Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)RestaurantsCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Frozen FoodsConsumer Product SafetyNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.United StatesNutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Food Contamination, RadioactiveDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Menu PlanningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Schools: Educational institutions.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Peanut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nunavut: A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.JapanRats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Cooking and Eating UtensilsAdministration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
eating food contaminated with feces from an infected human or animal Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium spp. intestines stool ... ingesting water or food contaminated with feces Amoebiasis Entamoeba histolytica intestines (mainly colon, but can cause liver ... ingestion of oocyst thru contaminated food Dientamoebiasis Dientamoeba fragilis intestines stool up to 10% in industrialized ... ingestion of contaminated water food or soil with oocysts in cat feces that is more than one day old ...
The cholera on the contaminated food did not spread to other areas within the United States. By March 4, 172 passengers and one ... "Contaminated Food Causes Flight Fatality". BNET. Retrieved 11 January 2012. [dead link] Comas, José (22 February 1992). "Un ... On 14 February 1992, food contaminated with cholera was distributed to the passengers on Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 386, ... An investigation by the Food and Drug Administration highlighted the problem patchwork of regulations for food safety. The ...
Fecal-oral route - Ingesting contaminated food or water sources. *Airborne transmission - Pathogen carrying spores ... fowl cholera and rabies as well as pasteurization for food preservation.[3] ...
... contaminated food or water is ingested, e.g., norovirus; aerosols containing virions are inhaled, e.g., influenza virus; and ... Transmission can occur when: body fluids are exchanged during sexual activity, e.g., HIV; blood is exchanged by contaminated ... entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to ...
Contamination of these foods is usually through the fecal-oral route. Fecally contaminated water and unsanitary handling by ... This can occur via contaminated food, water, or hands. Contamination may be spread by flies or when changing diapers. Diagnosis ... Simple precautions can be taken to prevent getting shigellosis: wash hands before handling food and thoroughly cook all food ... The primary prevention methods are improved sanitation and personal and food hygiene, but a low-cost and efficacious vaccine ...
Contaminated papaya appears to be the cause of an outbreak of Salmonella food poisoning (salmonellosis) in 23 states, the Food ... As of July 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration suspects that the contaminated food product is a common ingredient in ... One in six Americans becomes ill from eating contaminated food each year, the government estimates; of those, roughly 130,000 ... Winter, Greg (March 18, 2001). "Contaminated Food Makes Millions Ill Despite Advances". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, ...
... ingestion of contaminated food or liquids 3. absorption of vapors such as tritium oxide through the skin 4. injection of ...
Another source of contaminated food came from Columbia River fish; their impact was disproportionately felt by Native American ... Radioiodine entered into the food chain via contaminated fields where cows and goats grazed; hazardous fallout was ingested by ... The planned "Divine Strake" test would have raised a large mushroom cloud of contaminated dust that could have blown toward ... Many of the Marshall Islands which were part of the Pacific Proving Grounds remain contaminated by nuclear fallout, and many of ...
"Propylene oxide has been detected in fumigated food products; consumption of contaminated food is another possible route of ... The US Food and Drug Administration reported in 2010 that some fractions of imported sweet almonds were contaminated with ... "Aflatoxins in food". European Food Safety Authority. 2010. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012.. ... Also sweet almonds are used to prepare a special food for babies, named harire badam. Almonds are added to some foods, cookies ...
This infection is usually transmitted by contaminated water or food.[30] Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is an important cause ... Food or drink that is thought to be contaminated should be avoided.[43] Breastfeeding is important, especially in places with ... If food becomes contaminated with bacteria and remains at room temperature for a period of several hours, the bacteria multiply ... Eating improperly prepared food, drinking contaminated water, or close contact with a person who is infected can spread the ...
fecal-oral transmission - usually from contaminated food or water sources. *vector borne transmission - carried by insects or ... When a flea bites a human and contaminates the wound with regurgitated blood, the plague carrying bacteria are passed into the ... indirect contact - usually by touching soil contamination or a contaminated surface. *airborne transmission - if the ... to contaminate enemy water supplies. Han Dynasty General Huo Qubing is recorded to have died of such a contamination while ...
The lead inspector ordered contaminated foods be discarded. He personally poured concentrated bleach on the food as it was ... Crew members had alerted inspectors that supervisors ordered them to store food in their living spaces, not in refrigerators in ... order to hide the food from inspectors. ...
gastrointestinal infections caused by contaminated water or food. healthcare-associated infections related to infection from ...
Clenbuterol can be consumed from eating contaminated food. [1] "Archived ...
These eggs can be ingested via food contaminated with the faeces. Once the eggs have been ingested, they develop into larvae, ... Tapeworm eggs are generally ingested through food, water or soil contaminated with human or animal (host) feces. For example, ...
This occurs when the larvae are accidentally ingested from contaminated food.[5][7] ... Unlike adults, the maggots of hoverflies feed on a variety of foods; some are saprotrophs, eating decaying plant or animal ... their principal food source being nectar and pollen.[2] Some species are found in more unusual locations; for example, members ... eat a wide range of foods. In some species, the larvae are saprotrophs, eating decaying plant and animal matter in the soil or ...
