Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Urobilinogen: A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Jews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.IsraelPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.IndiaAfrican Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Animal Population Groups: Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)GreeceAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.AfricaNutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).EuropeHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.BrazilOccupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.TexasItalyPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (1/3134)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity. (2/3134)

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)

Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories. (3/3134)

The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities.  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 4: relationship between lipid content and macroscopic severity of atherosclerosis. (4/3134)

In order to evaluate chemically the macroscopic scoring methods for severity of arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteries, concentrations of total lipids, esterified and free cholesterol and lipid phosphorus were compared to the macroscopic severity of lesions in the cerebral arteries obtained from 376 Japanese persons after unexpected death. An increase of cholesterol content was correlated significantly with an increase of Baker's score and/or Gore's atherosclerotic index. The correlation coefficient between Baker's score and total or esterified cholesterol was the highest among the tested correlations (r = 0.82, n = 376).  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (5/3134)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals. (6/3134)

Normal B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation are regulated by chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), and genetic polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors modify progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Therefore, 746 HIV-1-infected persons were examined for associations of previously described stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) chemokine and CCR5 and CCR2 chemokine receptor gene variants with the risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The SDF1-3'A chemokine variant, which is carried by 37% of whites and 11% of blacks, was associated with approximate doubling of the NHL risk in heterozygotes and roughly a fourfold increase in homozygotes. After a median follow-up of 11.7 years, NHL developed in 6 (19%) of 30 SDF1-3'A/3'A homozygotes and 22 (10%) of 202 SDF1-+/3'A heterozygotes, compared with 24 (5%) of 514 wild-type subjects. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-protective chemokine receptor variant CCR5-triangle up32 was highly protective against NHL, whereas the AIDS-protective variant CCR2-64I had no significant effect. Racial differences in SDF1-3'A frequency may contribute to the lower risk of HIV-1-associated NHL in blacks compared with whites. SDF-1 genotyping of HIV-1-infected patients may identify subgroups warranting enhanced monitoring and targeted interventions to reduce the risk of NHL.  (+info)

Serum total homocysteine concentrations in adolescent and adult Americans: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (7/3134)

BACKGROUND: The elevation of circulating total homocysteine concentrations in a fasting state is associated with an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this study were to describe the distribution of serum total homocysteine concentrations in the United States and to test for differences in homocysteine concentrations among sex, age, and race-ethnicity categories. DESIGN: Using surplus sera from phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we measured serum total homocysteine concentrations for a nationally representative sample of 3766 males and 4819 females aged > or = 12 y. RESULTS: Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were 9.6 and 7.9 mmol/L in non-Hispanic white males and females, 9.8 and 8.2 mmol/L in non-Hispanic black males and females, and 9.4 and 7.4 mmol/L in Mexican American males and females, respectively. Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in females than in males in each race-ethnicity group (P < 0.01) and were significantly lower in Mexican American females than in non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black females (P < 0.01). There was a significant age-sex interaction (P < 0.01), reflecting the fact that homocysteine concentrations in females tended to diverge from those in males at younger ages and converge with those in males at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: The first data on homocysteine concentrations in a nationally representative sample of Americans confirm the age and sex differences reported previously in nonrepresentative samples. These data also indicate that differences between Mexican American and non-Hispanic females may influence circulating homocysteine concentrations.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in type 2 diabetes: maternal history and ancient population expansion. (8/3134)

Several studies have suggested a maternal excess in the transmission of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. However, the majority of these reports rely on patients recalling parental disease status and hence are open to criticism. An alternative approach is to study mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The hypervariable region 1 of the rapidly evolving noncoding section of mtDNA is suitable for investigating maternal ancestry and has been used extensively to study the origins of human racial groups. We have sequenced this 347-bp section of mtDNA from leukocytes of subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 63) and age- and race-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 57). Consensus sequences for the two study groups were identical. Pairwise sequence analysis showed unimodal distribution of pairwise differences for both groups, suggesting that both populations had undergone expansion in ancient times. The distributions were significantly different (chi2 = 180, df = 11, P < 0.001); mean pairwise differences were 4.7 and 3.8 for the diabetic and control subjects, respectively. These data suggest that the diabetic subjects belong to an ancient maternal lineage that expanded before the major expansion observed in the nondiabetic population. Phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, Fitch-Margolish, or maximum likelihood methods failed to show the clustering of all (or a subset) of the diabetic subjects into one or more distinct lineages.  (+info)

we can estimate that about 120 unselected SNPs or 20 highly selected SNPs can distinguish group CA from NA, AA from AS and AA from NA. A few hundred random SNPs are required to separate CA from AA, CA from AS and AS from NA, or about 40 highly selected loci. STRP loci are more powerful and have higher effective δ values because they have multiple alleles. Table 3 reveals that fewer than 100 random STRPs, or about 30 highly selected loci, can distinguish the major racial groups. As expected, differentiating Caucasians and Hispanic Americans, who are admixed but mostly of Caucasian ancestry, is more difficult and requires a few hundred random STRPs or about 50 highly selected loci. These results also indicate that many hundreds of markers or more would be required to accurately differentiate more closely related groups, for example populations within the same racial category.. the paper is from 2002. i think we can go lower than 20 since we know some more ancestrally informative loci, such as ...
2450 words The New York Times published an article on December the 8th titled What Doctors Should Ignore: Science has revealed how arbitrary racial categories are. Perhaps medicine will abandon them, too. It is an interesting article and while I do not agree with all of it, I do agree with some. It starts off by talking about…
OMB requests comments on proposals it has received from the Federal Interagency Working Group for Research on Race and Ethnicity (Working Group) for revisions to OMBs Standards for Maintaining, Collecting, and Presenting Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity ...
Looking for races events in Anaheim? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
The definition and use of racial categories in health data were largely unquestioned until recently because of the tacitly accepted role of genetically transmitted physical characteristics in defining racial groups (such as skin colors), as well as the role of genetically transmitted physical characteristics in health status differences (such as skin cancers). When race is used in health data, there is a tendency to assume that a genetic reason may explain differences. But often there is no known potential genetic explanation for differences that are documented. Until recently, there has been little research dedicated to how well or how poorly the racial categories of health data used for public policy actually meet scientific criteria of mutually exhaustive and exclusive groupings of people by any definable characteristics. A recent multiracial Public Health Service workshop concluded, "Current concepts of race and ethnicity in public health surveillance data lack clarity, precision and ...
In support of the Stanford University School of Medicine mission, DISCOVeR Lab, led by Dr. Latha Palaniappan, a physician scientist, conducts research that seeks to investigate racial/ethnic health disparities in cardiometabolic disease risk, burden, screening, treatment and outcomes in multiethnic populations. She along with collaborators at Stanford and other world-renown institutions, take what they learn from patient care back to their labs to guide their research projects into new diagnostics and treatments for various illnesses.. DISCOVeR research projects seek to address the gap in knowledge of health and health-related patient centered outcomes, specifically exploring gender and racial/ethnic disparities in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Learn more about the STRONG-D Study here and the IMPACT Study here.. ...
Social interpretations of race regard the common categorizations of people into different races, often with biologist tagging of particular "racial" attributes beyond mere anatomy, as more socially and culturally determined than based upon biology. Some interpretations are often deconstructionist and poststructuralist in that they critically analyze the historical construction and development of racial categories. Marks (1995) argued that even as the idea of "race" was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. In the Old World, the gradual transition in appearances from one racial group to adjacent racial groups emphasized that "one variety of mankind does so sensibly pass into the other, that you cannot mark out the limits between them," as Blumenbach observed in his writings on human variation. In parts of the Americas, the situation was somewhat different. The immigrants to the New World came largely from widely separated ...
