSAIDs should be advised accordingly. (news-medical.net)
  • These data raise important concerns about using NSAIDs, particularly diclofenac, and high risk hormonal contraception concomitantly, writes Morten Schmidt at Aarhus University Hospital, in a linked editorial. (news-medical.net)
  • He suggests that healthcare authorities and regulators should include these findings in their safety assessment of available over-the-counter diclofenac, and women using hormonal contraception and their clinicians should consider alternatives to NSAIDs for analgesia. (news-medical.net)
  • Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing of pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Emergency contraception―commonly known as the 'morning after pill' or the copper IUD―helps reduce the risk of pregnancy after unprotected or under-protected sex and is safe for teens. (healthychildren.org)
  • NOTE: Emergency contraception pills should be taken within 120 hours (5 days) after unprotected or under-protected sex to help prevent pregnancy. (healthychildren.org)
  • After taking emergency contraception, it is important to visit the pediatrician and talk about more effective options to prevent pregnancy in the future. (healthychildren.org)
  • Contraception research is defined as research that has the ultimate goal to provide new or improved methods of preventing pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Decision tree structure indicating contraceptive method use distribution, unintended pregnancy events, and the frequency of Zika virus-associated microcephaly for a cohort of 163,000 women at the time of an intervention to increase access to contraception to women during the Zika virus outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • Contraception (ie, birth control) refers to approaches designed to prevent pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • In each case, either the woman or her child is at risk for serious complications, and this is the basis for many rabbinic authorities permitting contraception in situations where pregnancy would seriously harm the woman. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency contraception, also known as postcoital contraception, is therapy used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected act of sexual intercourse. (acog.org)
  • Emergency contraception is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Well Does Emergency Contraception Work to Prevent Pregnancy? (kidshealth.org)
  • Emergency contraception will not prevent pregnancy if unprotected sex happens after taking the ECPs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Women take contraception for reasons in addition to preventing pregnancy. (bsu.edu)
  • Emergency contraception (EC) helps prevent pregnancy. (healthline.com)
  • Emergency Contraception (EC), sometimes referred to as the morning after pill, is birth control that can be used after unprotected sex in order to prevent pregnancy. (brown.edu)
  • Those stakes are the new backdrop for couples making decisions about which form of contraception to choose or calculating the chances of pregnancy. (popsci.com)
  • As studies have shown, limiting contraception access and encouraging abstinence-only sex ed leads to more unplanned pregnancies - in fact, the unplanned pregnancy rate is currently lower than it's been in 30 years , thanks to contraception. (refinery29.com)
  • Using emergency contraception right away can prevent an unwanted pregnancy. (healthwise.net)
  • The hormonal IUD used for emergency contraception can prevent pregnancy for up to 8 years. (healthwise.net)
  • Contraception is designed to prevent sperm from meeting the egg, to prevent the fertilized egg from implanting itself and, ultimately, to prevent pregnancy. (uniprix.com)
  • Emergency Contraception: Global Challenges, New Opportunities Elizabeth Westley, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz Emergency contraception (EC) is unique among modern contraceptive methods in its capacity to prevent pregnancy after sex. (arhp.org)
  • Contraception and abortion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is true that compulsory contraception would just be another step on the slippery slope of transgressions, and that abortion and euthanasia should in fact never have been accepted in a "Christian society. (lifesitenews.com)
  • June 24 (UPI) -- As the U.S. Supreme Court took away the constitutional right of millions of women to abortion Friday, Justice Clarence Thomas said that the court should reconsider rulings on contraception and same-sex marriage. (upi.com)
  • In one fell swoop, the partisan Supreme Court majority stripped away the right to abortion, a right to which millions of Americans relied for almost 50 years, and put a target on the back of the right to contraception as well. (wect.com)
  • The money will go to five agencies to pay for contraception supplies, counselling, safe abortion services in countries where abortion is legal and other family planning programs, primarily in Africa and other regions of the developing world. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • And that's why they wanted to change the subject from whether or not he behaved unconstitutionally in mandating churches give away abortion pills (or birth control pills), to: "Republicans don't agree with contraception! (rushlimbaugh.com)
