Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (1/3134)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity. (2/3134)

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)

Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories. (3/3134)

The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities.  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 4: relationship between lipid content and macroscopic severity of atherosclerosis. (4/3134)

In order to evaluate chemically the macroscopic scoring methods for severity of arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteries, concentrations of total lipids, esterified and free cholesterol and lipid phosphorus were compared to the macroscopic severity of lesions in the cerebral arteries obtained from 376 Japanese persons after unexpected death. An increase of cholesterol content was correlated significantly with an increase of Baker's score and/or Gore's atherosclerotic index. The correlation coefficient between Baker's score and total or esterified cholesterol was the highest among the tested correlations (r = 0.82, n = 376).  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (5/3134)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals. (6/3134)

Normal B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation are regulated by chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), and genetic polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors modify progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Therefore, 746 HIV-1-infected persons were examined for associations of previously described stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) chemokine and CCR5 and CCR2 chemokine receptor gene variants with the risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The SDF1-3'A chemokine variant, which is carried by 37% of whites and 11% of blacks, was associated with approximate doubling of the NHL risk in heterozygotes and roughly a fourfold increase in homozygotes. After a median follow-up of 11.7 years, NHL developed in 6 (19%) of 30 SDF1-3'A/3'A homozygotes and 22 (10%) of 202 SDF1-+/3'A heterozygotes, compared with 24 (5%) of 514 wild-type subjects. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-protective chemokine receptor variant CCR5-triangle up32 was highly protective against NHL, whereas the AIDS-protective variant CCR2-64I had no significant effect. Racial differences in SDF1-3'A frequency may contribute to the lower risk of HIV-1-associated NHL in blacks compared with whites. SDF-1 genotyping of HIV-1-infected patients may identify subgroups warranting enhanced monitoring and targeted interventions to reduce the risk of NHL.  (+info)

Serum total homocysteine concentrations in adolescent and adult Americans: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (7/3134)

BACKGROUND: The elevation of circulating total homocysteine concentrations in a fasting state is associated with an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this study were to describe the distribution of serum total homocysteine concentrations in the United States and to test for differences in homocysteine concentrations among sex, age, and race-ethnicity categories. DESIGN: Using surplus sera from phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we measured serum total homocysteine concentrations for a nationally representative sample of 3766 males and 4819 females aged > or = 12 y. RESULTS: Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were 9.6 and 7.9 mmol/L in non-Hispanic white males and females, 9.8 and 8.2 mmol/L in non-Hispanic black males and females, and 9.4 and 7.4 mmol/L in Mexican American males and females, respectively. Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in females than in males in each race-ethnicity group (P < 0.01) and were significantly lower in Mexican American females than in non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black females (P < 0.01). There was a significant age-sex interaction (P < 0.01), reflecting the fact that homocysteine concentrations in females tended to diverge from those in males at younger ages and converge with those in males at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: The first data on homocysteine concentrations in a nationally representative sample of Americans confirm the age and sex differences reported previously in nonrepresentative samples. These data also indicate that differences between Mexican American and non-Hispanic females may influence circulating homocysteine concentrations.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in type 2 diabetes: maternal history and ancient population expansion. (8/3134)

Several studies have suggested a maternal excess in the transmission of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. However, the majority of these reports rely on patients recalling parental disease status and hence are open to criticism. An alternative approach is to study mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The hypervariable region 1 of the rapidly evolving noncoding section of mtDNA is suitable for investigating maternal ancestry and has been used extensively to study the origins of human racial groups. We have sequenced this 347-bp section of mtDNA from leukocytes of subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 63) and age- and race-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 57). Consensus sequences for the two study groups were identical. Pairwise sequence analysis showed unimodal distribution of pairwise differences for both groups, suggesting that both populations had undergone expansion in ancient times. The distributions were significantly different (chi2 = 180, df = 11, P < 0.001); mean pairwise differences were 4.7 and 3.8 for the diabetic and control subjects, respectively. These data suggest that the diabetic subjects belong to an ancient maternal lineage that expanded before the major expansion observed in the nondiabetic population. Phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, Fitch-Margolish, or maximum likelihood methods failed to show the clustering of all (or a subset) of the diabetic subjects into one or more distinct lineages.  (+info)

we can estimate that about 120 unselected SNPs or 20 highly selected SNPs can distinguish group CA from NA, AA from AS and AA from NA. A few hundred random SNPs are required to separate CA from AA, CA from AS and AS from NA, or about 40 highly selected loci. STRP loci are more powerful and have higher effective δ values because they have multiple alleles. Table 3 reveals that fewer than 100 random STRPs, or about 30 highly selected loci, can distinguish the major racial groups. As expected, differentiating Caucasians and Hispanic Americans, who are admixed but mostly of Caucasian ancestry, is more difficult and requires a few hundred random STRPs or about 50 highly selected loci. These results also indicate that many hundreds of markers or more would be required to accurately differentiate more closely related groups, for example populations within the same racial category.. the paper is from 2002. i think we can go lower than 20 since we know some more ancestrally informative loci, such as ...
2450 words The New York Times published an article on December the 8th titled What Doctors Should Ignore: Science has revealed how arbitrary racial categories are. Perhaps medicine will abandon them, too. It is an interesting article and while I do not agree with all of it, I do agree with some. It starts off by talking about…
OMB requests comments on proposals it has received from the Federal Interagency Working Group for Research on Race and Ethnicity (Working Group) for revisions to OMBs Standards for Maintaining, Collecting, and Presenting Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity ...
Genetic ancestry tests, changes to how census responses were categorized and more children born to parents who identify with different racial groups led to a 276% jump in the multiracial population.
(E-pub) [White Like Me Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son] by Tim Wise ß With a new preface and updated chapters White Like Me is on
By subscribing to this mailing list, you are opting in to receive bi-monthly newsletters from the Government Alliance on Race & Equity. You may have the ability to opt-out at any time. ...
The polls have been more stable than four years ago and the president is underperforming, says Dave Wasserman. Though the race may tighten in the coming week-and nothing is certain-Trumps path looks increasingly difficult.
Looking for races events in Anaheim? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
Looking for races events in Roswell? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
The definition and use of racial categories in health data were largely unquestioned until recently because of the tacitly accepted role of genetically transmitted physical characteristics in defining racial groups (such as skin colors), as well as the role of genetically transmitted physical characteristics in health status differences (such as skin cancers). When race is used in health data, there is a tendency to assume that a genetic reason may explain differences. But often there is no known potential genetic explanation for differences that are documented. Until recently, there has been little research dedicated to how well or how poorly the racial categories of health data used for public policy actually meet scientific criteria of mutually exhaustive and exclusive groupings of people by any definable characteristics. A recent multiracial Public Health Service workshop concluded, Current concepts of race and ethnicity in public health surveillance data lack clarity, precision and ...
In support of the Stanford University School of Medicine mission, DISCOVeR Lab, led by Dr. Latha Palaniappan, a physician scientist, conducts research that seeks to investigate racial/ethnic health disparities in cardiometabolic disease risk, burden, screening, treatment and outcomes in multiethnic populations. She along with collaborators at Stanford and other world-renown institutions, take what they learn from patient care back to their labs to guide their research projects into new diagnostics and treatments for various illnesses.. DISCOVeR research projects seek to address the gap in knowledge of health and health-related patient centered outcomes, specifically exploring gender and racial/ethnic disparities in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Learn more about the STRONG-D Study here and the IMPACT Study here.. ...
Social interpretations of race regard the common categorizations of people into different races, often with biologist tagging of particular racial attributes beyond mere anatomy, as more socially and culturally determined than based upon biology. Some interpretations are often deconstructionist and poststructuralist in that they critically analyze the historical construction and development of racial categories. Marks (1995) argued that even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. In the Old World, the gradual transition in appearances from one racial group to adjacent racial groups emphasized that one variety of mankind does so sensibly pass into the other, that you cannot mark out the limits between them, as Blumenbach observed in his writings on human variation. In parts of the Americas, the situation was somewhat different. The immigrants to the New World came largely from widely separated ...
I would also argue that biological race is not a particularly meaningful concept the vast majority of the time. In fact, I think that the term biological race is probably completely inappropiate for the usage that I am thinking of, which involves the use of self-reported race/ethnicity to serve as a marker (albeit poor) for ancestry (which has both a biological and social/cultural component). Specifically, the only times that self-reported race/ethnicity has served some useful biological purpose, in my experience, is when it has served as a marker for ancestry in a genetic study that didnt have a better marker of ancestry. This role for self-reported race/ethnicity could be completely replaced if there were better markers for ancestry available. In the recent past the only way to get any marker of ancestry was to either ask people directly about their ancestry (time-consuming and most people dont have very accurate information) or at a very minimum ask for their self-reported race/ethnicity ...
The study, published in the February issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics, involved 3,636 people enrolled in a large trial on the genetics of hypertension. To see whether genetic markers correspond to the standard racial categories, the scientists first analyzed the volunteers DNA, identifying which genetic markers they carried. They then used a computer program to cluster people based on genetic similarities; those who shared genetic markers were grouped together. Finally, the scientists compared those groupings with the volunteers self-identified race. The result: people who considered themselves white had been grouped by the computer, based on their genetic markers, in one cluster, while people who consider themselves African-American had been grouped in a second, different cluster ...
n these glossy, lightweight days of an election year, it seems, they cant build metaphorical tents big or fast enough for every politician who wants to pitch one up and invite the multicultural folds to Come on under! The feel-good message that both parties seek to convey is: regardless of race or creed, we really ARE all kin beneath the skin. Yet whatever the calculated quality of this new politics of inclusion, its sentiment accords firmly with scientists growing knowledge of the profound genetic fraternity that binds together human beings of the most seemingly disparate origins. Scientists have long suspected that the racial categories recognized by society are not reflected on the genetic level. But the more closely that researchers examine the human genome -- the complement of genetic material encased in the heart of almost every cell of the body -- the more most of them are convinced that the standard labels used to distinguish people by race have little or no biological meaning. ...