The study, published in the February issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics, involved 3,636 people enrolled in a large trial on the genetics of hypertension. To see whether genetic markers correspond to the standard racial categories, the scientists first analyzed the volunteers DNA, identifying which genetic markers they carried. They then used a computer program to cluster people based on genetic similarities; those who shared genetic markers were grouped together. Finally, the scientists compared those groupings with the volunteers self-identified race. The result: people who considered themselves white had been grouped by the computer, based on their genetic markers, in one cluster, while people who consider themselves African-American had been grouped in a second, different cluster ...
n these glossy, lightweight days of an election year, it seems, they cant build metaphorical tents big or fast enough for every politician who wants to pitch one up and invite the multicultural folds to "Come on under!" The feel-good message that both parties seek to convey is: regardless of race or creed, we really ARE all kin beneath the skin. Yet whatever the calculated quality of this new politics of inclusion, its sentiment accords firmly with scientists growing knowledge of the profound genetic fraternity that binds together human beings of the most seemingly disparate origins. Scientists have long suspected that the racial categories recognized by society are not reflected on the genetic level. But the more closely that researchers examine the human genome -- the complement of genetic material encased in the heart of almost every cell of the body -- the more most of them are convinced that the standard labels used to distinguish people by "race" have little or no biological meaning. ...
Race categories are consistent with the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards. Multiple race data were reported by 25 states and the District of Columbia in 2006. The multiple-race data for these reporting areas were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 OMB standards for comparability with other reporting areas. ...
Rachel Dolezals assertion that she identifies as a black woman, despite being born into a white family, has some questioning whether a person can be
An age-old dream of the human race may have finally been realized. Painstaking research conducted by brilliant researchers at the Cambridge Laboratory of Molecular Biology proved that the bodys own immune system has the ability to destroy the c.....
GULFSTREAM- DICK POWELL RACE 1 RACE 2 RACE 3 RACE 4 RACE 5 RACE 6 RACE 7 RACE 8 RACE 9 RACE 10 RACE 11 RACE 12 3-8-5 9-3-2 9-7-2 3-8-9 11-7-5 10-2-5 5-6-10 12-5-1 5-6-12 12-13-1 8-7-3 12-7-1 Play of the Day: Race 7, #5 held well after opening up a big lead on the turf when blinkers were…. Read More. ...
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the
We asked our readers to share what its like to adopt a child of a different race. Here, they tell their stories: the challenges and the successes.
... You MUST understand that statement, because your lack of knowledge allows it to hide in plain sight.
Looking for races events in Warrenpoint? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
Description of disease Race-based drug. Treatment Race-based drug. Symptoms and causes Race-based drug Prophylaxis Race-based drug
There are clearly age differences. As we age, the gut is less able to absorb, yet the liver clears things more slowly, so giving psychotropic drugs to the elderly is a real guessing game. Sex differences have been ignored, much to the detriment of women. The fiction was that men and women are of the same species. Obviously an error. Lynn shovland at mindspring.com wrote: ,There are also sex differences and possibly age differences. , ,The medicine of the future will be custom medicine, tailored ,to the individual on the basis of careful testing, rather than ,the shotgun approach we use now. , , , ,-----Original Message----- ,From: Lynn D. Johnson, Ph.D. ,ljohnson at solution-consulting.com, ,Sent: Jul 23, 2005 6:34 PM ,To: The new improved paleopsych list ,paleopsych at paleopsych.org, ,Subject: Re: [Paleopsych] Kenan Malik: Is this the future we really want? Different drugs for different races , ,It seems like a good future to me. I am not going to do a complete ,exegesis on this, but offer ...
Transcript STEVE INSKEEP, HOST: It's MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. Good morning. I'm Steve Inskeep. DAVID GREENE, HOST: And I'm David
Contemporary examples of cultural exclusion based on race may seem small until we study the larger patterns they create and reinforce.
PITTSFIELD -- Barrington Stage Companys cast, crew and administrators are coming together to tackle community issues, with this weeks theme focusing on race and …
Originally Posted by rsw American culture is an extension of European culture. We speak a European language (English) and we have a European style of
For many, footraces are the only athletic competition they will ever enter. Those who dont think of themselves as athletes simply revel in feeling fit. Runners high hardly describes the
The race-day use of an anti-bleeding drug is expected to come up for another round of discussion when the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission meets on Wednesday.
Ihad such a lovely time at the Listowel Races recently when my colleague Marietta Doran and I judged Ladies Day. It was certainly one of the most glamorous race...
50. U.S. Population The population of the United States by race in 2000 and the projected population by race for the year 2025 are given below (in thousands).* Race 2000 2025 White.
Before we can discuss the minutiae of the genetics of the human race, we need to ask whether our race is indeed human or simply highly evolved primates.. ...
Before we can discuss the minutiae of the genetics of the human race, we need to ask whether our race is indeed human or simply highly evolved primates.. ...
A Darwin Award is recognition for people who have contributed positively to the human race by removing themselves from the gene-pool through...
SILVER SPRING, Md., Oct. 23 - The music was blaring, the hair dryers humming and the hair stylists laughing in the beauty salon as one of them, Kathia Mendez, loosened her curlers and let her black hair tumble to her shoulders. To many Americans, the vivacious young woman smiling into the gilded mirror might seem easily recognizable as a black woman. But like many Hispanics here, Ms. Mendez views race through a decidedly different lens. In her home country, the Dominican Republic, she is known as "india," or Indian, a term often used for people of mixed race who do not have indigenous roots. If she was asked to describe herself in the United States census, she says, she would choose the racial category selected by nearly 15 million Hispanics in 2000: "some other race.". "Im not black and Im not white; we dont define ourselves that way," said Ms. Mendez, a 25-year-old hair stylist who has lived in the United States for nine years. "So I would choose some other race. But now census ...
AMY GOODMAN: Joining us on the phone from St. Paul, Minnesota, is Jonathan Kahn. He is a law professor at Hamline University. His article, "How a Drug Becomes Ethnic: Law, Commerce, and the Production of Racial Categories in Medicine," was published in the Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics last year. We are also joined on the telephone by Dr. Paul Underwood, President of the Association of Black Cardiologists. The organization was a co-sponsor of the clinical trials for BiDil. Well, lets begin with Dr. Underwood. Can you talk about what BiDil is and why it has been approved just for African Americans?. DR. PAUL UNDERWOOD: Okay, well, thank you very, very much. BiDil is a drug that is used for treating heart failure patients, people who have moderate to moderate-severe heart failure. Its an adjunctive therapy thats added on top of the standard therapy thats used, which would include the ACE-Inhibitors and Beta-Blockers as well as usually diuretics. And its a combination ...
What is "race"? We can now take for granted that from a scientific viewpoint the idea of human races does not make sense. But that does not help when we want to understand how race and racializations ended up shaping social and political realities across the Atlantic, and how they could remain virulent to this day.In this seminar we will take a circuitously comparative approach to the question of race in the Iberian Atlantic. Proceeding by way of historical example, we will discuss how various forms of racialization operated in Spain, its colonies, and the states that emerged after the desintegration of the Spanish empire. Topics will include the expulsion of the Moors and Jews in late medieval Spain, the expansion of black slavery in the Spanish colonies, the emergence of "castas" and the figure of the "mestizo" in the colonies, the emergence of racial categories in the 1810 constitutional convention in Cádiz, and the racialized language that was endemic during the Cuban Wars of Independence. ...
Objective. Prevalence and severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in adults is suggested to be distinctly different between ethnic groups. The impact of ethnicity is not as well delineated in pediatric SLE (pSLE). We compared prevalence and extent of major organ involvement, disease activity, and damage in pSLE between different ethnic groups.. Methods. Ethnic demographic profiles of an inception cohort of 265 patients with pSLE followed at Sick Kids Hospital in Toronto were determined and compared to the Metropolitan Toronto at-risk population. Patients were categorized into ethnic subsets based on self-designated ethnic origins. Disease characteristics including major organ involvement, disease activity, and damage measures were longitudinally determined and compared among ethnic groups.. Results. Ethnicity data were available on 259/265 pSLE patients (99.6%); the majority were non-Caucasian (60%) compared to the Metropolitan Toronto at-risk population (40%) (p , 0.0001). Non-Caucasian ...