  • Services for emergency contraception (morning after pill) may be covered by your insurance. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • If you need emergency contraception (AKA the morning after pill), you can walk in anytime we're open. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Please contact this health center for emergency contraception (morning after pill) services pricing information. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Emergency contraception, or "the morning after pill," is legal in the United States. (lawinfo.com)
  • You may be able to use emergency contraception even if you cannot regularly take birth control pills. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite the law allowing people access to emergency contraception, some pharmacists are denying people the right to purchase these pills because of their own moral or religious beliefs. (lawinfo.com)
  • There are two main types of emergency contraception: pills and intrauterine devices (IUDs). (healthwise.net)
  • Pills used for emergency contraception are sometimes called "morning-after pills. (healthwise.net)
  • Emergency contraception pills work by preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation. (healthwise.net)
  • To find out which brands of pills work and how to take them, go to www.plannedparenthood.org or https://ec.princeton.edu for emergency contraception information. (healthwise.net)
  • Some pharmacists won't sell emergency contraception or fill prescriptions for birth control pills. (healthwise.net)
  • PRJKTRUBY provides access to birth control and emergency contraception pills and donates to women that can not afford it nor have access to it. (utsa.edu)
  • The researchers recommend collecting more data on the uptake of contraception, awareness of the benefits and pitfalls of telehealth methods, and a move to making more contraception prescription-free, as is currently being considered for the progestogen-only pills. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Many health insurance plans cover the cost of emergency contraception and family planning clinics (such as Planned Parenthood ) charge much less. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you can't make it in to a Planned Parenthood health center, you may be able to get emergency contraception at a nearby pharmacy. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Prescription emergency contraception (Ella) is available following a visit with a Planned Parenthood health care provider. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • The science behind the app isn't new-fertility awareness-based methods of contraception have been used and studied for decades-but questions remain about the Natural Cycles app, and whether a software program can truly replace your patients' birth control. (medscape.com)
  • However, none of these agents consistently provide long-term resolution of irregular bleeding and, for many women, the use of estrogen-containing compounds negates the value of using progestin-only methods of contraception. (nih.gov)
  • Aïssa is one of the new family planning converts in Burkina Faso, where the use of modern contraception methods has doubled over the last decade. (who.int)
  • Methods of emergency contraception include oral administration of combined estrogen-progestin, progestin only, or selective progesterone receptor modulators and insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). (acog.org)
  • The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of available methods of emergency contraception and to increase awareness of these methods among obstetrician-gynecologists and other gynecologic providers. (acog.org)
  • Conversely, limiting one of the most highly used effective methods of contraception in sub-Saharan Africa would probably contribute to increased maternal mortality and morbidity and more low birth weight babies and orphans an equally tragic result," Morrison said. (livescience.com)
  • Our Center for Biomedical Research continues to advance innovative methods of contraception . (popcouncil.org)
  • Several surgical contraception methods are been described in the bitch. (ivis.org)
  • Condoms, diaphragms, contraceptive sponges and cervical caps are some of the most popular barrier methods of contraception. (uniprix.com)
  • As data were not collected on the uptake of contraception prior to the pandemic, it is unclear how successful these methods have been, nor how women's access to contraception has been affected. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Medium risk contraception included all other combined oral contraceptives and the medroxyprogesterone injection, while progestin-only tablets, implants, and hormone intrauterine devices (coils) were classed as low or no risk. (news-medical.net)
  • The Right to Contraception Act would further prohibit the federal government or any state from implementing any regulation that would prohibit or restrict contraception. (wect.com)
  • The Right to Contraception Act , introduced by Democratic Rep. Kathy Manning of North Carolina, aims to "protect a person's ability to access contraceptives and to engage in contraception, and to protect a health care provider's ability to provide contraceptives, contraception, and information related to contraception," according to text of the bill. (kvia.com)
  • Emergency contraception can include use of the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and combinations of prescription oral contraceptives used under the direction of your doctor. (healthline.com)
  • It would also guarantee health care providers the right to provide contraceptives, information, referrals, and contraception services. (wect.com)
  • CNN) -- The House voted Thursday to pass a bill that would guarantee access to contraception by protecting the right to buy and use contraceptives without government restriction. (kvia.com)
