Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (1/3134)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity. (2/3134)

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)

Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories. (3/3134)

The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities.  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 4: relationship between lipid content and macroscopic severity of atherosclerosis. (4/3134)

In order to evaluate chemically the macroscopic scoring methods for severity of arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteries, concentrations of total lipids, esterified and free cholesterol and lipid phosphorus were compared to the macroscopic severity of lesions in the cerebral arteries obtained from 376 Japanese persons after unexpected death. An increase of cholesterol content was correlated significantly with an increase of Baker's score and/or Gore's atherosclerotic index. The correlation coefficient between Baker's score and total or esterified cholesterol was the highest among the tested correlations (r = 0.82, n = 376).  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (5/3134)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals. (6/3134)

Normal B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation are regulated by chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), and genetic polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors modify progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Therefore, 746 HIV-1-infected persons were examined for associations of previously described stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) chemokine and CCR5 and CCR2 chemokine receptor gene variants with the risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The SDF1-3'A chemokine variant, which is carried by 37% of whites and 11% of blacks, was associated with approximate doubling of the NHL risk in heterozygotes and roughly a fourfold increase in homozygotes. After a median follow-up of 11.7 years, NHL developed in 6 (19%) of 30 SDF1-3'A/3'A homozygotes and 22 (10%) of 202 SDF1-+/3'A heterozygotes, compared with 24 (5%) of 514 wild-type subjects. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-protective chemokine receptor variant CCR5-triangle up32 was highly protective against NHL, whereas the AIDS-protective variant CCR2-64I had no significant effect. Racial differences in SDF1-3'A frequency may contribute to the lower risk of HIV-1-associated NHL in blacks compared with whites. SDF-1 genotyping of HIV-1-infected patients may identify subgroups warranting enhanced monitoring and targeted interventions to reduce the risk of NHL.  (+info)

Serum total homocysteine concentrations in adolescent and adult Americans: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (7/3134)

BACKGROUND: The elevation of circulating total homocysteine concentrations in a fasting state is associated with an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this study were to describe the distribution of serum total homocysteine concentrations in the United States and to test for differences in homocysteine concentrations among sex, age, and race-ethnicity categories. DESIGN: Using surplus sera from phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we measured serum total homocysteine concentrations for a nationally representative sample of 3766 males and 4819 females aged > or = 12 y. RESULTS: Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were 9.6 and 7.9 mmol/L in non-Hispanic white males and females, 9.8 and 8.2 mmol/L in non-Hispanic black males and females, and 9.4 and 7.4 mmol/L in Mexican American males and females, respectively. Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in females than in males in each race-ethnicity group (P < 0.01) and were significantly lower in Mexican American females than in non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black females (P < 0.01). There was a significant age-sex interaction (P < 0.01), reflecting the fact that homocysteine concentrations in females tended to diverge from those in males at younger ages and converge with those in males at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: The first data on homocysteine concentrations in a nationally representative sample of Americans confirm the age and sex differences reported previously in nonrepresentative samples. These data also indicate that differences between Mexican American and non-Hispanic females may influence circulating homocysteine concentrations.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in type 2 diabetes: maternal history and ancient population expansion. (8/3134)

Several studies have suggested a maternal excess in the transmission of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. However, the majority of these reports rely on patients recalling parental disease status and hence are open to criticism. An alternative approach is to study mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The hypervariable region 1 of the rapidly evolving noncoding section of mtDNA is suitable for investigating maternal ancestry and has been used extensively to study the origins of human racial groups. We have sequenced this 347-bp section of mtDNA from leukocytes of subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 63) and age- and race-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 57). Consensus sequences for the two study groups were identical. Pairwise sequence analysis showed unimodal distribution of pairwise differences for both groups, suggesting that both populations had undergone expansion in ancient times. The distributions were significantly different (chi2 = 180, df = 11, P < 0.001); mean pairwise differences were 4.7 and 3.8 for the diabetic and control subjects, respectively. These data suggest that the diabetic subjects belong to an ancient maternal lineage that expanded before the major expansion observed in the nondiabetic population. Phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, Fitch-Margolish, or maximum likelihood methods failed to show the clustering of all (or a subset) of the diabetic subjects into one or more distinct lineages.  (+info)

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

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... from a population base of about 1.2 billion (20% of the world's population) Heinrich Bornkamm, Toleranz. In der Geschichte des ... "How income varies among U.S. religious groups". Pew Research Center. 2016-10-16. "The most and least educated U.S. religious ... All major Protestant churches were represented in the First and Second Continental Congresses. In the nineteenth and twentieth ... Thus 72 percent of the seventy-one laureates but about two thirds of the American population were reared in one or another ...
