Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNeurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Obturator Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Optic Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Lingual Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Peroneal Neuropathies: Disease involving the common PERONEAL NERVE or its branches, the deep and superficial peroneal nerves. Lesions of the deep peroneal nerve are associated with PARALYSIS of dorsiflexion of the ankle and toes and loss of sensation from the web space between the first and second toe. Lesions of the superficial peroneal nerve result in weakness or paralysis of the peroneal muscles (which evert the foot) and loss of sensation over the dorsal and lateral surface of the leg. Traumatic injury to the common peroneal nerve near the head of the FIBULA is a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p31)Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes: Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Accessory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Oculomotor Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. This may result in various eye movement dysfunction.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Radial Neuropathy: Disease involving the RADIAL NERVE. Clinical features include weakness of elbow extension, elbow flexion, supination of the forearm, wrist and finger extension, and thumb abduction. Sensation may be impaired over regions of the dorsal forearm. Common sites of compression or traumatic injury include the AXILLA and radial groove of the HUMERUS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Median Neuropathy: Disease involving the median nerve, from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical features include weakness of wrist and finger flexion, forearm pronation, thenar abduction, and loss of sensation over the lateral palm, first three fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Common sites of injury include the elbow, where the nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator teres muscle (pronator syndrome) and in the carpal tunnel (CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME).Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Neurofibroma: A moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of SCHWANN CELLS and FIBROBLASTS that includes portions of nerve fibers. The tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. Pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve. Microscopic examination reveals a disorganized and loose cellular pattern with elongated nuclei intermixed with fibrous strands. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016)Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Nerve supply[edit]. The pronator teres is innervated by the median nerve. ... The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar ... In C5 tetraplegia or radial nerve palsy patients, pronator teres tendon can be rerouted, so called tendon transfer, to extensor ... Patients with the prontaor teres syndrome have numbness in median nerve distribution with repetitive pronation/supination of ...
Nerve supply[edit]. The muscles are innervated by thoraco-abdominal nerves, these are continuations of the T7-T11 intercostal ... Nerve. segmentally by thoraco-abdominal nerves (T7 to T11) and subcostal (T12). ... Sensory supply is from the 7-12 thoracic nerves Variation[edit]. The sternalis muscle may be a variant form of the pectoralis ... nerves and pierce the anterior layer of the rectus sheath. ...
1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.[edit]. The use of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) for the assessment of ICP dates back to ... 8.1 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. *8.2 2. Ophthalmodynamometry or the measurement of the retinal venous outflow pressure (VOP ... While the ONSD can at any given point along the optic nerve be measured with a precision of ,1mm, reliability of derived ICP ... A patented method that utilizes optical coherence tomography to measure the thickness of the nerve fiber layer and infers ICP ...
EA 3148 - A "V-series" nerve agent, Cyclopentyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate ("Substance 100A" to Soviets) ...
Nerve damage[edit]. *Damage to the vagus nerve after surgery[5]. Evolutionary causes[edit]. Clearance of air from stomach[edit] ... which is supplied by the axillary nerve which shares the c5 nerve root with the phrenic nerve.[22] ... "It sends rhythmic bursts of electricity to the brain by way of the vagus nerve, which passes through the neck. The Food and ... The phrenic nerve can be blocked temporarily with injection of 0.5% procaine, or permanently with bilateral phrenicotomy or ...
Nerve. Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8). Actions. Adducts, extends and internally rotates the arm when the insertion is moved ... Nerve supply[edit]. The latissimus dorsi is innervated by the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves through the ... and crosses the axilla in front of the axillary vessels and nerves, to join the under surface of the tendon of the pectoralis ... thoracodorsal (long scapular) nerve. Electromyography suggests that it consists of six groups of muscle fibres that can be ...
Nerve assist[edit]. The Nerve Assist is based on Scientology's teaching that standing waves of energy can form in nerves and ... Other information given by the Church of Scientology about the anatomical effects of nerve assists are patently false (e.g.: ... There are not 12 major nerves in the spinal cord[11]). Unconscious person assist[edit]. This assist is intended for "a person ... no evidence at all to suggest that standing waves are present in the spinal cord or that pain is stored in the nerves. ...