  • Some types of emergency contraception work best when taken within 72 hours (3 days) after intercourse. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some types of emergency contraception, such as ulipristal acetate (for example, Ella) are available only from family planning clinics or with a prescription from a doctor. (healthwise.net)
  • The levonorgestrel-containing IUDs are currently being investigated for use as emergency contraception. (acog.org)
  • On Tuesday, September 26, 2023, the Population Council was proud to celebrate World Contraception Day with the theme of supporting young people and their freedom to choose. (popcouncil.org)
  • Legitimate intentions on the part of the spouses do not justify recourse to morally unacceptable means (for example, direct sterilization or contraception). (freerepublic.com)
  • 30 years old, choose permanent contraception with vasectomy or tubal sterilization. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some women who take emergency contraception may have light vaginal bleeding. (healthline.com)
  • You can take emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected sex. (healthwise.net)
  • IUDs is placed in the uterus by a medical provider and can be used for ongoing contraception. (brown.edu)
  • Though these 20 million women are all eligible for a full range of contraception options (from hormonal birth control to IUDs ), only 1 in 50 has "reasonable access. (refinery29.com)
  • Female permanent contraception prevents fertilization by interrupting the fallopian tubes. (medscape.com)
  • An IUD for emergency contraception may prevent fertilization or implantation. (healthwise.net)
  • The development of human blastoids, human embryo models at IMBA, paves the way for improving in vitro fertilization success rate and new non-hormonal, user-friendly contraception. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • The FDA has been clear in its approval of emergency contraception, and individual pharmacists do not have the right to impose their beliefs on their customers. (lawinfo.com)
  • Both favor bills that would make it illegal for pharmacists to refuse to provide access to emergency contraception. (truthout.org)
  • While hormonal conception includes both oral contraception and injectable forms of birth control, the findings were most pronounced for women using injectables, like Depo-Provera , the study said. (livescience.com)
  • Her mother took her to their doctor to discuss birth control, if needed, and she was given a prescription for oral contraception. (timescolonist.com)
  • Analysts already estimate that 225 million women worldwide are unable to get the modern contraception that they want, because of poverty, supply shortages, cultural pressures and other factors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The CIR-LRP provides for the repayment of up to $35,000 of the principal and interest of the extant educational loans of health professionals conducting contraception and/or infertility research for domestic non-profit or government entities for each year of obligated service. (nih.gov)
  • New applications for the CIR-LRP are evaluated according to the following criteria as they relate to the likelihood that the applicant will continue in a research career focused on contraception and/or infertility research. (nih.gov)
  • Potential of the applicant to pursue a career in contraception and/or infertility research. (nih.gov)
  • Appropriateness of the applicant's previous training and experience to prepare him/her for a contraception and/or infertility research career. (nih.gov)
  • Suitability of the applicant's proposed contraception and/or infertility research activities in the two-year loan repayment period to foster a research career. (nih.gov)
  • Assessment of the applicant's commitment to a career in contraception and/or infertility research as reflected by the personal statement of long-term career goals and the plan outlined to achieve those goals. (nih.gov)
  • Strength of recommendations attesting to the applicant's potential for a career in contraception and/or infertility research. (nih.gov)
  • Quality of the overall environment to prepare the applicant for a career in contraception and/or infertility research. (nih.gov)
  • See Extramural Loan Repayment Program for Contraception and Infertility Research (LRP-CIR) guide notice in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts for program and policy guidance. (nih.gov)
  • All applications to the Contraception and Infertility Research LRP are reviewed by the Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (nih.gov)
  • Applications to the Contraception and Infertility Research LRP go to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) for review. (nih.gov)
  • Postpartum permanent contraception has lower failure rates than interval procedures. (msdmanuals.com)
  • PURPOSE The purpose of this initiative is to identify effective agents for the prevention and treatment of endometrial breakthrough bleeding in women using progestin-only contraception. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage of women who have ever used emergency contraception increased with education level, from 12.6% among women without a high school diploma or GED to 27.9% among women with a bachelor's degree or higher. (cdc.gov)
  • The option of contraception is raised by the Talmud (Tractate Yevamot 12b), where the use of a pessary is discussed for women who are too young to get pregnant, presently pregnant, or nursing. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 47 million women of reproductive age in the United States use contraception and, depending on the birth control method, hundreds of thousands of unplanned pregnancies can occur each year. (popsci.com)