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In 1897 the population of the city was 59,076 of which, on the basis of their first language, almost half were recorded as ... As of Ukrainian National Census in 2001, the ethnic groups living within Kherson included: Ukrainians - 76.6% Russians - 20.0% ... Kherson has a humid continental climate (Dfa). Kherson has both a seaport, Port of Kherson and a river port, Kherson River Port ... The population was radically reduced from 75,000 to 41,000 by the famine of 1921-3, but then rose steadily, reaching 97,200 in ...
Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 117. ISBN 9780313281280. Roberts, Spencer E. (1965). Soviet Historical ... delegate to the Continental Congress and Governor of North Carolina, by John Stanly - 1802 Peter Lawrence Van Allen, lawyer, by ... and Population Data, 1950-2000 (Fifth ed.). Lanham, MA, Toronto, Oxford: Scarecrow Press. pp. 72. ISBN 9780810850361. duel 1827 ... 8. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 279. ISBN 9780313330216. Lewis, Herbert James (2018). Alabama ...
"Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census". Statistics Canada. August 11, 2009. Archived ... CN's flagship train, the Super Continental, ran daily from Central Station to Vancouver and subsequently became a Via train in ... "Appendix: Table A1 Population by visible minority group and place of residence, scenario C (high growth), Canada, 2006". ... As of 2021, the city had a population of 1,762,949, and a metropolitan population of 4,291,732, making it the second-largest ...
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... while analysing European DNA groups identified what he called the "Clan of Tara" - a genetic group that originated in what is ... Such genetic tests, conducted in Ireland in 2004, seemed to confirm that the theory of Celtic origins of Ireland's population ... years ago during the Ice Age and that spread along the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic seaboards of continental ... the discovery of mitochondrial DNA has been used as a method to map the historical migration of mankind's genetic groups. ...
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With a total population of 77,543, (as of 31 December 2019) on 7 December 2020, the infection rate was 1 case per 11 ... "Coronavirus outbreak: EIB Group's response". Retrieved 15 July 2021. "Thousands March in Spain on Women's Day Despite ... A 90-year-old woman from the Lucerne region became the first vaccinated patient in continental Europe outside Russia. All ... As of 25 March 2020: With 700 confirmed cases out of a population of 33,344 (as of 2018), it is the country with the highest ...
"Community group GRASS launch crowdfunder to help restore iconic Oval site". Isle of Thanet News. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 14 ... Botany Bay, Kent Shell Grotto, Margate "2005 Ward Level Population Estimates" (PDF). Kent County Council. September 2006. ... Batchelor's Patisserie continental cakes and coffee (which has been situated in Cliftonville since the late 1970s) and MarMar ... Cliftonville also has a host of community groups that have been engaging with the community GRASS Cliftonville are bringing ...
... where smaller numbers of other minority groups could be found. The large Albanian population was chiefly concentrated in Kosovo ... The north has a continental climate (cold winters and hot summers); the central region has a combination of a continental and ... It is important to note that the Montenegrin population often considered themselves as Serbs. Total Population of FR Yugoslavia ... Belgrade, with its population of 1,574,050, is the largest city in the two nations: and the only one of significant size. The ...
