Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.GlycogenCollagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cross Circulation: The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.TriglyceridesAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Picrates
BSD Cross Reference, OpenBSD. "[base] Contents of /head/sys/contrib/dev/uath/ar5523.bin.uu". Retrieved 2012-12 ... "zd1211-licence". BSD Cross Reference, OpenBSD. it's not the same driver that the OpenBSD ath driver it's a port from Madwifi to ... "symbol-license". BSD Cross Reference, OpenBSD. There is more details about the port at kerneltrap Archived 2012-07-13 at ... "ral-license". BSD Cross Reference, OpenBSD. "Manual Pages: rtwn". "Manual Pages: uath". 2012-09-17. ...
Content is cross-referenced to many bioinformatics databases. The rationale behind Reactome is to visually represent biological ... Physical entities are cross-referenced to relevant external databases, such as UniProt for proteins and ChEBI for small ...
The switching sensor cross-references with a database. The database retains the correct pathway to retrieve the associated ... If they are unable to provide this experience, they are required to provide the digital content source files to a clearing ... The TUI has the promise of enabling the publishers to maintain control of their content while providing an inclusive, tactile, ... y-axis content position as page 1, gains the following coordinate structure: 2,1,1. An integrated circuit (IC) is located ...
Automatically managed (updated) cross-references to pages or notes. Version control of a document, permitting reconstruction of ... One cassette held roughly 20 pages of text, and could be "played back" (i.e., the text retrieved) by printing the contents on ... Amstrad PCW Authoring systems Canon Cat Comparison of word processors Content management system CPT Word Processors Document ... Creation of tables of contents. Management, editing, and positioning of visual material (illustrations, diagrams), and ...
Further, electronic media offer new capabilities for search, indexing and cross reference. The epigraph from Horace on the ... The fluidity of electronic media, however, allows new possibilities for multiple methods of organization of the same content. ... An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches ... Some systematic method of organization is essential to making an encyclopedia usable for reference. There have historically ...
It comes with an index instead of a cross-reference table. In the print volume, both pages and font are bigger. The four-part ... The second CD provides more information about bridge people and competitions per the following table of contents; its contents ... As in the first edition, entries frequently end with cross-references to other entries on related topics. Biographies of ... and are presented alphabetically over 683 pages with entries frequently ending with cross-references to other entries on ...
To achieve semantic interoperability, both sides must refer to a common information exchange reference model. The content of ... Cross-domain interoperability involves multiple social, organizational, political, legal entities working together for a common ... Speaking from an e-government perspective, interoperability refers to the collaboration ability of cross-border services for ... "Cross-Domain Interoperability", Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium - NCOIC, 2013 This article incorporates public ...
Conversely, the sialic acid content of mouse vagina is a measure of the potency of the estrogen. Reference substances are ... the strong negative charge of the polysialic acid prevents NCAM cross-linking of cells. Administration of estrogen to castrated ... However human milk varies in sialic acid content, depending upon genetic inheritance, lactation, etc. Investigations are ... mice leads to a dose-dependent reduction of the sialic acid content of the vagina. ...
Web annotation Cross-reference Engelbart, Christina (January 31, 2005). Christina Engelbart History of Purple Numbers. CIM3 ... Purple Numbers is a suite of tools that allows one to address paragraphs of HTML content. It was originally conceived by ... An Introduction to Purple Purple MediaWiki: Fine-Grained Addressability of Wiki Content. ...
... "Cellosaurus search result: 757 hits for 'problematic cell line'". ... The reference includes the list of linked pages in the search result. Bibliography Chen, T. R. (1988): Re-evaluation of HeLa, ... This is a list of cell lines that have been cross-contaminated and overgrown by other cells. A project is currently underway to ... If in doubt, researchers should test cell lines for authenticity; the references listed below contain some papers on how common ...
Cross-references to BRS/Search on the WWW point to Open Text Livelink. Engine features include: Rapid query response time. ... Open Text's portfolio has grown to include Hummingbird Content Management, and has always included BASIS. BRS/Search North ...
This frequently results in a difficult process of data mapping and cross-referencing. Normalization of all the terms and ... Even though EDM is fundamentally a data content challenge, there is a core technology dimension that must be addressed. ... EDM is focused on the creation of accurate, consistent and transparent content. EDM emphasizes data precision, granularity and ... In many circumstances, these sources use inconsistent terms and definitions to describe the data content itself - making it ...
Contents include; List of Entries A-Z, including cross-references, at the beginning of each volume. Volume 1: A-D. Volume 2: E- ... It has 4,000 pages of entries, including 1,300 subject entries (with 4,000 cross-references), and 655 biographies. There were ... Online content is added to the 2008 edition from quarterly updates links, see Online Updates. The first edition was titled The ... The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. ...
Source: General source: Match content not verifiable from these sources is referenced individually. As with all clubs in the ... Donaldson's cross was knocked down by Jutkiewicz for Maghoma to tap in against his former club, but after the break, Birmingham ... Select content required via dropdown menus. "First team results". Birmingham City F.C. Retrieved 20 January 2018. Individual ... match after Sam Gallagher ran onto Jacques Maghoma's cross to score his fourth goal in five matches. They were drawn away to ...
The sheer volume of content […] is partly responsible for the site's dominance as an online reference. When compared to the top ... Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia; however, these ... Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour." Since 1936, the articles of the ... averaging one cross-reference per page. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the ...