Infection can result from eating infected food and coming into contact with contaminated bodily fluids.[23] There are two ... They are acquired by eating food, such as raw fish, contaminated with the larval stages of the parasites. At least 40 million ... fecal pathogens such as intestinal worm eggs from contaminating the environment and infecting people through contaminated food ... Cysticercosis occurs after ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil.[56] Cysts and lesions can cause headaches, blindness ...
They are usually spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person.[1] They may ... Food handlers should be educated in personal hygiene prior to handling food or utensils and equipment. Infected individuals ... They are usually spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person.[1] They may ... Providing basic sanitation and safe drinking water and food are the keys for controlling the disease. In developed countries, ...
One type can also be spread through contaminated food. Risk factors include walking barefoot in warm climates where sanitation ... or when they are ingested through contaminated food and water following skin penetration, larvae Diagnosis depends on finding ... and staying away from water/areas contaminated by human feces. These programs may also stress that shoes must be worn, however ... this is commonly caused by walking barefoot through areas contaminated with fecal matter. The larvae are able to penetrate the ...
300,000 worth of food was found to be contaminated; the chocolate cake had 56 nCi/L (2,100 Bq/L). By contrast, the EPA safety ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated that patients received doses between 3 Gy and 4 Gy. April 2010 - INES ... When the truck was scrapped, it in turn contaminated another 5,000 metric tonnes of steel to an estimated 300 Ci (11 TBq) of ... Despite awareness of the problem, owners of some of the buildings known to be contaminated have continued to rent apartments ...
... serving of food contaminated with human and animal feces; and medical neglect of infections and tropical disease occurred. ... From the beginning, U.S. POWs endured miserable conditions, including poor food and unsanitary conditions. The prison complex ... and receiving large fish and eggs for food. The museum's claims are contested by former prisoners' published memoirs, and oral ...
... serving of food contaminated with human and animal feces; and medical neglect of infections and tropical disease occurred. ...
They can spread through your food, and contaminated water. In the early stages the host may not exhibit signs of infection. ... make sure the water that you drink is not contaminated, and sanitize your self. The doctors do have drugs that can help get rid ...
"Helpful Yeast Battles Food-Contaminating Aflatoxin". USDA Agricultural Research Service. January 27, 2010. "Aspergillus flavus ... New standards for the production of food for human consumption were developed, which led to an increase in cost in these hosts ... Further examination into the cause of death showed the primary food source, peanut meal, was infected with A. flavus. The ... In mammals, the pathogen can cause liver cancer through consumption of contaminated feed or aspergillosis through invasive ...
Salmonella typhi (spread by food or water contaminated with feces)[3][4]. ... Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person.[4] Risk factors ... This was due to contaminated tinned meat sold at the city's branch of the William Low chain of stores. No fatalities resulted. ... Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to prevent typhoid. Industrialization, and in particular, the ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... or handle contaminated clothing incorrectly.[59] This risk is particularly common in parts of Africa where the disease mostly ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.. This article incorporates ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 20 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.. ...
See: [August 2009] Half of all the fruit & veg you buy is contaminated] ... Organic food has no added nutritional benefit, says Food Standards Agency Expensive organic food is no better for you than ... back] Food Standards Agency Medical study ploys Organic Food. [Another (junk science) attack on Organic farming funded by the ... This comments sums it up: The study did not look at pesticide residue or the environmental implications of organic food because ...
... is a pervasive toxic pollutant sometimes found at higher levels in organic food than in conventionally grown food. ... is a pervasive toxic pollutant sometimes found at higher levels in organic food than in conventionally grown food. ... Organic Food is Sometimes Contaminated with Perchlorate Too Americans looking for pure sources of food depend on the organic ... Perchlorate contaminates conventional and organically grown food alike.. A study on perchlorate levels in North America ...
... at BellaOnline ... There is a widespread salmonella outbreak on numerous dog and cat pet food products. - ... Contaminated Diamond Pet Food Outbreak. Diamond Pet Foods, once known for their high quality pet products, is under consumer ... These products are assumed contaminated. Regardless to the bar code numbers, if the food falls within the flagged date ...
The food in the freezer at Clear Labs isnt for eating. Its for analyzing. ... Clear Labs is a food analytics company, and those stacks of frozen food are its ticket to the big time. For the past two years ... They can also tell if a food is contaminated by microbes, contains an allergen, or has certain genetically modified ingredients ... the FDA finalized new rules that will require food manufacturers to create and execute detailed plans to prevent food ...
Learn how food gets contaminated through the food production chain from the farm or fishery to the table. ... homeFood Safety Home Page. *How to Prevent Food Poisoningplus icon *Basic Food Safetyplus icon *Key Facts About Food Poisoning ... If germs contaminate surfaces used for food processing, such as a processing line or storage bins, germs can spread to foods ... How Food Gets Contaminated - The Food Production Chain. Español (Spanish). ...
Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Aldicarb Food Poisoning from Contaminated Melons -- California At 4 a.m., July 4, 1985, three ... This issue has implications for monitoring pesticide residues in foods and needs further study. ... melons harvested in fields thought to be contaminated could not be separated from other melons. Therefore, on July 7, it was ... presumed to be in compliance with a California Department of Food and Agriculture testing program and sold after July 10. ...