In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany under Captain Jacobus de Warm established the De Warm Stockade at ... The population of enslaved Americans in Vermont was calculated to be 25 in 1770 according to the United States Census Bureau's ... and drove the Continental Army into a desperate southward retreat. Raiding parties of British soldiers and native warriors ... The overall population of Vermont was lower than the average of the individual Thirteen Colonies. The battles of Bennington and ...
These reforms resulted in the extinction of a number of smaller municipalities (due to lack of population or finances). The ... The new territories were based on studies made by Amorim Girão, a geographer, who divided continental Portugal into 13 "regiões ... but only as a grouping of districts, without any administrative or military significance, and like 1832, they continued to ... The term "provinces" (Portuguese: províncias) has been used throughout history to identify regions of continental Portugal. ...
... s form a diverse group of 129 species that rely on the ocean for their existence. They are an informal group ... They keep the population of certain benthic (sea floor) herbivores, particularly sea urchins, in check. Sea urchins graze on ... Seals, however, also use a number of terrestrial habitats, both continental and island. In temperate and tropical areas, they ... The Faroe Islands population was exposed to methylmercury largely from contaminated pilot whale meat, which contained very high ...
United States Census Bureau (1909). "Population in the Colonial and Continental Periods" (PDF). A Century of Population Growth ... of the population. People of West Indian and Caribbean ancestry are another sizable group, at over 15%. In Greater Boston, ... Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. "1990 Census of Population, General Population ... 21.4% of the population and 16.0% of families were below the poverty line. Of the total population, 28.8% of those under the ...
The 1st Battle Group, 16th Infantry, was the unit filmed in the beach landing scenes in the 1961 movie, The Longest Day. The ... Continental Army Command, 1967-70 Bruce M. Wright, African American judge. The following soldiers were awarded the Medal of ... conducted daily combat patrols side by side with their Afghan partner units to influence and secure the local population ... Members of the 16th were even utilized by 1st Special Forces Group and Afghan Commandoes as Forward Logistical Elements ...
The other two clusters comprise, respectively, West Europeans and a group of populations from Greece, Turkey, the Caucasus and ... "of recent genealogical ancestry over the past 3,000 years at a continental scale", the speakers of Serbo-Croatian language ... "Allele frequencies and population data for 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in a Serbian population sample from Vojvodina province". ... "Allele frequencies and population data for 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in a Serbian population sample from Vojvodina province". ...
With a total population of 50,960 (2017) Östersund is the 22nd most populous city in Sweden, the 46th most populous city in ... The media group Mittmedia has owned both newspapers since 2005. Two free daily newspapers exist in the city, 100 procent ... It contains a strong influence of the humid continental climate (Dfb) courtesy of its mild September lows extending the mild ... Today, a sizeable part of the city's population live on the slopes of the island that face the city centre. Östersund is a ...
The civilian population had been evacuated beforehand. The tribunal found von Leeb and his co-defendants not guilty on the ... In a high-profile case brought before the European Court of Human Rights by a group of Kurdish villagers in 2002, the Turkish ... Carl Ludwing von Bar, A History of Continental Criminal Law, p. 193. The Lawbook Exchange Ltd., 1999. ISBN 1-58477-013-9 John ... In Darfur, the Janjaweed militia has made house demolition a central part of its strategy to expel the population of the region ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Continental Population Groups ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Continental Population Groups ... Continental Population Groups Archival Collection: The Francis Crick Papers (Profiles in Science) 3. Letter from Ernst Mayr to ... Continental Population Groups Archival Collection: The Francis Crick Papers (Profiles in Science) 5. Letter from John T. Edsall ... Continental Population Groups Archival Collection: The Francis Crick Papers (Profiles in Science) 2. Letter from Francis Crick ...
Continental Population Groups. Racial Groups. Dental Models. Models, Dental. Echidna. Tachyglossidae. Environmental DNA ...
Continental Population Groups. Ethnic Groups. Health Status Disparities. Socioeconomic Factors. United States ... will improve population level health for all and reduce related health inequities. An important part of the CTRIS mission is ... will improve population level health for all and reduce related health inequities. An important part of the CTRIS mission is ...
Ethnic Groups. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Continental Population Groups. en_US. ...