Some people argue that dividing humans into racial categories is scientific racism. How should people be classified then? What do you propose? Some scientific categories include: Semitic, Indo-European, African, Middle-Eastern, Caucasian, Mongoloid etc. How useful are these categories really?
Bettina: Very interesting question! I completely get what you mean about us Europeans being even more clueless about race. The impression I get is that even though theres still much progress to be made in America, the conversations that need to be had are out in the open, at least to some extent. The I-dont-see-race-and-racism-is-no-longer-an-issue narrative that you do find among white Americans is even more prevalent in Europe, and it stifles debate. I dont want to give the impression that Americanah is a novel about how America is the worst possible place race-wise - comparisons are always tricky, but at the end of the day Obinze has a much harder time than Ifemelu, and Adichie writes about America with affection as well as critical insight. Having said all this, my partner says that the experience of being categorized as a person of colour because hes from Brazil is unique to Americans, particularly white Americans. This is probably because the concept of Latino as a racial category ...
Bettina: Very interesting question! I completely get what you mean about us Europeans being even more clueless about race. The impression I get is that even though theres still much progress to be made in America, the conversations that need to be had are out in the open, at least to some extent. The I-dont-see-race-and-racism-is-no-longer-an-issue narrative that you do find among white Americans is even more prevalent in Europe, and it stifles debate. I dont want to give the impression that Americanah is a novel about how America is the worst possible place race-wise - comparisons are always tricky, but at the end of the day Obinze has a much harder time than Ifemelu, and Adichie writes about America with affection as well as critical insight. Having said all this, my partner says that the experience of being categorized as a person of colour because hes from Brazil is unique to Americans, particularly white Americans. This is probably because the concept of Latino as a racial category ...
Beginning with the 2000 decennial census, the U.S. Census Bureau changed the way it collected data on race. The previous method assigned each person to one of five single-race categories, including other. The new method eliminated the other category, instead allowing respondents to choose as many categories as applied to them from a list of five. Other U.S. government surveys soon adopted the same procedure, among them the American Housing Survey (AHS), which began using the new method in its 2003 survey. Because the AHS is longitudinal by housing unit, one can compare data from the 2001 and 2003 survey to determine how respondents who did not move during the period answered the new and old race questions. It was hypothesized that respondents choosing the other category under the old system would be more likely to choose multiple categories under the new method. Instead, however, 95.5 percent of these respondents chose only a single race under the new system, with 77.2 percent indicating ...
Race categories are consistent with the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards. Multiple race data were reported by 25 states and the District of Columbia in 2006. The multiple-race data for these reporting areas were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 OMB standards for comparability with other reporting areas. ...
Rachel Dolezals assertion that she identifies as a black woman, despite being born into a white family, has some questioning whether a person can be
An age-old dream of the human race may have finally been realized. Painstaking research conducted by brilliant researchers at the Cambridge Laboratory of Molecular Biology proved that the bodys own immune system has the ability to destroy the c.....
GULFSTREAM- DICK POWELL RACE 1 RACE 2 RACE 3 RACE 4 RACE 5 RACE 6 RACE 7 RACE 8 RACE 9 RACE 10 RACE 11 RACE 12 3-8-5 9-3-2 9-7-2 3-8-9 11-7-5 10-2-5 5-6-10 12-5-1 5-6-12 12-13-1 8-7-3 12-7-1 Play of the Day: Race 7, #5 held well after opening up a big lead on the turf when blinkers were…. Read More. ...
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the
We asked our readers to share what its like to adopt a child of a different race. Here, they tell their stories: the challenges and the successes.
Human is a form, not a race. You MUST understand that statement, because your lack of knowledge allows it to hide in plain sight.
Looking for races events in Warrenpoint? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
Egan Bernal said the Giro dItalia was completely different than we expected and the race unfolded contrary to how the team planned.
Klionsky, D. J., Abdelmohsen, K., Abe, A., Abedin, M. J., Abeliovich, H., Arozena, A. A., Adachi, H., Adams, C. M., Adams, P. D., Adeli, K., Adhihetty, P. J., Adler, S. G., Agam, G., Agarwal, R., Aghi, M. K., Agnello, M., Agostinis, P., Aguilar, P. V., Aguirre-Ghiso, J., Airoldi, E. M. & 2,442 others, Ait-Si-Ali, S., Akematsu, T., Akporiaye, E. T., Al-Rubeai, M., Albaiceta, G. M., Albanese, C., Albani, D., Albert, M. L., Aldudo, J., Algül, H., Alirezaei, M., Alloza, I., Almasan, A., Almonte-Beceril, M., Alnemri, E. S., Alonso, C., Altan-Bonnet, N., Altieri, D. C., Alvarez, S., Alvarez-Erviti, L., Alves, S., Amadoro, G., Amano, A., Amantini, C., Ambrosio, S., Amelio, I., Amer, A. O., Amessou, M., Amon, A., An, Z., Anania, F. A., Andersen, S. U., Andley, U. P., Andreadi, C. K., Andrieu-Abadie, N., Anel, A., Ann, D. K., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., Antonioli, M., Aoki, H., Apostolova, N., Aquila, S., Aquilano, K., Araki, K., Arama, E., Aranda, A., Araya, J., Arcaro, A., Arias, E., Arimoto, H., Ariosa, A. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal and paternal race/ethnicity are both associated with gestational diabetes. AU - Caughey, Aaron B.. AU - Cheng, Yvonne W.. AU - Stotland, Naomi E.. AU - Washington, A. Eugene. AU - Escobar, Gabriel J.. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) associated with both maternal and paternal race/ethnicity. Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of all women delivered within a managed care network. Rates of GDM were calculated for maternal, paternal, and combined race/ethnicity. Results: Among the 139,848 women with identified race/ethnicity, Asians had the highest rate (P , .001) of GDM (6.8%) as compared with whites (3.4%), African Americans (3.2%), and Hispanics (4.9%). When examining race/ethnicity controlling for potential confounders, we found that the rates of GDM were higher among Asian (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-1.6) and ...
Description of disease Race-based drug. Treatment Race-based drug. Symptoms and causes Race-based drug Prophylaxis Race-based drug
There are clearly age differences. As we age, the gut is less able to absorb, yet the liver clears things more slowly, so giving psychotropic drugs to the elderly is a real guessing game. Sex differences have been ignored, much to the detriment of women. The fiction was that men and women are of the same species. Obviously an error. Lynn shovland at wrote: ,There are also sex differences and possibly age differences. , ,The medicine of the future will be custom medicine, tailored ,to the individual on the basis of careful testing, rather than ,the shotgun approach we use now. , , , ,-----Original Message----- ,From: Lynn D. Johnson, Ph.D. ,ljohnson at, ,Sent: Jul 23, 2005 6:34 PM ,To: The new improved paleopsych list ,paleopsych at, ,Subject: Re: [Paleopsych] Kenan Malik: Is this the future we really want? Different drugs for different races , ,It seems like a good future to me. I am not going to do a complete ,exegesis on this, but offer ...
Transcript STEVE INSKEEP, HOST: It's MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. Good morning. I'm Steve Inskeep. DAVID GREENE, HOST: And I'm David
Contemporary examples of cultural exclusion based on race may seem small until we study the larger patterns they create and reinforce.
PITTSFIELD -- Barrington Stage Companys cast, crew and administrators are coming together to tackle community issues, with this weeks theme focusing on race and …
Originally Posted by rsw American culture is an extension of European culture. We speak a European language (English) and we have a European style of
For many, footraces are the only athletic competition they will ever enter. Those who dont think of themselves as athletes simply revel in feeling fit. Runners high hardly describes the
The race-day use of an anti-bleeding drug is expected to come up for another round of discussion when the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission meets on Wednesday.
Turkey Trot 5K - Cortland information, race map, race results, race reviews, and race date. Learn why you should run Turkey Trot 5K - Cortland in Cortland, NY.
Race Forward brings systemic analysis and an innovative approach to complex race issues to help people take effective action toward racial equity.
Ihad such a lovely time at the Listowel Races recently when my colleague Marietta Doran and I judged Ladies Day. It was certainly one of the most glamorous race...
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50. U.S. Population The population of the United States by race in 2000 and the projected population by race for the year 2025 are given below (in thousands).* Race 2000 2025 White.
Its not up to men to decide what time they have. Its up to men to decide what to do with the time they have been given. -Gandalf
A Darwin Award is recognition for people who have contributed positively to the human race by removing themselves from the gene-pool through...
2000 - Population: 5,611,000 (urban agglomeration). 2001 Christophe Muzungu becomes governor, succeeded by Loka Ne Kongo [fr]. ... African Jazz (musical group) formed. 1954 - Lovanium University established. 1955 Boulevard Albert I constructed. Presbyterian ... Inter Continental hotel in business. 1972 - École d'Informatique d'Électronique founded.[citation needed] 1974 September: Zaire ... 1984 - Population: 2,664,309. 1985 - Meeting of the Association Internationale des Maires Francophones held in city. 1988 - ...
UK: Guardian Media Group. "Population of Capital Cities and Cities of 100,000 or More Inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2011. ... 9 June: Pearl Continental hotel bombing. August: Bombing. 9 October: Bombing in Khyber Bazaar. Amn Tehrik (peace effort) ... Population: 56,589 (city); 58,555 (municipality). 1881 - Population: 79,982. 1882 - Sethi Mohallah residence built. 1883 - All ... Population: 130,967. 1947 - City becomes part of the Dominion of Pakistan. 1948 - City becomes capital of the Peshawar province ...
Retrieved 2 May 2020.CS1 maint: others (link) "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". The World Bank Group. ... "Home". The Continental Shelf Project. Retrieved 24 September 2020. "Kommissionen for Kontinentalsoklens grænser" [Commission on ... "Population". Statistics Faroe Islands. Retrieved 2 May 2020. "Population 2020". Statistics Greenland. Retrieved 2 May 2020. ... Denmark's population is by far the largest of the three; there live 5.8 million people in Denmark, and about 52,000 and 56,000 ...