Noted hacker Eric S. Raymond (ESR) recently posted on his blog about a development that he thinks is forthcoming from genetics: the fact that intelligence is largely determined by genetics, and that different racial groups have significant differences in average intelligence. Hes dismissive of the secular piety that has kept this idea down, but hes…
Most counseling involves the occurrence of a particular disease in a child and the concern of the parents as to whether their future children might be similarly affected. Parents may also want to know about the risk for the affected childs children or the children of unaffected sibs. Other situations ... May involve, for instance, a person contemplating marriage who is concerned about some aspect of the future spouses family history. There may be a specific disease in a near relative, ancestors from a different racial group, or the future spouse may be a relative ... Recently the advent of screening programs for certain diseases in high-risk populations has introduced prospective counseling--where the counselees have been identified as high-risk couples before the disease has ever occurred in the family ... In many cases the family doctor is the most appropriate person to do the counseling since he knows the family, its attitudes, and the socioeconomic background better than a consultant. ...
Ontario plans to revamp Grade 9 - with an eye to ending streaming in the first, "critical" year of high school - as part of its new equity plan that will also compel school boards to collect detailed data on everything from staff hires to student suspensions… The provinces three-year equity plan will, for the first time, have school boards collect data on race, ethnicity and other factors to determine if certain groups are disproportionately represented in areas such as suspensions or expulsions and work to address them.. ...
Gardiner P, Whelan J, White LF, Filippelli AC, Bharmal N, Kaptchuk TJ. A systematic review of the prevalence of herb usage among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States.. J Immigr Minor Health. Aug 1, 2013; 15: 4: 817-28: PubMed PMID22723252; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4401997 ...
Closer, more meaningful contact with those of other races may help assuage the underlying anxiety. Some years back, Dr. Gaither of Duke ran an intriguing study in which incoming white college students were paired with either same-race or different-race roommates. After four months, roommates who lived with different races had a more diverse group of friends and considered diversity more important, compared with those with same-race roommates. After six months, they were less anxious and more pleasant in interracial interactions. (It was the Republican-Democrat pairings that proved problematic, Dr. Gaither told me. Apparently they couldnt stand each other.). Some corners of the world seem to naturally foster this mellower view of race - particularly Hawaii, Mr. Obamas home state. Dr. Pauker has found that by age 7, children in Massachusetts begin to stereotype about racial out-groups, whereas children in Hawaii do not. Shes not sure why, but she suspects that the states unique racial makeup ...
Daily lessons for teaching When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America that focus on specific objectives and offer multiple teaching strategies.
This webinar addresses what standardized race and ethnicity data is and why it is important to collect. It also provides the strategies and tools to help staff successfully collect patients and race and ethnicity data and respond to patient questions and concerns.. Learning Objectives:. ...
Statistics for NPR Topics- Race, NPR stories on race and ethnicity. Commentary on races effects on politics, culture, society. Subscribe to NPR podcasts and RSS feeds on race and ethnicity issues., By: Feedage Forager, ID: 236965, Grade: 93, Type: RSS20
By Sven Longshanks. You would think that informing people about the negative consequences of race mixing would be gratefully received and seen as similar to giving warnings about the dangers of smoking or eating "fast food," but when the subject is brought up and you try to warn people about it, they dont appreciate it and instead accuse you of "hating" people of mixed race such as mulattoes. If common people knew the facts about the differences among the different races they would then realize that it is actually the parents of mixed race people who hate them by forcing on them their genetic status in the first place.. Herein it is hoped to give common people -in particular Whites- an understanding of real life negative consequences of race mixing resulting mainly from psychological conditioning, mostly acquired in the Jewish controlled mass media for specific purposes related to their quest for world control. There is very little or nothing around devoted to this subject and most people seem ...
Our study is based on a large population registry data, which produces statistically stable results and allows an examination of the effects of parental race on
We were calling the front runners the Kenyans out of definition, and then I checked the race results. They were Kenyans, with a couple of others tucked in. They were a whole different race, they just happened to be on the same course, these guys were F.A.S.T. The world record, from 2008 (according to Wiki) is 2:03:59. The winner here today ran in 2:07:something fast. These boys were MOVING ...
... is a group whose membership is exclusively for one race. It is an organization which exists to promote special rights and privileges for the people of that race. If such an organization existed for the benefit of whites, it would be called a racist group, yet somehow the NAACP is applauded for its race-based discrimination.
This list is for any TrackChasers, people who enjoy seeing races at many different tracks, to share information on any race tracks that may be useful to others. You can pose questions, share experiences, or post any info about upcoming events, track openings and re-openings, etc.
Looking for races events in London? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
Observing the pain of others has been shown to elicit greater activation in sensory and emotional areas of the brain suggested to represent a neural marker of empathy. This modulation of brain responses to others pain is dependent on the race of the observed person, such that observing own-race people in pain is associated with greater activity in the anterior cingulate and bilateral insula cortices compared to other-race people. Importantly, it is not known how this racial bias to pain in other-race individuals might change over time in new immigrants or might depend on the level and quality of contact with people of the other-race. We investigated these issues by recruiting Chinese students who had first arrived in Australia within the past 6 months to 5 years and assessing their level of contact with other races across different social contexts using comprehensive rating scales. During fMRI, participants observed videos of own-race/other-race individuals, as well as own-group/other-group individuals
Highlights reform provisions to reduce racial/ethnic health disparities, including requiring data collection, integrating minority health into national strategies, and funding efforts to increase minorities representation in the healthcare workforce.
Bridged-Race Population Estimates for Census 2000 and 2010 Description Starting in the 2000 decennial census, the U.S Census Bureau has used the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) revised standards for the classification of Federal data on race and ethnicity. Thus, race data on the 2000 and 2010 census are not comparable with race data from data systems that continue to collect data using the 1977 OMB standards. The 1977 standards specified four single-race categories: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, and white. The 1997 standards required that Federal data collection programs allow respondents to select one or more race categories when responding to a query on their racial identity. This provision means that there are potentially 31 race groups, depending on whether an individual selects one, two, three, four, or all five of the race categories. For comparability, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), in collaboration with the U.S. Census ...
Bridged-Race Population Estimates for Census 2000 and 2010 Description Starting in the 2000 decennial census, the U.S Census Bureau has used the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) revised standards for the classification of Federal data on race and ethnicity. Thus, race data on the 2000 and 2010 census are not comparable with race data from data systems that continue to collect data using the 1977 OMB standards. The 1977 standards specified four single-race categories: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, and white. The 1997 standards required that Federal data collection programs allow respondents to select one or more race categories when responding to a query on their racial identity. This provision means that there are potentially 31 race groups, depending on whether an individual selects one, two, three, four, or all five of the race categories. For comparability, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), in collaboration with the U.S. Census ...
Bridged-Race Population Estimates for Census 2000 and 2010 Description Starting in the 2000 decennial census, the U.S Census Bureau has used the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) revised standards for the classification of Federal data on race and ethnicity. Thus, race data on the 2000 and 2010 census are not comparable with race data from data systems that continue to collect data using the 1977 OMB standards. The 1977 standards specified four single-race categories: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, and white. The 1997 standards required that Federal data collection programs allow respondents to select one or more race categories when responding to a query on their racial identity. This provision means that there are potentially 31 race groups, depending on whether an individual selects one, two, three, four, or all five of the race categories. For comparability, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), in collaboration with the U.S. Census ...
Compared to 19th-century United States, 20th-century Brazil was characterized by a relative absence of sharply defined racial groups. This pattern reflects a different history and different social relations. Basically, race in Brazil was biologized, but in a way that recognized the difference between ancestry (which determines genotype) and phenotypic differences. There, racial identity was not governed by a rigid descent rule. A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from. Over a dozen racial categories would be recognized in conformity with the combinations of hair color, hair texture, eye color, and skin color. These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest. That is, race referred to appearance, not heredity. One of the most striking consequences of the Brazilian system of racial identification was that ...
The Black Population: 2010" (PDF), Census.gov, September 2011. "Black or African Americans" refers to a person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The Black racial category includes people who marked the "Black, African Am., or Negro" checkbox. It also includes respondents who reported entries such as African American; Sub-Saharan African entries, such as Kenyan and Nigerian; and Afro-Caribbean entries, such as Haitian and Jamaican." ...