Continental crust (> 25 km). Population. Within 5 km. Within 10 km. Within 30 km. Within 100 km 493. 3,803. 55,724. 4,652,400 ... The Ambalatungan Group in northern Luzon, Philippines, is in the central area of this April 2019 Planet Labs satellite image ... The group uses related laboratory-based studies (direct gas sampling and analysis, melt inclusions) to provide new data for ... There are no samples for Ambalatungan Group in the Smithsonians NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection. ...
Keywords: continental population groups; health status disparities; psychological stress; race factors; sleep; sleep initiation ... Systematic review: sleep health in the US Latinx population. Roncoroni J, Okun M, Hudson A. Roncoroni J, et al. Sleep. 2022 Jul ... Serious Psychological Distress and Mortality among Adults in the U.S. Household Population: Highlights. Muhuri PK. Muhuri PK. ... Everyday and major experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and sleep health in a multiethnic population of U.S. women: ...
Continental Population Groups; Environmental Exposure/adverse effects; Environmental Exposure/analysis; Environmental Exposure/ ... Title: Air Pollution and Mortality in the Medicare Population.. Authors: Di, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zanobetti, Antonella; Wang, Yun; ... urban populations and did not have the statistical power to estimate the health effects in underrepresented groups. METHODS: We ... CONCLUSIONS: In the entire Medicare population, there was significant evidence of adverse effects related to exposure to PM2.5 ...
Categories: Continental Population Groups Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... residual winter moisture coupled with wet forecasts ahead will cause pest populations to spike early in much of the continental ... According to the groups team of entomologists, residual winter moisture coupled with wet forecasts ahead will cause pest ... After a very cold and wet winter, warm, rainy spring conditions may jump-start mosquito populations and allow tick populations ... Excessive Moisture Across Continental U.S. Will Spur Early Pest Activity. National Pest Management Association issues its Bug ...
Inclusion of diverse and under-served populations such as disadvantaged or non-European ancestry groups. ... Inclusion of diverse geographic sites throughout the continental United States.. *Balance of unique or specialized capabilities ... The UDN Steering Committee will be the operational group through which the NIH UDP Working Group interacts with the UDN. The ... Participating in group activities, including a study-wide Steering Committee and working groups as needed. ...
Inclusion of diverse and under-served populations such as disadvantaged or non-European ancestry groups. ... Inclusion of diverse geographic sites throughout the continental United States.. *Balance of unique or specialized capabilities ... The UDN Steering Committee will be the operational group through which the NIH UDP Working Group interacts with the UDN. The ... Participating in group activities, including a study-wide Steering Committee and working groups as needed. ...
Population. POP. Subject population (major continental group) of calls with frequency data. ...
Bonn Lynx Expert Group. 2021. The Eurasian lynx in Continental Europe. Cat News Special Issue 14. ... Population and conservation genetics of two re-introduced lynx (Lynx lynx) populations in Switzerland - a molecular evaluation ... Population dynamics of a re-introduced lynx population in Switzerland: are human-caused losses a threat? 63-65. Strasbourg, ... Testing expert groups for a habitat suitability model for the lynx Lynx lynx in the Swiss Alps. Wildlife Biology 13, 430-446. ...
As such, the results cannot be generalized to the states population, nor are they generalizable to residents of the ... Ethnicity plays a bigger role in economic and social stratification in Hawaiʻi than in continental United States racial ... Using generic groups like Asian and NHOPI as I did in this study masks ethnic and cultural variability and group differences ( ... One report by a nonprofit group estimated that the state needs 64,000 new affordable housing units by 2020 to keep pace with ...
Population. POP. Subject population (major continental group) of calls with frequency data. ...
Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other grouping: ... which can help to understand differences in obstetric populations (case-mix) and CS rates per groups between facilities or ... Countries were grouped according to the United Nations geographical grouping [18] and regional and subregional averages for ... Table 2 and Fig 2 show global and regional trends by UN geographical grouping from 1990 to 2014. Latin America and the ...