At its peak in the 12th century, the city had an estimated population of 20,000, larger than the population of London at the ... Another group, the Oshara Tradition people, who lived from 5,500 BCE to 600 CE, were part of the Archaic Southwest. The Adena ... This appeal to the Crown had no effect, though, and so the Second Continental Congress was convened in 1775 to organize the ... While the nation was large in terms of area, its population in 1790 was only 4 million. The population grew rapidly and ...
The Kinh account for 99% of the province's population; the remaining population is of the Muong and Dao ethnic groups. The ... with a continental climate affected by western winds; and the montane centering on the peaks of Ba Vì, with a cool climate and ...
The population of the district is wholly rural. The most numerous ethnic groups, according to the 2002 Census, include Bashkirs ... Climate is temperate continental. The district was first established on November 4, 1926. In October 1938, it became a part of ... Population: 25,538 (2010 Census); 27,904 (2002 Census); 29,584 (1989 Census). The population of Barda accounts for 34.6% of the ... Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population ...
... is found in the southern continental United States. Native populations can be found growing in the county of ... Mature female cones are sometimes mistaken for flowers at a distance, as they appear in groups of several cones at stem joints ... Their population numbers are classified as stable. While this plant is rare, it is not considered endangered by the terms of ... Red List classifies this species as one of Least-concern because there are currently no threats facing the known populations. ...
... mainly from the Pintupi and Luritja groups. At the 2016 Australian census, Papunya had a population of 404. The predominant ... It is the closest town to the Australian continental pole of inaccessibility. Papunya is on restricted Aboriginal land and ... Its population in 2016 was 404. Pintupi and Luritja people were forced off their traditional country in the 1930s and moved ... Warumpi Band were an Australian country and Aboriginal rock group which formed in Papunya.[citation needed] During the 1970s a ...
The population of Tokmok is mostly made up of Kyrgyz and ethnic Russians. Other ethnic groups include Dungans and Uzbeks. ... Tokmok has a hot summer Mediterranean continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa). The average annual temperature ... According to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, the population of Tokmok was 53,231. ... "2009 population census of the Kyrgyz Republic: Chuy Region" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2011. ...
By 1871, the largest ethnic groups in the county were Scots (18 per cent of the population), Irish (8 per cent), English (12.6 ... Immigration from continental Germany slowed by 1880. First and second-generation descendants now comprised most of the local ... the rural population decreased while the urban share of total population increased by nearly 30%, despite a total population ... In 1841, the population count was 4424. In 1846 the village of Waterloo had a population of 200, "mostly Germans". There was a ...
9. Support musical groups for indoor activities. However, such groups must be organized, school sponsored, and supervised to ... The Continental Conference is a rough equivalent of the former Bux-Mont League. The American Conference is similar to the 1970s ... For football only, 2014 saw a return to a conference structure based on student population, with all the larger schools in the ... Instead, Suburban One grouped the three conferences by geography and tradition. The National Conference became the home for the ...
Unlike in continental Chile, the indigenous population of Chiloé grew from 1700 onwards. By 1712 indigenous peoples made up ... Following the crushing of the rebellion a small group of Huilliches departed to the Guaitecas Archipelago to avoid harsh ... His son is reported to have had similar behaviors and his majordomo kidnapped children to send them to continental Chile. ... The encomienda activities in Chiloé included the Indians traveling to the continental coast to log for alerce wood. In ...
It was never accurate in the past, and it remains inaccurate when referencing contemporary human populations. Humans are not ... This statement further emphasized that "No group of people is, or ever has been, biologically homogeneous or 'pure.' ... divided biologically into distinct continental types or racial genetic clusters. Instead, the Western concept of race must be ... Furthermore, human populations are not - and never have been - biologically discrete, truly isolated, or fixed." Previously, ...
The population density is 150 inhabitants per square kilometre. The local speech in the region is Moselle Franconian ( ... Ürzig lies in a transitional zone between temperate oceanic climate and continental climate; compared to other regions in ... Moselfränkisch), part of the Central Franconian dialect group. ...
Geographically, COE is organized in kindreds, local worship groups that, depending on the population density of their area, may ... The body of COE's doctrine is promulgated under the name Continental Odinist Rite. In addition to naturally adopting the moral ... A less Odin-focused group split off in 2012 as the Ásatrú Lore Vanatrú Assembly (ALVA). The term Odinism was coined by Orestes ... It was held in 2002 in Tenerife, Canary Islands, and carried out by members of the neopagan group Church of the Guanche People ...
... according to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, was 67,100. Karakol features a humid continental climate (Dfb) ... Also this city is culturally rich by different ethnic groups that live here such as Dungan, Uighur, Kalmak, Uzbek, Russians and ... Population in provinces, districts, towns of Russian Empire (without Finland). Semirech'e Province ( (in Russian) ... In the 1880s Karakol's population surged with an influx of Dungans, Chinese Muslims fleeing warfare in China. In 1888, the ...
The Amerindian populations show a lower genetic diversity than populations from other continental regions. Observed is a ... "Ghost population" was found in speakers of Tupian languages. They provisionally named this ancient group; "Population Y", after ... This suggests that population isolation, and perhaps even the establishment of tribal groups, began soon after migration into ... The Ancient Beringians are said to be a common ancestral group among contemporary Native American populations today, which ...
A new heading, Continental Population Groups, has been created with new identification that emphasize geography. Bibliography ... Blumenbach, like Meiners, did rank his Caucasian grouping higher than other groups in terms of mental faculties or potential ... Wells asserted that Semitic and Hamitic populations were mainly of Mediterranean type, and Aryan populations were originally of ... The White Population: 2010, Census 2010 Brief C2KBR/01-4, U.S. Census Bureau, August 2001. Bhopal, R.; Donaldson, L. (1998). " ...
"Finally, the Jōmon individual is best-modeled as a mix between a population related to group 1/Önge and a population related to ... The newest genetic studies conclude that the Jōmon formed from various populations from continental Eurasia. The Jōmon, when ... The samplified Jōmon cluster as own clade, distinct from other human population groups including East Asians, but share some ... The Jōmon period population formed largely from a currently unsampled population (of Eurasia), and various East Asian-related ...
Populations in the western Atlantic Ocean formerly grouped within this species are now considered their own species, the ... They make their home on continental shelves, insular shelves, and upper slopes. These sharks do not inhabit abyssal ... Based on what little is known of the species, these sharks are not suffering major declines to their population, but pressure ...
The population of the administrative center accounts for 40.05% of the district's total population. Largest ethnic group is ... District has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification - Dfb). Winters are moderately cold and changeable. The ... Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population ... Population: 9,376 (est. 2018). Khotynetsky District located in the Central Russian Upland of the East European Plain, it is in ...
It is believed that the Medes mixed with other indigenous population, the Caucasian Mannai (a northeast Caucasian group related ... Zonuz has a continental climate, with cold winters and cool summers. Zonuz is divided into four districts: Khan Khajeh, Meerjan ... to these modern groups, the ancient Azaris are as ancestors of the modern Azerbaijanis. The Encyclopædia Britannica refers to ... At the 2006 census, its population was 2,618, in 826 families. Zonuz is located on a mountain, and has cold and snowy weather ...
... of the population. Almost 26% of the population can speak Ukrainian. 24.17% of the residents have English ancestry, 17.61% ... Dauphin has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with cold winters and warm summers. The highest temperature ever recorded ... According to the 1996 Canadian census, Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic group in the City of Dauphin, with 41.04% ... Dauphin had a population of 8,251 people in 2011, an increase of 4.4% from the 2006 census. The median household income in 2005 ...
The Ethnic groups in Cyprus are Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% of the population. (2001) The Annan plan equates the ... Cyprus' rights to its Continental Shelf in the south would have also been answerable to Turkey. Turkey was granted the right of ... The Supreme Court composed of equal numbers of Greek Cypriot (77% of population) and Turkish Cypriot judges (18% of population ... The Grey Wolves (a Turkish right-wing nationalist group belonging to the MHP nationalist party) actively advocated a "no" vote ...
Asaka had a population of 66,000. Representatives of many ethnic groups can be found in the city. Uzbeks are the largest ethnic ... Asaka has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with continental influences. It has cold winters and hot ... At the turn of the 20th century, Assake had a population of only 2,000 people. In 1924, Assake was renamed Zelensk, after a ... group. Asaka is the second biggest industrial city in Andijan Region, the first being the City of Andijan. There are 12 large ...
In 2017, the Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and now recognizes all the tiger populations in mainland Asia as P. t ... Results support distinction of the two evolutionary groups: continental and Sunda tigers. The authors proposed recognition of ... Population genetic and Bayesian structure analyses clearly identified two populations separated by a development corridor in ... Generally, the coat of western populations was brighter and more uniform than that of the Far Eastern populations. The summer ...
... had a total population of 2,438, of which 2,054 were males and 384 were females. Population within the age group of 0 ... According to the Köppen climate system, Badrinath's climate is humid continental (Dwb) bordering a subalpine climate (Dwc). As ... The total number of literates in Badrinath was 2,265, which constituted 92.9% of the population with male literacy of 95.4% and ... The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 113 and 22 respectively. Badrinath had 850 households in 2011. Badri ...
Discovery of a continental population of the rare Darwin fox, Dusicyon fulvipes (Martin, 1839) in Chile. Biological ... International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources/Species Survival Commission Canid Specialist Group. pp. 50 ... The total population size is about 250 mature individuals with at least 90% of the population occurring in one subspopulation ( ... Jaime Jiménez has observed a small population since 1975 in Nahuelbuta National Park; this population was first reported to ...
5. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp. 217-33. doi:10.1016/s1074-7877(06)05012-4. ISBN 978-0-7623-1358-7. "Return to Keflavik ... Since Iceland had marginal farmland in good times, the climate change resulted in hardship for the population. A serfdom-like ... Icelanders began to trade for grain from continental Europe, which was an expensive proposition. Church fast days increased ... In the year 1000, as a civil war between the religious groups seemed likely, the Alþingi appointed one of the chieftains, ...