Finally, the resolveLinks utility may be used to resolve cross-references between multiple documentation collections. Apple's ... resolveLinks-a tool that allows for rapid web site relinking when content moves to a different address through the use of ... Cross-platform (written mostly in Perl). The HeaderDoc suite also includes several tools that may be used independently: MPGL-a ... HeaderDoc has the following core features: C preprocessing, allowing user-selected #define macros to alter the content, and ...
Similar to the LaTeX syntax, all the normal features of a book, such as chapters, sections, cross references, tables and ... As such, no benefit is seen in expressing Texinfo content in man page format. Moreover, many GNU projects eschew man pages ... Texinfo enables structuring a document like a book with chapters, sections, cross references and indices. The source is almost ... cross-references, sections, and so on. The Info format can be viewed with the info program. Notably, man is not available as an ...
Any match content not verifiable from those sources is referenced individually. Specific "Peter Pannu overwhelmingly re-elected ... Novak converted Hancox's cross to take the lead at home to Doncaster Rovers, but the lowest league attendance of the season, ... Match content not verifiable from these sources is referenced individually. Source: Along with all clubs in the top two ... At home to Barnsley, Birmingham took the lead early on when Žigić tapped in Callum Reilly's cross, and soon afterwards Dan Burn ...
XPointer Cross-reference Wolf, Gary (1 Jun 1995). "The Curse of Xanadu". Wired. Retrieved 25 December 2015. Theodor Holm Nelson ... In the design of the Xanadu computer system, a tumbler is an address of any range of content or link or a set of ranges or ... Needed Now More than Ever: Parallel Documents, Deep Links to Content, Deep Versioning, and Deep Re-Use". ACM Computing Surveys ...
The Ma's reference numbering system follows that of the original 1947 edition. Newly added is a Table of Contents and a cross- ... A table of contents was added, as well as updates of stamp release dates, quantity printed, pictures, places where stamps were ... In the first edition the stamp prices quoted are in "Stamp Units", a reference value not tied to a particular currency. It is ... In total 169 errors were documented by his eldest son, 馬延璋, who published an error reference guide (勘誤表) in October 1989 and ...
InDesign CS4 Middle Eastern versions allows to choose the language of the index title and cross-references. Indices: Allows ... Table of contents: Provides a set of table of contents titles, one for each supported language. This table is sorted according ... InDesign can also publish content suitable for tablet devices in conjunction with Adobe Digital Publishing Suite. Graphic ... Creative Cloud controversy Scribus, a free, cross-platform and non-proprietary alternative to Adobe InDesign Lextrait, Vincent ...
Members agree to assign DOIs to their current journal content and they also agree to link from the references of their content ... The CrossMark update system facilitates reference linking and other sustainable cross-publisher services for the scholarly ... Linked content includes materials from Scientific, Technical and Medical (STM) and Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) ... PILA) and was launched in early 2000 as a cooperative effort among publishers to enable persistent cross-publisher citation ...
To use the scorecard in a cross-company context, several modifications of content and structure are necessary. The BSC consists ... There are two measuring instruments: the supply-chain map and the supply-chain operations reference (SCOR). The basic model of ... Again, the challenge is the cross-company factor. Independent companies must agree on a common strategy for the SCM and define ... From a common strategy, the supply-chain scorecard (SCS) maps cross-company measures. Brewer and Speh note that focusing on the ...
The first edition included numerous cross-references meant to connect articles scattered by the use of alphabetical order, a ... intended to serve as a table of contents and also as a directory indicating the order in which the articles should be read. A ... The heads, with 39 cross references, were arranged alphabetically.[citation needed] Among the precursors of Chambers's ... Cyclopaedia was John Harris's Lexicon Technicum, of 1704 (later editions from 1708 through 1744). By its title and content, it ...
... tables of contents) before each Gospel, lectionary equipment at the margin, and many red crosses for stops. Contents: Matthew ... There is also a division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections (no references to the Eusebian Canons). It contains tables ...
References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 446 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918 ...
Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield Of New Jersey refuses to fully reimburse my Pain Managment Doctor when he provides treatment, ... Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield Of New Jersey Complaint Review: ... I received a letter in the mail the other day referencing one ... READ: Foreign websites steal our content. Click Here to read other Ripoff Reports on Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield Of New ... Blue Cross and Blue Shield of New Mexico AKA Blue Cross AKA Blue Cross Blue Shield AKA Blue Cross and Blue Shield AKA BCBS AKA ...
Table of Contents. 1 Introduction. 2 Namespaces. 3 Signature Algorithms. 3.1 DSA. 3.2 RSA. 3.3 Elliptic Curve DSA. 3.4 HMAC. 4 ... This is a Working Draft of "XML Security Algorithm Cross-Reference.". This document is intended to serve as a cross-reference ... XML Security Algorithm Cross-Reference. W3C Working Draft 13 May 2010. This version:. ... element permits referencing key material that is stored outside a ds:KeyInfo. element. The type of the material that results ...
References. *↵. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA ... Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross ... Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross ... Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross ...
References. *↵. Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends ... Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study BMJ ... Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study. ... Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study ...