Papers that conceptualize ethnicity as an aspect of public health have increased in number over recent years in Social Science & Medicine, as elsewhere. This virtual special issue includes a selection of papers, mostly published in the last five years, to highlight recent developments in this area. The question of whether the risks associated with reifying ethnic categories in particular settings, thereby reinforcing racialised models of thinking, is addressed. The wisdom of seeking to construct ethnicity-type variables for the purpose of global cross-cultural comparison is queried.An unavoidable contradiction of studying ethnicity is the inevitable re-inscription of ethnic and racialised categories. Inequities in health outcome or quality of health service provision and uptake are injustices that have to be measured in order to be addressed. Whether research is qualitative or quantitative and whether or not an investigation finds inequalities, the definition of an ethnic group whether in terms ...
The present study investigated the influence social factors upon the neural processing of faces of other races using event-related potentials. A multi-tiered approach was used to identify face-specific stages of processing, to test for effects of race-of-face upon processing at these stages and to evaluate the impact of social contact and individuating experience upon these effects. The results showed that race-of-face has significant effects upon face processing, starting from early perceptual stages of structural encoding, and that social factors may play an important role in mediating these effects.
INTRODUCTION. The term race refers to a group of genetically related persons who share certain physical characteristics such as skin colour and facial features, and who have for a long time been isolated geographically, or have in common cultural or religious practices.1, 2 On the other hand, the term ethnicity, which has been found to be more socially acceptable, applies to a group of people of the same nationality, language or culture, and who may or may not have genetic markers in common.1, 2. There are two ways of considering race. The first is in terms of anthropological classifications of negroid, caucasoid etc; and the second is based either on overt physical characteristics or, as in the United States, on self racial-identification.3 Almost universally throughout the world, this second system of classification is applied.. As there is no clear distinction between race and ethnicity, many researchers no longer distinguish between these, but rather use the single term race/ethnicity.1, 2 ...
Medical disparities base on race,gender, intellectual, disabilities, LGBT status, and size on Studybay.com - sing Medical Stereotypes (if looking at race), online marketplace for students
(Racial Bias in Police Use of Force) Of the 43.5 million persons who had contact with police in 2005, an estimated 1.6% had force used or threatened against them during their most recent contact, a rate relatively unchanged from 2002 (1.5%). In both 2002 and 2005, blacks and Hispanics experienced police use of force at higher rates than whites. Of persons who had force used against them in 2005, an estimated 83% felt the force was excessive.
AC360° hired renowned child psychologist and University of Maryland professor Dr. Melanie Killen to design and implement our study that examines childrens perceptions of race. The results are the basis for Anderson Coopers special series Kids on Race: The Hidden Picture. We asked Dr.
This course provides basic theoretical and empirical knowledge about racial and ethnic relations in the United States. The first part of the course explores theories that explain the introduction, maintenance, reproduction, and persistence of race and ethnicity as meaningful social groupings. With this theoretical backdrop, we examine racial and ethnic relations in the "real world." The main themes of this course are: 1) to explain whether, how and why race and ethnicity matter; 2) to demonstrate how race and ethnicity interact with and relate to larger social and economic institutions in the U.S.; and 3) to help you to construct theoretically informed and cogent arguments that support your own perspectives on racial and ethnic group relations.. We will consider the following questions: 1. What accounts for biological emphasis of race? 3. What accounts for racial/ethnic groups position in the class hierarchy? 4. How does the fact of being a racial/ethnic minority affect other group experiences? ...
The focus here is on the content with supporting images or graphics. The content we are using here are as per our knowledge as health practitioners and the knowledge accrued from different sources in course of time ...
Michael Tsarion on Race, Jordan Peterson, and Why Conspiracy Work is Spiritual Work |372| Share Tweet SHARES0 [IMG] Michael Tsarions books ask tough...
Ive seen other threads on Project Eternitys races, but they seem to all be arguments over whether or not to have Elves and Dwarves. So, since it sounds like Project Eternity will have Elves and Dwarves, what would you like the other race or races to be? So far we have Human, Elf, Dwarf, and possi...
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Balls Race. Download Balls Race and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
Follows the transitions of Nicco, Norie and Keegan, three young New Yorkers from different race and class backgrounds, as they prepare and undergo female to male transition surgery. Reveals the conflict over the place of trans-males within the lesbian community. A film by Sam Feder and Julie Hollar. 2006. 68 min.
WC3: Night elves! Theyre this ancient, ten thousand year old race and friends to the ancient powers of nature! Blessed children of a powerful goddess. Wow nelfs: tauren, trolls, mogu, pandaren, mantid, nerubian, qiraji, Jinyu, saurok, - all over ten thousand years old easily. Mountain giants and such dont actually give a care about the night elves, oh, and not only is your goddess not even a goddess, this other race knows her better than you. Oh, and your racial leader, malfurion? He
Lo Folks Im currently a Night Elf Blood Death Knight. Im debating changing race (Mostly because I get bored of one race every 6 months or so) and I was looking for input on what alliance race I should change to. I am currently raiding so any racials that would give me a boost are the factors that hold the majority of influence here. Of course, remaining a Night Elf is always an option if race changing would cripple me. Thanks!
Find the best Race tracks around Gainesville,FL and get detailed driving directions with road conditions, live traffic updates, and reviews of local business along the way.
Ive only watched The Amazing Race a couple of times, but Downton Abbey is a must see! Ill be watching Mr. Selfridge in the meantime! I love your pairings -- it would definitely be a race to see! Lady Mary is such a snobby snit, she would probably win just because shes so used to getting her way ...
No wonder his goal is to be the last living thing alive. If one can burrow into creation itself, whats to stop him from at some point learning to sever other essenses from the fabric? He could in time potentially rob all other races of Psionics then, or master control of the extremest forms of Psionics, giving him nearly boundless power? Or even kill with a thought, even later ...
I CANT BREATHE - Woman drowning in her own poo in desperate race against time for treatment as she struggles to breathe ...
Quote: Originally Posted by kazan188 Aryans were all whites. During History, they migrated in different part of the world where they have slowly race-
Wookiees are a race of tree-dwelling humanoids. They are, on average, about 2 meters tall and can live for up to 600 years fairly easily. They are nati...
Read "Duty, Honor, Country, Disparity: Race/Ethnic Differences in Health and Disability Among Male Veterans, Population Research and Policy Review" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Babies may be dying because many doctors do not realise black and Asian women have shorter pregnancies than whites, experts claimed yesterday.. Stillbirths, or infant death during or shortly after delivery, was highest among Indian and Pakistani women, a study of 197,000 births found.. The rate is also higher among black women than whites, it showed.. Now researchers are calling for overdue south Asian and black babies to be induced a week earlier in the pregnancy than white babies to cut the number of deaths.. Women in different racial groups have slightly different lengths of pregnancy, the researchers said.. Doctors will normally induce a birth if a baby is late arriving-usually after 41 weeks. But this may be too late for some black and Asian newborns, said Dr Imelda Balchin, who led a 12-year study in London and Bristol.. She added: The racial classification, although crude, is a probable indicator of the genetic variation in normal gestational length.. Whether differences in outcome were ...
Clustering can be visualized by plotting the first MDS components against each other for the 1KG (Figure 1A, B) and the NCS individuals (Figure 1C, D). Data points were plotted in the first and second dimensions (Figure 1A,C) and in the second and third dimensions (Figure 1B,D). The results showed that AFR, EUR, and ASN superpopulations are clearly differentiated in the first two dimensions, while the SAN and AMR groups are overlapping, reflecting their historical European and East Asian ancestry (Figure 1A). While the AMR group is broadly distributed, indicating that some individuals are genetically more similar to the EUR group and others to either the ASN or AFR groups, individuals in the SAN group cluster together. In the second and third dimensions, SAN and AMR are distinctly identifiable (Figure 1B). NCS individuals identified as Asian by self-report overlap with both the SAN and ASN groups. This is expected, as a distinct racial category for persons of South Asian descent (largely Indian) ...