... germs from raw meat can contaminate ready-to-eat foods that are prepared at the same time. ... Cross-contamination can occur when different foods are stored or prepared together.For example, ... home/health & living center/ nutrition, food & recipes a-z list/ health tip: avoid cross-contaminating food article ... germs from raw meat can contaminate ready-to-eat foods that are prepared at the same time. ...
Earths Best Organic 2 Apple Peach Barley Wholesome Breakfast baby food, which has been recalled nationwide, should not be fed ... Contaminated Baby Food May Have Been Sold in Colorado * Chubb CEO Says U.S. Failure to Manage Covid-19 Hurts Economy, Global ... Contaminated Baby Food May Have Been Sold in Colorado. February 22, 2007 ... The food is part of the companys "2nd Vegetables, Fruits and Blends" line with the UPC code 23923-20223 or 23923-20295 or ...
This week the Sowetan reported that food products were being stored under the same roof as a mortuary in Pretoria East sparking ... How might food products become contaminated if they are stored close to a mortuary? ... Can food products stored in a mortuary become contaminated?. Health & Wellness / 13 April 2018, 10:30am / Amy Green ... Can food products stored in a mortuary become contaminated?. Share this article with a friend. Your Name:. ...
... retailers and everyone in the supply chain to their knees when contaminated food contaminates the trust consumers have in their ... We encourage you to Share our Reports, Analyses ... Food recall surge. According to Stericycle Expert Solutions Recall Index, the Food and Drug Administration had a 34 percent ... To sign up for a free subscription to Food Safety News, click here.) ...
And later, if you get food poisoning you will have no reason to suspect the potato salad in particular. But IBM will. ... As reports about cases of an outbreak start coming in, IBMs system can use supermarket data about the 1.7 billion food items ... IBM says that with as few as 10 reported cases, the system can give a list of suspected food sources with 95 percent ... Distributions of retail food and geocoded public health data.. Graphics from IBM. ...
Every Year 700 Million People Fall Ill from Contaminated Food. By Baher Kamal Reprint , , Print , ,En español ... "Food can be contaminated in the processing and marketing phases, processes that often take place in different countries making ... Now it is about contaminated food that every year causes illness to 1 in 10 people around the world - or around 700 million - ... "Food can become contaminated at any point during production, distribution and preparation. Everyone along the production chain ...
There are two types of food poisoning: food infection and food intoxication. Food infection refers to the presence of bacteria ... Desert cactus purifies contaminated water for aquaculture, drinking and more. Farm-grown fish are an important source of food ... Pet food recalls have made headlines in recent weeks, as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced that eight brands ... Food intoxication refers to the ingestion of toxins contained within the food, including bacterially produced exotoxins, which ...
contaminated drinking water. This Promising New Material Has the Potential to Remove Toxic Metals from Drinking Water. Food and ... Enter Your Name & Email Below to Join the Food Revolution Network and Receive Your FREE Real Food Action Guide!. *. First Name* ... Join Food Revolution Network. and receive your FREE Real Food Action Guide. ... Enter Your Name & Email Below to Join the Food Revolution Network and Receive Your FREE Real Food Action Guide! ...
Plastic patches that glow when they touch some types of bacteria could be built into food packaging to reduce the spread of ... A new plastic film glows to flag food contaminated with dangerous microbes. Adding the patch to meal packaging could help keep ... Sentinel wraps: Real-time monitoring of food contamination by printing DNAzyme probes on food packaging. ACS Nano. Published ... Food packaging equipped with such microbe monitors could help curb the spread of foodborne illness, which kills about 420,000 ...
"Our mantra is that a more transparent food system is a safer food system," said Thomas Gremillion, the director of food policy ... Why a top food poisoning expert wont ever eat these foods] The FDAs current recall process has been in effect for years, ... Why the FDA hides the names of grocery stores that sell contaminated food. ... Youre about to see a big change to the sell-by dates on food] ... The one way fast food may actually be good for you. How Yelp ...
But some are wondering: can a worst-case scenario nuclear meltdown in Japan affect our food supply? ... "For example, a contaminated sardine gets eaten by a tuna and through biological uptake the process can continue as each ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, meanwhile, has also said it is stepping up radiation testing on its imports from Japan. ... But even if radiation is ingested in the Japanese food chain, Atcher believes the United States does not need to panic about ...
Learn about harmful factors that occur naturally in our food as well as contaminants and how to avoid them. Learn about the ... Foods Contaminated by Improper Storage and Handling. Foods that contain acids can leach substances out of container that they ... Unnatural foods are not just those that have been tainted with chemicals or made in a laboratory. Once a food is old, moldy or ... Avoid all unnatural foods.. In many cases nutrients can protect us from harm from these foods. For example the vitamin E ...
... plastic patch that changes colour under ultraviolet light when it come into contact with meat contaminated with E. coli, a food ... The O157:H7 strain, which lives in the intestines of animals, can contaminate food and water and can be particularly deadly if ... How a bacteria-detecting strip of plastic film could help identify contaminated food A team of researchers at McMaster ... E.coli, above, can contaminate all kinds of food, including lettuce, meat, spinach, raw milk, fresh produce and unpasturized ...