Effect of glycerol cross-linking and hard segment content on the shape memory property of polyurethane block copolymer is ... References. *. 1.. Choi Y, Kim B, Jung H (1998) Polymer (Korea) 22:131Google Scholar ... Effect of glycerol cross-linking and hard segment content on the shape memory property of polyurethane block copolymer is ... Effect of glycerol cross-linking and hard segment content on the shape memory property of polyurethane block copolymer. ...
Does anyone have a cross reference for a petcock for a 2010 450RR? I have a 3.8gal Clarke th... ... Similar Content. * moving to a 17 300rr race. By fulltrack. Hi, I posted in the which bike should I buy section, but I was ... Does anyone have a cross reference for a petcock for a 2010 450RR? I have a 3.8gal Clarke that Ive been using for years but ... With the Abu Dhabi Desert Challenge playing host to the opening round of the 2018 FIM Cross-Country Rallies World Championship ...
... may require generic cross-references, ie, a cross-reference to a group of entries rather than to specific entries by name. The ... Please subscribe or login to access full text content.. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, ... Generic Cross-references Generic Cross-references. Chapter:. (p. 425) Medical Indexes. Author(s):. Bruce McGregor. and Harriet ... General classes, and specific members of a class, may require generic cross-references, ie, a cross-reference to a group of ...
The phytohormone ABA plays a central role in these responses (1⇓-3). Plant ABA content increases under drought or salinity ... References. *↵. *Raghavendra AS, *Gonugunta VK, *Christmann A, *Grill E. (2010) ABA perception and signalling. Trends Plant Sci ... Mechanism for cross-talk between RALF and ABA. Jia Chen, Feng Yu, Ying Liu, Changqing Du, Xiushan Li, Sirui Zhu, Xianchun Wang ... Mechanism for cross-talk between RALF and ABA. Jia Chen, Feng Yu, Ying Liu, Changqing Du, Xiushan Li, Sirui Zhu, Xianchun Wang ...
2015) Avoidable errors in the modelling of outbreaks of emerging pathogens, with special reference to Ebola. Proc Biol Sci 282( ... Strength of cross-protective immunity showing 1. −. ε. P. and 1. −. ε. R. from the two-disease cross-immunity model with RSV ... 2 A and B). The estimated strength of cross-protection (SI Appendix, Table S2) suggests that strong cross-protective immunity ... Cross-Immunity.. The precise immunological mechanisms of cross-protective immunity between strains of paramyxoviruses are not ...
... is amending its regulations governing the content and format of the ``Pregnancy, ``Labor and delivery, and ``Nursing ... With respect to the question about cross-referencing, subsection 8.3 should cross-reference the applicable animal data included ... FDA agrees that any cross-references to components of "8.1 Pregnancy" or "8.2 Lactation" must specify whether the cross- ... Cross-Referencing. FDA proposed that when the risk conclusion in the fetal risk summary is based solely on animal data, it must ...
XML Security Algorithm Cross-Reference Add content here.. 2013-04-11 XML Signature Best Practices Add content here. ... Some applications require the ability to specify a subset of a given XML document as the information content to be signed. The ... XML Signature [XML-DSig] recommends a standard means for specifying information content to be digitally signed and for ...
Curved lenses configured to decode three dimensional content and method of fabricating the same. The lenses comprise a ... CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION. This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/019,545 ... In the past, and even today, special glasses allow users to view three dimensional content. Flat paper eyeglasses using red and ... Curved lenses configured to decode three dimensional content and method of fabricating the same. The lenses comprise a ...
A plurality of applications for accessing electronic content can ... CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This patent application ... The content association table can enable the GUI 100 to analyze content links (or content pointers) and content in order to ... 7, a determination can be made as to whether electronic content or a pointer (or link) referencing electronic content has been ... A determination can be made as to whether electronic content or a pointer referencing electronic content has been dropped onto ...
Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures ... Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures ... The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (T j) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, ... One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (T j ...
Blackwell Reference Online is the largest academic online reference library giving instant access to the most authoritative and ... Media Production and Content » Advertisement. Key-Topics cross-cultural research, globalization. DOI: 10.1111/b. ... Blackwell Reference Online. skip navigation Please Log in via your institution or your OpenAthens account in order to enter the ... Advertising, Cross-Cultural. Katja Gelbrich and Holger Roschk Subject Cultural Studies. Communication and Media Studies » ...
References. *↵. *He FJ, *MacGregor GA. . Reducing population salt intake worldwide: from evidence to implementation. Prog ... Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK ... Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content ... Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK ...
... compared with those for the Centers for Disease Control reference standard were within the acceptable range, and did not ... In this cross-sectional study we took advantage of the natural experimental conditions resulting from the variable fasting ... The major limitation of our research was that all analyses were conducted across a large sample and on a cross-sectional basis ... Fasting Might Not Be Necessary Before Lipid Screening: A Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study. Michael J. Steiner, ...
References. *1.↵. *Kessels RPC. . Patients memory for medical information. J R Soc Med2003;96:219-22-22.doi:10.1258/jrsm.96.5. ... Attitudes of physicians towards target groups and content of the discharge summary: a cross-sectional analysis in Styria, ... Attitudes of physicians towards target groups and content of the discharge summary: a cross-sectional analysis in Styria, ... there are hardly any specific contents offered.7 Furthermore, the lack of a uniform structure and of important contents in the ...