Nerve damage[edit]. *Damage to the vagus nerve after surgery[5]. Other known associations[edit]. *Although no clear ... A vagus nerve stimulator has been used with an intractable case of hiccups. "It sends rhythmic bursts of electricity to the ... The phrenic nerve can be blocked temporarily with injection of 0.5% procaine, or permanently with bilateral phrenicotomy or ... The Food and Drug Administration approved the vagus nerve stimulator in 1997 as a way to control seizures in some patients with ...
Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... and maintenance of nerve cells. They are small proteins that secrete into the nervous system to help keep nerve cells alive. ... Main article: Nerve growth factor receptor. There are two classes of receptors for neurotrophins: p75 and the "Trk" family of ... McDonald NQ, Blundell TL, Lapatto R, Murray-Rust J, Bradshaw RA (1993). "Nerve growth factor revisited". Trends Biochem. Sci. ...
Nerve supply[edit]. The kidney and nervous system communicate via the renal plexus, whose fibers course along the renal ... by way of the renal branches of the vagus nerve; the function of this is yet unclear.[10][11] Sensory input from the kidney ...
Nerve. The twelfth thoracic and first through fourth ventral rami of lumbar nerves (T12, L1-L4). ... Nerve supply[edit]. Anterior branches of the ventral rami of T12 to L4. ... and iliohypogastric nerves. Quadratus lumborum is a continuation of transverse abdominal muscle. ...
VG (nerve agent). References[edit]. *^ Fusek J, Bajgar J (1994). "Treatment of intoxication with GV compound in laboratory rats ... GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to GV nerve agent.. *. Harvey SP, Cheng TC (2002). "Identification, Purification, and ... Kassa J, Bajgar J (1996). "Therapeutic efficacy of obidoxime or HI-6 with atropine against intoxication with some nerve agents ...
Nerve supply and passage[edit]. The brachial plexus surrounds the axillary artery and is formed from nerve roots from C5-T1. ... The armpit (Latin: axilla) is formed by the space between the muscles of the shoulder.[3] The nerves and blood vessels of the ... Branches of the plexus supply the shoulder region, although several other nerves play a role. ... The brachial plexus emerges as nerve roots from the cervical vertebrae C5-T1. Branches of the plexus, in particular from C5-C6 ...
Nerve supply[edit]. The lungs are supplied by nerves of the autonomic nervous system. Input from the parasympathetic nervous ... The lungs include the bronchial airways that terminate in alveoli, the lung tissue in between, and veins, arteries, nerves and ... The action of breathing takes place because of nerve signals sent by the respiratory centres in the brainstem, along the ... phrenic nerve to the diaphragm.[25][page needed] Variation[edit]. The lobes of the lung are subject to anatomical variations.[ ...
In anatomy and neurology, the ventral root or anterior root is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. ... At its distal end, the ventral root joins with the dorsal root to form a mixed spinal nerve. ... The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ventral_root_of_spinal_nerve&oldid=825197865" ...
This rotation positions the left vagus nerve anteriorly and right vagus nerve posteriorly.[2] ... Nerve supply[edit]. The enteric nervous system is one of the major divisions of the nervous system derived from neural crest ... and act as an insulating and protective layer while also supplying organs with blood and lymph vessels as well as nerves.[2] ... A large number of organs derived from the developing foregut also receive input from the vagus nerve, which also works in ...
The gland receives parasympathetic nerve supply from the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.[4] ... Blood, lymph and nerve supply[edit]. The thyroid is supplied with arterial blood from the superior thyroid artery, a branch of ... The trachea, larynx, lower pharynx and esophagus all lie behind the thyroid.[5] In this region, the recurrent laryngeal nerve[8 ... nerve and lymphatic presence, that surrounds a core of colloid that consists mostly of thyroid hormone precursor proteins ...
Complete crossing of the optic nerve[edit]. Complete crossing (decussation) of the nerves at the optic chiasm in birds has also ... Some evidence indicates that this alone is not enough as blindness would theoretically prevent USWS if retinal nerve stimuli ...