Israeli labs unable to test food for dangerous ingredients, ministrys cumbersome supervision leads to higher prices. ... Israels Health Ministry allows the sale of dangerous food products contaminated with bacteria, states the section on food ... As opposed to other developed nations, the Health Ministry allows the sale of food, such as poultry, contaminated by dangerous ... Israeli Health Ministry Allows Sale of Food Contaminated With Dangerous Bacteria State Comptroller: Israeli labs unable to test ...
... food just as carefully. Here is the latest pet food recall that could cause you and your pet some serious abdominal pain. ... However, just like handling raw meat during food preparation for our cooked meals, pet owners need to be sure to handle their ... Food poisoning happens when food or drink is contaminated with bacteria. While The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) ... This One Vegan Wild Food Can Avert Food Poisoning Food poisoning happens. It is a common, often mild, and possibly deadly ...
Food and Agriculture Organization, Monitoring progress towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goals, Food and ... Saline Agriculture in the 21st Century: Using Salt Contaminated Resources to Cope Food Requirements. Bruno Ladeiro ... M. Harvey and S. Pilgrim, "The new competition for land: food, energy, and climate change," Food Policy, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 40 ... Food and Agriculture Organization, "The use of saline waters for crop production," Tech. Rep., Food and Agriculture ...
No! Your Fast Food Burger Isnt Contaminated with Antibiotics. by Julie Gunlock ... Cameron Harsh of Center for Food Safety, and Steve Roach of Food Animal Concerns Trust and Keep Antibiotics Working-all hard ... In fact, the report doesnt say much of anything about the safety of the meat being used in American fast food restaurants. ... I still use CR for reviews on toasters, bikes and cars, but when it comes to food and agriculture, I steer clear. ...
Natural Selection Foods/Earthbound Farms, the leading U.S. provider of ... E. coli Outbreak and Our Contaminated Food Supply. Author:. Laura Klein. Publish date:. Sep 27, 2006. ... I also have a healthy respect for my food and am willing to pay a little more to ensure its quality. Perhaps if everyone was ... Natural Selection Foods issued the following statement last week, clearly noting that the current E. coli cases resulted from ...
  • Pet food recalls have made headlines in recent weeks, as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced that eight brands of cat, dog and rabbit food have been pulled from store shelves since the start of 2017. (
  • The manufacture date of Turkey Pet Food cases is 10/12/2017, and the manufacture dates of Combo Pack cases are between 10/12/2017 and 2/2/2018. (
  • At that trajectory, we may eventually find out none of the non-organic food sold in 2016 or 2017 was pesticide-free. (
  • An October 2016 national Australian survey by OmniPoll for Australian Food Safety Week 2017 showed that 70% of those surveyed reported that they didn't know the safe cooking temperature for foods high-risk foods such as hamburgers, sausages and poultry. (
  • They can also tell if a food is contaminated by microbes, contains an allergen, or has certain genetically modified ingredients. (
  • The bodies and bodily fluids of a recently deceased person may be heavily contaminated with disease-causing microbes particularly if the person was a carrier of, or died as a result of, an infectious disease," explained Duse. (
  • Food infection refers to the presence of bacteria or other microbes which infect the body after consumption. (
  • Microbes, more commonly known as just germs, can infect food on the farm, in the kitchen, or anywhere in between if adequate safety precautions aren't observed. (
  • Many bacterial microbes need to multiply to larger numbers in food in order to cause disease. (
  • According to Stericycle Expert Solutions Recall Index, the Food and Drug Administration had a 34 percent uptick in recalls from the second quarter of 2016 to the third quarter, making Q3 the highest recall period since the first quarter of 2010. (
  • In a white paper published in March 2016 by Kansas City-based ad agency Sullivan Higdon Sink, "Evolving Trust In The Food Industry," 65 percent of consumers surveyed said they want to know how their food is produced. (
  • The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA or we) inspected your frozen cookie dough (including ready-to-eat (RTE) cookie dough) manufacturing facility located at 830 N. State St., Garner, IA 50438, from September 27 through October 6, 2016. (
  • Whether or not the food at this facility was compromised, Health-e News investigated just how dead bodies could potentially pose risks to human health. (
  • It's impossible to tell if meat is contaminated with potentially deadly E. coli bacteria by simply smelling or looking at it, but one day a glance at the plastic packaging could let consumers know if it's safe to eat. (
  • The CDC has advised individuals who have already consumed potentially contaminated items but have not experienced symptoms yet to watch out for signs of infection and consider preemptively speaking with their doctors. (
  • Tests show that some imported egg products in Austria have been contaminated with a potentially harmful insecticide, Austria's food safety agency said, adding to the list of countries affected by an international health scare. (
  • Foods with traces of more than one pesticide are potentially the biggest concern, says Mole, who suggests anyone considering switching to organic should prioritize these. (
  • The pet food company believes that the primary outbreak originated in their South Carolina plant. (
  • As reports about cases of an outbreak start coming in, IBM's system can use supermarket data about the 1.7 billion food items sold in the U.S. each week to begin compiling a list of products that might be "guilty. (
  • Last week, the company learned some of its product was contaminated with the bacteria E. coli - an outbreak that has, as of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's most recent update on March 7, caused five kidney failures and eight hospitalizations. (
  • Numerous media outlets have blamed the recent E. coli outbreak on a specific source: Natural Selection Foods/Earthbound Farms, the leading U.S. provider of organic greens. (
  • Based on our work with the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the California Department of Health Services, we have confirmed that no organic products of any kind, including Earthbound Farm spinach or other products, have been linked to this outbreak at this time. (