... and the contents of all digested samples were combined after quenching the labeling reaction with 50 mm ammonium bicarbonate. ... Orbitofrontal Neuroadaptations and Cross-Species Synaptic Biomarkers in Heavy-Drinking Macaques. Sudarat Nimitvilai, Joachim D. ... Orbitofrontal Neuroadaptations and Cross-Species Synaptic Biomarkers in Heavy-Drinking Macaques. Sudarat Nimitvilai, Joachim D. ... Orbitofrontal Neuroadaptations and Cross-Species Synaptic Biomarkers in Heavy-Drinking Macaques Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
References. *↵ DCCT Research Group: Effect of intensive diabetes treatment on the development and progression of long-term ... Skip to main content *More from ADA*Diabetes. *Clinical Diabetes. *Diabetes Spectrum ... Randomized Cross-Over Trial of Insulin Glargine Plus Lispro or NPH Insulin Plus Regular Human Insulin in Adolescents With Type ... Randomized Cross-Over Trial of Insulin Glargine Plus Lispro or NPH Insulin Plus Regular Human Insulin in Adolescents With Type ...
Internal and tip branches are labeled for reference. Shared hybrid incompatibility loci in the two species crosses must have ... 2000 A recombination hotspot delimits a wild-species quantitative trait locus for tomato sugar content to 484 bp within an ... and cross-pollination with SL pollen (backcross or "SL cross"). Because all NILs used in the study contain a SP introgression ... References. *↵. Alonso-Blanco, C., B. Mendez-Vigo and M. Koornneef, 2005 From phenotypic to molecular polymorphisms involved in ...
A closely related reference framework has been introduced by Klimesch et al. (2007), who propose that communication between ... Table of Contents. *Table of Contents (PDF). *About the Cover. *Index by author ... The illusory phenomenon will be engendered by a second cross-modal phase alignment attempt induced by the second cross-sensory ... However, it should be noted that by the nature of experimental design, the second cross-modal stimulus was not locked to the ...
References. *↵. Adams, M. D., S. E. Celniker, R. A. Holt, C. A. Evans, J. D. Gocayne et al., 2000 The genome sequence of ... Codon bias was measured by both the frequency of optimal codons (Fop) and the percentage G/C content in the third codon ... Cross-Species Comparison of Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Protein Genes. J. L. Mueller, K. Ravi Ram, L. A. McGraw, M. C. ... Cross-Species Comparison of Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Protein Genes. J. L. Mueller, K. Ravi Ram, L. A. McGraw, M. C. ...
References. *↵ Lange P, Groth S, Kastrup J, Mortensen J, Appleyard M, Nyboe J, Jensen G, Schnohr P: Diabetes mellitus, plasma ... Cross-sectional analyses. As shown in Table 2, compared with their nondiabetic counterparts, in the models adjusting for age, ... In cross-sectional analyses, middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes had significantly lower FVC, FEV1, FVC % predicted, and ... Cross-Sectional and Prospective Study of Lung Function in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ...
  • An exploratory analysis of the OFC synaptome found cross-species genetic links to alcohol intake in discrete proteins (e.g. (
  • Chemical cross-linking of reactive groups in native proteins and protein complexes in combination with the identification of cross-linked sites by mass spectrometry has been in use for more than a decade. (
  • In the last decade, the application of protein cross-linking has expanded, first and foremost driven by developments in mass spectrometry as the method of choice for the high throughput identification of proteins and their modifications. (
  • Here, we present an overview of recent developments in methodology, instrumentation, and bioinformatics related to chemical cross-linking of proteins and the analysis of cross-linked peptides by mass spectrometry. (
  • In an immunogenic response, the advantage of cross-presentation is that proteins from pathogens that do not infect DCs can still be processed in the MHC class I pathway of such professional APCs, allowing them to prime naive CD8 T cells, a process termed cross-priming ( 4 ). (
  • The cellular proteins in the donor cell that are potentially available for cross-presentation are degraded either by the proteasome or in the lysosome after autophagy. (
  • It has been suggested that the substrates and/or products of either of these two pathways, e.g., stable intact proteins, proteasome-generated peptides, as well as peptides chaperoned by heat shock proteins, can serve as the relevant form of antigen for cross-presentation ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • It has been shown that an active proteasome in virus-infected cells may actually suppress the cross-presentation of short-lived proteins, including DRiPs and that proteasome activity is not required for the cross-priming of CD8 T cells against long-lived proteins ( 3 ). (
  • Because autophagy is another major cellular pathway which mediates protein degradation, we hypothesized that inhibition of autophagy, like inhibition of the proteasome-augmented cross-presentation of short-lived proteins ( 3 ), would enhance the cross-presentation of long-lived protein antigens. (
  • The completion of the human genome project has opened a new area for studying nucleic acid and protein interactions using nucleic acid cross-linking reagents, and advances have also been made in the area of biosensors and microarray biochips for the detection and analysis of genes, proteins, and carbohydrates. (
  • Physical entities are cross-referenced to relevant external databases, such as UniProt for proteins and ChEBI for small molecules. (
  • Main outcome measures Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers' register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. (
  • Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. (
  • Main outcome measures Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA's "traffic light" system for labelling food. (
  • Main outcomes and measures Attitudes of internal and external physicians in terms of target group, content and health literacy. (
  • By transgenic expression of ovalbumin (OVA) as a model self antigen in the β cells of the pancreas, we have shown that self tolerance can be maintained by the cross-presentation of this antigen on dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes. (
  • Using both HEK 293T cells that expressed the model antigen OVA and melanoma cells as antigen donors, we show that macroautophagy in tumor cells is essential for cross-presentation by dendritic cells both in vitro and in vivo . (