Advanced CKD is one of the starkest examples of disparities in health conditions, with rates of ESRD for racial/ethnic minorities ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 times those of age-adjusted white counterparts, although there are relatively similar rates for the early stages of CKD (1). Despite the consistent findings of increased ESRD among racial/ethnic minorities, the reasons for these disparities remain elusive. Health research often tries to identify an independent role of race/ethnicity by controlling for factors, such as socioeconomic status, education, health care utilization, and insurance, and exploring potential polymorphisms of genes that may influence the development and/or progression of CKD (1,2). However, rarely do we reflect on what the designation of race/ethnicity actually means beyond a simple census marker. The concepts of race and more recently, ethnicity are deeply integrated into the social fabric of our society. Yet, they often mean different things to different people, and the ...
As Liana mentioned, the Council for Exceptional Children is meeting in our neck of the woods this week. Yesterday, I caught an interesting session at the conference on the problem of disproportionate representation of minorities in special education. The speaker was Edward Fergus, who is the deputy director of the Metropolitan Center for Urban Education at New York University. Metro Center is the entity that, under a contract with the New York State Department of Education, provides technical assistance to New York school districts that have been cited for disproportionality that is, for over-assigning students from certain racial categories to special...
My latest column at RH Reality Check discusses the fact that last week was the tenth anniversary of National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, and delves a bit into the causes of race-based health disparities. I was inspired to write about this topic after hearing scholar and Professor Dorothy Roberts speak at Barnard College. Shes the…
Unconscious racial biases manifest themselves in the way we make deicisions about trust, a new study publisehd in PNAS finds. Despite being outwardly unracist, many study participants showed implicit racism in the way they trusted non-white partners in a money risking game.
France estimates that its ethnic minority populations can be divided as follows: 4 to 7 million Arabs, 3 to 5 million blacks, 1.5 million Asians and 600,000 Jews. The majority ethnic groups in France...
The focus here is on the content with supporting images or graphics. The content we are using here are as per our knowledge as health practitioners and the knowledge accrued from different sources in course of time ...
p P F I Z E R F A C T S Racial Differences in Cancer A Comparison of Black and White Adults in the United States p Approximately 177,000 blacks aged 20 and older will be diagnosed with cancer in 2005 an
Health care utilization in the United States often differs by race and ethnicity. However, less data currently exists about whether health care utilization for skin diseases in particular differs by race.
The Republicans of the Senate wrecked the League of Nations for the great moral purpose of gratifying their hatred of Mr. WILSON and for the still nobler purpose of winning the election this year by the means of certain racial groups ...
In a new documentary, the 90-year-old scientist says nothing hes learned in the past several years has changed his views on the relationship between race and intelligence.
This article is about colour-blindness - an approach to race and diversity that seemed like a good idea in 1960s. It was a snap-back solution to racial tensions of the time, running high post-segregation. The idea was to ignore racial differences all together, in hopes of creating equal treatment based on personal merit instead. Although the discussion focused primarily on race, it is fair to extend it to nationality, ethnicity, and culture, as theyre all inextricably intertwined.
Did you know that Vietnam has 54 officially recognized ethnic groups, speaking more than 50 languages? Explore the countrys rich diversity with a look at the many traditions that define contemporary life in Vietnam.
Pestilence Commandments lyrics & video : Mutual aversion and disgust, religious facts Fighting for the land on which they live Separation of different races, different nations ...
I am Korean and Indian. So much these days is focused on race. This is something that has never been a problem for me. But, it is something that has caused a lot of confusion, everywhere I go. People look at me like Im a math problem. Jo Koi once said. It is a feeling…
This course examines issues of diversity in colleges and universities from varied perspectives, including institutional; pedagogical; methodological; gender, race/ethnicity and class; and policy.
A local female-service organization dedicated to helping the people of the Thibodaux area are holding a local race to benefit a Thibodaux family.The 5K race, Run-About, sponsored by Femme Natale is scheduled for Oct. 4 in Peltier Park in Thibodaux.
Race Day in the award winning Musselburgh racecourse in Edinburgh. Includes modern facilities, atmospheric bars and plenty of fun.
It would be nice to know something more about: 1. Your everyday diet and your diet before and after the race? 2. Do you have some stomach trouble during the race? If yes, how do you deal with it? *Magda
Mark Webber is predicting the closest Le Mans 24-hour race on record even though his Porsche team has locked out the top two spots in preliminary qualifying
Washington, D.C.-based groups are dominating the airwaves in the Last Frontier, home to one of the nations most contested Senate races.
Tyranids are a nomadic alien race comprising many genetically engineered forms created from harvested bio-mass. They are an elemental force that seeks to cons
1984 - Population: 2,664,309. 1985 - Meeting of the Association Internationale des Maires Francophones held in city. 1988 - ... African Jazz (musical group) formed. 1954 - University of Lovanium established. 1955 Boulevard Albert I constructed. ... Inter Continental hotel in business. 1972 - École d'Informatique d'Électronique founded.[citation needed] 1974 September: Zaire ... Population: 2,008,352. 1975 - Sozacom building constructed. 1976 - Voix du Zaire broadcasting complex and BCZ building ...
The climate is classified as continental. Kerben Airport has weekly flights to Bishkek, Osh and Jalal-Abad. "2009 population ... "Rights Group Concerned About Kyrgyz Aksy Events". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2007-03-17. " ... Its population was 14,141 in 2009. It is the administrative centre of Aksy District. Despite the fact that the town officially ...
UK: Guardian Media Group. "Population of Capital Cities and Cities of 100,000 or More Inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2011. ... 9 June: Pearl Continental hotel bombing. August: Bombing. 9 October: Bombing in Khyber Bazaar. Amn Tehrik (peace effort) ... Population: 56,589 (city); 58,555 (municipality). 1881 - Population: 79,982. 1882 - Sethi Mohallah residence built. 1883 - All ... Population: 130,967. 1947 - City becomes part of the Dominion of Pakistan. 1948 - City becomes capital of the Peshawar province ...
The continental shelf boundary separates the two island groups. The Prince Edward Islands are located between Africa and ... Antarctica along with its outlying islands have no permanent population. All land claims south of 60°S latitude are held in ... While Novaya Zemlya was variously grouped with Europe or with Asia in 19th-century maps it is now usually grouped with Europe, ... and is usually grouped with Europe if grouped with any continent. By contrast, the Canary and Madeira islands off the Atlantic ...
The Kinh account for 99% of the province's population; the remaining population is of the Muong and Dao ethnic groups. The ... with a continental climate affected by western winds; and the montane centering on the peaks of Ba Vì, with a cool climate and ...
Continental regions as per UN categorizations/map. "IDB: Countries Ranked by Population". 28 November 1999. Archived from the ... In the central Sahara, Mandinka or Mande groups are most significant. Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa, are found in ... "Africa Population Dynamics". Past and future population of Africa Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine.. Source: United ... Africa's total population surpassing other continents is fairly recent; African population surpassed Europe in the 1990s, while ...
The officially registered population of Chust in 2004 was 63,800. Tajiks and Uzbeks are the largest ethnic groups. Chust is an ... Chust has a continental climate with cold winters and hot summers. The average July temperature is around 27 °C (81 °F). The ... Like the near-by, Kosonsoy, the town has a majority of its population being Persian speaking Tajiks. It form one of many ...
The population of the district is wholly rural. The most numerous ethnic groups, according to the 2002 Census, include Bashkirs ... Climate is temperate continental. The district was first established on November 4, 1926. In October 1938, it became a part of ... Population: 25,538 (2010 Census); 27,904 (2002 Census); 29,584 (1989 Census). The population of Barda accounts for 34.6% of the ... Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population ...
9. Support musical groups for indoor activities. However, such groups must be organized, school sponsored, and supervised to ... The Continental Conference is a rough equivalent of the former Bux-Mont League. The American Conference is similar to the 1970s ... For football only, 2014 saw a return to a conference structure based on student population, with all the larger schools in the ... Instead, Suburban One grouped the three conferences by geography and tradition. The National Conference became the home for the ...