  • In the spring and summer of 1982, McDonald's held a special promotion -- two burgers for the price of one -- that led to the first reported outbreak of a food-borne bacterial infection that now sweeps the nation with some regularity. (
  • The nation has endured a handful of outbreaks since 1982 -- including one notable outbreak involving hundreds of people who ate at Jack in the Box in 1993 -- but the meat and fast-food industries have adopted policies over the years that make such cases more unusual now. (
  • As state and federal public health officials continue to investigate the E. coli O145 outbreak tied to bagged Freshway Foods romaine lettuce, which has sickened 19 in 3 states, many questions remain. (
  • According to the latest out of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), investigators are focusing on an undisclosed farm in Yuma, Arizona which could be linked to the outbreak. (
  • The 2006 spinach outbreak] heightened concerns about the ability of wildlife to forage within or to transit through the produce production environment, and what biosecurity measures are in place to prevent wildlife access to foods that are minimally processed and often consumed raw. (
  • People in Germany have been advised not to eat raw cucumbers following a deadly outbreak of E.coli, however experts have said there is no indication contaminated foods are on sale in Ireland. (
  • On July 4, 1985, California and other western states experienced the largest known outbreak of food-borne pesticide illness ever to occur in North America. (
  • Under S. 510, in the event of an outbreak or identification of contaminated food, the FDA will have improved resources for communicating the danger to the public. (
  • A local food producer recalled food it supplies to stores such as Trader Joe's, Walgreens and Whole Foods after an E. coli outbreak sickened 26 people in three western U.S. states. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration is in the midst of a full investigation to find all potential causes of the outbreak. (
  • Contaminated shrimp entered the aircraft in Lima, a year after a cholera outbreak began in Peru. (
  • Food intoxication refers to the ingestion of toxins contained within the food, including bacterially produced exotoxins, which can happen even when the microbe that produced the toxin is no longer present or able to cause infection. (
  • Onset of symptoms is usually 18 to 36 hours after ingestion of the incriminated food, but it may vary from 4 hours to 8 days in some cases. (
  • jury or death when inhaled, and some cause injury through contact with skin or through ingestion of contaminated food .A chemical or biological attack usually involves dispersing agents into the air. (
  • And yet, an independent consumer group, Food Democracy, released a report based upon independent testing that found unbelievable levels of glyphosate in popular products, including those purported to have ingredients provided by organic farmers. (
  • Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) - considered the "gold standard" of testing methods - the lab detected alarming levels of glyphosate in General Mills' Cheerios and Honey Nut Cheerios , Kellogg's Corn Flakes , Raisin Bran and Frosted Flakes , and PepsiCo's Doritos Cool Ranch , Nabisco's Ritz Crackers and Stacy's Simply Naked Pita Chips , along with many other popular food products . (
  • After reviewing the findings, London molecular geneticist Dr. Michael Antoniou said "it's urgent that regulators at the EPA reconsider the allowed levels of glyphosate in American's food and work to limit continued exposure to this pervasive chemical in as large a section of the human population as possible. (
  • EWG, an environmental watchdog group reports that based on their current testing, that major food companies like General Mills continue to sell popular children's breakfast cereals and other foods contaminated with troubling levels of glyphosate, the cancer-causing ingredient in the herbicide Roundup. (
  • The Council also has a role in providing consumer advice on food recalls and emergencies such as the frozen berries Hepatitis A recall in February 2015 They also take part in education events such as 2015 World Health Day which focussed on food safety As part of its educational activities, the Food Safety Information Council has carried out consumer research into food safety knowledge. (
  • We call these steps the food production chain (see graphic ). (
  • Because watermelons had become so intermingled in the distribution chain, melons harvested in fields thought to be contaminated could not be separated from other melons. (
  • Everyone along the production chain, from producer to consumer, has a role to play to ensure the food we eat does not cause diseases. (
  • To address the rising number of trans-boundary animal and plant pests and diseases, FAO has published " Averting risks to the food chain ", a set of proven emergency prevention methods and tools. (
  • They show how prevention, early warning, preparedness, good food chain crisis management and good practices can improve food security and safety, save lives and livelihoods. (
  • Keeping the food chain safe is becoming increasingly complicated in an interconnected and more complex world. (
  • Plastic doesn't just pollute the planet, the scientists say, but has become a part of the food chain - a factor that has a colossal environmental effect. (
  • Fish ingest it as they feed, and the concentration increases up the food chain. (
  • Study: EPA-approved GMO insecticide responsible for killing off bees, contaminating entire food chain » Alex Jones' Infowars: There's a war on for your mind! (
  • Now, a new study out of Purdue University in Indiana has not only confirmed, once again, that clothianidin is killing off bees, but also that clothianidin's toxicity is systemic throughout the entire food chain, which could one day lead to the catastrophic destruction of the food supply. (
  • Mayhem: I'm a poisoned food chain. (
  • Anything that eats me…becomes part of the poisoned food chain. (
  • Tepco's Advocate: Well if plankton, the very foundation of Japan's food chain, can live and thrive in a radiated environment, then so can you. (
  • Fipronil is widely used to treat pets for ticks and fleas but its use in the food chain, for example to clean out barns, is forbidden in the European Union (EU). (
  • Food can become contaminated at different stages of the food chain. (