Nerve agents[edit]. Main article: Nerve agent. Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the ... Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited ... Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, ... GV (nerve agent). V series[edit]. These agents have low volatility and are typically used for a persistent effect or liquid ...
Signs of nerve damage include flattening of the nerve, swelling of the nerve proximal to site of injury, abnormal appearance of ... and at these points the nerve is vulnerable to compression or entrapment-a so-called "pinched nerve". The nerve is particularly ... Ulnar nerve entrapment is a condition where the ulnar nerve becomes physically trapped or pinched, resulting in pain, numbness ... Ulnar nerve entrapment is classified by location of entrapment. The ulnar nerve passes through several small spaces as it ...
Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... and maintenance of nerve cells. They are small proteins that secrete into the nervous system to help keep nerve cells alive. ... Main article: Nerve growth factor receptor. There are two classes of receptors for neurotrophins: p75 and the "Trk" family of ... One of these is nerve growth factor (NGF or beta-NGF), a vertebrate protein that stimulates division and differentiation of ...
Nerve supply[edit]. The diaphragm is primarily innervated by the phrenic nerve which is formed from the cervical nerves C3, C4 ... It contains the inferior vena cava,[5] and some branches of the right phrenic nerve[citation needed]. ... greater and lesser right splanchnic nerves and the azygos vein two lesser apertures of left crus. greater and lesser left ... If either the phrenic nerve, cervical spine or brainstem is damaged, this will sever the nervous supply to the diaphragm. The ...
Long ciliary nerves Microanatomy[edit]. The conjunctiva consists of unkeratinized, both stratified squamous and stratified ... Lacrimal nerve (with contribution from zygomaticofacial nerve) Circumcorneal ... Nerve supply[edit]. Sensory innervation of the conjunctiva is divided into four parts:[4] ... "Table 1: Summary of sensory nerve supply". Archived from the original on February 14, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2016.. ...
W.H.R Rivers and Henry Head (1908). "A Human Experiment in Nerve Division". Brain. 31 (3): 323-450. doi:10.1093/brain/31.3.323. ... "A Human Experiment in Nerve Division"[edit]. Upon his return to England from the Torres Strait, Rivers became aware of a series ... Experiments on nerve regeneration with Henry Head. Treating soldiers during the First World War who were suffering from shell ... So it was that, on 25 April 1903, the radial and external cutaneous nerves of Henry Head's arm were severed and sutured.[43] ...
Decompression of nerve roots[edit]. When a single spinal nerve root is compressed, the resulting clinical outcome is termed ... Spinal decompression is a surgical procedure intended to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or on one or more compressed nerve ... This procedure is usually performed when decompression of more than one nerve root is needed. In the lumbar spine it is ... radiculopathy, and is usually labeled according to the specific nerve root compressed (hence compression of the nerve root ...
... The maxillary nerve is one of the three large branches of the trigeminal sensory nerve. This includes the ... The fibers of the maxillary division (including the infraorbital nerve, which branches into a superior alveolar nerve) carry ...
Ambulatory continuous posterior lumbar plexus nerve blocks after hip arthroplasty. A dual-center, randomized, triple-masked, ... Ambulatory continuous posterior lumbar plexus nerve blocks after hip arthroplasty: A dual-center, randomized, triple-masked, ...
The nerve at the top of the dissection is called the infraorbital nerve. It is a branch of the maxillary nerve which is the ... All of the nerves seen in the dentaform above are branches of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve which originates at ... The maxillary nerve and all its sub branches are colored green in the illustration to the right. The infraorbital nerve runs ... The small nerves breaking off the maxillary branch just before the infraorbital branch, and going to the tips of the roots of ...
If the nerve is completly paralysed treatment is aimed at reducing inflammation in the nerve, stall confinment with a non slip ... If there was nerve impingement maybe but not when the nerve is inflammed also chiropractic techniques are contraindicated after ... Was it nerve damage from a dystocia as well?. DTQH Nursing Foal. Username: Dtqh. Post Number: 19. Registered: 02-2009. Posted ... Equine-Reproduction.com Bulletin Board » Foaling and Immediate Post-foaling Issues » HELP! Mare with Obturator Nerve Paralysis ...
... cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve). The ischiadic nerve divided into the ... The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose ... The pudendal nerve arose from S1-2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that ... The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus ...
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue tumors arising sporadically although more ...
FN = femoral nerve. ON = obturator nerve. PECT = pectineus muscle. SAR = sartorius muscle ... The Obturator Nerve in the Proximal Thigh AB = adductor brevis muscle AL = adductor longus muscle AM = adductor magnus muscle ... White arrowhead = anterior branch of obturator nerve Yellow arrowhead = posterior branch of obturator nerve ... Low current electrical stimulation of the obturator nerve will elicit adductor muscle contraction and aid nerve localization. ...
In the patients with severe facial nerve injury, the recovery rate of facial nerve function in the treatment group was higher ... Efficacy of Functional Training of the Facial Muscles for Treatment of Incomplete Peripheral Facial Nerve Injury ... In the moderate facial nerve injury group, the Ti and Tf of the treatment group were shorter than those of the control group (P ... The treatment group started training facial mimic muscle activity 2 weeks after facial nerve injury. After follow-ups of 1 to 4 ...
Pilot study testing whether a combined treatment of acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is more ... Pressing on Sciatic Nerve Relieves Pain and Discomfort. *Helping Patients Tune Into Their Bodies to Decide Which Movement is ... A Pilot Study on Using Acupuncture and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) to Treat Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) ... A Pilot Study on Using Acupuncture and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) to Treat Knee Osteoarthritis (OA). ...
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is defined as malignant tumor arising from or differentiating toward cells of the ... Neurofibromatosis type 1 and cutaneous metastasis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Divona L., Giustini S., Porciello ... peripheral nerve sheath; misleading synonyms are neurofibrosarcoma, neurogenic sarcoma and malignant schwannoma. The authors ...
Samruay S, Sunpetch B, Soottiporn C. Malignant mesenchymoma of median nerve: combined nerve shenath sarcoma and liposarcoma. J ... The other MPNSTs arise de novo, which usually involve the peripheral nerves in the buttocks or thighs, mostly the sciatic nerve ... Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) is not a specific marker of neural and nerve sheath tumors: an immunohistochemical study of ... Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST)--clinicopathological study and treatment outcome of twenty-four cases. World J ...
... with a residual cranial nerve injury: 27 hypoglossal, 17 marginal mandibular, 17 recurrent laryngeal, one accessory nerve, and ... Cranial nerve injury was assessed and recorded in every patient and persisting deficits were identified on follow-up ... The reported frequency of cranial nerve injury in the published literature ranges from 3 to 23%, and there have been few series ... METHODS: The authors investigated the risk of cranial nerve injuries in patients who underwent CEA in the European Carotid ...
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). As part of our treatment modalities, MedCenter TMJ is pleased to ... Electrical stimulation through the skin preferentially activates low threshold myelinated nerve fibers, blocking transmission ... incorporate Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). This technology involves the use of controlled low voltage ...
Now, this can be a primary image, femoral nerve catheter, femoral nerve cat, femoral nerve catheter ultrasound, femoral nerve ... femoral nerve catheter infusion rate, femoral nerve catheter removal, femoral nerve catheter insertion video, femoral nerve ... Femoral Nerve Cat pleasant to our web site, on this time I am going to show you in relation to Femoral nerve cat. ... Lab quiz -cat nerves/spinal cord - anatomy & physiology 120 with at muscles ...
... of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. ... of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve ... of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve ... of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve ...
Q & A about Nerve Transfers in Patients with Mid-Cervical Quadriplegia. *Nerve Transfer Educational Packet for Patients with ... Redundant functioning nerves (green) that are under volitional control are re-routed (yellow arrow) to the nerves that come off ... The nerve transfer surgery necessarily creates a peripheral nerve injury to treat an irreparable central nervous system injury ... Because the nerve transfer procedure involves cutting and reattaching nerve tissue, time is required to regenerate working ...
Nerve fibers can repair inside the device, while the adverse massive scar-tissue formation is limited to the outside of the ... Development of a Device-Assisted Nerve-Regeneration Procedure in Disruptive Lesions of the Brachial Plexus.. Merolli A1,2, ... It is centered on an artificial device designed to assist nerve regeneration by providing a confined and protected environment ...
Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ...
The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves (nerves that contribute to the innervation of the internal organs), carrying ... Nerve. Pre-/postsynaptic[2]. autonomic system[2]. Origin[2]. Targets[2]. Cardiopulmonary nerves. Postsynaptic. sympathetic. ... Greater splanchnic nerve. T5-T9 or T10. Celiac ganglia. Lesser splanchnic nerve. T10-T11. Superior mesenteric ganglia and ... Least splanchnic nerve. T12. Renal plexus. Lumbar splanchnic nerves. L1-2. Inferior mesenteric ganglia, ganglia of ...
Nerve repair will be the focus of a research laboratory set up jointly by Britains Medical Research Council and the Japanese ... New nerves. 1 August 1992 Nerve repair will be the focus of a research laboratory set up jointly. by Britains Medical Research ... He is using growth factors to encourage severed nerves. of the central nervous system to grow ...
Pre-degenerated peripheral nerves co-cultured with bone marrow-derived cells: a new technique for harvesting high-purity ... Sciatic nerve preconditioning lesions, a manipulation known to promote axonal regeneration, were also used. The regenerating ... A bone marrow graft at the injury site provided scaffolding, a kind of cellular bridge, for the regenerating nerve tract. ... demonstrate the successful anatomical regrowth of rat hind limb sensory nerve into the brainstem, across the SCI site. ...
Django Unchained treats slavery an excuse for wallowing in sadism. Tarantino uses his proclaimed disapproval of slavery (and ours) as a cover for …
This nerve pain literally gives you the nerves. Sometimes you can not even sleep well. Nerve pain can be the most severe pain ... The other Parts of the Nerve can also be worse Destroyed. Our nerves carry many different senses in the same nerve bundle; pain ... The pain is localized to a specific area corresponding to the affected nerves or nerves. Classic examples are nerve pain in the ... Influence of Nerve Pain is Great. The influence of nerve pain on the daily life of the patient is great. Patients experience ...
... for alleviating pain has exposed cancers weak spot and may finally enable us to stop the disease by disabling the nerves that ... But alcohol, like many nerve-blocking agents, tends to indiscriminately destroy all nerves - and not all nerves contribute to ... As cancer emerges, nerves reorganise the cellular environment to make way for tumour growth. No nerves, no reorganisation. "You ... But surely deactivating nerves must be harmful? Our nerves serve many essential functions, so if you indiscriminately destroy ...
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  • The electrodes are often placed on the area of pain or at a pressure point, creating a circuit of electrical impulses that travels along nerve fibers. (networkofcare.org)
  • Ambulatory continuous posterior lumbar plexus nerve blocks after hip arthroplasty: A dual-center, randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled trial. (rti.org)
  • Risk of persistent cranial nerve injury after carotid endarterectomy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECT: Cranial nerve injuries, particularly motor nerve injuries, following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can be disabling and therefore patients should be given reliable information about the risks of sustaining such injuries. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The reported frequency of cranial nerve injury in the published literature ranges from 3 to 23%, and there have been few series in which patients were routinely examined before and after surgery by a neurologist. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: The authors investigated the risk of cranial nerve injuries in patients who underwent CEA in the European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST), the largest series of patients undergoing CEA in which neurological assessment was performed before and after surgery. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cranial nerve injury was assessed and recorded in every patient and persisting deficits were identified on follow-up examination at 4 months and 1 year after randomization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Risk factors for cranial nerve injury were examined by performing univariate and multivariate analyses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In 23 patients, the deficit had resolved by hospital discharge, leaving 3.7% of patients (95% CI 2.9-4.7) with a residual cranial nerve injury: 27 hypoglossal, 17 marginal mandibular, 17 recurrent laryngeal, one accessory nerve, and three Homer syndrome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nevertheless, the risk of cranial nerve injury should be communicated to patients before they undergo surgery. (ox.ac.uk)
  • TENS uses electrical impulses to stimulate the nerve endings at or near the site of pain, diminishing the pain and replacing it with a tingling or massagelike sensation. (cleanseplan.com)
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