"Population size: 7.9% from a minority ethnic group". Office for National Statistics. 2003-02-13. Archived from the original on ... November 17, 2006.Nlm.nih.gov: Asian Continental Ancestry Group is also used for categorical purposes. British Sociological ... Ausstats.abs.gov.au '2001 Census Visible Minority and Population Group User Guide' Statcan.ca[dead link] West Asian site: ... The Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander population groups are well defined; moreover, there has been experience with ...
The population density is 150 inhabitants per square kilometre. The local speech in the region is Moselle Franconian ( ... Ürzig lies in a transitional zone between temperate oceanic climate and continental climate; compared to other regions in ... Moselfränkisch), part of the Central Franconian dialect group. ...
Unlike in continental Chile, the indigenous population of Chiloé grew from 1700 onwards. By 1712 indigenous peoples made up ... In that year a group helped the Dutch corsair Baltazar de Cordes attack the Spanish settlement of Castro. ... His son is reported to have had similar behaviors and his majordomo kidnapped children to send them to continental Chile. ... The encomienda activities in Chiloé included the Indians traveling to the continental coast to log for alerce wood. In ...
It is now home to a number of displaced Aboriginal people mainly from the Pintupi and Luritja groups. At the 2006 census, ... The predominant religion at Papunya is Lutheranism, with 258 members or 86.3% of the population, based on the 2006 census. It ... is the closest town to the Australian continental pole of inaccessibility. Warumpi Band were an Australian country and ... Papunya had a population of 299. Papunya is on restricted Aboriginal land and requires a permit to enter or travel through. ...
... and the Continental Kennel Club population, which is not descended from the Canadian original.[citation needed] A third group ... At present two disparate populations use the same breed name: the original Agriculture Canada recognised population in Canada, ... the main population now occurring in Manitoba where the parent kennel relocated in 2008.[citation needed] The Seppala Siberian ... Doug Willett undertook a similar breed initiative through the Continental Kennel Club's registry in the USA.[citation needed] ...
By 1871, the largest ethnic groups in the county were Scots (18 per cent of the population), Irish (8 per cent), English (12.6 ... Immigration from continental Germany slowed by 1880. First and second-generation descendants now comprised most of the local ... In 1841, the population count was 4424. In 1846 the village of Waterloo had a population of 200, "mostly Germans". There was a ... In 1835, approximately 70% of the population was Mennonite but by 1851, only 26% of the much larger population were of this ...
A new heading, Continental Population Groups, has been created with new identification that emphasize geography. Leroi, Armand ... Blumenbach, like Meiners, did rank his Caucasian grouping higher than other groups in terms of mental faculties or potential ... Wells asserted that Semitic and Hamitic populations were mainly of Mediterranean type, and Aryan populations were originally of ... including the populations of Europe, and the Mongoloid race, including the populations of East Asia. Thus, Carleton S. Coon ( ...
Both groups belong to the Dehcho First Nations. Fort Providence has a continental subarctic climate typical of the Northwest ... The recorded population was 734 in the 2011 Census, an increase of 1.0% from 2006. In the 2006 Census there were 727 people. Of ... In 2012 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 788 with an average yearly growth rate of ... Fort Providence - Statistical Profile at the GNWT 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile Deh Gah Gotie Dene Band Fort Providence ...
Geographically, COE is organized in kindreds, local worship groups that, depending on the population density of their area, may ... The body of COE's doctrine is promulgated under the name Continental Odinist Rite. In addition to naturally adopting the moral ... A less Odin-focused group split off in 2012 as the Ásatrú Lore Vanatrú Assembly (ALVA). The term Odinism was coined by Orestes ... It was held in 2002 in Tenerife, Canary Islands, and carried out by members of the neopagan group Church of the Guanche People ...
... according to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, was 67,100. Karakol features a humid continental climate (Dfb). Karakol ... Also this city is culturally rich by different ethnic groups that live here such as Dungan, Uigur, Kalmak, Uzbek, Russians and ... Population in provinces, districts, towns of Russian Empire (without Finland). Semirech'e Province (Demoscope.ru) (in Russian) ... In the 1880s Karakol's population surged with an influx of Dungans, Chinese Muslims fleeing warfare in China. In 1888, the ...
The population of Tokmok is mostly made up of Kyrgyz and ethnic Russians. Other ethnic groups include Dungans and Uzbeks. The ... Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for Tokmok is "Dfb" or a Warm Summer Continental Climate. The average annual temperature ... According to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, the population of Tokmok was 53,231. ... 2009 population census of the Kyrgyz Republic: Chuy Region at the Wayback Machine (archived 2011-08-10) Город Токмок (City of ...
The Chukchi population is found off in the western part of Alaska near the Wrangell Islands, and the Beaufort Sea population is ... Orcas are scattered among the Continental Shelf from southeast Alaska through the Aleutian Islands. They can also be seen in ... because of the way in which it hunts in large groups. The hunting style has often been compared to that of wolves. Another ... brown bear population and 70% of the total North American population. An estimated 30,000 brown bears live in Alaska. Of that ...
As of 2011, South Asians alone make up over 15 percent of the Greater Toronto Area's population, and are projected to make up ... In Canada, the term 'Asian' is pan-continental unlike its usage in the US and Australia. See Asian Americans. Asian Canadians ... Canadians of Asian ancestry comprise the largest and fastest growing visible minority group in Canada, with roughly 17% of the ... Today, Asian Canadians form a significant minority within the population, and over 5 million Asians call Canada their home. ...
5. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp. 217-33. doi:10.1016/s1074-7877(06)05012-4. "Return to Keflavik Station". Foreign ... Since Iceland had marginal farmland in good times, the climate change resulted in hardship for the population. A serfdom-like ... Icelanders began to trade for grain from continental Europe, which was an expensive proposition. Church fast days increased ... In the year 1000, as a civil war between the religious groups seemed likely, the Alþingi appointed one of the chieftains, ...
Population: 10,173 (2010 Census); 10,371 (2002 Census); 9,553 (1989 Census). Postal code: 652971. The main ethnic groups are ... The climate of Sheregesh is continental: winters are usually cold and snowy; summers are short and chilly. The snow mantle ... Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population ... All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais ...
This group of islands is sometimes called the ABC islands. They are located on the South American continental shelf and ... Most of the population is descended from Caquetio Indians and Dutch and to a lesser extent of Africans, Spanish, Portuguese, ... To protect their population, they have the right to control the admission and expulsion of people from the Netherlands. Aruba ... The population is estimated to be 75% mixed European/Amerindian/African, 15% Black and 10% other ethnicities. The Arawak ...
"ANALYTIC AND CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY".. *^ Shai, Adam; Larkum, Matthew Evan (2017-12-05). "Branching into brains". eLife. 6. doi ... suggesting computational approaches to the study of how functional groups of neurons within the hippocampus and neocortex ... which gives rise to the population model of neural networks. While many neurotheorists prefer such models with reduced ... "Weak pairwise correlations imply strongly correlated network states in a neural population". Nature. 440 (7087): 1007-12. ...
Gay men and African-American men described their body shape significantly more often than did other groups. ... Association of apo E polymorphism with plasma lipid levels in a multiethnic elderly population. ... multiethnic population. Cross-sectional data from 1068 noninstitutionalized individuals from northern Manhattan over the age of ... An analysis of personal advertisements was conducted across seven different publications which targeted the groups of interest ...
Continental Population Groups. M1.686.508. African Continental Ancestry Group. M1.686.508.100. African Americans. M1.686. ... The old descriptor ANIMALS will be changed to ANIMAL POPULATION GROUPS. It will retain all indented terms. The check tag ANIMAL ... Recent genetic research indicates that the degree of genetic heterogeneity within groups and homogeneity across groups make ... Ethnic Groups and Geographic Origins Categories I and M:. The MeSH descriptor Racial Stocks,and its four children (Australoid ...