  • EFSA's main role is to assess risks associated with the EU food chain, ensuring a high level of consumer protection and animal health. (
  • But the food chain continues to rely on super fast growing chickens - which even in the best cases live miserable lives. (
  • Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans, for instance by consuming contaminated foodstuffs or through contact with infected animals. (
  • And it wants to use that data to change how manufacturers manage the food supply. (
  • they're mostly there for researchers to pull apart animal and plant taxonomies (you don't see much red-bellied woodpecker in the food supply). (
  • Pests plaguing plants and trees, diseases passing from animals to humans, pollutants compromising waters and soils, climate patterns undergoing drastic change, the threats to our food supply know no borders. (
  • Could Japan's Nuclear Radiation Contaminate the World's Food Supply? (
  • But some are wondering: can a worst-case scenario nuclear meltdown in Japan affect our food supply? (
  • But, if the wind blows westward over Japan after a worst case scenario nuclear meltdown, the immediate concern would then be Japan's domestic food supply. (
  • The threat to the food supply lives inside of Japan's nuclear reactor cores, which are comprised of radioactive isotopes iodine 131, Caesium, and Strontium. (
  • Nearly all of the world's supply of common additives like ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and wheat gluten are produced in China, which has had several recent food safety scares. (
  • It won't affect the meat supply, for example, which is one of the prime sources of hazard in the food system. (
  • The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and Center for Food Safety (CFS) recently warned that approval of the first genetically engineered corn for ethanol would inevitably contaminate corn intended for the food and feed supply, exposing people to new engineered proteins that may pose an allergy risk. (
  • If grown at the scale Syngenta intends, the new corn would certainly contaminate the food supply, according to UCS scientists. (
  • Glyphosate is in 80% of our food supply in the U.S., and some scientists believe it may well be the most toxic chemical ever approved for commercial use. (
  • Despite numerous attempts by the beekeeping industry and conservation organizations to persuade the EPA to ban clothianidin, the EPA has failed to protect the food supply for the American people. (
  • This is why Dr. Neil Carman, Ph.D., scientific advisor to Sierra Club , has put out a call for the EPA to immediately ban the use of clothianidin and the other neonicotinoid insecticides for the sake of protecting the food supply from irreversible destruction. (
  • A population collapse of honeybee pollinators will almost immediately lead to a food supply collapse ending in mass starvation. (
  • Melamine in the food supply is China’s big open secret. (
  • You gotta love the irony in the disconnect of our modern food supply. (
  • Parabens are increasingly contaminating our food supply. (
  • Researchers from the New York State Department of Health and the Department of Environmental Health Sciences, along with the University of New York at Albany have determined in a study of foods purchased from local markets that much of the U.S. food supply is contaminated with parabens - a group of chemicals thought previously to produce exposure in humans through the skin in cosmetics and lotions containing preservatives. (
  • Food: non-perishable, easy-to-prepare items (3-day supply for evacuation, 2-week supply for home). (
  • But Japan officials now fear that high levels of radioactive materials have entered the food supply as efforts continue to get the damaged nuclear reactors under control. (
  • It is no longer possible to believe that you can avoid toxins simply by eating organic, unless something is done about the conventional and dominant food production and distribution system. (
  • Who would have ever thought that when you go through all the trouble, time and expense of purchasing or growing organic foods that they could be contaminated with rocket fuel! (
  • Americans looking for pure sources of food depend on the organic label to keep chemicals and other contaminants out of their food. (
  • The publication regularly bashes farmers and food producers, and it uses known paid organic activists-like Charles Benbrook-as consultants in order to coordinate attacks on the GMO and conventional agriculture sectors. (
  • Certified organic food producers meet stringent regulations on the federal, state and local levels, in addition to strict federal standards for certified organic and growing processing. (
  • All food - conventional and organic - is susceptible to E. coli. (
  • Glyphosate has been shown to be harmful in parts per billion but is thousands of times more prevalent in popular foods - even those supposedly organic. (
  • However, a new investigation by Tropical Traditions has revealed that the U.S. organic grain market is contaminated with glyphosate. (
  • They originate from incompletely burnt organic matter, such as petrochemicals, but are also formed as a result of volcanic activity, forest fires, cigarette smoking, high temperature cooking and the smoking of foods. (
  • Pesticides are definitely used for organic foods during the growing process legally, just not. (
  • Not everyone has access to organic foods or the resources necessary to buy them (organic foods aren't always more expensive than conventionally grown foods, but they tend to cost about 20 percent to 100 percent more 3 ). (
  • If this food is allowed to sit at room temperature, instead of being thoroughly cooked and then promptly refrigerated, it can produce germs that in turn release high levels of toxins that cannot be destroyed heat. (
  • Corn - Most corn is contaminated with fumonisin and other fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, zearalenone and ochratoxin. (
  • If germs contaminate surfaces used for food processing, such as a processing line or storage bins, germs can spread to foods that touch those surfaces. (
  • If a food worker stays on the job while sick and does not wash his or her hands carefully after using the toilet, the food worker can spread germs by touching food. (
  • If a cook uses a cutting board or knife to cut raw chicken and then uses the same knife or cutting board without washing it to slice tomatoes for a salad, the tomatoes can be contaminated by germs from the chicken. (
  • Common germs that are present in our mouths and sinuses can be introduced into food from a sneeze or by tasting the food, and then putting the utensil back into the food. (