"ANALYTIC AND CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY".. *^ Shai, Adam; Larkum, Matthew Evan (2017-12-05). "Branching into brains". eLife. 6. doi ... suggesting computational approaches to the study of how functional groups of neurons within the hippocampus and neocortex ... which gives rise to the population model of neural networks. While many neurotheorists prefer such models with reduced ... "Weak pairwise correlations imply strongly correlated network states in a neural population". Nature. 440 (7087): 1007-12. ...
Hunting mallards might cause the population to decline in some places, at some times, and with some populations.[132] In ... and are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes. This species is the main ancestor of most ... "Flexibility of Continental Navigation and Migration in European Mallards". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e72629. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... Also, the population size of the mallard is very large.[98]. Unlike many waterfowl, mallards have benefited from human ...
... and probably were not grouped into bands,[50] though during the end of the Lower Paleolithic, the latest populations of the ... Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500-3,000 m (4,900-9,800 ft) deep, resulting in ... resulting in a drop in population. The small populations were then hunted out by Paleolithic humans.[17] The global warming ... Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile.[3] This was most likely due to low body fat, ...
... abandoning traditional warfare practices alienated mission populations from other Lenape and Native American groups, who ... By then living mostly in the Ohio Country, the Lenape supplied the Continental Army with warriors and scouts in exchange for ... State-recognized and unrecognized groups[edit]. Two groups who claim descent from Lenape people are state-recognized tribes. ... Other Indian groups, especially the Wyandot, the Mingo, the Munsee, the Shawnee, and the Wolf Clan of the Delaware, favored the ...
Although not Communist, the group acknowledged Karl Marx's social philosophy.[35] Niebuhr was among the group of 51 prominent ... The increase reflected his ability to reach people outside the German American community and among the growing population ... He was the group's president until it transformed into the Americans for Democratic Action in 1947.[46] ... Niebuhr soon left the Fellowship of Reconciliation, a peace-oriented group of theologians and ministers, and became one of ...
Population (2020 Census): 5,773,714 (21st most populous state). *Population density: 55.47 per square mile (21.40 km−2) (39th ... His case was the first case to test the constitutionality of the curfews targeted at minority groups. ... Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. *Curecanti National Recreation Area. *Dinosaur National Monument ... While the population of the Front Range Urban Corridor now exceeds five million, many rugged portions of the state remain ...
... eliminating group IB would make group I the only main group (group VIII was labelled a transition group) to lack an A-B ... It was sometimes considered an alkali metal in continental Europe (but not in England) in the years immediately following its ... "Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations". European Journal of Public ... In both the old IUPAC and the CAS systems for group numbering, this group is known as group IA (pronounced as "group one A", as ...
Blackith, R. E. (1958). Nearest-Neighbour Distance Measurements for the Estimation of Animal Populations. Ecology. pp. 147-150. ... Individuals might be clustered together in an area due to social factors such as selfish herds and family groups. Organisms ... It is very useful in understanding species distribution through factors such as speciation, extinction, continental drift, ... Populations within a species are translocated through many methods, including dispersal by people, wind, water and animals. ...
a b c Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population ... Natural Resources Group. "Natural Area Mapping and Inventory of Spring Creek 1988 Survey" (PDF). New York City Parks Department ... ended an all-night forced march at this pass in August 1776 to surprise and flank General George Washington and the Continental ... a b Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation ...
... it is connected to shamanistic beliefs among the various Inuit groups.[64] Also Caribou Inuit groups believed in several types ... Jones, David (2009). The Gift of Logos: Essays in Continental Philosophy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 33-35. ISBN 978-1- ... In some ethnic groups, there can also be more than two souls. Like among the Tagbanwa people, where a person is said to have ... Kalbo Inuit groups believe that a person has more than one type of soul. One is associated with respiration, the other can ...
In the Western world some Anabaptist groups are highly inbred because they originate from small founder populations and until[ ... Beeche A (2009). The Gotha: Still a Continental Royal Family, Vol. 1. Richmond, US: Kensington House Books. pp. 1-13. ISBN 978- ... Two lines are then being "line bred". Also, in some populations, such as the Crater lions, it is known that a population ... Malformations or harmful traits can stay within a population due to a high homozygosity rate, and this will cause a population ...
The population pressure on and nearby the southeast slopes of the mountains near the Community of Madrid is very high, ... The story is that a group of three brigands kidnap a young woman of a rich and powerful Madrid family. While the chief of the ... having been laid down during the Variscan orogeny during the Paleozoic era when the continental collision between Laurasia and ... The Guadarramas, as a result of their proximity to high population centres of cultural and educational importance, was one of ...
Similarly, in some instances a small invading population can threaten much larger native populations. For example, Spartina ... Depending upon the isolation (how far an island is located from continental biotas), native island biological communities may ... as well as conservation groups such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the California Native ... The model evaluated individual populations rather than entire species. It classified each population based on its success in ...
Ethnic groups[edit]. Ethnic groups in Ivory Coast include Akan (42.1%), Voltaiques or Gur (17.6%), Northern Mandés (16.5%), ... of the population, while an estimated 25% of the population practised traditional (animist) religions.[100] ... Premiers résultats définitifs du RGPH-98 (Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitation de 1998) (in French), Abidjan ... "Population, Health, and Human Well-Being-- Côte d'Ivoire" (PDF). EarthTrends. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May ...
While the term "downwinders" generally connotes nuclear fallout victims based in the continental U.S. near sites such as ... However, the observed inheritable effects of radiation exposure by groups with histories of acute risk are considered minimal ... Simon, Steven L. "Radiation Doses To Local Populations Near Nuclear Weapons Test Sites Worldwide," Health Physics. 82(5):706- ... Academic Journal Article "Downwind of the Atomic State: U.S. Continental Atmospheric Testing, Radioactive Fallout, and ...
... has diminished wild populations, with parrots being subjected to more exploitation than any other group of birds. Measures ... Butler, C (2005). "Feral Parrots in the Continental United States and United Kingdom: Past, Present, and Future". Journal of ... One of the largest parrot conservation groups is the World Parrot Trust,[139] an international organisation. The group gives ... Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-313-25890-9.. *^ Handy, E. S. C. (1930). Marquesan Legends. Honolulu: Bernice P. ...
Groups consist of females with calves, or of up to six subadults. Such groups congregate at wallows and grazing areas. They are ... Jerdon, T. C. (1867). The Mammals of India: a Natural History of all the animals known to inhabit Continental India. Roorkee: ... By 1908, the population in Kaziranga had decreased to around 12 individuals.[11] In the early 1900s, the species had declined ... Kathmandu: Wildlife Watch Group. ISBN 978-99946-820-9-6. .. External links[edit]. Wikispecies has information related to ...
"Working Groups". Youth Climate. Retrieved 2010-07-29.. *^ "UNICEF supports youth participation at climate change conference in ... Each Climate Coalition or Climate Network is affiliated to a regional or continental movement. These movements include the ... These teams of volunteers organise themselves into different working groups and form the central organs of the movement, ... Consequently, these local, national and continental organisations come together to form the International Youth Climate ...
2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom. In the 2011 census, the population of England, Wales and Scotland was ... Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-86012-255-5. .. *. Frodin, D. G. (2001). Guide to Standard Floras of the ... Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 ... Ultimately, the population of south-east Britain came to be referred to as the English people, so-named after the Angles. ...
In May 1780, a group of Moravians who had assembled for a worship service on the occasion of her birthday were arrested and ... They would also continue the war in Continental Europe until Prussia could be compelled to abandon Silesia and Glatz. In return ... half of the population was illiterate well into the 19th century,[139] The teacher training colleges (in particular the Vienna ... he eventually re-grouped for another attack in June 1757. The Battle of Kolin that followed was a decisive victory for Austria ...
The Take-Off of Walt Whitman Rostow can start in a country if its population is completely schooled. It is therefore necessary ... Since 2016 the World Bank no longer divide countries into two groups according to the out-dated concept of developed and ... "Composition of macro geographical (continental) region".. *^ Korotayev A., Zinkina J. [ ... The term also implies homogeneity within such countries when wealth (and health) of the most and least affluent groups varies ...
2015), adding a north-Siberian people as a fourth reference population improves residuals for northeastern European populations ... which in turn intensified inter-group contacts between essentially heterogeneous social groups.[15] ... and a population of "Caucasus hunter-gatherers" who probably arrived from the Caucasus.[20][3] Each of those two populations ... "a population related to the people of the Iran Chalcolithic contributed ~43% of the ancestry of early Bronze Age populations of ...
Many such groups can contain up to 10 and, in areas near large breeding populations such as in Norway, at least 30-40 ... In continental Europe, the young eagles are gone from the nest as early as early July to about August 10 and fully independent ... Oehme, G. (1969). Population trends in the white-tailed sea eagle in North Germany. Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their Biology ... The largest population in Europe is found along the coast of Norway.[1][263] The Norwegian population in 2008 was claimed to ...
... in a sea at the continental margin of what is now the Canadian Shield. The second group of rock, known today as the Cariboo ... Populations of these and several other species are monitored to ensure stable populations and to maintain a healthy ... Bowron Lake Park contains three main groups of rock. The oldest is known as the Kaza Group, which is made up of mud and sand ... when materials from the continental land mass were eroded by changing conditions in the sea. The third and youngest group, ...
... incentives from intra-group competition to larger scale competitions such as between groups or against the general population. ... according to group selection theory the opposite may occur at the group level where groups consisting of the more altruistic ... Karma is categorized within the group or groups of cause (Pāli hetu) in the chain of cause and effect, where it comprises the ... See also in-group favoritism). Group selection theory has been criticized by many other evolutionary scientists.[15][16] ...
Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 101. ISBN 9780275968939. . OCLC 44860930.. *^ "History of South Africa". www. ... Iliffe, John (1989). "The Origins of African Population Growth". The Journal of African History. 30 (1): 165-69. doi:10.1017/ ... John A. Hobson argued in Imperialism that this shrinking of continental markets was a key factor of the global "New Imperialism ... "Africa's population now 1 billion" Archived 2011-04-27 at the Wayback Machine. AfricaNews. August 25, 2009. ...