We used a two-sample permutation test in mean FST between these two groups (Texcoco vs. the other 36 populations, and among all ... The continental populations of the Western Burrowing Owl had higher genetic diversity and variation (mean Na = 22.5 and mean He ... Genetic Variation among Island and Continental Populations of Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) Subspecies in North America," ... Genetic Variation among Island and Continental Populations of Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) Subspecies in North America. ...
Using our age- and sex-specific meta-estimates from California, Minnesota, and Ontario and the US population structure from ... and longitudinal follow-up of a population cohort (1). US Medicare program data provided complementary estimates for the ... and that that number will rise to approximately 930,000 in 2020 and 1,238,000 in 2030 based on the US Census Bureau population ... is the proportional representation of each age group in the 2010 US population24 such that \(\mathop {\sum }\limits_i w_i = 1\) ...
... ancestry has been broken down between the two African populations who are dominant in the ancestral makeup of that ethnic group ... Strong sweeps due to positive selection tend to be partitioned across continental races. This is partly a function of time. ... Fine-scale population structure characterizes most continents and is especially pronounced in non-cosmopolitan populations. ... Roughly half of the worlds population remains non-cosmopolitan and even populations within cities often assort along ethnic ...
Another problem beneath the surface calm lay with the large African and American Indian populations. Many in these two groups ... North Carolina and the Continental Congress. In June 1774, the Massachusetts legislature issued a call for all of the colonies ... In New Bern on May 23, Abner Nash (who later became governor) led a group of Whigs to Tryon Palace to seize the cannon there. ... The group called for all the colonies to proclaim their independence from Great Britain. These Halifax Resolves were the first ...
Study of Neck-Shaft Angle of Adult Femur in Relation to Sex and Bilateral Asymmetry in Population of.... May 2018 ... Climatic patterning is evident globally and at continental levels, and the NSA varies in parallel with other body shape indices ... Among groups, NSA values are relatively high in the Andaman Islanders (136°), African pygmies (132°) and Australian Aborigines ... The average angle of inclination (neck-shaft angle) is 126°, ranging from 115° to 140° in the adult population. As with the ...
Continental Population Groups Race Racial Stocks Public MeSH Note. 2022; see RACIAL STOCKS 1968-2003 and CONTINENTAL POPULATION ... Continental Population Groups Related Concept UI. M000748067. Scope Note. Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from ... Population Groups [M01.686] * North American People [M01.686.477] * Population Groups, US [M01.686.477.625] * Ethnicity [ ... native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.. Terms. Continental Population Groups Preferred ...
Yet nearly half of the Afghan population belong to the same ethnic groups and speak the same languages as their neighbors to ... It also has the largest population in the region, is richly endowed with natural resources, sits at a major continental ... A group of analysts in Kazakhstan has already called for such a regional approach, not in opposition to the many larger ... Putin promptly disbanded the group and merged its members into what later became the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). From that ...
... a narrow continental shelf, substantially allowing the intrusion of oceanic water, and 2) the fact that continental runoff is ... On the other hand, this area known as The Riviera Maya is having substantial increments in human population settlements. Our ... Composition and abundance of zooplankton groups from a coral reef lagoon in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico, during an ... highest catches of this group occurred at station A in June (2 033.8 orgs/m3) and September (1 469.7 orgs/m3) and also in ...
This organization has been one of the more aggressive advocacy groups for the uncontrolled expansion of wolf populations and ... the role of the big game hunter to manage wildlife populations replaced by packs of wolves in every state in the Continental ... And as the grizzly population continues to grow, the big bears also put an ever increasing bite into big game populations. ... And these two groups are not alone. Their allies in the war against the sportsmen of this country are almost always listed in ...
For instance, it is still not quite clear if the face in cold-adapted groups is wide or narrow? tall or short? flat or ... As early as in 1930s it was shown that the association between climate and facial morphology is stronger at the continental ... including areas of cold or extreme cold climate and inhabited by populations of different origin. ... Thus, studying this association is expected to be more productive at the continental rather than the global level, and a ...