  • Our findings not only identified a novel role for autophagy as an active process in antigen sequestration and delivery to dendritic cells for cross-presentation, but also suggested, for the first time, that isolated autophagosomes may have potential as potent vaccines for immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. (
  • Furthermore, how the donor cells process their antigens and supply them to dendritic cells (DC) for cross-presentation has not been well understood. (
  • This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. (
  • free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of 238 U total cross section over the temperature range [300 K,3000 K] with only 9 reference temperatures. (
  • Methods The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -In a randomized cross-over study, 28 adolescents with type 1 diabetes on multiple injection therapy received either insulin glargine prebedtime plus lispro preprandially (LIS/GLAR) or NPH insulin prebedtime plus regular human insulin preprandially (R/NPH). (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of diabetes status and lung function decline using baseline and 3-year follow-up data on 1,100 diabetic and 10,162 nondiabetic middle-aged adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. (
  • Design Cross sectional study. (
  • 9 However, the popularity of television chefs suggests that their recipes form part of the nutritional landscape and yet no study has examined the nutritional content of their meals. (
  • Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. (
  • The aim of the current study was to test whether cross-modal interactions between somatosensory-to-visual areas leading to the same (but tactile-induced) DFI share similar properties with the auditory DFI. (
  • OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes is independently associated with reduced lung function, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. (
  • This study investigated the questions for whom the DS is and which contents are necessary to ensure a safe treatment. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether anti-CagA antibodies cross-react with antigens of normal and atherosclerotic arteries. (
  • However, in a recent study approximately half of the CD8 + DCs of mouse spleens were found to be functioning as cross-presenting DCs in vivo ( 5 ). (
  • In this study, we show cross-presentation of islet-derived autoantigens by B cells. (
  • This study was performed to determine the significance of cross-resistance to new azole drugs among C. glabrata isolates recovered as a cause of infection in azole-treated hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. (
  • This is the first study to examine cross-cancer pleiotropic associations for lung cancer in African Americans. (
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1993 to 1994 in an urban population in Germany to investigate the association between metal exposure and oxidative DNA damage. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the level of oxidative DNA base modifications in lymphocytes of 201 participants of a cross-sectional study in Bremen, Germany. (
  • In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. (
  • This study investigated spinal cord atrophy measures in a cohort of healthy subjects and patients with aquaporin-4 antibody seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and evaluated the discriminatory performance of mean upper cervical cord cross-sectional area compared with cervical cord volume and total cord volume. (
  • Our study seeks to further understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the deletion of CD8 T cells by cross-tolerance. (
  • The cross sectional analysis of the first study has shown a significant excess in respiratory symptoms and to a lesser degree in bronchial obstruction in farmers compared to non-farming controls. (
  • Fifty-two consecutive unselected patients followed up at the Reference Centre for Scleroderma in Lille, France and fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of SSc 12 and/or LeRoy's classification criteria for SSc 13 were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. (
  • In the present study, 167 sawmill workers with and 59 without asthma symptoms were randomly selected from the previous survey 3 , and the association between dust exposure and both baseline and cross-shift lung function was assessed. (
  • Phase I of the present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in 772 sawmill workers selected from five large sawmills in New Zealand processing exclusively Pinus radiata 3 . (
  • In this study, we used a cross-species network approach to uncover nitrogen ( N )-regulated network modules conserved across a model and a crop species. (
  • Thus, this cross-species network study exploits the best-characterized experimental models for dicot and monocot plants. (
  • however, the role of autophagy in cross-presentation, either in vitro or in vivo , has not been elucidated. (
  • Like filamentous actin, keratin IFs must be cross-linked in vitro to achieve the high level of mechanical resilience characteristic of live cells. (
  • Here, we show that the distal half of K14's tail domain and two distinct regions in K5's rod domain interact to mediate the intrinsic pathway of IF cross-linking, independent of 10-nm filament assembly, in vitro and in vivo. (
  • In vitro, TSP1 bound to both the C-propeptide domain of collagen I and the highly conserved KGHR sequences of the collagen triple-helical domain that participate in cross-linking. (
  • To evoke this mechanism, Rituximab must be hyper-cross-linked either by the binding of goat anti-human/mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) or Fcγ receptor-bearing cells, or by immobilization on plastic in vitro ( 16 - 19 ). (
  • Another was to conduct a cross sectional analysis on the pre-1990 data to assess determinants of the lung function of these coke oven workers. (
  • Conclusions - Anti-CagA antibodies cross-react with antigens of both normal and atherosclerotic blood vessels. (
  • These antibodies are highly cross-reactive among the dengue virus serotypes and, even at high concentrations, do not neutralize infection but potently promote ADE. (
  • Flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in human sera create a serious problem for serodiagnosis, especially for secondary flavivirus infections, due to the difficulty of differentiating primary from secondary cross-reactive serum antibodies. (
  • The presence of subneutralizing levels of flavivirus cross-reactive serum antibodies may result in a dramatic increase in the severity of secondary flavivirus infections via antibody-dependent enhancement. (