The collaborative group found that when polio is eliminated in a population, they could safely switch to killed vaccine and be ... Cuba became the world leader in the ratio of doctors to population with 67 doctors per 10,000 population as compared with 43 in ... All the population cooperates in these activities and plans through the social and mass organizations."[17] Privatization of ... The report concluded that the population's admirable health is one of the key reasons why Castro is still in power.[70] A 2006 ...
Many groups and movements have managed to achieve profound social changes over the course of the 20th century in the name of ... the emergency must be actual, affect the whole population and the threat must be to the very existence of the nation. The ... U.S. Declaration of Independence ratified by the Continental Congress on 4 July 1776 ... Companies, NGOs, political parties, informal groups, and individuals are known as non-State actors. Non-State actors can also ...
Gandhi's fasts had a significant impact on the British Raj and the Indian population generally.[citation needed] ... In Protestantism, the continental reformers criticized fasting as a purely external observance that can never gain a person ... In general, fasting remains optional in most Protestant groups and is less popular than among other Christian denominations.[50 ... Members may also implement personal, family or group fasts any time they desire to solicit special blessings from God, ...
Some western groups ate reptiles and lizards. Some southeastern groups planted corn and some encouraged the growth of wild ... 1863 Treaty of Conejos which reduced their lands to 50% of what it had been, losing all lands east of the Continental Divide ... There was a dramatic reduction in the Ute population, partly attributed to Utes moving off the reservation or resisting being ... Tribe Grouping. Reservation 1. Pahvant. Utah. West of the Wasatch Range in the Pavant Range towards the Nevada border along the ...
federal and state tax as a percentage of retail price ...
Continental Population Groups. M1.686.508. African Continental Ancestry Group. M1.686.508.100. African Americans. M1.686. ... The old descriptor ANIMALS will be changed to ANIMAL POPULATION GROUPS. It will retain all indented terms. The check tag ANIMAL ... Recent genetic research indicates that the degree of genetic heterogeneity within groups and homogeneity across groups make ... Ethnic Groups and Geographic Origins Categories I and M:. The MeSH descriptor Racial Stocks,and its four children (Australoid ...
Continental Population Groups. Epidemiology. Aging. Health. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Infertility. Genital Diseases, Male ... Study Population. Study Population will be drawn from members of Northern California Kaiser Permanente Health Plan utilizing ... The ethnic diversity of this population will allow multiple comparisons to identify true risk factors for early, and/or ... identification and recruitment of a population-based sample of 1,250 regularly cycling women of diverse ethnicities, ages 25-45 ...
States using a combination of the low-income search with additional MeSH terms for Culture and Continental Population Groups ... 4 Nutrient and Food Group Intakes of WIC Participants 157-214 * 5 Nutrient and Food Group Priorities for the WIC Food Packages ... States using the combinations of the low-income search with additional MeSH terms for culture and continental population groups ... Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages 817-868 ...
Continental Population Groups -- statistics & numerical data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Continental Population Groups -- ... Continental Population Groups -- statistics & numerical data✖[remove]1. *Ethnic Groups -- statistics & numerical data✖[remove]1 ... Continental Population Groups -- statistics & numerical data. Ethnic Groups -- statistics & numerical data. Insurance Coverage ... statistics & numerical data Subjects Ethnic Groups -- statistics & numerical data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Ethnic Groups ...
... of HPV genotyping as an aid to follow persistent high-risk HPV infections to reduce excessive colposcopies in populations with ... European Continental Ancestry Group * Female * Genotype * Humans * Middle Aged * Papillomaviridae / genetics* * ... HPV infection among women in a representative rural and suburban population of the USA Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009 Jun;105(3): ... white female population of the USA, and to determine the positive predictive value of one-occasion HPV detection and genotyping ...
Continental Population Groups * Female * Genotype * Hepatitis C / drug therapy* * Hepatitis C / genetics ...
Animal Population Groups. Animals. Blacks. African Americans. African Ancestry Continental Group. Cytochrome a. Cytochrome a ... Blacks was a 2003 MeSH Heading that became an entry term to the new 2004 heading African Continental Ancestry Group, but all ... which is treed under the African Continental Ancestry Group. Some additional maintenance was performed as well; citations that ... that were also indexed to countries other than the United States had the new MeSH heading African Continental Ancestry Group ...
Continental Population Groups. Female. Humans. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / epidemiology*, ethnology, mortality. Infant. ... Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. The Texas Birth ... CONCLUSIONS: There are rate differences for males among all 3 ethnic groups. Sex and ethnic differences suggest genetic ... 8492797 - Childbearing patterns among selected racial/ethnic minority groups--united states, 1990.. 14733377 - Reducing ...
Continental Population Groups. Female. Fundus Oculi. Humans. Lipofuscin / metabolism. Male. Melanins / metabolism. Middle Aged ...
It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental projection (commonly called mainland Southeast... ... Southeast Asias population includes a wide variety of ethnic groups and cultures. This diversity is related to its position as ... Dominating the region is the Sunda Shelf, the portion of the Asian continental shelf that extends southward from the Gulf of ... This population, however, was unevenly distributed within the region. By far the nation with the largest population was ...
Copyright © 2018 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved.. 京ICP备15042040号-3 ...
Universe: Population in the continental United States. Data Type(s): census/enumeration data, and aggregate data ... Subject Terms: age, birth, census data, counties, Hispanic origins, population, population estimates, population migration, ... The enumerated and adjusted 1990 and 2000 population categories offer population totals by sex, Hispanic origin, age groups, ... The enumerated and adjusted 1990 and 2000 population categories offer population totals by sex, Hispanic origin, age groups, ...
Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data * Logistic Models * Motor Activity * Odds Ratio ...
2000 - Population: 5,611,000 (urban agglomeration). 2001 Christophe Muzungu becomes governor, succeeded by Loka Ne Kongo [fr]. ... African Jazz (musical group) formed. 1954 - Lovanium University established. 1955 Boulevard Albert I constructed. Presbyterian ... Inter Continental hotel in business. 1972 - École dInformatique dÉlectronique founded.[citation needed] 1974 September: Zaire ... 1984 - Population: 2,664,309. 1985 - Meeting of the Association Internationale des Maires Francophones held in city. 1988 - ...
Research published today in Nature Genetics reveals explosions in male population numbers in five continents, occurring at ... Nodes are grouped by continental super-population (AFR, African; AMR, Admixed American; EAS, East Asian; EUR, European; SAS, ... Modern DNA reveals ancient male population explosions linked to migration and technology. News article by the Media Team 25 Apr ... "The best explanation is that they may have resulted from advances in technology that could be controlled by small groups of men ...
African Americans Cardiovascular diseases Mortality Continental population groups Epidemiology Evolocumab Electronic ... Linkage of a population-based cohort with primary data collection to Medicare claims: the reasons for geographic and racial ...
... there are two groups of populations, early and late flowering. Early populations grow mostly in coastal localities and flower ... Large delay in flowering in continental versus coastal populations of a Mediterranean shrub, Globularia alypum *Marc Estiarte. ... Estiarte, M., Puig, G. & Peñuelas, J. Large delay in flowering in continental versus coastal populations of a Mediterranean ... Late populations are proposed to be regulated by temperature according to our results whereas early populations could be ...
Continental population groups; Ethnic groups; Genetics; population; Genotype; Nutrition surveys; Polymorphism; genetic; ... Certain age and minority groups were oversampled in this weighted, population-based US survey. Estimates of allele frequency ... Population-based allele frequencies and genotype prevalence are important for measuring the contribution of genetic variation ... for genotypes important to public health remain undetermined for the major racial and ethnic groups in the US population. DNA ...
UK: Guardian Media Group. "Population of Capital Cities and Cities of 100,000 or More Inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2011. ... 9 June: Pearl Continental hotel bombing. August: Bombing. 9 October: Bombing in Khyber Bazaar. Amn Tehrik (peace effort) ... Population: 56,589 (city); 58,555 (municipality). 1881 - Population: 79,982. 1882 - Sethi Mohallah residence built. 1883 - All ... Population: 130,967. 1947 - City becomes part of the Dominion of Pakistan. 1948 - City becomes capital of the Peshawar province ...
A new heading, Continental Population Groups, has been created with new identification that emphasize geography.. ... Blumenbach, like Meiners, did rank his Caucasian grouping higher than other groups in terms of mental faculties or potential ... Wells asserted that Semitic and Hamitic populations were mainly of Mediterranean type, and Aryan populations were originally of ... including the populations of Europe, and the Mongoloid race, including the populations of East Asia. Thus, Carleton S. Coon ( ...
Table 3: Unreached People Group Engagement (100,000 and Larger Population). Continental. Group IMB. Engaged. GCC Engaged Only ... We call Levels 0 and 1 people groups "Last Frontier" people groups. Levels 2 and 3 people groups are also unreached, but have ... unreached people groups with populations less than 100,000. A complete listing of Unengaged Unreached People Groups can also be ... We look forward to the day that the number of unengaged, unreached people groups will fall to zero, regardless of population ...
Admixture occurs when two or more previously separated population groups produce offspring. The predominant population group in ... They therefore constitute a complex combination of continental populations.. We are using the powerful technique of admixture ... We have participated in a collaboration with researchers from the USA to collect samples from this population group for genome- ... In addition, proportions of ancestry received from source populations vary between individuals in the population and this may ...
Asian Continental Ancestry Group; Humans; Radiography, Panoramic. Subjects:. JOURNALS. JOURNALS , Online Journal of Health and ... This study determines the position of the mental foramen in a selected Malay population. One hundred and sixty nine panoramic ... W.C. (2003) The location of the mental foramen in a selected Malay population. [Journal (Paginated)] ...
Continental Population Groups. *African Continental Ancestry Group. *American Native Continental Ancestry Group ... "Oceanic Ancestry Group" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oceanic Ancestry Group" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Oceanic Ancestry Group" by people in Profiles. ...
Categories: Continental Population Groups Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Continental Population Groups DNA-Binding Proteins Female Genetic Variation Genotype Human papillomavirus 18 Humans Molecular ... Alyce A Chen, Tarik Gheit, Silvia Franceschi, Massimo Tommasino, Gary M Clifford, IARC HPV Variant Study Group ... Alyce A Chen, Tarik Gheit, Silvia Franceschi, Massimo Tommasino, Gary M Clifford, IARC HPV Variant Study Group. Human ...