  • Burrowing Owls ( Athene cunicularia ) have a large geographic range spanning both North and South America and resident populations occur on many islands in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. (
  • Previous studies involved predominantly urban populations and did not have the statistical power to estimate the health effects in underrepresented groups. (
  • This tier system includes: the lowest level being Primary Health Care Unit (PHCU) which consists of one health centre and five satellite health posts per 15000 - 25,000 rural or one health centre for 40,000 urban populations, and primary hospital targeted 60,000-100,000 population. (
  • How these insecurities affect chronic disease among the 3 largest racial groups in Hawaiʻi is unknown. (
  • Chronic disease is also unevenly distributed among the 3 largest racial groups in Hawaiʻi: Asians, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs), and whites. (
  • Measured particle size distributions suggested that aerosol populations had undergone significant cloud processing. (
  • Despite being widely represented in genetic studies, several interrogatives remain with regards to India's current genetic constituents and distributions, source populations and population relationships. (
  • Roughly half of the world's population remains non-cosmopolitan and even populations within cities often assort along ethnic and linguistic categories. (
  • Groups of individuals with similar physical appearances often reinforced by cultural, social and/or linguistic similarities. (
  • Our analyses identify differences in source populations for different regions within India, unique linguistic characteristics as well as demographic and cultural forces that may have shaped population structure. (
  • Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance. (
  • Amblyraja georgiana had a shallow distribution, being found predominantly between 200 and 500m, mostly on the continental shelf. (
  • Many owl populations are isolated and disjunct from other populations, but studies on genetic variation within and among populations are limited. (
  • We also characterized genetic variation in a geographically isolated population of the western subspecies in central Mexico (near Texcoco Lake). (
  • We review recent evidence from the analysis of genome-wide polymorphism data for genetic boundaries delineating human population structure and the main demographic and genomic processes shaping variation, and discuss the implications of population structure for the distribution and discovery of disease-causing genetic variants, in the light of the imminent availability of sequencing data for a multitude of diverse human genomes. (
  • To identify the forces that may have shaped Indian population's genetic relationships, we undertook a comprehensive comparative study of the Y-chromosomes across India utilizing Y-STR and Y-SNP chromosomal markers using the general population of Chennai in the state of Tamil Nadu as a point of reference. (
  • Today the paradigm is in flux , as a new generation of genomic studies using ancient DNA, wider sets of markers, and a broader sampling of populations, makes untenable solid old truths. (
  • Findings highlight the importance of genomic studies in diverse populations. (
  • An international team of researchers has conducted the first study of its kind to look at the genomic underpinnings of obesity in continental Africans and African-Americans. (
  • CRGGH examines the socio-cultural and genomic factors at work in health disparities - the negative health outcomes that impact certain groups of people - so they can be translated into policies that reduce or eliminate healthcare inequalities in the United States and globally. (
  • This is the first study to use a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate the genomic basis of obesity in continental Africans, said Guanjie Chen, M.D., study co-lead and a CRGGH staff scientist. (
  • Dr. Rotimi and his colleagues plan to replicate these findings in more populations and conduct experiments using cell lines and model organisms such as zebrafish to identify the role of genomic variants in SEMA4D in obesity and obesity-related traits. (
  • They plan to conduct larger studies of DNA sequencing of this gene in different human populations with the hope of identifying other genomic factors that may be associated with obesity. (
  • Access to appropriate population-based genomic variant annotation can accelerate the interpretation of genomic sequencing data. (
  • In particular, exome analysis of individuals of Indian descent will identify population variants not reflected in European exomes, complicating genomic analysis for such individuals. (
  • India Allele Finder is freely available to investigators to annotate genomic sequencing data from Indian populations. (
  • Use of India Allele Finder allows efficient identification of population variants in genomic sequencing data, and is an example of a population-specific annotation tool that simplifies analysis and encourages international collaboration in genomics research. (
  • Logistic regression models were stratified by race to examine within-group differences by severity of insecurity. (