  • In the kitchen, germs can be transferred from one food to another by using the same knife, cutting board, or other utensil without washing it properly in between . (
  • Fully cooked foods can become re-contaminated if they touch other raw foods that contain certain germs. (
  • Under warm and moist conditions, for instance, slightly contaminated food left out overnight can become highly infectious as the germs multiply. (
  • They can carry harmful germs that can make you very sick if the food is contaminated. (
  • Clearly, all food that meets microbiological safety standards are more protected by packaging and sealing," said Duse. (
  • This interpretation differs from that of other agencies in the federal food safety system, an overlapping and often illogical network of regulatory fiefdoms. (
  • The Health Ministry said the law concerning protecting the public in food matters was passed by the Knesset in 2015, and "provides an answer to the issue of the decentralization of supervisory bodies and gathers all the legislation concerning food together - and as a result it allows legislative continuity and gives preference and primacy to standards in the area of food safety. (
  • In fact, the report doesn't say much of anything about the safety of the meat being used in American fast food restaurants. (
  • Consumer Reports also has an all too-cozy relationship with radical environmental organizations like U.S. PIRG and the Center for Food Safety. (
  • The report also cites as co-authors and contributors to the report activists like Lena Brook and Allison Johnson of the Natural Resources Defense Council, Kari Hamerschlag of Friends of the Earth, Cameron Harsh of Center for Food Safety, and Steve Roach of Food Animal Concerns Trust and Keep Antibiotics Working-all hard left, radical green activist organizations. (
  • We look at two stories on food safety. (
  • On World Health Day april 7th, the World Health Organization highlights the challenges and opportunities associated with food safety. (
  • The technique used today, known as PulseNet, allows microbiologists to track the "paternity" of a unique strain of 0157:H7, and, thereby, tell if isolated cases that appear around the country are connected, said Dr. David Acheson , chief medical officer with the federal Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the Food and Drug Administration . (
  • Serving genetically altered, tortured birds at this venue is in and of itself, an oxymoron for "food safety. (
  • Serving meat or dairy at a food safety summit is like passing out shots of booze at an AA meeting or cigarettes at a conference on lung cancer….Just plain illiterate. (
  • While this gives a perception of safety and sterility, it actually means that ingredients of any quality can be used and the food will never go bad. (
  • Le Thi Hong Hao, deputy director of the National Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene Tests said people, especially children, can suffer from kidney failure and cerebral edema if eating lead-tainted food. (
  • The Food Safety Authority of Ireland has said that there was "no information" to indicate that contaminated food is on sale in Ireland, the Irish Times reports. (
  • We will continue to monitor the implementation of NPIS and report whether its food safety objectives are being met. (
  • Hospital food safety measures reduce risk of contaminated hos. (
  • However they caution that this conclusion may not apply to household kitchens, where food safety precautions are less rigidly applied. (
  • Will the Food Safety Modernization Act better protect us from contaminated food? (
  • The first question we asked our participants to tackle was whether in fact the United States is in the midst of a "food-safety crisis. (
  • One would expect that increased inspections would improve the food safety system. (
  • Appropriate control measures will be implemented, if necessary, to protect food safety and public health. (
  • The data we are publishing is only a very conservative estimate, we are sure that the real figure is bigger," Kazuaki Miyagishima, director of WHO's Department of Food Safety, told reporters, according to Reuters. (
  • Dr. Elisabeth Hagen, USDA's Under Secretary for Food Safety, announced in a press conference on May 2, 2012 that the government is changing its traceback policy for contaminated beef that test positive for shiga-toxin producing E. coli bacteria (STEC). (
  • However, according to Joseph Mendelson, legal director of the nonprofit Center for Food Safety, the USDA's rapid approval of LL601 highlights the agency's protection of the biotechnology industry. (
  • Founded in 1943 by Dr. Sylvan Eisenberg, Anresco is the forerunner in providing food safety analyses for pesticides, microbiology and nutritional labeling. (
  • Central to these is the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which highlighted the need for "information on maximum levels for possible contaminants including e.g. heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticide residues, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues" in its 2009 guidance on botanical safety assessment. (
  • The Dutch authorities arrested two directors of the company at the center of the food safety scare, with prosecutors saying they suspected them of threatening public health and possession of a prohibited pesticide . (
  • Food Quality & Safety (formerly Food Quality ) is the established authority in delivering strategic and tactical approaches necessary for quality assurance, safety, and security in the food and beverage industry. (
  • More money for Dutch food safety auth. (
  • Dutch food and consumer product safety authority NVWA will get an extra 25 million euros next year due to concerns about the authority's capacity following the fipronil contaminated egg scandal , according to RTL Nieuws. (
  • To protect consumers from this food-borne zoonoses, the EU has adopted an integrated approach to food safety from the farm to the fork. (
  • EFSA's independent scientific advice and scientific assistance on the food safety and animal health-related aspects of zoonotic diseases supported by data collected in Member States help European decision-makers in setting policies and making decisions to protect consumers in the European Union. (
  • And U.S. food-safety officials say they're confident in the system designed to prevent contaminated foods from entering from Japan. (
  • An investigation by the Food and Drug Administration highlighted the problem patchwork of regulations for food safety. (