  • His Caucasian race encompassed all of the ancient and most of the modern native populations of Europe, the aboriginal inhabitants of West Asia (including the Phoenicians, Hebrews and Arabs), the autochthones of Northern Africa (Berbers, Egyptians, Abyssinians and neighboring groups), the Indians, and the ancient Guanches. (
  • As humans migrated out of Africa, they adapted to new environments and groups became isolated from one another. (
  • Evidence from mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome studies shows that the San of Southern Africa are likely to be the oldest human population group. (
  • The predominant population group in the Western Cape, South Africa, is the admixed group known officially as the South African Coloured (SAC). (
  • The SAC had their origins in the diverse groups in the early days of Cape history, including Europeans settlers, the slaves they brought in from Indonesia, India and other parts of Africa, local Bantu-speakers, and the indigenous Khoe-San. (
  • Within the study population are predominant CEL groups that originate from each continent: 1,031 (25%) from England in Europe, 912 (22%) from India in Asia, and 130 (3%) from Somalia in Africa ( Table 1 ). (
  • Our data also support a delayed expansion hypothesis in which an ancestral Eurasian founding population remained isolated long after the out-of-Africa diaspora, before expanding throughout Eurasia. (
  • Studies of maternal lineages by mitochondrial resequencing have shown that the two major mitochondrial lineages that emerged from Africa (haplogroups M and N, dating to approximately 60 thousand years ago (kya)) are both very diverse among Indian populations [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Ancestry was estimated by grouping data for populations sampled in Europe, Africa and Native Americans into three continental population samples. (
  • There is more genetic variation in the diverse populations from the continent of Africa (who some would lump into a "black" category) than exists in ALL populations from outside of Africa (the rest of the world) combined! (
  • The situation is particularly acute in Central Africa-where the estimated poaching rate is twice the continental average," said John E. Scanlon, CITES Secretary-General . (
  • Elephants in Central Africa are bearing the brunt of the poaching, although high-poaching levels in all sub-regions mean that even the large elephant populations in Southern and Eastern Africa are at risk unless the trend is reversed. (
  • The meeting is expected to bring a strong commitment from the delegates to take concrete actions to halt the illegal trade and secure viable elephant populations across Africa, including strengthening national laws to tackle wildlife crime and enhancing cooperation within and between countries. (
  • In the post yesterday I reported what was generally known about the Horn of Africa, that its populations seem to lie between those of Sub-Saharan African and Eurasia genetically. (
  • For example, you observe the almost total lack of "Bantu" genetic influence on the Semitic and Cushitic populations of the Horn of Africa, and the lack of Eurasian influence in groups to the south and west of the Horn except to some extent the Masai. (
  • In light of my last post I had to take note when Dienekes today pointed to this new paper in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology , Population history of the Red Sea-genetic exchanges between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa signaled in the mitochondrial DNA HV1 haplogroup . (
  • They reported that humans from different populations all descended from a single female in Africa who lived about 200,000 years ago-a finding that immediately made headlines trumpeting the discovery of the "Mitochondrial Eve. (
  • The tri-continental mix of students and staff makes it possible to discuss different approaches to development and various development experiences from Africa and China. (
  • Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest and least populated countries in continental Africa and is the only independent African country where Spanish is an official language. (
  • Due to the need for an examination of the allometric relationships in termite assemblages outside Africa and the development of a more sophisticated feeding-group classification I explore the findings in Eggleton et al. (
  • Imputing observed blood pressure for antihypertensive treatment: impact on population and genetic analyses. (
  • Analyses of the four Indian populations, along with eight HapMap populations (692 samples), showed that 30% of all SNPs in the south Indian populations are not seen in HapMap populations. (
  • Approximate Geographic Location of the Mestizo Populations Examined and of the Native American Populations Considered in the Analyses. (
  • Background: The selection of variable sites for inclusion in genomic analyses can influence results, especially when exemplar populations are used to determine polymorphic sites. (
  • Certainly many clusters I've encountered in previous analyses with subsets of these populations have yet to appear, so who knows? (
  • This isn't a new finding, but it's much more striking in this study compared to previous analyses due to the massively increased number of populations studied. (
  • Genetic analyses reveal a complicated history, with substantial admixture between populations ( 14 ). (
  • Admixture occurs when two or more previously separated population groups produce offspring. (
  • We are using the powerful technique of admixture mapping to find genetic variants that differ in frequency between source populations of the SAC and may have a role in susceptibility to tuberculosis. (
  • The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. (
  • Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. (
  • We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. (
  • An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. (
  • This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. (
  • Subpopulation-biased selection of SNPs changes the weighting of principal component axes and can affect inferences about proportions of admixture and population histories using PCA. (
  • I have run ADMIXTURE on the 139-population/2,230-individual dataset, starting from K=3 and increasing K for as long as the Bayes Information Criterion increases. (
  • also, if a name used here has been used in a different ADMIXTURE analysis, with another set of populations and/or K, you should not assume that it reflects exactly the same entity. (
  • hundreds of ethnic groups and languages have been identified. (
  • Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are rate differences for males among all 3 ethnic groups. (
  • However, such prevalence estimates for genotypes important to public health remain undetermined for the major racial and ethnic groups in the US population. (
  • For other races in Europe, see Ethnic groups in Europe . (
  • Experian, Nottingham, UK) that assigns cultural, ethnic, and linguistic (CEL) groups on the basis of given and family names. (
  • The Indian subcontinent is currently populated by more than one billion people who belong to thousands of linguistic and ethnic groups [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Recent studies of autosomal SNPs and STRs also demonstrate a high degree of genetic differentiation among Indian ethnic and linguistic groups [ 12 - 14 ]. (
  • Major ethnic groups of East Asia include the Han , Yamato , and Koreans . (
  • Among the present-day Guatemalan Maya, there are more than 20 different ethnic groups separated by different languages and cultures. (
  • Phylogenetic features of mtDNA data also suggest a demographic scenario that is compatible with moderate local endogamy and isolation in the Maya combined with episodes of gene exchange between ethnic groups, suggesting an ethno-genesis in the Guatemalan Maya that is recent and supported on a cultural rather than a biological basis. (
  • Poor trans-ethnic portability of PRS is a critical issue that may be partially due to limited knowledge of causal variants shared among populations. (
  • Hence, leveraging noncoding regulatory annotations that capture genetic variation across populations has the potential to enhance the trans-ethnic portability of PRS. (
  • Therefore, prioritizing variants in IMPACT regulatory elements may improve the trans-ethnic portability of PRS by selecting variants with population nonspecific effects. (
  • Overall, our study identifies a crucial role for functional annotations such as IMPACT to improve the trans-ethnic portability of genetic data, and this has important implications for future risk prediction models that work across populations. (
  • It has a population of about 1.1 million consisting of 40 ethnic groups, including Han, Hui, Mongolian, Kazak and Guyu. (
  • When you think of groups of people in Ireland during this period, it's helpful to think about them in terms of interest groups rather than ethnic groups. (
  • Hispanics also had lower risks of vulvar and anal cancer than non-Hispanic Black women and men, respectively, although no significant differences were observed between these two racial/ethnic groups with respect to the other cancer types evaluated. (
  • Among HIV-infected individuals, approximately half of patients across all HPV-related cancer types survived at least 5 years, with no major differences by race/ethnic group. (
  • Our findings show that similar to what is observed among other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S., HIV-infected Hispanics have elevated rates of most HPV-related malignancies as compared to Hispanics from the general population,' said Dr. Ortiz. (
  • Dr. Ortiz noted that although racial/ethnic disparities in cancer rates among HIV-infected individuals may reflect disparities in the general population, the causes of these disparities warrant further research, as patterns are not consistent across cancer sites. (
  • In addition to providing an entitlement based on race rather than need, the bill would also give kanaka maoli culturally-specific wellness care that is not available to other ethnic groups under most public or private insurance policies (even very expensive ones). (
  • But that's not good enough, rather, if we had more markers we could classify more people who carrier similar markers into the ethnic groups. (
  • In addition, proportions of ancestry received from source populations vary between individuals in the population and this may have a confounding effect in genetic association studies if the differences are not homogeneous between case and control groups. (
  • The article Hsu cites is actually clear about this problem in its very first line: "European Americans are often treated as a homogeneous group, but in fact form a structured population due to historical immigration of diverse source populations. (
  • It did not identify a discernible difference in the Y chromosomes of the presumed source populations of Anglo-Saxons and the later Danish Viking settlers, thus the survey registered both sets of chromosomes as belonging to the same group. (
  • The team believes the earlier population increases resulted from the first peopling by modern humans of vast continents, where plenty of resources were available. (
  • [8] Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropology has moved away from a typological understanding of human biological diversity towards a genomic and population-based perspective, and they have tended to understand race as a social classification of humans based on phenotype and ancestry as well as cultural factors, as the concept is also understood in the social sciences. (
  • We have participated in a collaboration with researchers from the USA to collect samples from this population group for genome-wide analysis, which will be an important resource for gaining insight into the genetic history of humans. (
  • Each human population has a specific history, and ancient hominins interbred with modern humans at different times and in different places. (
  • In humans today there are not multiple biological groups called "races. (
  • DNA from contemporary humans can be compared to determine how long an indigenous population has lived in a region. (
  • In the past 25 years population geneticists have begun to fill in gaps in the paleoanthropological record by fashioning a genetic bread-crumb trail of the earliest migrations by modern humans. (
  • The effect of the different variant alleles on efavirenz population pharmacokinetics has not yet been fully explored. (
  • In other words, it shifts from nearly ~0% to nearly ~100% frequency in the population of alleles at that locus, driven by positive selection. (
  • 0.05 in any general continental population dataset of at least 2,000 alleles for a gene without a gene- or variant-specific recommendation. (
  • 0.05 in any general continental population dataset of at least 2,000 alleles. (
  • African-Americans are a genetically distinguishable group from other continental populations," he said. (
  • Pure races, in the sense of genetically homogenous populations, do not exist in the human species today, nor is there any evidence that they have ever existed in the past. (
  • distinguish the ancestries of these genetically very similar populations, whose real or perceived group differences may often be dominated by environmental, social, and cultural factors. (