  • Genome-wide polymorphism data, initially with only a few hundred autosomal microsatellites, have clearly established differences in allele frequency not only among continental regions, but also within continents and within countries. (
  • They also suggest that generally the focus as been on broad-scale population differences which have a deep time depth, on the order of tens of thousands of years. (
  • India Allele Finder offers improved ease-of-use to investigators seeking to identify and annotate sequencing data from Indian populations. (
  • We describe the use of India Allele Finder to identify common population variants in a disease quartet whole exome dataset, reducing the number of candidate single nucleotide variants from 84 to 7. (
  • The Puerto Morelos reef lagoon waters due to an extremely narrow continental shelf, allows the presence of open marine waters in the area, resulting in very homogeneous salinity and temperature. (
  • may go far out beyond continental shelf. (
  • A command line Python script, , takes as its input a tab delineated vcf and outputs a modified vcf with an additional column representing the allele frequency among the Indian Telugu population. (
  • We characterized DNA microsatellite variation in populations varying in size and geographic isolation in the Florida ( A. c. floridana ), the Western ( A. c. hypugaea ), and the Clarion ( A. c. rostrata ) subspecies of the Burrowing Owl. (
  • Most human variation is found within populations, but there are still thousands of markers which exhibit a great deal of inter-population variance, and serve as a distinctive record of the evolutionary history of a given group. (
  • Likewise, this group has been a major player in preventing management hunts for grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Area and in other parts of western Montana - where populations of the big and aggressive predators now number more then 600. (
  • This is yet another very questionable "environmental" group, one that recently proclaimed tens of thousands of wolves must be restored to this country, allowing these apex predators to roam freely from coast to coast. (
  • Where wolf numbers are already six to ten times greater than the recovered population goals that were established back in the early 1990s, these predators have nearly destroyed the elk, moose, deer and other big game populations that were at record levels before wolves were dumped back into those once wildlife rich ecosystems. (
  • Introduced predators, including snakes, have reduced or eliminated fauna on islands [911], yet there are no accounts of a lone introduced apex predator (apart from humans) removing a functionally diverse, continental mammal community. (
  • Nottingham, UK) that assigns cultural, ethnic, and lin- from the Americas represented 3 CEL groups. (
  • By understanding the relationship between food and housing insecurity by racial/ethnic group, practitioners seeking to prevent chronic disease can better address upstream determinants of health. (
  • The burden of obesity is, however, not the same across U.S. ethnic groups, with African-Americans having the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity, said Charles N. Rotimi, Ph.D., chief of NHGRI's Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Inflammatory Disease Genomics Branch and director of the Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health (CRGGH) at NIH. (
  • In the paper on Sami genomics which I covered earlier in the week I didn't even bother to mention that the Sami apparently exhibit internal population structure. (
  • maybe you could talk with us about the kinds of barriers that you have identified as most prevalent across the multitude of minority populations that you've studied. (
  • METHODS: We constructed an open cohort of all Medicare beneficiaries (60,925,443 persons) in the continental United States from the years 2000 through 2012, with 460,310,521 person-years of follow-up. (
  • Five separate cohort studies in California (2), Minnesota (1), Hawaii USA (1), and Ontario, Canada (1) estimated the prevalence of PD from health-care records (3), active ascertainment through facilities, large group, and neurology practices (1), and longitudinal follow-up of a population cohort (1). (
  • In contrast, the IAF website and its accompanying command line tool are focused only on the South Indian population, and allow researchers to easily annotate their own exome data sets. (
  • Origins can assign a CEL group when the sis lineages associated with geographic origin ( 4-7 ). (
  • So the colony's Whigs (those who favored independence) formed a provincial congress that sent representatives to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September. (
  • Cockroach, ant and fly populations in drier regions will push their way indoors in search of food and water, bringing about a whole host of indoor pest-related health issues including food contamination. (
  • This is incredible, as recently as 15 years ago scientists would have struggled for a dozen markers to differentiate populations separated by continents. (
  • Air Pollution and Mortality in the Medicare Population. (
  • A few months ago I blogged that geneticists have found that they could differentiate population clusters on the scale of nearby villages in Europe! (
  • A total of 37 zooplankton groups were found. (