  • Emergency contraception, including Plan B, is less effective in women weighing more than 165 pounds because the hormone in the medication is weight-dependent. (popsci.com)
  • The plaintiffs are arguing that the eight year ban on contraception has "severely and irreparably damaged their lives and health and the majority of women in Manila," according to the Center for Reproductive Rights. (feminist.org)
  • Women in poor or rural communities are at a particular disadvantage if a pharmacist refuses access to emergency contraception, since the next closest pharmacy may be too far away to reach in time for the medication to be effective. (lawinfo.com)
  • An international conference, alarmed that U.S. President Donald Trump's policies could push women "into the Dark Ages," has raised nearly $200-million (U.S.) from Canada and other countries to help replace Mr. Trump's planned cuts to contraception and family planning programs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • It identifies additional barriers that women faced in accessing contraception during the Covid-19 lockdown, including disruption to sexual health services and fears about contracting the virus, as well as a pressing need to ensure that access to contraception is maintained to avoid the health and social impacts of unplanned pregnancies beyond the pandemic. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • However, the Covid-19 pandemic created new barriers that may have prevented women from accessing contraception. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • It's important that women can access contraception and have a choice, especially during disasters. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Many people lost their jobs during the pandemic or they became sick with Covid, so the needs of women for contraception may have changed. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Where Do the 2016 Candidates Stand on Contraception? (truthout.org)
  • Ulipristal acetate (Ella) is a new type of emergency contraception pill. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PROGESTIN CONTRACEPTION AND ENDOMETRIAL BLEEDING Release Date: July 2, 2001 RFA: RFA-HD-01-016 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ( http://www.nichd.nih.gov ) Letter of Intent Receipt Date: December 17, 2001 Application Receipt Date: February 13, 2002 THIS RFA USES THE "MODULAR GRANT" AND "JUST-IN-TIME" CONCEPTS. (nih.gov)
  • The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), announces the 2007 Extramural Loan Repayment Program for Contraception and Infertility Researchers (CIR-LRP). (nih.gov)
  • The objective of the program is to recruit and retain highly qualified health and/or allied health professionals as contraception and infertility investigators. (nih.gov)
  • If you would like contraception from the Health Center and have never used anything in the past, please start by reviewing our page on contraception and the CDC website . (bsu.edu)
  • If you are wanting the Health Center to continue contraception that another medical provider has been managing, then please click the link to download the Release of Information form . (bsu.edu)
  • Using contraception consistently and correctly lessens the chance for a failure but Alina Salganicoff, KFF's director of women's health policy , said that for many people access to birth control is anything but dependable. (popsci.com)
  • On World Contraception Day, we highlighted the voices of our researchers, as they explained how they are pioneering new contraceptive options and increasing access to comprehensive reproductive health care around the world. (popcouncil.org)
  • It does not have a "Position" tab for anything related to contraception, family planning or reproductive health. (truthout.org)
  • Limited data on the uptake of contraception prior to and during crises such as the Covid-19 pandemic could mean unforeseen issues for sexual and reproductive health services, research from the University of Warwick concludes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The research, published in the European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care , is a scoping review of existing research into the impact of disasters on contraception in higher income countries such as the United Kingdom to assist in disaster response planning. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • However, until now there has not been a review of how the uptake of contraception is affected, and what impact this may have on women's reproductive health. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Some health providers were able to maintain access to contraception using telehealth (i.e. video or phone consultations), however these presented safeguarding and privacy issues. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The White House said it "strongly supports" the bill in a statement Monday, adding "access to contraception is essential to ensuring all people have control over personal decisions about their own health, lives, and families. (kvia.com)
  • A policy review on women's access to contraception with special reference to the provision of LARCs in the English NHS setting. (lse.ac.uk)
  • If you live in a contraception desert and aren't sure how to get the birth control you need, check out Bedsider's handy database to search for clinics, over-the-counter contraception, and emergency contraception options closest to you. (refinery29.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Contraception - Medscape - Nov 21, 2019. (medscape.com)