  • Human infections by flaviviruses elicit humoral immune responses resulting in the production of virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies ( 9 , 51 ). (
  • The presence of flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies in human sera creates two public health concerns upon secondary infection with heterologous flaviviruses. (
  • Firstly, serodiagnosis of secondary flavivirus infections, especially in areas with multiple cocirculating flaviviruses, can be particularly difficult due to the inability to differentiate cross-reactive antibodies elicited by primary infections from those elicited by secondary infections, using the currently available viral antigens. (
  • Additionally, the presence of subneutralizing levels of flavivirus cross-reactive serum antibodies may result in an increase in the severity of secondary flavivirus infections due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), particularly after secondary DENV infection ( 18 , 27 , 50 , 52 ). (
  • This is known to be effective for class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cross-priming directed against a variety of exogenous tumor, viral, and minor transplantation antigens. (
  • Tissue-associated self-antigens can also be cross-presented by DCs ( 2 ). (
  • This creates the potential for autoimmunity when antigens whose expression is limited to peripheral tissues are cross-presented to autoreactive CD8 T cells. (
  • Cross-presentation of antigens is critical for the induction of adaptive immunity against tumor cells and infectious pathogens. (
  • Currently, it is not known how cross-presentation of tumor antigens is regulated by autophagy. (
  • Inhibition of autophagy abolished cross-presentation almost completely, whereas induction of autophagy dramatically enhanced the cross-presentation of tumor antigens. (
  • Antigen cross-presentation is critical for the activation of T cells to viral and tumor antigens that are expressed by parenchymal cells and is necessary for the elimination of tumor cells and many pathogens. (
  • Together, these results show that Bcl-2 is the orchestrator of a cross-talk between neovascular endothelial cells and tumor cells, which has a direct effect on tumor growth. (
  • GRP94(gp96) elicits CD8 + T cell responses against its bound peptides, a process requiring access of its associated peptides into the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway of APCs. (
  • Cross-linked peptides were separated by HPLC and analyzed on line by ESI-TOF and off line by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. (
  • Nonspecific cross-protection between cationic peptides could conceivably render bacteriocin-resistant L. monocytogenes mutants less sensitive to defensins. (
  • We critically discuss advantages and limitations of different concepts and look beyond the immediate outcome of cross-linking experiments (putative interactions and/or distance constraints) and examine the potential role of chemical cross-linking in the analysis of protein interaction networks and, more generally, for structural and systems biology. (
  • Recently, Bim, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member whose function can be inhibited by Bcl-2, was found to play a critical role in the deletion of autoreactive thymocytes, leading us to examine its role in cross-tolerance. (
  • We examine the cross-sectional implications of these variables using the Famaâ€"French 25 size and book-to-market portfolios and Australian industry portfolios. (
  • This cross-species network analysis provides a unique opportunity to examine the conservation and divergence of N -regulated networks in the context of monocot and dicot transcriptomes. (
  • Pathogens that invoke an immune response immediately after infection can also provide partial cross-protection against other strains of the same or closely related pathogens. (
  • This cross-protection can shape the epidemiological dynamics of multistrain pathogens when an epidemic of one strain temporarily suppresses the transmission of another. (
  • Objective To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. (
  • Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. (
  • Using a simple copper( I ) catalyst has allowed a high yielding sulfonylative-Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction to be developed. (
  • The process provides a single step route to diaryl sulfones from the direct combination of aryl boronic acids, sulfur dioxide and aryl iodides, and represents the first sulfonylative variant of a classic cross-coupling reaction. (
  • The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction 1 is the preeminent method for forming carbon-carbon bonds in the pharmaceutical industry. (
  • 6 In this Edge Article, we show that by using a copper( I ) catalyst, a high yielding sulfonylative-Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction is possible. (
  • Fig. 1 (a) Variants of the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, and (b) examples of biologically relevant sulfones. (
  • 8f,13 We postulated that the integration of these two separate palladium-catalyzed transformations into a single reaction would provide a convenient route for the formation of diarylsulfones, while maintaining many of the desirable features of the classic Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. (
  • Catalytic cross-dehydrogenative coupling of heteroarenes with thiophenols and phenothiazines has been developed under mild and environmentally benign reaction conditions. (
  • The major aim of the cross-linking reaction is the formation of a covalent bond between two spatially proximate residues within a single or between two polypeptide chains. (
  • In this work, we report a nickel-catalyzed deaminative cross-electrophile coupling reaction to construct C(sp)─C(sp 3 ), C(sp 2 )─C(sp 3 ), and C(sp 3 )─C(sp 3 ) bonds. (
  • The physicians used a terminology browser to determine the accuracy of the algorithmic mapping and the content coverage of NDF-RT Results: The 509 extracted documents on 300 patients contained 847 medication concepts in medication lists. (
  • however, the potential of clinically significant resistance has become evident with recent reports noting the development of C. glabrata candidemia in patients receiving fluconazole ( 11 ) and voriconazole ( 7 ) therapy and the observation of cross-resistance developing in isolates recovered from the oral cavity and bloodstream ( 5 ). (
  • Cross-resistance between nisin and IIa bacteriocins is not apparent in wild-type L. monocytogenes isolates ( 34 ). (