  • When you eat on airlines or ships from foreign countries: dine at your own risk - food safety regulations are not standard", Nutrition Health Review, 22 June 1993 (also archived here) "The ICAO Safety Management Manual" (PDF). (
  • The Australian Food Safety Information Council is a health promotion charity. (
  • The Council Chair is Rachelle Williams who was appointed in July 2015 Previous Chairs have been Professor Michael Eyles who was appointed in August 2007, his predecessor was Professor Tom McMeekin AO The Food Safety Information Council provides consumer information on the handling, storage and preparation of food. (
  • They organize Australian Food Safety Week held during the second week of November each year. (
  • Hall of Fame trainer Bob Baffert denied giving 2018 Triple Crown winning horse Justify a banned substance that caused a positive test prior to last year's Kentucky Derby and blamed the result on contaminated food. (
  • Anresco Laboratories, an ISO 17025 accredited and FDA-registered facility in San Francisco, was commissioned to test for glyphosate in a large range of foods. (
  • He also feels the data gathered by the glyphosate food testing project "provides valuable information for consumers, elected officials and scientists, like myself, in evaluating the toxicity of real world levels of exposure to this most widely used pesticide. (
  • The U.S. Government allows nearly six times more glyphosate in food than Europe. (
  • Another independent lab test discovered the region in which foods are grown plays a significant role in glyphosate residues. (
  • Farm-grown fish are an important source of food with significant and worldwide societal and economic benefits, but the fish that come from these recirculating systems can have unpleasant tastes and odors. (
  • This series will look at three ways the E. coli O145-contaminated lettuce-if it was grown in Yuma-could have picked up the bug. (
  • Unfortunately, as part of its approach, EFSA developed a Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occurring substances of possible concern for human health when used in food and food supplements - thereby casting suspicion on botanicals with a long history of safe use. (
  • So far little attention has been paid to the potential role of mycotoxins consumed in staple foods in causing neurological diseases despite their known neurotoxic effects in humans. (
  • The infectious agent which causes Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle can also be transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated meat causing variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. (
  • Distributions of retail food and geocoded public health data. (
  • Whether in the form of pathogen, insect or contaminant, threats are now travelling faster and further, making effective and timely responses more difficult and putting people's food supplies, their health and livelihoods, and often their lives at greater risk, it adds. (
  • Michigan State University researchers have shown that sunflower seeds are frequently contaminated with a toxin produced by molds and pose an increased health risk in many low-income countries worldwide. (
  • While these foods are important to a healthy diet, psoralens can be harmful to your health. (
  • The public health laboratories and private laboratories in Israel do not have the capability of testing whether any food product has bacteria and certain other components, some of which are dangerous and even carcinogenic," reads the annual report from State Comptroller Joseph Shapira. (
  • All this translates into a danger to public health: "The [Health] Ministry has not mapped out the ability of the labs to test materials and ingredients in food which could very well cause damage to health, and is not prepared to test them, and so a danger to public health exists," writes the comptroller. (
  • Director of food and health at the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. (
  • Warnings about methylmercury contaminated fish are not just for young children and expectant mothers, according to new research published today in Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. (
  • The use of crude solvents to process food is not new and they can have serious health consequences. (
  • This is just another reminder that despite its health-conscious marketing, not everything sold at Whole Foods is a safe bet as far your health is concerned. (
  • The researchers also looked at how food, as a potential source of multi-resistant bacteria, impacts the health of food handlers, healthcare workers and patients. (
  • The Star Tribune reports health officials are urging pet owners to discard or return pet food with this brand, and to thoroughly clean bowls or surface areas. (
  • Obviously, a public health policy that asks expectant mothers to give up certain foods while allowing industries to continue contaminating them is absurd. (
  • Food-borne zoonotic diseases are a significant and widespread global public health threat . (
  • Being anti-fungal is another of the key elelments by which we select foods for optimal blood sugar control and better living in the Health-e-Solutions lifestyle. (
  • Our Primary Food Filters downloadable, printable special report will fully equip you to make the best food and ingredient choices following the Health-e-Solutions lifestyle. (
  • Other forms of testing are being investigated, such as an application that uses light to detect the signature pattern created by bacteria in food and can be completed in 30 minutes. (
  • It would first need approval from food regulators, then the researchers would have to bring down the cost of mass production. (
  • University of Minnesota researchers studied the prevalence of E. coli in freshly picked produce and published their findings in 2004 in the Journal of Food Protection (Vol. 67, No. 5, 2004). (
  • The researchers took the samples of food from four major markets and supermarkets based on the daily menu for children aged between two and three years old in several city-based kindergartens. (
  • The researchers also looked at how food as a potential source of mult. (
  • We are hoping that in two years' time, with the industry partners that we are currently talking to, we can at least start some pilot studies on these so that we can have some selected food in grocery stores that we can follow and see what happens,' says Didar. (
  • Golden International Corporation also warns consumers, food distributors, grocery stores, and food processors not to consume or sell certain cartons of stolen tilapia. (
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