Continental Population Groups. Epidemiology. Aging. Health. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Infertility. Genital Diseases, Male ... Study Population. Study Population will be drawn from members of Northern California Kaiser Permanente Health Plan utilizing ... The ethnic diversity of this population will allow multiple comparisons to identify true risk factors for early, and/or ... identification and recruitment of a population-based sample of 1,250 regularly cycling women of diverse ethnicities, ages 25-45 ...
States using a combination of the low-income search with additional MeSH terms for Culture and Continental Population Groups ... 4 Nutrient and Food Group Intakes of WIC Participants 157-214 * 5 Nutrient and Food Group Priorities for the WIC Food Packages ... States using the combinations of the low-income search with additional MeSH terms for culture and continental population groups ... Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages 817-868 ...
Continental Population Groups -- statistics & numerical data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Continental Population Groups -- ... Continental Population Groups -- statistics & numerical data✖[remove]1. *Ethnic Groups -- statistics & numerical data✖[remove]1 ... Continental Population Groups -- statistics & numerical data. Ethnic Groups -- statistics & numerical data. Insurance Coverage ... statistics & numerical data Subjects Ethnic Groups -- statistics & numerical data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Ethnic Groups ...
Continental Population Groups * Diabetes, Gestational / blood* * Diabetes, Gestational / physiopathology * Female * Glucose ... Postpartum, insulin resistance and ISRs (and plasma insulin levels) improved in both groups, and ISRs (and plasma insulin ... and both groups had similar ISRs (352 vs. 408 pmol/min, nonsignificant). Women with GDM, however, continued to be more insulin ...
Animal Population Groups. Animals. Blacks. African Americans. African Ancestry Continental Group. Cytochrome a. Cytochrome a ... Blacks was a 2003 MeSH Heading that became an entry term to the new 2004 heading African Continental Ancestry Group, but all ... which is treed under the African Continental Ancestry Group. Some additional maintenance was performed as well; citations that ... that were also indexed to countries other than the United States had the new MeSH heading African Continental Ancestry Group ...
Continental Population Groups. Female. Humans. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / epidemiology*, ethnology, mortality. Infant. ... Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. The Texas Birth ... CONCLUSIONS: There are rate differences for males among all 3 ethnic groups. Sex and ethnic differences suggest genetic ... 8492797 - Childbearing patterns among selected racial/ethnic minority groups--united states, 1990.. 14733377 - Reducing ...
Continental Population Groups * Ethnic Groups * Female * Hispanic Americans * Humans * Male * Marketing* * Oceanic Ancestry ... Adolescent receptivity to tobacco marketing by racial/ethnic groups in California Am J Prev Med. 2007 Aug;33(2):121-3. doi: ... Identifying adolescent groups that may be more or less receptive to industry marketing, particularly across the levels of ... Background: Previous research has examined tobacco marketing receptivity across racial/ethnic groups but none has done so ...
Continental Population Groups. Female. Fundus Oculi. Humans. Lipofuscin / metabolism. Male. Melanins / metabolism. Middle Aged ...
Continental Population Groups * Cross-Sectional Studies * Female * Food Supply* * Health Status* * Humans ...
Continental Population Groups * Humans * Hypertension / epidemiology* * Hypertension / etiology * Kidney Failure, Chronic / ...
Continental Population Groups. Cysts / epidemiology*, pathology. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Japan. Male. Mouth Diseases ...
The underweight group had the most low birthweight (LBW) infants and the lowest mean birthweight. Ideal weight gain occurred in ... Prepregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, and perinatal outcome in a rural black population J Matern Fetal ... African Continental Ancestry Group* * Body Mass Index* * Female * Humans * Incidence * Infant, Low Birth Weight ...
Universe: Population in the continental United States. Data Type(s): census/enumeration data, and aggregate data ... Subject Terms: age, birth, census data, counties, Hispanic origins, population, population estimates, population migration, ... The enumerated and adjusted 1990 and 2000 population categories offer population totals by sex, Hispanic origin, age groups, ... The enumerated and adjusted 1990 and 2000 population categories offer population totals by sex, Hispanic origin, age groups, ...
1984 - Population: 2,664,309. 1985 - Meeting of the Association Internationale des Maires Francophones held in city. 1988 - ... African Jazz (musical group) formed. 1954 - University of Lovanium established. 1955 Boulevard Albert I constructed. ... Inter Continental hotel in business. 1972 - École dInformatique dÉlectronique founded.[citation needed] 1974 September: Zaire ... Population: 2,008,352. 1975 - Sozacom building constructed. 1976 - Voix du Zaire broadcasting complex and BCZ building ...
Here we describe the genomes of 1,092 individuals from 14 populations, constructed using a combination of … ... Continental Population Groups / genetics * Evolution, Molecular * Genetic Variation / genetics* * Genetics, Medical * Genetics ... Here we describe the genomes of 1,092 individuals from 14 populations, constructed using a combination of low-coverage whole- ... We show that individuals from different populations carry different profiles of rare and common variants, and that low- ...
It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental projection (commonly called mainland Southeast... ... Southeast Asias population includes a wide variety of ethnic groups and cultures. This diversity is related to its position as ... Dominating the region is the Sunda Shelf, the portion of the Asian continental shelf that extends southward from the Gulf of ... This population, however, was unevenly distributed within the region. By far the nation with the largest population was ...
Copyright © 2018 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved.. 京ICP备15042040号-3 ...
European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics * Female * GTP Phosphohydrolases * Humans * Male * Membrane Proteins / genetics ... Genetic epidemiology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth in the general population Eur J Neurol. 2011 Jan;18(1):39-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1468- ... Methods: our population-based genetic epidemiological survey included persons with CMT residing in eastern Akershus County, ... Background and purpose: the frequency of different Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) genotypes has been estimated in clinic populations ...
The climate is classified as continental. Kerben Airport has weekly flights to Bishkek, Osh and Jalal-Abad. "2009 population ... "Rights Group Concerned About Kyrgyz Aksy Events". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2007-03-17. " ... Its population was 14,141 in 2009. It is the administrative centre of Aksy District. Despite the fact that the town officially ...
UK: Guardian Media Group. "Population of Capital Cities and Cities of 100,000 or More Inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2011. ... 9 June: Pearl Continental hotel bombing. August: Bombing. 9 October: Bombing in Khyber Bazaar. Amn Tehrik (peace effort) ... Population: 56,589 (city); 58,555 (municipality). 1881 - Population: 79,982. 1882 - Sethi Mohallah residence built. 1883 - All ... Population: 130,967. 1947 - City becomes part of the Dominion of Pakistan. 1948 - City becomes capital of the Peshawar province ...
African Americans Cardiovascular diseases Mortality Continental population groups Epidemiology Evolocumab Electronic ... Linkage of a population-based cohort with primary data collection to Medicare claims: the reasons for geographic and racial ...
Continental population groups; Ethnic groups; Genetics; population; Genotype; Nutrition surveys; Polymorphism; genetic; ... Certain age and minority groups were oversampled in this weighted, population-based US survey. Estimates of allele frequency ... Population-based allele frequencies and genotype prevalence are important for measuring the contribution of genetic variation ... for genotypes important to public health remain undetermined for the major racial and ethnic groups in the US population. DNA ...
  • Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropology has moved away from a typological understanding of human biological diversity towards a genomic and population-based perspective, and they have tended to understand race as a social classification of humans based on phenotype and ancestry as well as cultural factors, as the concept is also understood in the social sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each human population has a specific history, and ancient hominins interbred with modern humans at different times and in different places. (projectavalon.net)
  • Though in the 1970s there were worries that oil drilling and development in Alaska would harm caribou populations, they seem to have adapted to the presence of humans, and so far there have been few adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans today there are not multiple biological groups called "races. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In humans, founder effect and past small population size (increasing the likelihood of genetic drift) may have had an important influence in neutral differences between populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of JCV strains in the present American populations provides a novel tool for reconstructing human migrations and genetic admixture in the New World. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, our data emphasize the role that population admixture has played at different times and to varying degrees in the dispersal of Bantu languages. (nih.gov)
  • How this change took place is still debated, but it has been suggested that modern Japanese are the product of an admixture between these two populations. (nih.gov)
  • The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. (nih.gov)
  • We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. (nih.gov)
  • An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. (nih.gov)
  • This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. (nih.gov)
  • Subpopulation-biased selection of SNPs changes the weighting of principal component axes and can affect inferences about proportions of admixture and population histories using PCA. (ku.edu)
  • I have run ADMIXTURE on the 139-population/2,230-individual dataset, starting from K=3 and increasing K for as long as the Bayes Information Criterion increases. (blogspot.com)
  • also, if a name used here has been used in a different ADMIXTURE analysis, with another set of populations and/or K, you should not assume that it reflects exactly the same entity. (blogspot.com)
  • We show that individuals from different populations carry different profiles of rare and common variants, and that low-frequency variants show substantial geographic differentiation, which is further increased by the action of purifying selection. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies of autosomal SNPs and STRs also demonstrate a high degree of genetic differentiation among Indian ethnic and linguistic groups [ 12 - 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A detailed demographic history of the mtDNA sequences estimated with a Bayesian coalescent method indicates a complex model for the peopling of the Americas, in which the initial differentiation from Asian populations ended with a moderate bottleneck in Beringia during the last glacial maximum (LGM), around approximately 23,000 to approximately 19,000 years ago. (nih.gov)
  • Population differentiation has proved to be effective for identifying loci under geographically localized positive selection, and has the potential to identify loci subject to balancing selection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate that while sites with low differentiation represent sampling effects rather than balancing selection, sites showing extremely high population differentiation are enriched for positive selection events and that one half may be the result of classic selective sweeps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. (nih.gov)
  • These species are apparently relicts of a time when the islands were connected to the mainland, and these species were once conspecific with a more widespread species, now the cinereus shrew, the three populations having diverged through speciation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This resource, which captures up to 98% of accessible single nucleotide polymorphisms at a frequency of 1% in related populations, enables analysis of common and low-frequency variants in individuals from diverse, including admixed, populations. (nih.gov)
  • This SNP is fixed in Europeans, nearly absent in Africans and East Asians, and segregating in both ancestral and derived variants in groups such as South Asians and African Americans. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) is an open access, annotated collection of population samples typed for Y chromosomal sequence variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because strong correlations between geographic areas and Y chromosomal variants exist, the YHRD population database was structured to display the geographic, linguistic and phylogenetic relationship of searched haplotype profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor trans-ethnic portability of PRS is a critical issue that may be partially due to limited knowledge of causal variants shared among populations. (harvard.edu)
  • Therefore, prioritizing variants in IMPACT regulatory elements may improve the trans-ethnic portability of PRS by selecting variants with population nonspecific effects. (harvard.edu)
  • Indeed, both general correlations between climatic variables and the frequencies of classes of functionally related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [ 6 ], and specific examples of variants showing both frequency differences between populations and relevant functional effects have been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This result is confirmed by estimates of migration rates which show high levels of gene flow not only between pairs of Bantu-speaking populations, but also between Bantu and non-Bantu speakers. (nih.gov)
  • To analyze an unbiased sample of genetic diversity in India and to investigate human migration history in Eurasia, we resequenced one 100-kb ENCODE region in 92 samples collected from three castes and one tribal group from the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Additional studies of mitochondrial haplogroups show that an early migration may have populated the Indian subcontinent, leaving 'relic' populations in present-day India represented by some Austroasiatic-and Dravidian-speaking tribal populations [ 7 - 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some scholars argue that the first settlers came directly from Indonesia, possibly in a single voyage, and that the African elements found in the population and its culture were added later, as the result of migration and the slave trade . (britannica.com)
  • Over the last thirty years (1982-2012), the total population of Matelica has remained fairly constant at about 10,300, the decrease in the birth-rate being substantially compensated by the migration from within Italy or abroad and by a greater longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models. (nih.gov)
  • The second column shows PC-maps for population genetic data simulated with no range expansions, but constant homogeneous migration rate in a 2-dimensional habitat. (nih.gov)
  • Human migration has been shifting toward cities and urban centers, with the urban population jumping from 29% in 1950, to 50.5% in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the presence of the "light green" component in Athabask and its absence in other Amerindian groups is quite consistent with the two-migration model. (blogspot.com)
  • This initial group of immigrants consisted of a very settled group of people who followed a migration model of a single journey with a settled home at the end of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s and early 1970s, Else Christensen's Odinist Study Group and later the Odinist Fellowship brought the term into usage in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other populations of the same plant can be found in the Arctic and in the mountains of Europe and North America, where it is known as the common alplily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have been done on relict populations in isolated mountain and valley habitats in western North America, where the basin and range topography creates areas that are insular in nature, such as forested mountains surrounded by inhospitable desert, called sky islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is totally reasonable as a function of geography, but there are also suggestions that this is not simply a function of isolation by distance (i.e., populations at position 0.5 on the interval 0.0 to 1.0 would presumably exhibit equal affinities in both directions due to gene flow). (discovermagazine.com)
  • Phylogenetic features of mtDNA data also suggest a demographic scenario that is compatible with moderate local endogamy and isolation in the Maya combined with episodes of gene exchange between ethnic groups, suggesting an ethno-genesis in the Guatemalan Maya that is recent and supported on a cultural rather than a biological basis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently the YHRD database recognizes four separate "metapopulation" structures: national, continental, linguistic/ethnic and phylogenetic affiliation with several categories within. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous research has examined tobacco marketing receptivity across racial/ethnic groups but none has done so across the various levels of the smoking uptake continuum. (nih.gov)
  • Concerted efforts are made to enroll women of racial and ethnic minority groups, with a target of 20% of overall enrollment in both the CT and OS. (nih.gov)
  • How the curriculum was developed No curriculum designed to promote racial reconciliation should be written by one person or even a homogenous group of writers. (issuu.com)
  • There are no genes that make blacks in the USA more susceptible to high blood pressure, just as there are no genes for particular kinds of cancers that can be assigned to only one racial grouping. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Concordant with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data, paternal lineages within India also show high diversity based on short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the Y chromosome and support an early and continuous presence of populations on the subcontinent [ 11 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The presence of many of these groups in Middle Triassic strata indicate that long ghost lineages must have extended back into the Early Triassic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data showing abnormalities in 22% and 17% of overall patients and of cases with normal karyotypes, respectively, suggest that the yield of array comparative genomic hybridization in adults with unexplained intellectual disability may be higher than in pediatric populations. (nih.gov)
  • Results of phylogeographic analysis indicate that the Caspian and Siberian tiger populations shared a common continuous geographic distribution until 200 years ago, but became fragmented due to human influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite of its wide geographic distribution and ecological importance, the characteristics of the postembryonic stages are unknown, which prevents a detailed understanding of the structure and dynamics of natural populations. (scielo.br)
  • The population of India under the British Raj (including what are now Pakistan and Bangladesh) according to censuses: Studies of India's population since 1881 have focused on such topics as total population, birth and death rates, growth rates, geographic distribution, literacy, the rural and urban divide, cities of a million, and the three cities with populations over eight million: Delhi, Greater Mumbai (Bombay), and Kolkata (Calcutta). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we report novel data on mitochondrial DNA in two of the largest eastern Bantu-speaking populations, the Shona from Zimbabwe and the Hutu from Rwanda. (nih.gov)
  • By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. (nih.gov)
  • 2005) of the mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA) of the Cuman nomad population that migrated into the Carpathian basin during the 13th century, six haplogroups were revealed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mestizo populations are indicated as red triangles with names in bold italic font. (nih.gov)
  • Exceptions are Guanacaste, where almost half the population is visibly mestizo, a legacy of the more pervasive unions between Spanish colonists and Chorotega Amerindians through several generations, and Limón, where the vast majority of the Afro-Costa Rican community lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, data are limited regarding the prevalence of NP-CRN in an average-risk population. (nih.gov)
  • We prospectively investigated the prevalence and characteristics of polypoid and nonpolypoid colorectal lesions in an asymptomatic and average-risk Chinese population. (nih.gov)