  • For autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes to progress, self-reactive CD8 + T cells would need to interact with peptide-antigen cross-presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. (
  • Bim-deficient T cells were not deleted in response to cross-presented self-antigen, strongly implicating Bim as the pro-apoptotic mediator of cross-tolerance. (
  • However, we have shown that cross-presentation of self antigen leads to deletion of naive, autoreactive CD8 T cells. (
  • Moreover, purified autophagosomes were found to be efficient antigen carriers for cross-presentation. (
  • Hyper-cross-linking of Rituximab redistributes CD20 into Triton X-insoluble cell membrane signaling-processing centers ( 20 , 21 ), followed by lipid raft clustering and transactivation of Src-family tyrosine kinases such as Lyn, Fyn , and Lyc , which further lead to apoptosis of the lymphoma cells ( 19 , 22 - 24 ). (
  • N assimilation) and to other shared biological processes indirectly related to N . This cross-species network approach was validated with members of two TF families in the supernode network, BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1-TGA and HYPERSENSITIVITY TO LOW PI-ELICITED PRIMARY ROOT SHORTENING1 (HRS1)/HRS1 Homolog family, which have recently been experimentally validated to mediate the N response in Arabidopsis. (
  • The concept of protein cross-linking as a (bio)chemical tool to infer structural information about protein conformations and protein-protein interactions in combination with mass spectrometry was introduced at the end of the 1990s ( 1 ). (
  • Note, "cross-linking" here means stable filament-filament linkages achieved through noncovalent interactions). (
  • Recent advances in instrumentation, cross-linking protocols, and analysis software have led to a renewed interest in this technique, which promises to provide important information about native protein structure and the topology of protein complexes. (
  • Finally, the impact of protein cross-linking on various biological disciplines is highlighted. (
  • 1 ) used chemical cross-linking of lysine residues in bovine basic fibroblast growth factor FGF-2 (heparin-binding growth factor 2) to provide distance constraints for the computational derivation of the fold of this small (17-kDa) protein. (
  • The authors could identify 15 cross-links that did not bridge directly adjacent lysines and therefore provided information on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. (
  • Other cross-linking areas such as protein-DNA cross-linking, photoinduced cross-linking, or the characterization of disulfide bonds will not be covered in detail in this paper. (
  • it is also possible and, depending on the sample, even more likely that only one end of the bifunctional cross-linker will react with the protein because the other end does not come into contact with another cross-linkable residue, or the second reactive group is deactivated, e.g. by hydrolysis, before forming a cross-link. (
  • First, we observed a decrease in cross-species correlation of protein degradation rates as a function of evolutionary distance. (
  • B-cell cross-presentation of insulin required proteolytic cleavage and endosomal localization and was sensitive to inhibitors of protein trafficking. (
  • Since the publication of the first edition of Chemistry of Protein Conjugation and Cross-Linking in 1991, new cross-linking reagents, notably multifunctional cross-linkers, have been developed and synthesized. (
  • PR-104 is a novel hypoxia-activated DNA cross-linking agent with marked activity against human tumor xenografts, both as monotherapy and combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (
  • Putative cross-links were then assigned based on their precursor masses, and some of them were verified by MALDI postsource decay. (
  • Nisin exerts its antimicrobial action by forming pores in the cytoplasmic membrane through an interaction with the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II (for a recent review, see reference 17 ). (
  • found that thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) bound to and inhibited the processing of the precursor form of the collagen cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase. (
  • The last sets (or the only sets) of lung function tests for all 1377 subjects were pooled to form the cross sectional database. (
  • No associations with cross-shift changes in lung function were found. (
  • In furniture workers, associations between wood dust exposure and both baseline lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 )) 4 , 7 and reduced cross-shift lung function (FEV 1 ) have also been described, with the effects being most pronounced among pine workers 7 , 8 . (
  • Although newly formed DCs of this lineage are capable of Ag uptake and efficient presentation to T cells on MHC class II, they initially lack the ability to cross-present exogenous Ags on MHC class I. Cross-presentation capacity is acquired as a subsequent maturation step, promoted by cytokines such as GM-CSF. (
  • In steady-state mouse spleens, the minority population of CD8 + conventional DCs has a selective ability to cross-present exogenous Ags on MHC class I ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Nonetheless, certain exogenous elements can gain entry into this so-called endogenous pathway by a mechanism termed cross-presentation. (
  • In particular, BRCA1 deficiency seems to sensitize cells to alkylating agents that induce intrastrand and interstrand cross-links (ICL), phenomenon that has been associated to the role played by BRCA1 in homologous recombination ( 14 , 19 ), whereas contradictory results have been instead obtained with other chemotherapeutics such as the topoisomerase II inhibitors ( 15 , 16 , 19 ). (
  • This phenomenon has serious implications for research seeking to determine bacterial cross contamination rates, since the different transfer efficiencies that were previously shown to be associated with certain activities may actually be the result of differing initial inoculum levels. (
  • A brain SPECT scan on day 3 demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left cerebellar hemisphere ( Figure , case 1), consistent with the phenomenon of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). (
  • In addition, developments in physical techniques with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution have facilitated the analysis of cross-linked products. (
  • Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is another method to strengthen the sclera and is divided into 2 types: chemical cross-linking (using glucose, ribose, glyceraldehyde, glutaraldehyde, aliphatic beta-nitro alcohol, etc.), and physical cross-linking (using rose bengal/white light, riboflavin/ultraviolet A light, riboflavin/blue light, etc.) [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • A plurality of applications for accessing electronic content can be launched concurrently with the launching of the graphical user interface player. (