  • Research published today in Nature Genetics reveals explosions in male population numbers in five continents, occurring at times between 55 thousand and four thousand years ago. (
  • 2007. Killer whales preying on a blue whale calf on the Costa Rica Dome: Genetics, morphometrics, vocalisations and composition of the group. (
  • Like population biologists, geneticists and biological anthropologists, Diamond is not discussing population histories and genetics. (
  • Genetics have long ago shown that people vary more within the major racial groups than these groups vary among themselves. (
  • Several new publications have just come out in PLoS Genetics that show exactly how genetics can help identify groups, especially groups that are not demarcated by major social and phenotypic differences. (
  • The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. (
  • Such a label actually groups together multiple populations, which have diverse origins due to the complex history of Europeans. (
  • Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region. (
  • The Polar regions often are described as being, in many ways, mirror images of one another--the Arctic being a ocean surrounded by continental landmasses, while Antarctica is a continent surrounded by an ocean--but the new findings add a biological nuance to those comparisons. (
  • The findings widen the population of older Americans considered especially vulnerable to threats from the air pollutant even when exposed to it over short periods. (
  • Population-based allele frequencies and genotype prevalence are important for measuring the contribution of genetic variation to human disease susceptibility, progression, and outcomes. (
  • Race posits homogeneous groups, at least in the US, but that's just stupid - talking about phlogistons rather than populations. (
  • deCode uses genetic and medical data from the homogeneous population of Iceland to find disease-related genes. (
  • These tribes are special, it said, because they are of "Negrito racial stocks" that are "remnants of the oldest human populations of Asia and Australia. (
  • There are no genes that make blacks in the USA more susceptible to high blood pressure, just as there are no genes for particular kinds of cancers that can be assigned to only one racial grouping. (
  • How the curriculum was developed No curriculum designed to promote racial reconciliation should be written by one person or even a homogenous group of writers. (
  • This data collection provides net migration estimates by five-year age groups, Hispanic origin, race, and sex for counties of the United States from 1990 to 2000. (
  • To analyze an unbiased sample of genetic diversity in India and to investigate human migration history in Eurasia, we resequenced one 100-kb ENCODE region in 92 samples collected from three castes and one tribal group from the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. (
  • Additional studies of mitochondrial haplogroups show that an early migration may have populated the Indian subcontinent, leaving 'relic' populations in present-day India represented by some Austroasiatic-and Dravidian-speaking tribal populations [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • however, the presence of the "light green" component in Athabask and its absence in other Amerindian groups is quite consistent with the two-migration model. (
  • Moreover, it's no help in understanding how and why population might be structured (or not), historical patterns of migration and gene exchange, and so forth. (
  • was interpreted as showing the possibility of large scale Anglo-Saxon migration to central and eastern England (accounting for 50-100% of the population at the time in Central England ). (
  • Estimates of FST, time of separation, and population divergence as estimated by principal components analysis can be misleading if this bias is not taken into account. (
  • Based on mandible shape divergence, the populations of C. suaveolens were clustered into continental, insular Atlantic and insular Mediterranean groups. (
  • Scientists have only recently begun to explore the genetic differences between individuals and populations and the roles those differences play in human health. (
  • 2000 - Population: 5,611,000 (urban agglomeration). (
  • Vital statistics data tabulate births by sex, race, and Hispanic origin for the periods 1990-1994 and 1995-1999, and deaths by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age groups for the period 1990-2000. (
  • The enumerated and adjusted 1990 and 2000 population categories offer population totals by sex, Hispanic origin, age groups, and race. (
  • The expected populations in 2000 are available with totals by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age groups. (
  • The population density parameter was derived from Census 2000 data. (
  • Evidence suggests that indigenous populations have Samoa (RR 16.5), Nauru (RR 11.2), Tahiti (RR 10.9), and suffered disproportionately from past infl uenza pandemics. (
  • factor for increased disease severity, with the multivari- able model accounting for age, sex, medical comorbidity, Evidence suggests that indigenous populations have been interval from onset of symptoms to initiation of antiviral disproportionately affected more by infl uenza pandem- therapy, rurality, and income ( 5 ). (
  • There was little gene flow between continental clusters ("races") during that period, so there is circumstantial evidence for group differences beyond the already established ones (superficial appearance, disease resistance). (
  • For type 2 diabetes, however, there is evidence that the regions associated with disease risk are also significantly more differentiated than expected between African and non-African populations - a pattern suggestive of recent adaptive evolution. (
  • Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing. (
  • JACKSON, Miss. A group of researchers from the University of Oxford, Harvard Medical School and the University of Mississippi Medical Center has constructed the world's most detailed genetic map, a tool scientists can use to better understand the roots of disease and how DNA is passed generationally to create diversity in the human species. (
  • Using unbiased allele-frequency spectra, we investigated the expansion of human populations into Eurasia. (
  • Data for these populations was obtained from the HGDP-CEPH human genome diversity panel database (v 1.0) ( and from Wang et al. (
  • There are some fundamental differences in the human family that may come from the melding of differential populations, long ago. (
  • Lastly, an analysis of autosomal microsatellite markers in 28 Native American populations from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) provided a qualitative correspondence between linguistic and genetic groupings [15] . (
  • Did a comet hit the Great Lakes region and fragment human populations 12,900 years ago? (
  • Immediate effects would have been in the North and East, producing shockwaves, heat, flooding, wildfires, and a reduction and fragmentation of the human population. (
  • The study of human genetic variation-a kind of historical Global Positioning System-goes back to World War I, when two physicians working in the Greek city of Thessaloníki found that soldiers garrisoned there had a differing incidence of a given blood group depending on their nationality. (
  • Basically, this tells us that different human populations have responded to their local environment in different ways - either because their environments were different, or because they had different genetic variants available to fuel the process of adaptation. (
  • A new study reveals that Hispanic HIV-infected adults in the United States are at a higher risk of developing cancers caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) than Hispanics from the general population. (
  • 3. There is great genetic diversity within all human populations. (
  • The only living species in the human family, Homo sapiens, has become a highly diversified global array of populations. (
  • Furthermore, the complexities of human history make it difficult to determine the position of certain groups in classifications. (
  • 2002) performed a genetic survey of 52 human populations. (
  • In this situation, mathematical and computational models that account for mosquito populations, human mobility, infrastructure and other factors that influence the spread of Zika are valuable because they can generate estimates of the full extent of the epidemic. (
  • 1990 - Population: 3,564,000 (urban agglomeration). (
  • the Montgomery, Alabama-based civil rights organization started counting hate groups in 1990. (
  • The given and family names of 4,207 patients were entered into Origins to obtain a CEL group for each, which was then assigned a continent on the basis of the United Nations Standard Country and Area Codes Classification Scheme ( 12 ). (
  • We reveal synchronized fluctuations in the abundance of mussel populations across a whole continent despite limited larval dispersal and strong environmental forcing. (
  • Recent work analysing the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA of people now living in Britain and on the continent has provided some insight into population movements during the sub-Roman period . (
  • The appellation Caucasian for the grouping was popularized by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach , who named it after the category's archetypal skull, a cranium of a woman from Georgia in the Caucasus region. (
  • This resulted in different frequencies of genetic variants in the resultant populations. (
  • Association of genetic variants in SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 with non-obstructive azoospermia risk in the Chinese population. (
  • This SNP is fixed in Europeans, nearly absent in Africans and East Asians, and segregating in both ancestral and derived variants in groups such as South Asians and African Americans. (
  • Indeed, both general correlations between climatic variables and the frequencies of classes of functionally related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [ 6 ], and specific examples of variants showing both frequency differences between populations and relevant functional effects have been reported. (
  • However, there are variants in continental populations at a frequency greater than 0.05 that are potentially pathogenic for a Mendelian disorder. (
  • The Native populations have been color coded based on their affiliation to one of the main Amerindian linguistic stocks according to the classification of Ruhlen. (
  • The Bayesian latent class regression model described here is efficient at predicting population genetic structure using geographic and linguistic information in Native American populations. (
  • Jay F, François O, Blum MGB (2011) Predictions of Native American Population Structure Using Linguistic Covariates in a Hidden Regression Framework. (
  • Tacking horizontally in terms of discipline, over the past few generations there has been a veritable cottage industry making the case for the recent origin of many ethno-linguistic populations through a process of cultural self-creation. (
  • About 5,000 Jackson-area volunteers were included in a group of nearly 30,000 African-Americans whose genetic information the scientists used to create the map. (
  • Population bottlenecks and inbreeding can crank up the frequency of a variant simply through chance. (
  • Concordant with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data, paternal lineages within India also show high diversity based on short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the Y chromosome and support an early and continuous presence of populations on the subcontinent [ 11 ]. (
  • Origins can assign a CEL group when the given and family names are present in a dataset. (
  • If something appears to be a challenge to your group, do not skip that, but prayerfully plan how to present the material with understanding. (
  • Use of mixed-effects modelling allowed the analysis and integration of multiple pharmacogenetic and demographic covariates in a pharmacokinetic population model. (
  • Genetic studies of populations from the Indian subcontinent are of great interest because of India's large population size, complex demographic history, and unique social structure. (
  • In marine systems, classical theory holds that the influence of demographic processes and dispersal is confined to local populations whereas the environment controls regional patterns of abundance. (
  • Despite of its wide geographic distribution and ecological importance, the characteristics of the postembryonic stages are unknown, which prevents a detailed understanding of the structure and dynamics of natural populations. (
  • Oceanic Ancestry Group" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oceanic Ancestry Group" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Oceanic Ancestry Group" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Oceanic Ancestry Group" by people in Profiles. (
  • The population of the zone has a mixed ancestry. (
  • Ancestry Proportions in 13 Mestizo Populations. (
  • The populations have been ordered left to right based on decreasing autosomal European ancestry. (