  • The 7-2 Griswold vs. Connecticut 1965 Supreme Court decision said people have a right to privacy that protects against state restrictions on contraception. (upi.com)
  • The lawmakers said, they first introduced the contraception bill in July 2022, after Justice Clarence Thomas issued a concurring opinion in Dobbs which signaled the Court to "reconsider" precedents such as Griswold v Connecticut. (wect.com)
  • The 1965 Supreme Court ruling of Griswold v Connecticut guaranteed access to contraception. (wect.com)
  • In that decision, Justice Clarence Thomas wrote separately in a concurring opinion that the high court should reconsider "substantive due process precedents" in decisions, including Griswold v. Connecticut, that allows access to contraception . (kvia.com)
  • After you use emergency contraception, your next menstrual cycle may start earlier or later than usual. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you're using contraception or thinking about it, it's important to read this section as certain types of contraception may not be compatible with a Mooncup menstrual cup. (mooncup.co.uk)
  • Many young people still lack access to comprehensive sexuality education, experience bias when trying to obtain contraception, and are more likely to experience contraceptive failure. (popcouncil.org)
  • Our GIRL Center generates evidence on how a multi-dimensional approach to adolescent well-being, including access to contraception, enables adolescents to make a safe and healthy transition into adulthood. (popcouncil.org)
  • While Obamacare has certainly helped us gain more access to birth control, these numbers show that we've still got a ways to go when it comes to making sure that every woman who needs contraception is able to get it. (refinery29.com)
  • And while Democratic candidates Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton support access to contraception, the top three candidates from the Republican Party favor policies that could severely restrict access to contraception. (truthout.org)
  • Both Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders have strong records in support of access to contraception. (truthout.org)
  • However, it is absolutely unclear what a Trump presidency would mean for access to contraception. (truthout.org)
  • The legislation would guarantee the legal right for individuals to access and use contraception. (wect.com)
  • It starts with sexual education for boys and girls, family planning, access to contraception. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Encourage your niece to expand her own awareness of what she learns, toward her choice of contraception. (timescolonist.com)
  • If you do not get your period within 3 weeks after taking emergency contraception, you might be pregnant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The solution, he says, is to give them contraception in order to work preventively, not to say that a woman who is pregnant shouldn't have been allowed. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Even if you were using birth control, emergency contraception can help decrease your chance of getting pregnant. (healthwise.net)
  • If the woman does not wish to become pregnant, she should, at this point, choose another method of contraception. (uniprix.com)
  • Contraception is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering reproductive medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of emergency contraception (which works well up to 5 days after unprotected sex) is only available by prescription. (kidshealth.org)
  • You can get emergency contraception without a prescription at most drugstores. (healthwise.net)
  • In the United Kingdom contraception is free through the NHS but requires a prescription. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Evidence from outside the UK also showed that making emergency contraception prescription-free rather than cost-free has a greater impact on unplanned pregnancies. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In choosing a method of contraception, dual protection from the simultaneous risk for HIV and other STDs also should be considered. (cdc.gov)
  • Emergency contraception is not a regular method of birth control. (nih.gov)
  • Emergency contraception should not be used as a routine birth control method. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is therefore important to use additional contraception or change your method of contraception when using any of these medications. (uniprix.com)
  • This type of contraception is used when another method has failed. (uniprix.com)
  • He specifically called to reconsider the right of marriage equality, the right of couples to make their choices on contraception. (upi.com)
  • Vasectomies and condoms are still the only contraception available for men. (popsci.com)
  • The copper IUD also can be used for emergency contraception, although the FDA has not labeled it for this indication. (acog.org)
  • The copper IUD can sometimes be used as a form of emergency contraception. (kidshealth.org)
  • The contraception provision is part of an interim final rule on preventive services. (politico.com)
  • However, the research highlighted examples of good practice in overcoming these barriers, such as drive-through or kerbside provision of contraception. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In fact, it is impossible to know Donald Trump's position on contraception. (truthout.org)
  • Introduction: The purpose of this article is to describe the social problems that result from the present widespread practice of contraception. (ewtn.com)