  • An electronic content can be automatically opened in response to the dropping of a pointer to the electronic content onto the graphical user interface player. (
  • 3. The method of claim 1, further comprising: determining which application of said plurality of applications is appropriate for opening said electronic content in response to the dropping of said pointer onto said graphical user interface player. (
  • and automatically accessing an electronic content in response to the dropping of a link to said electronic content onto a sensitive area of said content player of said graphical user interface. (
  • wherein the content includes at least one instantiated software application on a graphical user interface, and the content state information includes information about the object that spans and relates multiple unique items. (
  • Deposition of excessive amounts of collagens and abnormal cross-linking of collagen fibrils are associated with fibrosis. (
  • TSP1 also bound to collagen molecules intracellularly and at conserved cross-linking sites. (
  • Compared to skin from wild-type mice, skin from Thbs1 −/− mice had reduced collagen cross-linking and reduced prolysyl oxidase (proLOX) abundance with increased conversion to catalytically active LOX. (
  • To compare the biomechanical properties of porcine, rabbit, and human sclera before and after riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) collagen cross-linking (CXL). (
  • This suppression effect disappeared when CCRE 2 or two of three CCRE s were replaced with a Not I restriction site, strongly suggesting that light signal cross-talks with CO 2 on the cAMP-signal transduction pathway that targets CCRE s. (
  • Despite introduction of OVA into the cytoplasm, CTL priming did not occur by direct presentation, but required cross-priming on a bone marrow-derived host APC. (
  • Associations between displayed alcohol references on Facebook and problem drinking among college students. (
  • Displayed references to I/PD were positively associated with AUDIT scores suggesting problem drinking as well as alcohol-related injury. (
  • Pandemic viruses typically evolve into seasonal forms that develop resistance to antibody neutralization, and cross-protection between strains separated by more than 3 years is uncommon. (
  • These findings identify neutralization targets that have increased cross-reactivity among pandemic strains and can inform our understanding of H1N1 virus evolution and vaccine design. (
  • Thus, B cells govern the transition from clinically silent insulitis to frank diabetes by cross-presenting autoantigen to self-reactive CD8 + T cells. (
  • These observations suggest that C. glabrata exhibits considerable clinically significant cross-resistance between older azole drugs (fluconazole and itraconazole) and voriconazole. (
  • Student perceptions across four pharmacy class years were measured in a cross-sectional survey, with a follow-up longitudinal survey of one cohort three years later. (
  • Design Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants' menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). (
  • In this article, we discuss the critical steps of chemical cross-linking and its implications for (structural) biology: reagent design and cross-linking protocols, separation and mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked samples, dedicated software for data analysis, and the use of cross-linking data for computational modeling. (
  • Design Dual-setting, cross-sectional analytical survey. (
  • Cross-sectional studies have consistently shown that adults with diabetes have lower vital capacity than their nondiabetic counterparts ( 1 - 5 , 7 ), but such studies cannot establish the temporal sequence of events. (
  • We identified six E-glycoprotein residues that are incorporated into three distinct flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (
  • Despite preservation of putative residues for T cell receptor (TCR) contact, stronger disease-associated responses to cross-reactive, immunodominant islet epitopes are elicited by HLA-DQ8 transdimer. (
  • An understanding of flavivirus E-glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes is therefore critical for improving public health responses to these serious diseases. (
  • Deletion of CD8 T cells was prevented by overexpression of Bcl-2, indicating that cross-tolerance was mediated by a Bcl-2 inhibitable pathway. (
  • These cross-modal processes have been shown to be driven by occipital oscillatory activity within the alpha band. (
  • This book explores the question through a cross-national comparison of housing development processes in The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany and France. (
  • 2. The monitoring system of claim 1 , wherein said at least one non-speech recognition predetermined parameter includes a frequency of keywords identified in the voice communication content of the at least one monitored signal. (
  • This cross-species network analysis uncovered a set of N -regulated transcription factors ( TF s) predicted to target the same genes and network modules in both species. (
  • Phase separation of hard and soft segment is dependent on glycerol cross-linking and hard segment content as judged from FT-IR and DSC data. (
  • Using PubMed and Medline, followed by cross-references, we identified 60 articles in which blood pressure data were available for populations that were judged as unacculturated or partially acculturated. (
  • 0.0001) for all transfer rate data combined (352 observations) and for each individual cross contamination rate, except for data on contamination via transfer from chicken to hand through a glove barrier ( P = 0.1643). (
  • Through further analysis of data from both studies, we sought to determine whether a connection exists between inoculum size and the percent of bacteria transferred for other cross contamination rates and, if so, the nature of that connection. (
  • These data raise important safety concerns and potential mitigation strategies for the development of TfR-based therapies that are designed to cross the blood-brain barrier. (
  • The most immediate alteration to occur was a fivefold increase in the rate of cross-linking between β-1,6-glycosylated mannoproteins and chitin. (
  • This strategy raises the question of whether cross-resistance between the compounds could occur. (