  • Heterozygosity vs. Proportion of European Ancestry in Mestizo Populations. (
  • Even something thought to be so ubiquitous as skin color works only in a limited way as dark or light skin tells us only about a human's amount of ancestry relative to the equator, not anything about the specific population or part of the planet they might be descended from. (
  • in other words, populations that live close together and share relatively recent common ancestry tend to have experienced similar selective pressures. (
  • They used a computer program to sort individuals or portions of their genomes into five groups, and discovered that the genetic ancestry of most individuals was inferred to come from just one group. (
  • Here, we investigate empirical patterns of population structure in European Americans, analyzing 4,198 samples from four genome-wide association studies to show that components roughly corresponding to northwest European, southeast European, and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are the main sources of European American population structure. (
  • This pattern was also apparent for the Sami in Nordic Therefore, in this study we considered such data for Mori countries of Norway (RR 4.8), Sweden (RR 8.2), and Fin- (the indigenous population of New Zealand) and to some land (RR 16.9). (
  • It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental projection (commonly called mainland Southeast Asia) and a string of archipelagoes to the south and east of the mainland (insular Southeast Asia). (
  • These studies yield insights into the assembly of continental and insular communities, convergent evolution of morphology and of ecological structure, and the relative roles of predation, competition, and harsh physical conditions in limiting species ranges. (
  • Phenotypic variation was characterized in 187 modern and archaeological specimens of the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), obtained from both insular and continental European locations. (
  • For each population, proportions estimated with autosomal [-A] and X-chromosome [-X] markers are color-coded on separate bars. (
  • center dot A combined population pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic modelling approach allows determination and simulation of determinant factors for efavirenz single-dose pharmacokinetics based on data on gender, biochemical variables and genetic factors in relevant genes (a total of 30 SNPs in CYP2B6, ABCB1 and CYP3A4 genes) in Ugandan population. (
  • For this purpose we have developed a set of SNPs that can be used to tag the strongest ∼250 signals of recent selection in each population. (
  • The population in 2019 was about 60 million. (
  • The western population, located in California, saw a more precipitous decline, from about 1.2 million in 1997 to fewer than 30,000 in 2019. (
  • He and Erlandson say that they are currently evaluating the existing paleoindian archaeological datasets, which Kennett describes as "suggestive of significant population reduction and fragmentation, but additional work is necessary to test the data further. (
  • In contrast, it seems that about half a dozen genes can explain most of the between population variation in pigmentation. (
  • In contrast, though traits such as schizophrenia and height are substantially heritable, much of the variation at the population level of the trait is explainable by variation in genes. (
  • The new study found that, in European populations, Neanderthal genes are also linked to metabolism, iron- and oxygen-binding in red blood cells and muscles, as well as olfactory receptors. (
  • That is why introgressed genes are sometimes specific to a population, Gouy says. (
  • Most of these genes were highly correlated with population-specific and beneficial phenotypes, such as high infant survival rate and the absence of chronic mountain sickness. (
  • The challenge, however, is the mobilization and appropriate deployment of these resources to ensure that all of the world's people groups have adequate opportunities to hear and respond to the good news. (
  • Table 2 summarizes the world's people groups by status based on the July 2006 GSEC report. (
  • More than half of the world's population is found in unreached people groups (Levels 0 - 3). (
  • More than half of the world's people groups are Last Frontier people groups (Levels 0 - 1). (
  • More than a quarter of the world's population is found in Last Frontier people groups (Levels 0 - 1). (
  • Of all the world's major nations, the Japanese have the highest population density per square mile of habitable land. (
  • Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China , both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state . (
  • In 2016, the agency began an in-depth status assessment, looking at the global population as well as focusing on monarchs in North America, where 90% of the world's population occurs. (
  • We also discuss the consequences at the plant and ecosystem level of climate warming causing shifts from late to early patterns, a possibility that is likely in the warmest of the late populations if flowering is modulated phenotypically. (
  • Largest population groups were from England (n = 1,031) and India (n = 912), and most prevalent strains were the Euro-American (45%) and East African-Indian (34%) lineages. (
  • The aim of this study was to combine mycobacterial fingerprinting data and patient origin as assigned by Origins to relate the occurrence of major global M . tuberculosis lineages in populations originating from around the world. (
  • Continental and regional origins of patients as assigned by Origins and global lineage were then combined to identify the distribution of global M . tuberculosis lineages within each population ( Table 2 ). (
  • Mamelund ( 1 ) reported elevated mortality rate ratios (RRs) 2.04-20.8), but this pattern was not seen for low-income for indigenous populations relative to European populations persons or those residing in rural areas. (
  • The study, led by Dr Chris Tyler-Smith of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, analysed sequence differences between the Y chromosomes of more than 1200 men from 26 populations around the world using data generated by the 1000 Genomes Project. (
  • Combining data obtained from universal typing and associated cultural and social links identified by Origins provides the potential for a deeper understanding of the causes for distribution of prevalent strains in specific population groups. (
  • We tested the impact of ascertainment bias on the inference of population genetic parameters using empirical and simulated data representing the three major continental groups of cattle: European, African, and Indian. (
  • Empirical data comprised samples of 25 individuals representing each continental group. (
  • Results: Bias toward shared polymorphism across continental groups is apparent in the empirical SNP data. (
  • Based on acoustic data, size, and photo identification studies, there are two groups of blue whales in the North Pacific: eastern and western. (
  • IUCN, through its Species Survival Commission (SSC) African Elephant Specialist Group, provides scientific data that underpins the Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants programme and the Elephant Trade Information System. (
  • Based on current data, our model projects only small outbreaks from mosquito transmission in the continental U.S. that are likely to die out before spreading to new areas. (
  • Levels 2 and 3 people groups are also unreached, but have had localized or widespread evangelical church plants within the past two years. (
  • In all three continental groups we find widespread signals of recent positive selection. (
  • In this lineage 3 species groups are confined to the New World, 11 to the Old, and the remaining 6 are widespread in both hemispheres. (
  • Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. (
  • ) as a heterogeneous population, which expresses itself in Spanish as a maternal language and possesses specific cultural traits of 'Hispanic' origin mixed with indigenous cultural elements. (
  • This is totally reasonable as a function of geography, but there are also suggestions that this is not simply a function of isolation by distance (i.e., populations at position 0.5 on the interval 0.0 to 1.0 would presumably exhibit equal affinities in both directions due to gene flow). (
  • Several new major enzyme categories include: DNA Repair Enzymes, Metalloexopeptidases, Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors, Proprotein Convertases, and Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes. (
  • CONCLUSIONS The model identified the four factors CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*11, a novel variant allele in ABCB1 (rs3842) and sex as major predictors of efavirenz plasma exposure in a healthy Ugandan population after single-dose administration. (
  • Gansu: Population composition: Other major groups include Hui, Monguors (Mongols), Turks (Salars and Sarig Uighurs), and Tibetans. (
  • There would have been major ecological shifts, driving Clovis survivors into isolated groups in search of food and warmth. (
  • Major populations are found in the North Pacific, North Atlantic and southern hemisphere. (
  • Hsu makes exactly this error in the following line: "It has been known for some time that major continental groups ("races") form distinct clusters. (
  • But the real mistake is in conflating "major continental groups" and "races. (
  • So we begin by dividing the population of the Americas into geographical cells of similar size, and grouping these cells into subpopulations centered around major transportation hubs. (
  • 1,000 km) dynamics of populations. (
  • A novel polymorphism in ABCB1 gene, CYP2B6*6 and sex predict single-dose efavirenz population pharmacokinetics in Ugandans. (
  • Bias toward uneven levels of within-group polymorphism decreases estimates of FST between groups. (
  • The main population groups separate 'Ladinos' (mixed Native American-African-Spanish), and Native indigenous people of Maya descent. (
  • The main populations are the 'Ladinos' (~60%), a term used in Central America (deriving from 'latino'), and especially in Guatemala, to refer to a mix of Native American and Spanish (and eventually of Africans), and the Maya or 'Indígena' (~40%), that constitutes the second most important group in the country. (
  • Here we investigate to which extent geography and languages can predict the genetic structure of Native American populations. (
  • In more recent studies also using mtDNA, the hypothesis that language classifications reflect the genetic structure of Native American populations was also rejected [2] , [14] . (
  • A group of individuals, including the Airport Manager at the time, engaged in a petition drive to keep the facility open. (
  • As researchers begin to parse those differences, a crucial tool is a genetic map, as it determines how some groups of genetic differences tend to be inherited together. (
  • Genetic differences between populations commonly consist of differences in the frequencies of all inherited traits, including those that are environmentally malleable. (
  • The Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program, enables study in a large, diverse population including Hispanics. (
  • Identification of Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Populations: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. (
  • Ireland in the mid- to late 1500s was multilingual and boasted a diverse population of Welsh, Scottish and Irish, as well as settlers from continental Europe. (
  • The theory of loop analysis is newly applied to understanding stability of species communities under both mendelian and group selection. (
  • Species abundance relations, population fluctuations, and continental patterns of species diversity are illustrated and interpreted theoretically. (
  • On Continental Steady States of Species Diversity Michael L. Rosenzweig II. (
  • Towards a Theory of Continental Species Diversities Martin L. Cody 11. (
  • In 1975, with the grizzly bear extirpated from 98 percent of its former range south of the Canadian border, the federal government opted to protect the five remaining populations in the Lower 48 as threatened under the 1973 Endangered Species Act. (
  • In their place a classification of 34 species groups is proposed. (
  • The species were assigned to species groups based on examination of type material or subsequently identified specimens. (
  • Nine species were assigned to species groups from characters in the original description -- each such assignment is clearly indicated. (
  • Eight species are listed as incertae sedis for one or more of the following reasons: material was unavailable for study, the description did not cite sufficient information for placement in a species group, the types were lost, or the species was unknown. (
  • Descriptions, illustrations, a list of included species and localities, and a distributional map are provided for each species group along with a key to the group. (
  • Two of the species groups are restricted to the New World. (
  • The sister lineage includes the remaining 20 species groups and more than 340 species. (
  • Bledius is a large genus of 439 species, some of which occur in huge populations. (