  • Experimentally manipulating marsh rabbits, we found that pythons accounted for 77% of rabbit mortalities within 11 months of their translocation to ENP and that python predation appeared to preclude the persistence of rabbit populations in ENP. (
  • The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of the longline fishery on skate populations around South Georgia and to propose methods for reducing the number of skate deaths. (
  • Could you help our listeners understand how health disparities impact specific populations and how entrenched these disparities really are today? (
  • We further compiled MAPT haplotype frequencies in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and European populations to widen the scope of analyses. (
  • On the other hand, this area known as The Riviera Maya is having substantial increments in human population settlements. (
  • And for some groups the idea of preserving wildlife habitat is to eliminate or severely restrict human use of the land, especially publicly owned lands such as National Forests and the open range land administered by the Bureau of Land Management. (
  • The rest of the groups were scarce and only amphipods (2.4%) and larvaceans (2.0%) were relatively abundant. (
  • The goals of the Center for Biological Diversity are far from insuring an abundant and diverse wildlife population. (
  • There is no Deformation History data available for Ambalatungan Group. (
  • CTRIS serves as a strategic focal point at NHLBI to identify optimal research strategies for the delivery of evidence-based interventions which, when scaled up, will improve population level health for all and reduce related health inequities. (
  • In Ethiopia, just like other part of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), malaria is the major public health problem affecting 75% of the 1.1 million square kilometre land mass and where over 60% of the population live at risk of acquiring the diseases [4], a country of 99 million people in 2015 [5]. (
  • This organization has been one of the more aggressive advocacy groups for the uncontrolled expansion of wolf populations and expanded wolf range in the Lower 48 states. (
  • Evidence linking pythons to mammal declines has been indirect and there are reasons to question whether pythons, or any predator, could have caused the precipitous declines seen across a range of mammalian functional groups. (
  • Burmese pythons pose a serious threat to the faunal communities and ecological functioning of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, which will probably spread as python populations expand their range. (
  • Prior to joining the NIH, Dr. Pérez-Stable spent 37 years at UC San Francisco, serving as Chief of the Division of General Internal Medicine and Director of both the Center for Aging in Diverse Communities and the Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations. (
  • By studying people of West Africa, the ancestral home of most African-Americans, and replicating our results in a large group of African-Americans, we are providing new insights into biological pathways for obesity that have not been previously explored," said Ayo P. Doumatey, Ph.D., study co-lead and CRGGH staff scientist. (
  • To that end, we have analyzed an extensive population database (including three new Iberian populations) to explore potential clinal variations of H2 frequencies. (
  • Within the study population are predominant CEL have usually analyzed patient-declared population groups groups that originate from each continent: 1,031 (25%) to identify associations ( 1,7 ). (
  • Oʻahu, the main population center of the state, has a chronic housing shortage (10,13). (
  • According to the group's team of entomologists, residual winter moisture coupled with wet forecasts ahead will cause pest populations to spike early in much of the continental U.S. this spring and summer. (
  • Many sportsmen now realize that these two organizations are extremely anti-hunting, and their true intentions are to see the role of the big game hunter to manage wildlife populations replaced by packs of wolves in every state in the Continental United States. (
  • Fine-scale population structure characterizes most continents and is especially pronounced in non-cosmopolitan populations. (
  • Thus, studying this association is expected to be more productive at the continental rather than the global level, and a control for phylogenetic relatedness of studied groups is necessary. (
  • A previous autosomal STR study provided evidence of a connection between the ancient Soliga tribe at the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent and Australian aboriginal populations, possibly reflecting an eastbound coastal migration circa (15 Kya). (
  • Nonduplicate initial M . tuberculosis complex isolates the Midlands, UK (n = 4,207) were referred from the Midlands region of the United Kingdom (population 9.5 million) to our cen- ter during January 2004-December 2007. (
  • Further measurements in the region are required before a more comprehensive picture of atmospheric circulation in this region can be captured and its influence on local aerosol populations understood. (
  • The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Ambalatungan Group. (

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